WorldWideScience

Sample records for gridded surface wind-stress

  1. Blended 6-Hourly Sea Surface Wind Vectors and Wind Stress on a Global 0.25 Degree Grid (1987-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Blended Global Sea Surface Winds products contain ocean surface wind vectors and wind stress on a global 0.25 degree grid, in multiple time resolutions of...

  2. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Ingo; Xie, Shang-Ping; Wittenberg, Andrew T.; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-03-01

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role.

  3. Tropical Atlantic biases and their relation to surface wind stress and terrestrial precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Ingo [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan); University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Xie, Shang-Ping [University of Hawaii at Manoa, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Meteorology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Wittenberg, Andrew T. [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Masumoto, Yukio [Research Institute for Global Change, JAMSTEC, Yokohama (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Most coupled general circulation models (GCMs) perform poorly in the tropical Atlantic in terms of climatological seasonal cycle and interannual variability. The reasons for this poor performance are investigated in a suite of sensitivity experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled GCM. The experiments show that a significant portion of the equatorial SST biases in the model is due to weaker than observed equatorial easterlies during boreal spring. Due to these weak easterlies, the tilt of the equatorial thermocline is reduced, with shoaling in the west and deepening in the east. The erroneously deep thermocline in the east prevents cold tongue formation in the following season despite vigorous upwelling, thus inhibiting the Bjerknes feedback. It is further shown that the surface wind errors are due, in part, to deficient precipitation over equatorial South America and excessive precipitation over equatorial Africa, which already exist in the uncoupled atmospheric GCM. Additional tests indicate that the precipitation biases are highly sensitive to land surface conditions such as albedo and soil moisture. This suggests that improving the representation of land surface processes in GCMs offers a way of improving their performance in the tropical Atlantic. The weaker than observed equatorial easterlies also contribute remotely, via equatorial and coastal Kelvin waves, to the severe warm SST biases along the southwest African coast. However, the strength of the subtropical anticyclone and along-shore winds also play an important role. (orig.)

  4. Southern Ocean carbon-wind stress feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2018-02-01

    The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean pCO2 and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean pCO2 sensitivity to wind stress. Southern Ocean pCO2 is found to vary as the square root of area-mean wind stress, arising from the dominance of vertical mixing over other processes such as lateral Ekman transport. The expression for pCO2 is validated using idealised coarse-resolution ocean numerical experiments. Additionally, we show that increased (decreased) stratification through surface warming reduces (increases) the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean pCO2 to wind stress. The scaling is then used to estimate the wind-stress induced changes of atmospheric pCO_2 in CMIP5 models using only a handful of parameters. The scaling is further used to model the anthropogenic carbon sink, showing a long-term reversal of the Southern Ocean sink for large wind stress strength.

  5. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  6. TropFlux wind stresses over the tropical oceans: Evaluation and comparison with other products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PraveenKumar, B.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Murty, V.S.N.; McPhaden, M.J.; Cronin, M.F.; Pinsard, F.; Reddy, K.G.

    the hourly values. Note that, we neglected surface currents (which are not always available) while computing wind stresses at these moorings. 3. The TropFlux wind stress product In this section, we first present the methodology for computing Trop... onset. Hence, we recommend the use of TropFlux for studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. Key words: TropFlux, tropics, air-sea momentum fluxes, wind stress products validation. 3 1. Introduction The tropics are home to many climatically relevant...

  7. Metric of the 2–6 day sea-surface temperature response to wind stress in the Tropical Pacific and its sensitivity to the K-Profile Parameterization of vertical mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Wagman, Benjamin M.

    2014-05-04

    Uncertainty in wind forcing has long hampered direct tests of ocean model output against observations for the purpose of refining the boundary layer K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) of oceanic vertical mixing. Considered here is a short-term metric that could be sensitive to the ways in which the KPP directly affects the adjustment of sea surface temperatures for a given change in wind stress. In particular a metric is developed based on the lagged correlation between the 2–6 day filtered wind stress and sea surface temperature. The metric is normalized by estimated observational and model uncertainties such that the significance of differences may be assessed. For this purpose multiple wind reanalysis products and their blended combinations were used to represent the range of forcing uncertainty, while perturbed KPP parameter model runs explore the sensitivity of the metric to the parameterization of vertical mixing. The correlation metric is sensitive to perturbations to most KPP parameters, in ways that accord with expectations, although only a few parameters show a sensitivity on the same order as the sensitivity to switching between wind products. This suggests that uncertainties in wind forcing continue to be a significant limitation for applying direct observational tests of KPP physics. Moreover, model correlations are biased high, suggesting that the model lacks or does not resolve sources of variability on the 2–6 day time scale.

  8. Enhancement of wind stress evaluation method under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2016-12-01

    Wind stress is an important driving force for many meteorological and oceanographical processes. However, most of the existing methods for evaluation of the wind stress, including various bulk formulas in terms of the wind speed at a given height and formulas relating the roughness height of the sea surface with wind conditions, predict an ever-increasing tendency of the wind stress coefficient as the wind speed increases, which is inconsistent with the field observations under storm conditions. The wave boundary layer model, which is based on the momentum and energy conservation, has the advantage to take into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process, but is still invalid under storm conditions without a modification. By including the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, which is speculated to be an important aspect of the air-sea interaction under storm conditions, the wave boundary layer model is improved in this study. The improved model is employed to estimate the wind stress caused by an idealized tropical cyclone motion. The computational results show that the wind stress coefficient reaches its maximal value at a wind speed of about 40 m/s and decreases as the wind speed further increases. This is in fairly good agreement with the field data.

  9. Local grid refinement for free-surface flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The principal goal of the current study is to explore and investigate the potential of local grid refinement for increasing the numerical efficiency of free-surface flow simulations in a practical context. In this thesis we propose a method for local grid refinement in the free-surface flow model

  10. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress....... The influence varies with wave characteristics for different sea basins. Swell occurs infrequently in the studied area, and one could expect more influence in high-swell-frequency areas (i.e., low-latitude ocean). We conclude that the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress should be considered...

  11. Global Summer Land Surface Temperature (LST) Grids, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Summer Land Surface Temperature (LST) Grids, 2013, represent daytime maximum temperature and nighttime minimum temperature in degree Celsius at a spatial...

  12. Triangle geometry processing for surface modeling and cartesian grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J [San Mateo, CA; Melton, John E [Hollister, CA; Berger, Marsha J [New York, NY

    2002-09-03

    Cartesian mesh generation is accomplished for component based geometries, by intersecting components subject to mesh generation to extract wetted surfaces with a geometry engine using adaptive precision arithmetic in a system which automatically breaks ties with respect to geometric degeneracies. During volume mesh generation, intersected surface triangulations are received to enable mesh generation with cell division of an initially coarse grid. The hexagonal cells are resolved, preserving the ability to directionally divide cells which are locally well aligned.

  13. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabine, Christopher [NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory; Hankin, S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Koyuk, H [Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington; Bakker, D C E [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Pfeil, B [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen; Uni Research AS, Bergen, Norway; Olsen, A [Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, UNIFOB AS, Bergen, Norway; Metzl, N [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Kozyr, Alexander [ORNL; Fassbender, A [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Manke, A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Malczyk, J [Jetz Laboratory, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University; Akl, J [CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Alin, S R [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Bellerby, R G J [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Borges, A [University of Liege, Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique, Liege, Belgium; Boutin, J [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Brown, P J [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Cai, W-J [Department of Marine Sciences, University of Georgia; Chavez, F P [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA; Chen, A [Institute of Marine Geology and Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Cosa, C [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Feely, R A [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Gonzalez-Davila, M [Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,; Goyet, C [Institut de Modélisation et d' Analyse en Géo-Environnement et Santé, Université de Perpignan; Hardman-Mountford, N [CSIRO, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Wembley, Western Australia, Australia; Heinze, C [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hoppema, M [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany; Hunt, C W [Ocean Process Analysis Lab, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire; Hydes, D [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK; Ishii, M [Japan Meteorological Agency, Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan; Johannessen, T [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Key, R M [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey; Kortzinger, A [GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany; Landschutzer, P [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK; Lauvset, S K [Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Lefevre, N [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Lenton, A [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; Lourantou, A [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Merlivat, L [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris, France; Midorikawa, T [Nagasaki Marine Observatory, Nagasaki, Japan; Mintrop, L [MARIANDA, Kiel, Germany; Miyazaki, C [Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, Japan; Murata, A [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakadate, A [Marine Division, Global Environment and Marine Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan; Nakano, Y [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan; Nakaoka, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), Tsukuba, Japan; Nojiri, Y [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; et al.

    2013-01-01

    A well documented, publicly available, global data set for surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) parameters has been called for by international groups for nearly two decades. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) project was initiated by the international marine carbon science community in 2007 with the aim of providing a comprehensive, publicly available, regularly updated, global data set of marine surface CO2, which had been subject to quality control (QC). SOCAT version 1.5 was made public in September 2011 and holds 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968 2007). The SOCAT gridded data is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust regularly spaced fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address.

  14. Impacts of Wind Stress Changes on the Global Heat Transport, Baroclinic Instability, and the Thermohaline Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Prietsch Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind stress is a measure of momentum transfer due to the relative motion between the atmosphere and the ocean. This study aims to investigate the anomalous pattern of atmospheric and oceanic circulations due to 50% increase in the wind stress over the equatorial region and the Southern Ocean. In this paper we use a coupled climate model of intermediate complexity (SPEEDO. The results show that the intensification of equatorial wind stress causes a decrease in sea surface temperature in the tropical region due to increased upwelling and evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the intensification of wind stress over the Southern Ocean induces a regional increase in the air and sea surface temperatures which in turn leads to a reduction in Antarctic sea ice thickness. This occurs in association with changes in the global thermohaline circulation strengthening the rate of Antarctic Bottom Water formation and a weakening of the North Atlantic Deep Water. Moreover, changes in the Southern Hemisphere thermal gradient lead to modified atmospheric and oceanic heat transports reducing the storm tracks and baroclinic activity.

  15. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT gridded data products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2 data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT. The first SOCAT product is a collection of 6.3 million quality controlled surface CO2 data from the global oceans and coastal seas, spanning four decades (1968–2007. The SOCAT gridded data presented here is the second data product to come from the SOCAT project. Recognizing that some groups may have trouble working with millions of measurements, the SOCAT gridded product was generated to provide a robust, regularly spaced CO2 fugacity (fCO2 product with minimal spatial and temporal interpolation, which should be easier to work with for many applications. Gridded SOCAT is rich with information that has not been fully explored yet (e.g., regional differences in the seasonal cycles, but also contains biases and limitations that the user needs to recognize and address (e.g., local influences on values in some coastal regions.

  16. 2D Gridded Surface Data Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Q [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Xie, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2015-08-30

    This report describes the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Best Estimate (ARMBE) 2-dimensional (2D) gridded surface data (ARMBE2DGRID) value-added product. Spatial variability is critically important to many scientific studies, especially those that involve processes of great spatial variations at high temporal frequency (e.g., precipitation, clouds, radiation, etc.). High-density ARM sites deployed at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) allow us to observe the spatial patterns of variables of scientific interests. The upcoming megasite at SGP with its enhanced spatial density will facilitate the studies at even finer scales. Currently, however, data are reported only at individual site locations at different time resolutions for different datastreams. It is difficult for users to locate all the data they need and requires extra effort to synchronize the data. To address these problems, the ARMBE2DGRID value-added product merges key surface measurements at the ARM SGP sites and interpolates the data to a regular 2D grid to facilitate the data application.

  17. Intercomparison of the Charnock and COARE bulk wind stress formulations for coastal ocean modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The accurate parameterisation of momentum and heat transfer across the air–sea interface is vital for realistic simulation of the atmosphere–ocean system. In most modelling applications accurate representation of the wind stress is required to numerically reproduce surge, coastal ocean circulation, surface waves, turbulence and mixing. Different formulations can be implemented and impact the accuracy of the instantaneous and long-term residual circulation, the surface mixed layer, and the generation of wave-surge conditions. This, in turn, affects predictions of storm impact, sediment pathways, and coastal resilience to climate change. The specific numerical formulation needs careful selection to ensure the accuracy of the simulation. Two wind stress parameterisations widely used in the ocean circulation and the storm surge communities respectively are studied with focus on an application to the NW region of the UK. Model–observation validation is performed at two nearshore and one estuarine ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler stations in Liverpool Bay, a hypertidal region of freshwater influence (ROFI with vast intertidal areas. The period of study covers both calm and extreme conditions to test the robustness of the 10 m wind stress component of the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE bulk formulae and the standard Charnock relation. In this coastal application a realistic barotropic–baroclinic simulation of the circulation and surge elevation is set-up, demonstrating greater accuracy occurs when using the Charnock relation, with a constant Charnock coefficient of 0.0185, for surface wind stress during this one month period.

  18. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Curl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  19. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  20. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  1. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Modulus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  2. Wind Stress, METOP ASCAT, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes near real time wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  3. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Zonal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  4. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Meridional

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  5. Wind Stress, QuikSCAT SeaWinds, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality, Curl

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes science quality wind stress data in zonal, meridional, modulus, and wind stress curl sets. This data begins with wind velocity...

  6. Wind stress and heat fluxes over a Brazilian Coastal Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Marcelo; Candella, Rogério

    2017-04-01

    Coastal upwelling zones have been intensively studied in the last decades especially due to their importance to the biological cycle. The coastal upwelling system of the Cabo Frio region (east coast of the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil) keeps the surface water cold during most part of the year, what induces a stable atmospheric boundary layer associated to northeast winds. The main goal of this study is to investigate the wind stress and heat fluxes exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere in that area. For this purpose, a set of hourly data meteorological and oceanographic data collected by a Wavescan metocean buoy anchored at 23o59S; 42oW, were used, as well as solar radiation and relative humidity from a terrestrial meteorological station from the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (InMet). COARE 3.0 algorithm was used to calculate the latent and sensible heat fluxes. In this discussion, positive values represent fluxes towards the ocean. The average net heat flux over our study period is 88 W m-2. The reduction of the net heat flux is due to the increase of the ocean latent heat loss, although a reduction in incoming shortwave radiation and an increase in ocean long wave cooling also contributes. The latent heat is 20 times larger than the sensible heat flux, but the mean value of the latent heat flux, 62 W m-2, is half the typical value found in open ocean. The temporal variability of both sensible and latent heat fluxes reflects their dependence on wind speed and air-sea temperature differences. When upwelling events, here periods when diurnal SST is lower than 18oC, are compared with undisturbed (without upwelling) events, it can be noted the sensible heat fluxes are positives and 10 times greater in magnitude. This is related to an increment, during these upwelling events, of the air-sea temperature difference and an increasing of the wind speed. The cold waters of the upwelling increase the air-sea temperature gradient and, also, the horizontal land

  7. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces...

  8. Aquarius L3 Polar-Gridded Weekly Sea Surface Salinity V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of weekly gridded Level-3 products of Aquarius L-band radiometer Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) retrievals from the Aquarius/Satélite de...

  9. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including continuous surfaces of day length,...

  10. Aquarius L3 Polar-Gridded Weekly Brightness Temperature and Sea Surface Salinity V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set consists of weekly gridded Level-3 products of Aquarius L-band radiometer brightness temperature (TB) observations and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS)...

  11. Wind Stress Variability Directly Measured at a Tidal Inlet from a Mobile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Laxague, N.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal inlets are characterized by a dynamic coupling of waves, currents, wind, and topography and to better understand these processes the Riverine and Estuarine Transport (RIVET) experiment was conducted during the month of May 2012 at New River Inlet, North Carolina. As a part of that effort, the Surface Physics Experimental Catamaran (SPEC) was outfitted with a suite of concurrently sampled atmospheric and oceanographic sensors. These included a meteorological mast capable of measuring the air-sea momentum flux, paired subsurface ADV's, a downward looking ADCP, and a bow-mounted wave-staff array. Using a mobile platform enabled capturing the fine-scale dynamical features across this highly sheared zone, without compromising spatial or temporal resolution. The SPEC was deployed, in part, to make direct wind stress measurements and the eddy covariance method was used to calculate the 10 m neutral drag coefficients from the observed wind shear velocities. In general, for any given wind speed, measured drag coefficients were about 2.5 times greater than those derived from bulk relations (e.g. Smith, 1988). Observations of the wind stress angle show significant wind stress steering, up to about 70o off the mean wind direction, within 2 km off-shore of the inlet mouth. The causes for the departure of these observations from conventional open ocean results remains under investigation, although it is highly likely that these findings highlight processes unique to coastal waters that are not regarded in the well-established algorithms (e.g. depth-limited wave breaking and wave-current interactions). Preliminary results from the second installment in the RIVET campaign, which took place at the Mouth of the Columbia River during the spring of 2013, will also be shown.

  12. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars atmosphere has low levels of dust during Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring and summer (the non-dusty season) and increased levels during NH autumn and winter (the dusty season). In the absence of regional or global storms, dust devils and local storms maintain a background minimum dust loading during the non-dusty season. While observational surveys and Global Climate Model (GCM) studies suggest that dust devils are likely to be major contributors to the background haze during NH spring and summer, a complete understanding of the relative contribution of dust devils and local dust storms has not yet been achieved. We present preliminary results from an investigation that focuses on the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on dust lifting processes during these seasons. Water ice clouds are known to affect atmospheric temperatures directly by absorption and emission of thermal infrared radiation and indirectly through dynamical feedbacks. Our goal is to understand how clouds affect the contribution by local (wind stress) dust storms to the background dust haze during NH spring and summer. The primary tool for this work is the NASA Ames Mars GCM, which contains physical parameterizations for a fully interactive dust cycle. Three simulations that included wind stress dust lifting were executed for a period of 5 Martian years: a case that included no cloud formation, a case that included radiatively inert cloud formation and a case that included radiatively active cloud (RAC) formation. Results show that when radiatively active clouds are included, the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt radiatively heat the atmosphere aloft in the tropics (Figure 1). This heating produces a stronger overturning circulation, which in turn produces an enhanced low-level flow in the Hadley cell return branch. The stronger low-level flow drives higher surface stresses and increased dust lifting in those locations. We examine how realistic these simulated results are by

  13. Variability of wind stress and currents at selected locations over the north Indian Ocean during 1977 and 1979 summer monsoon seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Rao, M.V.

    -77 and MONEX-79. In general, the surface wind stress and near surface current fields are strong during a good monsoon year (1977) as compared to those in a bad monsoon year (1979) under similar synoptic conditions together with the prevalence of high...

  14. Geometric study of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces of molded and grid patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Gaasuren; Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Oh, Hyun-Seok; Chun, Doo-Man

    2014-09-01

    Herein we describe an economical method to fabricate a transparent superhydrophobic surface that uses grid patterning, and we report on the effects of grid geometry in determining the wettability and transparency of the fabricated surfaces. A polymer casting method was utilized because of its applicability to economical manufacturing and mass production; the material polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was selected because of its moldability and transparency. PDMS was replicated from a laser textured mold fabricated by a UV nanosecond pulsed laser. Sapphire wafer was used for the mold because it has very low surface roughness (Ra ≤0.3 nm) and adequate mechanical properties. To study geometric effects, grid patterns of a series of step sizes were fabricated. The maximum water droplet contact angle (WDCA) observed was 171°. WDCAs depended on the wetting area and the wetting state. The experimental results of WDCA were analyzed with Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations. The designed grid pattern was suitably transparent and structurally stable. Transmittance of the optimal transparent superhydrophobic surface was measured by using a spectrophotometer. Transmittance loss due to the presence of the grid was around 2-4% over the wavelength region measured (300-1000 nm); the minimum transmittance observed was 83.1% at 300 nm. This study also demonstrates the possibility of using a nanosecond pulsed laser for the surface texturing of a superhydrophobic surface.

  15. Influence of El Niño Wind Stress Anomalies on South Brazil Bight Ocean Volume Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo de Freitas Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of wind stress variability could represent an important contribution to understand the variability over upper layer ocean volume transports. The South Brazilian Bight (SBB circulation had been studied by numerous researchers who predominantly attempted to estimate its meridional volume transport. The main objective and contribution of this study is to identify and quantify possible interannual variability in the ocean volume transport in the SBB induced by the sea surface wind stress field. A low resolution ocean global circulation model was implemented to investigate the volume transport variability. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of interannual variability in meridional ocean volume transports along three different zonal sections. These results also indicate the influence of a wind driven large-scale atmospheric process that alters locally the SBB and near-offshore region wind stress field and consequently causes interannual variability in the upper layer ocean volume transports. A strengthening of the southward flow in 25°S and 30°S was observed. The deep layer ocean volume transport in the three monitored sections indicates a potential dominance of other remote ocean processes. A small time lag between the integrated meridional volume transports changes in each monitored zonal section was observed.

  16. Impacts of the Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling on the Peru-Chile Ocean Dynamics: The Current-Induced Wind Stress Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, V.; Colas, F.; Echevin, V.; Masson, S.; Lemarié, F.

    2018-02-01

    The ocean dynamical responses to the surface current-wind stress interaction at the oceanic mesoscale are investigated in the South-East Pacific using a high-resolution regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model. Two simulations are compared: one includes the surface current in the wind stress computation while the other does not. In the coastal region, absolute wind velocities are different between the two simulations but the wind stress remains very similar. As a consequence, the mean regional oceanic circulation is almost unchanged. On the contrary, the mesoscale activity is strongly reduced when taking into account the effect of the surface current on the wind stress. This is caused by a weakening of the eddy kinetic energy generation near the coast by the wind work and to intensified offshore eddy damping. We show that, above coherent eddies, the current-stress interaction generates eddy damping through Ekman pumping and eddy kinetic energy dissipation through wind work. This alters significantly the coherent eddy vertical structures compared with the control simulation, weakening the temperature and vorticity anomalies and increasing strongly the vertical velocity anomalies associated to eddies.

  17. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  18. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  20. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  1. Intercomparison and Spatiotemporal Analysis of Four Gridded Surface Air Temperature Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the essential climate variables, surface air temperature (SAT) has been wildly used as the most important indicator for the global climate change. Currently, there are four widely used global SAT datasets, i.e., Berkley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST), NASA Goddard Institute of Space Sciences surface temperature (GISS), surface temperature developed by Climate Research Unit (CRU4), and NOAA Global Temperature dataset (NOAA). These four datasets are developed using similar source data (station measured air temperature for land and buoys/ships measured sea surface temperature). Previous studies suggested that global and hemispheric average SAT anomalies of these datasets have shown consistent surface warming trends. However, it is not clear how these four datasets compare with each other at grid scale (e.g., 5 degree) and what impacts are for the spatial patterns of estimated surface warming trends. In this study, a direct comparison for temperature anomalies at grid box scale shows that NOAA are consistently cooler than other three datasets across most grids over the land while GISS and BEST tend to be warmer than others over northern mid to high latitude land regions, Australia, southern Africa and South America. The differences are most notable over regions with sparse measurements such as Amazon region, north and central Africa, central Asia, Greenland, central Australia and Antarctic. Moreover, trend analysis (both linear and nonlinear) has been carried out using these four gridded datasets (1950-2015) separately. The result show a similar spatial pattern with previous comparison--notable differences for regions with sparse observations. Additionally, three leading modes from EOF analysis have also been compared to examine how they could capture the climate variability. The comparison results suggested that these datasets show notable differences in both spatial pattern and temporal trend in the leading modes. This inconsistency may lead to large

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  3. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, 5-Day, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has 5-day Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  4. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, 1989-present, Wind Stress

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Wind Stress data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...

  5. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  7. OMI/Aura Surface Reflectance Climatology Level 3 Global 0.5deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI Earth Surface Reflectance Climatology product, OMLER (Global 0.5deg Lat/Lon grid) which is based on Version 003 Level-1B top of atmosphere upwelling radiance...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11A1 version 6 product provides daily, per-pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 x 1200 kilometer grid. The pixel temperature value is derived from...

  9. Cloaking of metal grid electrodes on Lambertian emitters by free-form refractive surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Martin F; Fritz, Benjamin; Eckstein, Ralph; Lemmer, Uli; Gomard, Guillaume; Wegener, Martin

    2018-02-01

    We discuss invisibility cloaking of metal grid electrodes on Lambertian light emitters by using dielectric free-form surfaces. We show that cloaking can be ideal in geometrical optics for all viewing directions if reflections at the dielectric-air interface are negligible. We also present corresponding white-light proof-of-principle experiments that demonstrate close-to-ideal cloaking for a wide range of viewing angles. Remaining imperfections are analyzed by ray-tracing calculations. The concept can potentially be used to enhance the luminance homogeneity of large-area organic light-emitting diodes.

  10. A Method for a Multi-Platform Approach to Generate Gridded Surface Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A.; Livneh, B.; Small, E. E.; Abolafia-Rosenzweig, R.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration is an integral component of the surface water balance. While there are many estimates of evapotranspiration, there are fewer estimates that partition evapotranspiration into evaporation and transpiration components. This study aims to generate a CONUS-scale, observationally-based soil evaporation dataset by using the time difference of surface soil moisture by Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite with adjustments for transpiration and a bottom flux out of the surface layer. In concert with SMAP, the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite, North American Land Data Assimilation Systems (NLDAS) and the Hydrus-1D model are used to fully analyze the surface water balance. A biome specific estimate of the total terrestrial ET is calculated through a variation of the Penman-Monteith equation with NLDAS forcing and NLDAS Noah Model output for meteorological variables. A root density restriction and SMAP-based soil moisture restriction are applied to obtain terrestrial transpiration estimates. By forcing Hydrus-1D with NLDAS meteorology and our terrestrial transpiration estimates, an estimate of the flux between the soil surface and root zone layers (qbot) will dictate the proportion of water that is available for soil evaporation. After constraining transpiration and the bottom flux from the surface layer, we estimate soil evaporation as the residual of the surface water balance. Application of this method at Fluxnet sites shows soil evaporation estimates of approximately 0­3 mm/day and less than ET estimates. Expanding this methodology to produce a gridded product for CONUS, and eventually a global-scale product, will enable a better understanding of water balance processes and contribute a dataset to validate land-surface model's surface flux processes.

  11. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  13. Semi-implicit surface tension formulation with a Lagrangian surface mesh on an Eulerian simulation grid

    KAUST Repository

    Schroeder, Craig

    2012-02-01

    We present a method for applying semi-implicit forces on a Lagrangian mesh to an Eulerian discretization of the Navier Stokes equations in a way that produces a sparse symmetric positive definite system. The resulting method has semi-implicit and fully-coupled viscosity, pressure, and Lagrangian forces. We apply our new framework for forces on a Lagrangian mesh to the case of a surface tension force, which when treated explicitly leads to a tight time step restriction. By applying surface tension as a semi-implicit Lagrangian force, the resulting method benefits from improved stability and the ability to take larger time steps. The resulting discretization is also able to maintain parasitic currents at low levels. © 2011.

  14. Comparison of spatial interpolation methods for gridded bias removal in surface temperature forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyedeh Atefeh; Azadi, Majid; Rahmani, Morteza

    2017-08-01

    All numerical weather prediction (NWP) models inherently have substantial biases, especially in the forecast of near-surface weather variables. Statistical methods can be used to remove the systematic error based on historical bias data at observation stations. However, many end users of weather forecasts need bias corrected forecasts at locations that scarcely have any historical bias data. To circumvent this limitation, the bias of surface temperature forecasts on a regular grid covering Iran is removed, by using the information available at observation stations in the vicinity of any given grid point. To this end, the running mean error method is first used to correct the forecasts at observation stations, then four interpolation methods including inverse distance squared weighting with constant lapse rate (IDSW-CLR), Kriging with constant lapse rate (Kriging-CLR), gradient inverse distance squared with linear lapse rate (GIDS-LR), and gradient inverse distance squared with lapse rate determined by classification and regression tree (GIDS-CART), are employed to interpolate the bias corrected forecasts at neighboring observation stations to any given location. The results show that all four interpolation methods used do reduce the model error significantly, but Kriging-CLR has better performance than the other methods. For Kriging-CLR, root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were decreased by 26% and 29%, respectively, as compared to the raw forecasts. It is found also, that after applying any of the proposed methods, unlike the raw forecasts, the bias corrected forecasts do not show spatial or temporal dependency.

  15. Monthly mean wind stress along the coast of the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Monthly-mean wind stress and its longshore and offshore components have been computed using the bulk aerodynamic method for each of a string of 36 two-degree-latitude by two-degree-longitude squares along the coast of the north Indian Ocean...

  16. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission: Precipitation Processing System (PPS) GPM Mission Gridded Text Products Provide Surface Precipitation Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich Franz; Kelley, O.; Kummerow, C.; Huffman, G.; Olson, W.; Kwiatkowski, J.

    2015-01-01

    In February 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite will complete its first year in space. The core satellite carries a conically scanning microwave imager called the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), which also has 166 GHz and 183 GHz frequency channels. The GPM core satellite also carries a dual frequency radar (DPR) which operates at Ku frequency, similar to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar, and a new Ka frequency. The precipitation processing system (PPS) is producing swath-based instantaneous precipitation retrievals from GMI, both radars including a dual-frequency product, and a combined GMIDPR precipitation retrieval. These level 2 products are written in the HDF5 format and have many additional parameters beyond surface precipitation that are organized into appropriate groups. While these retrieval algorithms were developed prior to launch and are not optimal, these algorithms are producing very creditable retrievals. It is appropriate for a wide group of users to have access to the GPM retrievals. However, for researchers requiring only surface precipitation, these L2 swath products can appear to be very intimidating and they certainly do contain many more variables than the average researcher needs. Some researchers desire only surface retrievals stored in a simple easily accessible format. In response, PPS has begun to produce gridded text based products that contain just the most widely used variables for each instrument (surface rainfall rate, fraction liquid, fraction convective) in a single line for each grid box that contains one or more observations.This paper will describe the gridded data products that are being produced and provide an overview of their content. Currently two types of gridded products are being produced: (1) surface precipitation retrievals from the core satellite instruments GMI, DPR, and combined GMIDPR (2) surface precipitation retrievals for the partner constellation

  17. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid product, MYD09GHK, is a seven-band product computed from the MODIS Level 1B land...

  18. A European daily high-resolution gridded dataset of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haylock, M.; Hofstra, N.; Klein Tank, A.; Klok, L.; Jones, P.; New, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a European land-only daily high-resolution gridded data set for precipitation and minimum, maximum, and mean surface temperature for the period 1950–2006. This data set improves on previous products in its spatial resolution and extent, time period, number of contributing stations, and

  19. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11A2 version 6 product provides an average, 8-day, per-pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 x 1200 kilometer grid. Each pixel value in the MYD11A2...

  20. Efficient Computation of N-S Equation with Free Surface Flow Around an ACV on ShirazUCFD Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhalishahi, Seyyed Mehdi; Alizadehrad, Davood; Dastghaibyfard, Gholamhossein; Alishahi, Mohammad Mehdi; Nikseresht, Amir Hossein

    This paper presents the application of a parallel high accuracy simulation code for Incompressible Navier-Stokes solution with free surface flow around an ACV (Air Cushion Vehicle) on ShirazUCFD Grid environment. The parallel finite volume code is developed for incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on general curvilinear coordinates system for modeling free surface flows. A single set of dimensionless equations is derived to handle both liquid and air phases in viscous incompressible free surface flow in general curvilinear coordinates. The volume of fluid (VOF) method with lagrangian propagation in computational domain for modeling the free surface flow is implemented. The parallelization approach uses a domain decomposition method for the subdivision of the numerical grid, the SPMD program model and MPICH-G2 as the message passing environment is used to obtain a portable application.

  1. Reliability-Based Topology Optimization Using Stochastic Response Surface Method with Sparse Grid Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical framework is developed which integrates the reliability concept into topology optimization to solve reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO problems under uncertainty. Two typical methodologies have been presented and implemented, including the performance measure approach (PMA and the sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA. To enhance the computational efficiency of reliability analysis, stochastic response surface method (SRSM is applied to approximate the true limit state function with respect to the normalized random variables, combined with the reasonable design of experiments generated by sparse grid design, which was proven to be an effective and special discretization technique. The uncertainties such as material property and external loads are considered on three numerical examples: a cantilever beam, a loaded knee structure, and a heat conduction problem. Monte-Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the failure probabilities computed by the proposed approach. Based on the results, it is demonstrated that application of SRSM with SGD can produce an efficient reliability analysis in RBTO which enables a more reliable design than that obtained by DTO. It is also found that, under identical accuracy, SORA is superior to PMA in view of computational efficiency.

  2. Scales of North Atlantic wind stress curl determined from the comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Laura L.; O'Brien, James J.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen years of wind data over the North Atlantic are used to calculate a field of wind stress curl. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is performed on this field, resulting in spatial patterns of wind stress curl and associated time series. A Monte Carlo technique is used to establish the statistical significance of each spatial pattern, and the associated time series are spectrally analyzed. The first four statistically significant EOF modes represent more than 50 percent of the curl variance, and the spatial patterns of curl associated with these modes exhibit the major elements of North Atlantic climatology. Most of the time series spectral variance is contained in annual and semiannual frequencies. The features observed include the individual annual variation of the subtropical high and the subpolar low, the annual oscillation of intensity between pressure centers, the influence of localized strong SST gradients and associated cyclogenesis regions, and the constant nature of the trades.

  3. Assimilation of Gridded Terrestrial Water Storage Observations from GRACE into a Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Manuela; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Rodell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Observations of terrestrial water storage (TWS) from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission have a coarse resolution in time (monthly) and space (roughly 150,000 km(sup 2) at midlatitudes) and vertically integrate all water storage components over land, including soil moisture and groundwater. Data assimilation can be used to horizontally downscale and vertically partition GRACE-TWS observations. This work proposes a variant of existing ensemble-based GRACE-TWS data assimilation schemes. The new algorithm differs in how the analysis increments are computed and applied. Existing schemes correlate the uncertainty in the modeled monthly TWS estimates with errors in the soil moisture profile state variables at a single instant in the month and then apply the increment either at the end of the month or gradually throughout the month. The proposed new scheme first computes increments for each day of the month and then applies the average of those increments at the beginning of the month. The new scheme therefore better reflects submonthly variations in TWS errors. The new and existing schemes are investigated here using gridded GRACE-TWS observations. The assimilation results are validated at the monthly time scale, using in situ measurements of groundwater depth and soil moisture across the U.S. The new assimilation scheme yields improved (although not in a statistically significant sense) skill metrics for groundwater compared to the open-loop (no assimilation) simulations and compared to the existing assimilation schemes. A smaller impact is seen for surface and root-zone soil moisture, which have a shorter memory and receive smaller increments from TWS assimilation than groundwater. These results motivate future efforts to combine GRACE-TWS observations with observations that are more sensitive to surface soil moisture, such as L-band brightness temperature observations from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) or Soil Moisture Active

  4. The impact of grid and spectral nudging on the variance of the near-surface wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2015-01-01

    nudging at and above 1150 m above ground level (AGL). Nested 5 km simulations are not nudged directly, but inherit boundary conditions from the 15 km experiments. Spatial and temporal spectra show that grid nudging causes smoothing of the wind in the 15 km domain at all wavenumbers, both at 1150 m AGL...... and near the surface where nudging is not applied directly, while spectral nudging mainly affects longer wavenumbers. Maps of mesoscale variance show spatial smoothing for both grid and spectral nudging, although the effect is less pronounced for spectral nudging. On the inner, 5 km domain, an indirect...... smoothing impact of nudging is seen up to 200 km inward from the dominant in flow boundary at 1150 m AGL, but there is minimal smoothing from the nudging near the surface, indicating that nudging an outer domain is an appropriate configuration for wind resource modelling....

  5. SU-E-T-348: Effect of Treatment Table and Immobilization Devices On Surface Dose When Using a GRID Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajdos, S; Donaghue, J [Akron General Medical Center, Akron, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the increase of surface dose of MLC-designed GRID therapy in the presence of immobilization devices and treatment table. Methods: To create a GRID field, our facility utilizes an MLC consisting of four millimeter wide leaves. The field is designed to have aperture sizes of 0.8 cm X 0.8 cm with inter-aperture distance of 3.2 cm. Gafchromic EBT3 film was placed between the surface of a solid water phantom and the immobilization device. The treatment table was also present within the beam path. The devices consist of carbon fiber exterior shell. A piece of film was also placed at maximal depth for the photon energy of 10 MV. Image files were converted to dose per a calibration curve based on the selected red channel. The surface dose to maximum dose was established by comparing the ratio of seven centrally located aperture regions-of-interest and four adjacent inter-aperture regions-of-interest were measured with the available software tools. Results: With no devices present in beam path, the ratio of surface dose to maximum dose was 11.5% ± 0.3% for aperture region and 7.0% ± 0.1% for inter-aperture region. When devices are present, the ratio of surface dose to maximum dose was 45.2% ± 0.5% and 33.8% ± 1.1%, respectively. Due to the presence of devices, the surface dose increases in aperture region by 3.8 times or in the inter-aperture region by 4.7 times. Conclusion: The purpose of using GRID technique is to deliver a single fractional dose in range of 15–20 Gy to a bulky lesion while also preserving skin tolerance. The increase of surface dose due to devices placed in beam path may increase the chance of skin toxicity in GRID therapy. Care should be used to determine best manageable patient immobilization while considering skin dose especially for posteriorly located lesions.

  6. Primer: Using Watershed Modeling System (WMS) for Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) Data Development - WMS 6.1 and GSSHA 1.43C

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downer, Charles

    2003-01-01

    This document is a primer for use of the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) interface with the physically based, distributed-parameter hydrologic model Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA...

  7. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L3 Global 1.0x1.0 deg Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura-OMI Daily Gridded Surface UV Irradiance Product (OMUVBd) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES...

  8. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 003 of Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Level-2G data product (Daily level-2 data binned into global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon grids)...

  9. Gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly and significant wave height from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2 satellites (NODC Accession 0065055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the gridded 5-day mean sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and Ku Band significant wave height (SWH-KU) observed from Jason-1 and OSTM/Jason-2...

  10. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L2 Global Gridded 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V3 (OMUVBG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is Level-2G daily global gridded Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose product (OMUVBG). The OMUVBG is a special Level-2 Global Gridded...

  11. Analyzing the uncertainty of ensemble-based gridded observations in land surface simulations and drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2017-12-01

    Hydrologic modeling is one of the primary tools utilized for drought monitoring and drought early warning systems. Several sources of uncertainty in hydrologic modeling have been addressed in the literature. However, few studies have assessed the uncertainty of gridded observation datasets from a drought monitoring perspective. This study provides a hydrologic modeling oriented analysis of the gridded observation data uncertainties over the Pacific Northwest (PNW) and its implications on drought assessment. We utilized a recently developed 100-member ensemble-based observed forcing data to simulate hydrologic fluxes at 1/8° spatial resolution using Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, and compared the results with a deterministic observation. Meteorological and hydrological droughts are studied at multiple timescales over the basin, and seasonal long-term trends and variations of drought extent is investigated for each case. Results reveal large uncertainty of observed datasets at monthly timescale, with systematic differences for temperature records, mainly due to different lapse rates. The uncertainty eventuates in large disparities of drought characteristics. In general, an increasing trend is found for winter drought extent across the PNW. Furthermore, a ∼3% decrease per decade is detected for snow water equivalent (SWE) over the PNW, with the region being more susceptible to SWE variations of the northern Rockies than the western Cascades. The agricultural areas of southern Idaho demonstrate decreasing trend of natural soil moisture as a result of precipitation decline, which implies higher appeal for anthropogenic water storage and irrigation systems.

  12. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Surface Reflectance products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the absence of atmospheric...

  13. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Surface Reflectance products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the absence of atmospheric...

  14. VIIRS/NPP Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 8-day Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Surface Reflectance (VNP09H1) Version 1 composite product provides an estimate of land surface...

  15. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Surface Reflectance products provide an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the absence of atmospheric...

  16. An Exploration of Wind Stress Calculation Techniques in Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra M. Bryant

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As hurricanes continue to threaten coastal communities, accurate storm surge forecasting remains a global priority. Achieving a reliable storm surge prediction necessitates accurate hurricane intensity and wind field information. The wind field must be converted to wind stress, which represents the air-sea momentum flux component required in storm surge and other oceanic models. This conversion requires a multiplicative drag coefficient for the air density and wind speed to represent the air-sea momentum exchange at a given location. Air density is a known parameter and wind speed is a forecasted variable, whereas the drag coefficient is calculated using an empirical correlation. The correlation’s accuracy has brewed a controversy of its own for more than half a century. This review paper examines the lineage of drag coefficient correlations and their acceptance among scientists.

  17. GLOBAL GRIDS FROM RECURSIVE DIAMOND SUBDIVISIONS OF THE SURFACE OF AN OCTAHEDRON OR ICOSAHEDRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years a number of methods have been developed for subdividing the surface of the earth to meet the needs of applications in dynamic modeling, survey sampling, and information storage and display. One set of methods uses the surfaces of Platonic solids, or regular polyhe...

  18. Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabine, C.L.; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Pfeil, B.; Olsen, A; Metzl, N.; Kozyr, A; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J.; Akl, J.; Alin, S.R.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Borges, A; Boutin, J.; Brown, P.J.; Cai, W.-J.; Chavez, F.P.; Chen, A.; Cosca, C.; Feely, R.A.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Goyet, C.; Hardman-Mountford, N.; Heinze, C.; Hoppema, M.; Hunt, C.W.; Hydes, D.; Ishii, M.; Johannessen, T.; Key, R.M.; Kortzinger, A.; Landschutzer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefevre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lourantou, A.; Merlivat, L.; Midorikawa, T.; Mintrop, L.; Miyazaki, C.; Murata, A.; Nakadate, A.; Nakano, Y.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Omar, A.M.; Padin, X.A.; Park, G.-H.; Paterson, K.; Perez, F.F.; Pierrot, D.; Poisson, A.; Rios, A.F.; Salisbury, J.; Santana-Casiano, J.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; et al.

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO2...

  19. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F08 V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  20. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Monthly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  1. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD09GQ Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of Terra MODIS 250 m bands 1-2 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as...

  2. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F13 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  3. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  4. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F11 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  5. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F14 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  6. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F08 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  7. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, Daily Grid F10 V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  8. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F10 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  9. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Satellite F15 V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF 2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by...

  10. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Yearly Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  11. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Climatology, Seasonal Grid V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09Q1 Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-2 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09A1 Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  14. Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Based on the Grid Computing: International Symposium on Grid Computing (ISGC) 2007, held in Taipei, Taiwan in March of 2007, this title presents the grid solutions and research results in grid operations, grid middleware, biomedical operations, and e-science applications. It is suitable for graduate-level students in computer science.

  15. Initialization of high resolution surface wind simulations using NWS gridded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Forthofer; K. Shannon; Bret Butler

    2010-01-01

    WindNinja is a standalone computer model designed to provide the user with simulations of surface wind flow. It is deterministic and steady state. It is currently being modified to allow the user to initialize the flow calculation using National Digital Forecast Database. It essentially allows the user to downscale the coarse scale simulations from meso-scale models to...

  16. Barotropic Eulerian residual circulation in the Gulf of California due to the M{sub 2} tide and wind stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argote, M. L.; Lavin, M. F.; Amador, A. [Departamento de Oceanografia Fisica, CICESE, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    A vertically integrated, non-linear numerical model in finite differences is used to analyze two forcing mechanisms of the mean barotropic circulation in the Gulf of California: topographic rectification due to tidal currents (M{sub 2}) and wind stress. Under tidal forcing the nonlinearities of the momentum equations induce unorganized strong tidal induced residual currents (u{sub e} > 5 cm s{sup -}1) in the channels between the islands, and along-isobath anticyclonic circulation in the Northern Gulf, with speeds u{sub 3} < 2.5 cm s{sup -}1 over the edge of Delfin Basin. These numerical results are in agreement with analytical results, which indicate that the tidal-induced currents are mostly due to the advective terms, and that continuity and the Coriolis term (but regulated by bottom friction) are responsible for the along-isobath flow. The quadratic bottom friction plays a role in generating mean currents only in the very shallow area off the Colorado River Delta. The effect of wind stress was modeled by imposing upon the running M{sub 2} model a constant surface stress ( r = 0.016 Pa), from the NW for winter conditions and from the SE for summer conditions. The wind-induced circulation was obtained by averaging over a tidal cycle and then subtracting the tidal residuals. The two wind directions produce almost identical circulation patterns, but with opposite directions. For the NW wind stress, the main features of the predicted circulation are: (a) In the Northern Gulf an anticyclonic circulation pattern, with the strongest currents (up to {approx} 10 cm s-1) following the bathymetry of the rim of Delfin Basin, Wagner Basin and the mainland coast off Bahia Adair and Bahia San Jorge. There is also a southward flow along the peninsula coast, from the Colorado River to Bahia San Luis Gonzaga. (b) In the Southern Gulf, there is a strong flow ({approx} 10 to 15 cm s{sup -}1) to the SE over the continental shelf along the mainland coast. A somewhat less well

  17. The Finite-Surface Method for incompressible flow: a step beyond staggered grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokpunna, Arpiruk; Misaka, Takashi; Obayashi, Shigeru

    2017-11-01

    We present a newly developed higher-order finite surface method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). This method defines the velocities as a surface-averaged value on the surfaces of the pressure cells. Consequently, the mass conservation on the pressure cells becomes an exact equation. The only things left to approximate is the momentum equation and the pressure at the new time step. At certain conditions, the exact mass conservation enables the explicit n-th order accurate NSE solver to be used with the pressure treatment that is two or four order less accurate without loosing the apparent convergence rate. This feature was not possible with finite volume of finite difference methods. We use Fourier analysis with a model spectrum to determine the condition and found that the range covers standard boundary layer flows. The formal convergence and the performance of the proposed scheme is compared with a sixth-order finite volume method. Finally, the accuracy and performance of the method is evaluated in turbulent channel flows. This work is partially funded by a research colloaboration from IFS, Tohoku university and ASEAN+3 funding scheme from CMUIC, Chiang Mai University.

  18. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  19. Sub-grid scale representation of vegetation in global land surface schemes: implications for estimation of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystem models commonly represent vegetation in terms of plant functional types (PFTs and use their vegetation attributes in calculations of the energy and water balance as well as to investigate the terrestrial carbon cycle. Sub-grid scale variability of PFTs in these models is represented using different approaches with the "composite" and "mosaic" approaches being the two end-members. The impact of these two approaches on the global carbon balance has been investigated with the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v 1.2 coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS v 3.6. In the composite (single-tile approach, the vegetation attributes of different PFTs present in a grid cell are aggregated and used in calculations to determine the resulting physical environmental conditions (soil moisture, soil temperature, etc. that are common to all PFTs. In the mosaic (multi-tile approach, energy and water balance calculations are performed separately for each PFT tile and each tile's physical land surface environmental conditions evolve independently. Pre-industrial equilibrium CLASS-CTEM simulations yield global totals of vegetation biomass, net primary productivity, and soil carbon that compare reasonably well with observation-based estimates and differ by less than 5% between the mosaic and composite configurations. However, on a regional scale the two approaches can differ by > 30%, especially in areas with high heterogeneity in land cover. Simulations over the historical period (1959–2005 show different responses to evolving climate and carbon dioxide concentrations from the two approaches. The cumulative global terrestrial carbon sink estimated over the 1959–2005 period (excluding land use change (LUC effects differs by around 5% between the two approaches (96.3 and 101.3 Pg, for the mosaic and composite approaches, respectively and compares well with the observation-based estimate of 82.2 ± 35 Pg C over the same

  20. Direct Quantum Dynamics Using Grid-Based Wave Function Propagation and Machine-Learned Potential Energy Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Gareth W; Habershon, Scott

    2017-09-12

    We describe a method for performing nuclear quantum dynamics calculations using standard, grid-based algorithms, including the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method, where the potential energy surface (PES) is calculated "on-the-fly". The method of Gaussian process regression (GPR) is used to construct a global representation of the PES using values of the energy at points distributed in molecular configuration space during the course of the wavepacket propagation. We demonstrate this direct dynamics approach for both an analytical PES function describing 3-dimensional proton transfer dynamics in malonaldehyde and for 2- and 6-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations of proton transfer in salicylaldimine. In the case of salicylaldimine we also perform calculations in which the PES is constructed using Hartree-Fock calculations through an interface to an ab initio electronic structure code. In all cases, the results of the quantum dynamics simulations are in excellent agreement with previous simulations of both systems yet do not require prior fitting of a PES at any stage. Our approach (implemented in a development version of the Quantics package) opens a route to performing accurate quantum dynamics simulations via wave function propagation of many-dimensional molecular systems in a direct and efficient manner.

  1. CO2 surface fluxes at grid point scale estimated from a global 21 year reanalysis of atmospheric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Bousquet, P.; Maignan, F.; Peylin, P.; Ramonet, M.; Rivier, L.; Schmidt, M.; Conway, T.J.; Aalto, T.; Anderson, B.E.; Vay, S.A.; Brunke, E.G.; Ciattaglia, L.; Esaki, Y.; Froehlich, M.; Gomez, A.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.J.; Haszpra, L.; Krummel, P.B.; Langenfelds, R.L.; Steele, L.P.; Leuenberger, M.; Machida, T.; Mukai, H.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.; Morgui, J.A.; Nakazawa, T.; Vermeulen, A.T.; Wofsy, S.; Worthy, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents a global Bayesian variational inversion of CO2 surface fluxes during the period 1988-2008. Weekly fluxes are estimated on a 3.75x2.5 (longitude-latitude) grid throughout the 21 years. The assimilated observations include 128 station records from three large data sets of surface CO2 mixing ratio measurements. A Monte Carlo approach rigorously quantifies the theoretical uncertainty of the inverted fluxes at various space and time scales, which is particularly important for proper interpretation of the inverted fluxes. Fluxes are evaluated indirectly against two independent CO2 vertical profile data sets constructed from aircraft measurements in the boundary layer and in the free troposphere. The skill of the inversion is evaluated by the improvement brought over a simple benchmark flux estimation based on the observed atmospheric growth rate. Our error analysis indicates that the carbon budget from the inversion should be more accurate than the a priori carbon budget by 20% to 60% for terrestrial fluxes aggregated at the scale of subcontinental regions in the Northern Hemisphere and over a year, but the inversion cannot clearly distinguish between the regional carbon budgets within a continent. On the basis of the independent observations, the inversion is seen to improve the fluxes compared to the benchmark: the atmospheric simulation of CO2 with the Bayesian inversion method is better by about 1 ppm than the benchmark in the free troposphere, despite possible systematic transport errors. The inversion achieves this improvement by changing the regional fluxes over land at the seasonal and at the interannual time scales.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Variabilities of Japan Sea Surface Temperature and Atmospheric Forcings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Peter C; Chen, Yuchun; Lu, Shihua

    1998-01-01

    ...) and surface air temperature (SAT) data during 1982-1994 and the National Center for Atmospheric Research surface wind stress curl data during 1982-1989 to investigate the Japan Sea SST temporal and spatial variabilities...

  3. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Surface Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A1 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Downward Shortwave Radiation (DSR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution with...

  4. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3): National Identifier Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) National Identifier Grid is derived from the land area grid to create a raster surface where pixels (cells) that...

  5. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RSW Fine Mixed Element Grid with viscous root wind tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 38016 Tria Surface Faces=...

  6. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Tet Only Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the RSW Coarse Tet Only grid with the root viscous tunnel wall. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 0 Tria Surface Faces=...

  7. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  8. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  9. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L3 Global Gridded 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree V3 (OMUVBd) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is Level-3 daily global gridded Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose product (OMUVBd). The OMUVBd product contains global erythemally...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MYD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  11. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  12. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra V5 LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MOD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels, which are produced daily using the day/night LST algorithm (Wan...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 km Grid (Short name: MYD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels (4.63 km pixels for versions prior to V005), which are produced daily...

  14. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  15. Acceleration grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmerich, J.; Kupschus, P.; Fraenkle, H.

    1983-01-01

    The acceleration grid is used in nuclear fusion technique as an ion beam grid. It consists of perforated plates at different potentials situated behind one another in the axial movement direction of their through holes. In order to prevent interference in the perforated hole area due to thermal expansion, the perforated plates are fixed with elastic springiness (plate fields) at their edges. (DG) [de

  16. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ate, quote the cost for using the resources. Give time estimate for completing the job. (This may be one of the QoS parameters). Schedule user's job in .... availability of Globus software tools motivated large enterprises to mobilize their resources to create an enterprise grid. An enterprise grid is designed to interconnect all ...

  17. Roles of wind stress and thermodynamic forcing in recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and Southern Ocean SST: An ocean-sea ice model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Williams, Guy D.; Massom, Robert; Reid, Phillip; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-11-01

    In contrast to a strong decrease in Arctic sea ice extent, overall Antarctic sea ice extent has modestly increased since 1979. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the net Antarctic sea ice expansion, including atmosphere/ocean circulation and temperature changes, sea ice-atmospheric-ocean feedback, increased precipitation, and enhanced basal meltwater from ice shelves. Concomitant with this positive trend in Antarctic sea ice, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Southern Ocean south of approximately 45°S have cooled over this period. However, the mechanisms responsible for the Antarctic sea ice expansion and the SST cooling trend remain poorly defined. Here, we conduct comprehensive sensitivity experiments using a coupled ocean-sea ice model with a steady-state ice shelf component in order to investigate the main drivers of recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and SST over the Southern Ocean. The results suggest that Antarctic sea ice expansion is mostly explained by trends in the thermodynamic surface forcing, notably cooling and drying and a reduction in longwave radiation. Similarly, thermodynamic forcing is found to be the main driver of the zonal SST cooling trend. While apparently less influential on sea ice extent and SST, wind stress plays a key role in sea ice motion, thickening coastal sea ice, and thinning and decreasing the concentration of ice in mid-pack regions of the Amundsen-eastern Ross seas and 65-95°E in winter-spring. Furthermore, the model suggests that ocean-ice shelf interaction does not significantly influence the observed trends in Antarctic sea ice coverage and Southern Ocean SST in recent decades.

  18. Grid sleeve bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly

  19. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  20. NEW RSW & Wall Medium Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New Medium Fully Tetrahedral RSW Grid with viscous wind tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Medium Tet: Quad Surface Faces= 0...

  1. NEW RSW & Wall Coarse Mixed Element Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the Coarse Mixed Element Grid for the RSW with a viscous wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Quad Surface Faces= 9728 Tria...

  2. Pulsed Electron Source with Grid Plasma Cathode and Longitudinal Magnetic Field for Modification of Material and Product Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devyatkov, V. N.; Koval, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    The description and the main characteristics of the pulsed electron source "SOLO" developed on the basis of the plasma cathode with grid stabilization of the emission plasma boundary are presented. The emission plasma is generated by a low-pressure arc discharge, and that allows to form the dense low-energy electron beam with a wide range of independently adjustable parameters of beam current pulses (pulse duration of 20-250 μs, pulse repetition rate of 1-10 s-1, amplitude of beam current pulses of 20-300 A, and energy of beam electrons of 5-25 keV). The special features of generation of emission plasma by constricted low-pressure arc discharge in the grid plasma cathode partially dipped into a non-uniform magnetic field and of formation and transportation of the electron beam in a longitudinal magnetic field are considered. The application area of the electron source and technologies realized with its help are specified.

  3. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B land surface product includes surface soil moisture and vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information on a global 25 km...

  4. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 250m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance products are an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance as it would be measured at ground level in the...

  5. VIIRS/NPP Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) daily surface reflectance (VNP09GA) Version 1 product provides an estimate of land surface reflectance from the...

  6. Decadal Variations of the Western Subarctic Gyre and Main Pycnocline Depth due to Wind Stress Change in the Northern North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, A.; Wakita, M.

    2017-12-01

    From the late 1990s to the early 2000s, the western subarctic gyre of the North Pacific, a cyclonic circulation in the western subarctic region, shrank northward associated with a decadal increase of sea surface height (SSH). This gyre change displaced the main pycnocline (halocline) downward and is expected to contribute to the deepening of the overlying temperature minimum layer. This is considered to affect the biogeochemical conditions in the western subarctic region, where is known as substantially slow ocean acidification region. In this study, on the basis of wind stress field data in the subpolar region (40˚N—54˚N, 160˚E—135˚W) during 1979—2014 provided by U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis, we estimated the variation in SSH, solving the vorticity gradient equation on the beta plane. Decadal increase in SSH at Station K2 (47˚N, 160˚E), representative point of the western subarctic region, was well produced by the calculation, and the correlation coefficient with altimetric SSH exceeds 0.6. The calculated SSH variation consists of the variations due to the barotropic and baroclinic Rossby wave modes. The gyre shrinkage is found to be caused primarily by the barotropic response to the wind change in the whole subpolar region and secondary by the first baroclinic response. Meanwhile, the decadal deepening of the main pycnocline at K2 is attributed to the baroclinic responses of the higher (second, third, and fourth) vertical modes to the local wind change.

  7. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  8. Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Ian

    2001-08-01

    The term "Grid Computing" refers to the use, for computational purposes, of emerging distributed Grid infrastructures: that is, network and middleware services designed to provide on-demand and high-performance access to all important computational resources within an organization or community. Grid computing promises to enable both evolutionary and revolutionary changes in the practice of computational science and engineering based on new application modalities such as high-speed distributed analysis of large datasets, collaborative engineering and visualization, desktop access to computation via "science portals," rapid parameter studies and Monte Carlo simulations that use all available resources within an organization, and online analysis of data from scientific instruments. In this article, I examine the status of Grid computing circa 2000, briefly reviewing some relevant history, outlining major current Grid research and development activities, and pointing out likely directions for future work. I also present a number of case studies, selected to illustrate the potential of Grid computing in various areas of science.

  9. The Volume Grid Manipulator (VGM): A Grid Reusability Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a manual describing how to use the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) software. The code is specifically designed to alter or manipulate existing surface and volume structured grids to improve grid quality through the reduction of grid line skewness, removal of negative volumes, and adaption of surface and volume grids to flow field gradients. The software uses a command language to perform all manipulations thereby offering the capability of executing multiple manipulations on a single grid during an execution of the code. The command language can be input to the VGM code by a UNIX style redirected file, or interactively while the code is executing. The manual consists of 14 sections. The first is an introduction to grid manipulation; where it is most applicable and where the strengths of such software can be utilized. The next two sections describe the memory management and the manipulation command language. The following 8 sections describe simple and complex manipulations that can be used in conjunction with one another to smooth, adapt, and reuse existing grids for various computations. These are accompanied by a tutorial section that describes how to use the commands and manipulations to solve actual grid generation problems. The last two sections are a command reference guide and trouble shooting sections to aid in the use of the code as well as describe problems associated with generated scripts for manipulation control.

  10. RSW Node Centered Coarse Grid w/ Split Walls Coarse/Med/Fine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains the remaining 5 tarballs (5 grids and associated files) for the RSW node centered grids. Each tarball contains a stream-AFLR3 grid, CGNS grid, surface...

  11. NPP/VIIRS Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VNP09GA_NRT is a Near Real Time (NRT) S-NPP/VIIRS 500m and 1km Daily Level 2G Surface Reflectance product. The NPP/ VIIRS surface reflectance products are...

  12. Estimation and correction of surface wind-stress bias in the Tropical Pacific with the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The assimilation of high-quality in situ data into ocean models is known to lead to imbalanced analyses and spurious circulations when the model dynamics or the forcing contain systematic errors. Use of a bias estimation and correction scheme has been shown to significantly improve the balance of

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11B1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 27, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  14. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11A1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of October 30, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  15. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-3 MODIS global Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity 8-day data are composed from the daily 1-kilometer LST product (MOD11A1) and stored on a...

  16. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  17. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Daily Grid, Set1 V2c (GSSTF) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c (GSSTF2c) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  18. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Grid, Set1 and Interpolated Data V2c

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  19. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B3 version 6 product provides average, monthly per pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 X 1200 (km) tile with a pixel size of 5600 meters (m)....

  20. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Surface Soil Moisture, Interpretive Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily land product includes surface soil moisture, vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information, and TBs on global 25 km...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11A1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 24, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  2. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 23, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11B3 version 6 product provides average, monthly per pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 X 1200 (km) tile with a pixel size of 5600 meters (m)....

  4. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09GA Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  5. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD09GA Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of Terra MODIS Bands 1-7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  6. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11A1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 20, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  7. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high per- formance computers, scientific databases, and computer- controlled scientific instruments of cooperating organiza- tions each of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quite different from cloud computing, which provides computing resources by vendors to ...

  8. Finite Element Methods On Very Large, Dynamic Tubular Grid Encoded Implicit Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemitz, Oliver; Nielsen, Michael Bang; Rumpf, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of physical processes on interfaces and a variety of applications in geometry processing and geometric modeling are based on the solution of partial differential equations on curved and evolving surfaces. Frequently, an implicit level set type representation of these surfaces...... on the boundary of the narrow band and a nested iteration scheme in each time step are investigated. This nested iteration scheme enables the discrete interfaces to move in a single time step significantly beyond the domain of the narrow band of the previous time step. Furthermore, algorithmic tools are provided...

  9. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11B1 version 6 product provides daily, per pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 X 1200 (km) tile with a pixel size of 5600 meters (m). Each MOD11B1...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11B1 version 6 product provides daily, per pixel land surface temperature (LST) in a 1200 X 1200 (km) tile with a pixel size of 5600 meters (m). Each MYD11B1...

  11. Index Grids - MDC_USNationalGrid

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The U.S. National Grid is based on universally defined coordinate and grid systems and can, therefore, be easily extended for use world-wide as a universal grid...

  12. Advantages of Using Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture over Gridded Precipitation Products and Land Surface Model Output in Assessing Regional Vegetation Water Availability and Growth Dynamics for a Lateral Inflow Receiving Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.; McVicar, T.R.; Wang, G.J.; Chen, X.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Liu, Y.; Shen, H.; Zhang, F.; Dolman, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    To improve the understanding of water-vegetation relationships, direct comparative studies assessing the utility of satellite remotely sensed soil moisture, gridded precipitation products, and land surface model output are needed. A case study was investigated for a water-limited, lateral inflow

  13. HIRENASD NLR grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Structured multiblock grid of HIRENASD wing with medium grid density, about 10 mill grid points, 9.5 mill cells. Starting from coarse AIAA AEPW structured grid,...

  14. Grid pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs

  15. The grid

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid   Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK   Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia   Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...

  16. Numerical modeling of the response of Ceará continental shelf waters to wind stress forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyra Soares

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceará shelf waters response to steady and transicnt wind forcing, from Ponta Cajuais (04°42'S, 37°19.5'W to Ponta de Itapagé (02°50.5'S, 40000'W, was studied using a hydrodynamic numerical model. The finitc difference model was based upon the equations for a barotropic ocean in general form: advective and quadratic surface and bottom stress terms were included. Seasonal differences in the shelf waters response were characterized by simulation of summer and winter forcing. Such experiments wcre conducted for both f and equatorial beta plane domains, without significative differences in the results. Transient shelf waters response were investigated using surface winds from the Fortaleza airport , during the period extending from 14/03 to 25/03n9. Model results were compared to current data collected during the same period; modeled currents were able to roughly describe observed current pattem, but not current intensity.A resposta das águas da plataforma continental do Ceará, de Ponta Cajuais (04°42'S, 37° 19,5'W, à forçante do vento estacionária e transiente foi estudada através de um modelo numérico hidrodinâmico. O modelo, na forma de diferenças finitas, utiliza as equações do movimento e da continuidade de massa para um oceano barotr6pico no caso mais geral: estão incluídos os termos advectivos, bem como o atrito com o fundo e a tensão de cisalhamento do vento, ambos parametrizados na forma quadrática. Variações sazonais na resposta estacionária das águas da plataforma continental, da área estudada, foram caracterizadas pela simulação das condições de verão e inverno da região. Os experimentos foram realizados no plano f e no plano p equatorial sem diferenças significativas nos resultados. A resposta transiente das águas da plataforma continental, da região escolhida, foi investigada usando uma série temporal de vento de superfície do Aeroporto de Fortaleza do período de 14 à 25 de março. O per

  17. Grid reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Saiz, P; Rocha, R; Andreeva, J

    2007-01-01

    We are offering a system to track the efficiency of different components of the GRID. We can study the performance of both the WMS and the data transfers At the moment, we have set different parts of the system for ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. None of the components that we have developed are VO specific, therefore it would be very easy to deploy them for any other VO. Our main goal is basically to improve the reliability of the GRID. The main idea is to discover as soon as possible the different problems that have happened, and inform the responsible. Since we study the jobs and transfers issued by real users, we see the same problems that users see. As a matter of fact, we see even more problems than the end user does, since we are also interested in following up the errors that GRID components can overcome by themselves (like for instance, in case of a job failure, resubmitting the job to a different site). This kind of information is very useful to site and VO administrators. They can find out the efficien...

  18. Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechl, M; Field, L

    2008-01-01

    A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization

  19. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  20. Enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells on grid-topographic surface and evidence for involvement of YAP mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Gong, He; Sun, Yan; Huang, Yan; Fan, Yubo

    2016-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that surface topography can promote cell-substrate associations and deeply influence cell fate. The intracellular mechanism or how micro- or nano-patterned extracellular signal is ultimately linked to activity of nuclear transcription factors remains unknown. It has been reported that Yes-associated protein (YAP) can respond to extracellular matrix microenvironment signals, thus regulates stem cell differentiation process. We propose that YAP may play a role in mediating the topography induced cell differentiation. To this end, we fabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropatterns with grid topology (GT) (3 μm pattern width, 2 μm pattern interval length, 7 μm pattern height); nonpatterned PDMS substrates were used as the planar controls. The MC3T3-E1 cells were then cultured on these surfaces, respectively, in osteogenic inducing medium. Cell differentiation in terms of osteogenesis related gene expression, protein levels, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization was assessed. It was shown that the cells on GT surfaces had stronger osteogenesis capacity. In addition, expression level of YAP was increased when MC3T3-E1 cells grew on GT substrates, which was similar to the levels of osteogenic differentiation markers. It was also shown that YAP knockdown attenuated GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation, which reduced the osteogenic differentiation effect of the GT substrates. Collectively, our findings indicate that GT substrates-induced MC3T3-E1 differentiation may be associated with YAP. This paper provides new target points for transcriptional mechanism research of microenvironment induced cell differentiation and a useful approach to obtain more biofunctionalization scaffolds for tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  2. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  3. The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...

  4. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which...... represents the spatial coordinates of the grid nodes. Knowledge of how grid nodes are depicted in the observed image is described through the observation model. The prior consists of a node prior and an arc (edge) prior, both modeled as Gaussian MRFs. The node prior models variations in the positions of grid...... nodes and the arc prior models variations in row and column spacing across the grid. Grid matching is done by placing an initial rough grid over the image and applying an ensemble annealing scheme to maximize the posterior distribution of the grid. The method can be applied to noisy images with missing...

  5. Best Practices for Unstructured Grid Shock Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    Unstructured grid solvers have well-known issues predicting surface heat fluxes when strong shocks are present. Various efforts have been made to address the underlying numerical issues that cause the erroneous predictions. The present work addresses some of the shortcomings of unstructured grid solvers, not by addressing the numerics, but by applying structured grid best practices to unstructured grids. A methodology for robust shock detection and shock fitting is outlined and applied to production relevant cases. Results achieved by using the Loci-CHEM Computational Fluid Dynamics solver are provided.

  6. The StaggerGrid project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Remo; Magic, Zazralt; Asplund, Martin

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we present the STAGGERGRID, a collaborative project for the construction of a comprehensive grid of time-dependent, three-dimensional (3-D), hydrodynamic model atmospheres of solar- and late-type stars with different effective temperatures, surface gravities, and chemical...

  7. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...... for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads...

  8. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 0 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (DG) [de

  9. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (orig.)

  10. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  11. Results of using a grid mammography device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreer, I.; Wuerthner, K.

    1980-01-01

    Film foil systems with grids reduce the dose required considerably compared to films with no foil. The recognition of small particles and the contrast reproduction of surface structures are improved. (orig.) [de

  12. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  13. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant...

  14. Best Practices for Unstructured Grid Shock-Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoud, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    Unstructured grid solvers have well-known issues predicting surface heat fluxes when strong shocks are present. Various efforts have been made to address the underlying numerical issues that cause the erroneous predictions. The present work addresses some of the shortcomings of unstructured grid solvers, not by addressing the numerics, but by applying structured grid best practices to unstructured grids. A methodology for robust shock detection and shock-fitting is outlined and applied to production-relevant cases. Results

  15. HIRENASD coarse structured grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — blockstructured hexahedral grid, 6.7 mio elements, 24 degree minimum grid angle, CGNS format version 2.4, double precision Binary, Plot3D file Please contact...

  16. Grid-based Visualization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaux, M.; Tangmunarunkit, H.; Kesselman, C.

    2003-12-01

    byte swapping. GVU also supports parameterized data reduction filters such as point sampling with scalar range culling, as well as volume cropping, and down sampling. The GVU framework can be used to facilitate the parallel execution of existing transformation filters, such as the VTK marching cubes iso-surface filter, as well as other custom domain-specific filters. Our initial implementation supports remote synthesis of view point independent display lists. This feature allows the local display machine to control the view point for reduced view point latency, and multi-view rendering (e.g., stereo rendering). The poster will provide an architectural design of the Grid-based visualization framework and its components. We will also show a brief demo/movie of our work, and how it is being used to visualize 4D earthquake wave propagation data.

  17. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  18. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  19. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  20. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  1. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of of Johnston Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (20 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. Cell values reflect the (surface area) /...

  2. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (40 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard R/V AHI and NOAA ship Hi'ialakai. Cell values reflect the (surface area) /...

  3. Cross-cutting planetary waves producing crater chains, grids and square craters are ubiquitous features of cosmic bodies well pronounced on the icy satellites surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    The wave planetology [1-3 & others] states that along with tectonic segmentation (dichotomy, 2πRs tructure) and s ectoring (πR-structure) cosmic bodies display tectonic granulations caused by warping waves lengths of which are inversely proportional to orbital frequencies. The warping waves (and their overtones) appear due to movements of all bodies in non-circular orbits with changing accelerations. Arising warping waves have stationary character and 4 crossing interfering directions (ortho- and diagonal, Fig. 1). Produced by this interference tectonic granules (craters) dispose themselves in grids, alignments, often spoiled by superposed impacts, but nevertheless distinguished in many cases. An alignment of square shaped craters shows their wave origin. Wave produced craters and ring forms must be taken out of the crater size-frequency statistics to make it real [3]. Below are some examples of the wave woven forms proving their ubiquities (Fig. 2- 10). Remark various classes of cosmic bodies.

  4. Report on reflood experiment of grid spacer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Murao, Yoshio

    1984-07-01

    Experiments were performed in order to clarify the effect of grid spacers on reflood heat transfer in PWR-LOCA. The flow pattern, the thermal responses and the water accumulation near the grid spacer were investigated by shifting the grid spacer at the midplane of the simulated core. Also tested is the effect of the thickness of the grid spacer wall on the reflood behavior. The heat transfer coefficient before the quenching was about 20 to 50 percent higher just above the grid spacer than just below the grid spacer. The decrease of the droplet diameter due to the grid spacer was observed in the droplet dispersed flow regime. In the slug flow regime, the grid spacer was rewetted early in the reflood transient and the increased water accumulation near the grid spacer was observed. Hence, the heat transfer enhancement due to the grid spacer is mainly attributed to the increased interfacial surface area of droplets in the dispersed flow and also to the increased film boiling heat transfer in the slug flow. The heat transfer enhancement tended to be larger with the larger thickness of the grid spacer. The simple model was developed for both the dispersed flow and slug flow regimes based on the present experimental results. The thermohydraulic behavior near the grid spacer was well calculated with the developed model. The further detailed information, however, is required for the improvement and the verification of the grid spacer model. (author)

  5. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  6. LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)

  7. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel

    2017-02-01

    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases

  8. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  9. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs...... at the Play Grid. Thus, the model has four quadrants, each of them describing one of four play types: the Assembler, the Director, the Explorer, and the Improviser. It is our hope that the Play Grid can be a useful design tool for making entertainment products for children....

  10. Coherence between interannual variability of sea level with some surface met-ocean parameters at Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.

    Centre, Cochin - 682 014, Kerala, India [ E-mail: srinivas_kantha@rediffmail.com ; srinivas_kantha@yahoo.co.in ] Received 4 October 2001, revised 14 June 2002 The interannual coherence of some surface met-ocean parameters (viz. SST, air temperature....01354, 0.01968 and 0.01428 dyne/cm 2 , respectively. As the numerical values of the observed wind stress are small, the re- siduals (i.e. anomalies) are still smaller. Further, the seasonal signal component in the cross-shore and along-shore wind stress...

  11. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited.

  12. Literature review of models for estimating soil erosion and deposition from wind stresses on uranium-mill-tailings covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, T.J.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon-suppression cover applied to uranium-mill tailings. The mechanics of wind erosion, as well as of soil deposition, are discussed in this report. Several wind erosion models are reviewed to determine if they can be used to estimate the erosion of soil from a mill-tailings cover. One model, developed by W.S. Chepil, contains the most-important factors that describe variables that influence wind erosion. Particular features of other models are also discussed, as well as the application of Chepil's model to a particular tailings pile. For this particular tailings pile, the estimated erosion was almost one inch per year for an unprotected tailings soil surface. Wide variability in the deposition velocity and lack of adequate deposition models preclude reliable estimates of the rate at which airborne particles are deposited

  13. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF), at GES DISC V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  14. Free-Surface Modeling of Cryogenic Fluids Using a Higher-Order, Unstructured Grid Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Accurate and efficient computational modeling of free-surface flows has numerous applications of current and future relevance to NASA. At present, NASA engineers use...

  15. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25 x 0.25 deg, Daily Grid V3 (GSSTF) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr....

  16. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Monthly Grid, V3, (GSSTFM), at GES DISC V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-3 Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  17. Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 1x1 deg Monthly Grid, Set1 and Interpolated Data V2c (GSSTFM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version-2c Dataset recently produced through a MEaSUREs funded project led by Dr. Chung-Lin Shie...

  18. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F13) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  19. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F15) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  20. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_11) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  1. Goddard Satellite-Based Surface Turbulent Fluxes, 0.25x0.25 deg, Daily Grid, V3, (GSSTF_F14) V3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data are part of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes Version 3 (GSSTF3) Dataset recently produced through a MEaSURES funded project led by Dr....

  2. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  3. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Original Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Original Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are converted 1- kilometer grid cell data available in the Geographic Coordinate...

  4. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Amphibians Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are aggregations of the presence grids data at the family level. They are...

  5. Index Grids - MDC_USNationalGrid1K

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The U.S. National Grid is based on universally defined coordinate and grid systems and can, therefore, be easily extended for use world-wide as a universal grid...

  6. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  7. Getting grid users together

    CERN Multimedia

    Appleton, Owen

    2007-01-01

    "While Grid conferences are becoming ever more popular, many of them remain primarily IT events, with few if any users attending. Not so the second EGEE User Forum, an event specifically designed to bring together the diverse user community that makes use of the EGEE grid infrastructure." (1 page)

  8. The LHCb Grid Simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Baranov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...

  9. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  10. Perspectives on grid computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwiegelshohn, U.; Badia, R.M.; Bubak, M.T.; Danelutto, M.; Dustdar, S.; Gagliardi, F.; Geiger, A.; Hluchy, L.; Kranzlmüller, D.; Laure, E.; Priol, T.; Reinefeld, A.; Resch, M.; Reuter, A.; Rienhoff, O.; Rüter, T.; Sloot, P.; Talia, D.; Ullmann, K.; Yahyapour, R.; von Voigt, G.

    2010-01-01

    Grid computing has been the subject of many large national and international IT projects. However, not all goals of these projects have been achieved. In particular, the number of users lags behind the initial forecasts laid out by proponents of grid technologies. This underachievement may have led

  11. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  12. Modelling the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. Part I: wind stresses, thermal and haline fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Valioulis

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a computer model capable of simulating the water mass circulation in the Aegean Sea. There is historical, phenomenological and recent experimental evidence of important hydrographical features whose causes have been variably identified as the highly complex bathymetry, the extreme seasonal variations in temperature, the considerable fresh water fluxes, and the large gradients in salinity or temperature across neighbouring water masses (Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. In the approach taken here, physical processes are introduced into the model one by one. This method reveals the parameters responsible for permanent and seasonal features of the Aegean Sea circulation. In the first part of the work reported herein, wind-induced circulation appears to be seasonally invariant. This yearly pattern is overcome by the inclusion of baroclinicity in the model in the form of surface thermohaline fluxes. The model shows an intricate pattern of sub-basin gyres and locally strong currents, permanent or seasonal, in accord with the experimental evidence.

  13. The GRID seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.

  14. ONIX results: Comparison of grid geometry (BATMAN - ELISE - flat grid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Adrien; Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Wünderlich, Dirk; Fantz, Ursel; Minea, Tiberiu

    2017-08-01

    The 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX is dedicated to the modelling of negative hydrogen or deuterium ion extraction and the co-extracted electrons from the plasma in radio-frequency driven sources. The extraction process highly depends on the plasma characteristics close to the plasma grid where it is difficult to obtain experimental data. ONIX brings valuable insights on the plasma behavior in this area. In the code, the numerical treatment of the boundaries have been improved in order to describe with more accuracy the potential and the electric field in this vicinity. The computation time has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the parallelization efficiency has been highly improved. The influence of the magnetic field in BATMAN on the plasma behaviour has been investigated by comparing two different configurations of the magnet bars producing the filter field (internal magnets: x = 3 cm; external magnets: x = 9 cm). A flat grid geometry for the PG instead of the usual conical grid geometry has been studied to evaluate its impact on the extracted current, especially for the negative ions emitted from the surface of the PG. Finally, the ONIX code has been used for the first 3D PIC calculations ever performed for the ELISE experiment.

  15. BSCW Unstructured Grids - VGRID software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These grids were constructed using VGRID software from NASA Langley. The grids designed for node based (labeled 'nc') and cell-centered solvers are supplied. Grids...

  16. HIRENASD Unstructured Grids - VGRID software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These grids were constructed using VGRID software from NASA Langley. The grids designed for node based (labeled 'nc') and cell-centered solvers are supplied. Grids...

  17. Hydrography-driven coarsening of grid digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, G.; Orlandini, S.

    2017-12-01

    A new grid coarsening strategy, denoted as hydrography-driven (HD) coarsening, is developed in the present study. The HD coarsening strategy is designed to retain the essential hydrographic features of surface flow paths observed in high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs): (1) depressions are filled in the considered high-resolution DEM, (2) the obtained topographic data are used to extract a reference grid network composed of all surface flow paths, (3) the Horton order is assigned to each link of the reference grid network, and (4) within each coarse grid cell, the elevation of the point lying along the highest-order path of the reference grid network and displaying the minimum distance to the cell center is assigned to this coarse grid cell center. The capabilities of the HD coarsening strategy to provide consistent surface flow paths with respect to those observed in high-resolution DEMs are evaluated over a synthetic valley and two real drainage basins located in the Italian Alps and in the Italian Apennines. The HD coarsening is found to yield significantly more accurate surface flow path profiles than the standard nearest neighbor (NN) coarsening. In addition, the proposed strategy is found to reduce drastically the impact of depression-filling procedures in coarsened topographic data. The HD coarsening strategy is therefore advocated for all those cases in which the relief of the extracted drainage network is an important hydrographic feature. The figure below reports DEMs of a synthetic valley and extracted surface flow paths. (a) 10-m grid DEM displaying no depressions and extracted surface flow path (gray line). (b) 1-km grid DEM obtained from NN coarsening. (c) 1-km grid DEM obtained from NN coarsening plus depression-filling and extracted surface flow path (light blue line). (d) 1-km grid DEM obtained from HD coarsening and extracted surface flow path (magenta line).

  18. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  19. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagaya Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  20. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Akihiko

    2006-12-18

    Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  1. Desktop grid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical

  2. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  3. Preliminary thermal analysis of grids for twin source extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Ravi; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun K.

    2017-01-01

    The TWIN (Two driver based Indigenously built Negative ion source) source provides a bridge between the operational single driver based negative ion source test facility, ROBIN in IPR and an ITER-type multi driver based ion source. The source is designed to be operated in CW mode with 180kW, 1MHz, 5s ON/600s OFF duty cycle and also in 5Hz modulation mode with 3s ON/20s OFF duty cycle for 3 such cycle. TWIN source comprises of ion source sub-assembly (consist of driver and plasma box) and extraction system sub-assembly. Extraction system consists of Plasma grid (PG), extraction grid (EG) and Ground grid (GG) sub assembly. Negative ion beams produced at plasma grid seeing the plasma side of ion source will receive moderate heat flux whereas the extraction grid and ground grid would be receiving majority of heat flux from extracted negative ion and co-extracted electron beams. Entire Co-extracted electron beam would be dumped at extraction grid via electron deflection magnetic field making the requirement of thermal and hydraulic design for extraction grid to be critical. All the three grids are made of OFHC Copper and would be actively water cooled keeping the peak temperature rise of grid surface within allowable limit with optimum uniformity. All the grids are to be made by vacuum brazing process where joint strength becomes crucial at elevated temperature. Hydraulic design must maintain the peak temperature at the brazing joint within acceptable limit

  4. Sea surface temperature and Ekman transport in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available   The wind drift motion of the water which is produced by the stress of the wind exerted upon the surface of the ocean is described by Ekmans theory (1905. Using the mean monthly values for the wind stress and SST, seasonal Ekman transport for the Persian Gulf was computed and contoured. The geostrophic winds have combined with the SST to estimate the effect of cooling due to Ekman transport of colder northern waters and inflow from the Oman Sea. The monthly SST mainly obtained from the 10 10 grided data of Levitus atlas and Hormuz Cruis Experiment for 1997.   Analyses show a NW to SE Ekman transport due to wind stress and significant interannual variability of SST on sea surface in the Persian Gulf. The seasonal variation of SST shows a continental pattern due to severe interaction between the land and sea. But these variations somehow moderates because of Ekman transport in Persian Gulf.

  5. Solid State Grid Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    This program was for the design, construction and test of two Solid State Grid Modulators to provide enhanced performance and improved reliability in existing S-band radar transmitters at the Rome Research Site...

  6. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  7. Meet the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries

  8. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  9. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  11. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  12. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  13. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing

  14. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Arlit, Martin; Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation s...

  15. FURSMASA: a new approach to rapid scoring functions that uses a MD-averaged potential energy grid and a solvent-accessible surface area term with parameters GA fit to experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, David A; Rao, B Govinda; Charifson, Paul

    2008-05-15

    We demonstrate a new approach to the development of scoring functions through the formulation and parameterization of a new function, which can be used both for rapidly ranking the binding of ligands to proteins and for estimating relative aqueous molecular solubilities. The intent of this work is to introduce a new paradigm for creation of scoring functions, wherein we impose the following criteria upon the function: (1) simple; (2) intuitive; (3) requires no postparameterization tweaking; (4) can be applied (without reparameterization) to multiple target systems; and (5) can be rapidly evaluated for any potential ligand. Following these criteria, a new function, FURSMASA (function for rapid scoring using an MD-averaged grid and the accessible surface area) has been developed. Three novel features of the function include: (1) use of an MD-averaged potential energy grid for ligand-protein interactions, rather than a simple static grid; (2) inclusion of a term that depends on the change in the solvent-accessible surface area changes on an atomic (not molecular) basis; and (3) use of the recently derived predictive index (PI) target when optimizing the function, which focuses the function on its intended purpose of relative ranking. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the function against test data sets that include ligands for the following proteins: IMPDH, p38, gyrase B, HIV-1, and TACE, as well as the Syracuse Research solubility database. We find that the function is predictive, and can simultaneously fit all the test data sets with cross-validated predictive indices ranging from 0.68 to 0.82. As a test of the ability of this function to predict binding for systems not in the training set, the resulting fitted FURSAMA function is then applied to 23 ligands of the COX-2 enzyme. Comparing the results for COX-2 against those obtained using a variety of well-known rapid scoring functions demonstrates that FURSMASA outperforms all of them in terms of the PI and

  16. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  17. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  18. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  19. Low-rank canonical-tensor decomposition of potential energy surfaces: application to grid-based diagrammatic vibrational Green's function theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Prashant; Sargsyan, Khachik; Najm, Habib; Hermes, Matthew R.; Hirata, So

    2017-01-01

    Here, a new method is proposed for a fast evaluation of high-dimensional integrals of potential energy surfaces (PES) that arise in many areas of quantum dynamics. It decomposes a PES into a canonical low-rank tensor format, reducing its integral into a relatively short sum of products of low-dimensional integrals. The decomposition is achieved by the alternating least squares (ALS) algorithm, requiring only a small number of single-point energy evaluations. Therefore, it eradicates a force-constant evaluation as the hotspot of many quantum dynamics simulations and also possibly lifts the curse of dimensionality. This general method is applied to the anharmonic vibrational zero-point and transition energy calculations of molecules using the second-order diagrammatic vibrational many-body Green's function (XVH2) theory with a harmonic-approximation reference. In this application, high dimensional PES and Green's functions are both subjected to a low-rank decomposition. Evaluating the molecular integrals over a low-rank PES and Green's functions as sums of low-dimensional integrals using the Gauss–Hermite quadrature, this canonical-tensor-decomposition-based XVH2 (CT-XVH2) achieves an accuracy of 0.1 cm -1 or higher and nearly an order of magnitude speedup as compared with the original algorithm using force constants for water and formaldehyde.

  20. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  1. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  2. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  3. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  4. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  5. Performance engineering in data Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laure, Erwin; Stockinger, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    The vision of Grid computing is to facilitate worldwide resource sharing among distributed collaborations. With the help of numerous national and international Grid projects, this vision is becoming reality and Grid systems are attracting an ever increasing user base. However, Grids are still quite complex software systems whose efficient use is a difficult and error-prone task. In this paper we present performance engineering techniques that aim to facilitate an efficient use of Grid systems, in particular systems that deal with the management of large-scale data sets in the tera- and petabyte range (also referred to as data Grids). These techniques are applicable at different layers of a Grid architecture and we discuss the tools required at each of these layers to implement them. Having discussed important performance engineering techniques, we investigate how major Grid projects deal with performance issues particularly related to data Grids and how they implement the techniques presented.

  6. A Computational Differential Geometry Approach to Grid Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2007-01-01

    The process of breaking up a physical domain into smaller sub-domains, known as meshing, facilitates the numerical solution of partial differential equations used to simulate physical systems. This monograph gives a detailed treatment of applications of geometric methods to advanced grid technology. It focuses on and describes a comprehensive approach based on the numerical solution of inverted Beltramian and diffusion equations with respect to monitor metrics for generating both structured and unstructured grids in domains and on surfaces. In this second edition the author takes a more detailed and practice-oriented approach towards explaining how to implement the method by: Employing geometric and numerical analyses of monitor metrics as the basis for developing efficient tools for controlling grid properties. Describing new grid generation codes based on finite differences for generating both structured and unstructured surface and domain grids. Providing examples of applications of the codes to the genera...

  7. Thermal Anemometry Grid Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlit, Martin; Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe

    2017-07-19

    A novel thermal anemometry grid sensor was developed for the simultaneous measurement of cross-sectional temperature and axial velocity distribution in a fluid flow. The sensor consists of a set of platinum resistors arranged in a regular grid. Each platinum resistor allows the simultaneous measurement of fluid temperature via electrical resistance and flow velocity via constant voltage thermal anemometry. Cross-sectional measurement was enabled by applying a special multiplexing-excitation scheme. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a prototypical sensor for measurements in a range of very low velocities.

  8. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  9. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  10. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  11. Lagrangian study of temporal changes of a surface flow through the Kamchatka Strait

    OpenAIRE

    Prants, S. V.; Andreev, A. G.; Uleysky, M. Yu.; Budyansky, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    Using Lagrangian methods we analyze a 20-year-long estimate of water flux through the Kamchatka Strait in the northern North Pacific based on AVISO velocity field. It sheds new light on the flux pattern and its variability on annual and monthly time scales. Strong seasonality in surface outflow through the strait could be explained by temporal changes in the wind stress over the northern and western Bering Sea slopes. Interannual changes in a surface outflow through the Kamchatka Strait corre...

  12. Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2015-05-28

    A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.

  13. Jordan triple systems by the grid approach

    CERN Document Server

    Neher, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Grids are special families of tripotents in Jordan triple systems. This research monograph presents a theory of grids including their classification and coordinization of their cover. Among the applications given are - classification of simple Jordan triple systems covered by a grid, reproving and extending most of the known classification theorems for Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs - a Jordan-theoretic interpretation of the geometry of the 27 lines on a cubic surface - structure theories for Hilbert-triples and JBW*-triples, the Jordan analogues of Hilbert-triples and W*-algebras which describe certain symmetric Banach manifolds. The notes are essentially self-contained and independent of the structure theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs. They can be read by anyone with a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry or functional analysis. The book is intended to serve both as a reference for researchers in Jordan theory and as an introductory textbook for newcomers to the subject.

  14. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  15. An electron-multiplying 'Micromegas' grid made in silicon wafer post-processing technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chefdeville, M.; Chefdeville, M.A.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Heijne, E.H.M.; van der Putten, S.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    A technology for manufacturing an aluminium grid onto a silicon wafer has been developed. The grid is fixed parallel and precisely to the wafer (anode) surface at a distance of 50 μm by means of insulating pillars. When some 400 V are applied between the grid and (anode) wafer, gas multiplication

  16. An electron-multiplying 'Micromegas' grid made in silicon wafer post-processing technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chefdeville, M.; Chefdeville, M.A.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Heijne, E.H.M.; van der Putten, S.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    A technology for manufacturing an aluminium grid onto a silicon wafer has been developed. The grid is fixed parallel and precisely to the wafer (anode) surface at a distance of 50 μm by means of insulating pillars. When some 400 V are applied between the grid and (anode) wafer, gas multiplication

  17. An electron-multiplying ''Micromegas'' grid made in silicon wafer post-processing technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chefdeville, M.A.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Heijne, E.H.M.; van der Putten, S.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander M.; Timmermans, J.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    A technology for manufacturing an aluminium grid onto a silicon wafer has been developed. The grid is fixed parallel and precisely to the wafer (anode) surface at a distance of 50 mm by means of insulating pillars. When some 400V are applied between the grid and (anode) wafer, gas multiplication

  18. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  19. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  20. Grid computing the European Data Grid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...

  1. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  2. Changing from computing grid to knowledge grid in life-science grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Veera; Konar, Amit; Datta, Ayan; Choudhury, Anamika Roy

    2009-09-01

    Grid computing has a great potential to become a standard cyber infrastructure for life sciences that often require high-performance computing and large data handling, which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Grid computer applies the resources of many computers in a network to a single problem at the same time. It is useful to scientific problems that require a great number of computer processing cycles or access to a large amount of data.As biologists,we are constantly discovering millions of genes and genome features, which are assembled in a library and distributed on computers around the world.This means that new, innovative methods must be developed that exploit the re-sources available for extensive calculations - for example grid computing.This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing a "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. By extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  3. Smart Grid Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford

    2014-01-01

    grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...

  4. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  5. Nevada Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 282 and number of rows is 397. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  6. Molecular Grid Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    ...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...

  7. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  8. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  9. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  10. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  11. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  12. Power grids; Reseaux electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-03-15

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  13. Kids Enjoy Grids

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...

  14. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  15. HIRENASD Unstructured Grids - Centaur software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These grids were constructed using Centaur software at DLR in Germany. The grids designed for node based (labeled 'cv') and cell-centered solvers (labeled 'cc') are...

  16. Geometry modeling and grid generation using 3D NURBS control volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin

    1995-01-01

    The algorithms for volume grid generation using NURBS geometric representation are presented. The parameterization algorithm is enhanced to yield a desired physical distribution on the curve, surface and volume. This approach bridges the gap between CAD surface/volume definition and surface/volume grid generation. Computational examples associated with practical configurations have shown the utilization of these algorithms.

  17. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  18. Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...

  19. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  20. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  1. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  2. Instant Kendo UI grid

    CERN Document Server

    Lamar, James R

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This is a Packt Instant How-to guide, which provides concise and clear recipes for working with tabular data with Kendo Grids.This book is for anyone with some basic HTML, CSS, and JavaScript experience. Intermediate and advanced users will find several helpful examples as well. Whether you are predominantly a designer or a developer, this book will work for you.

  3. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  4. The Grid PC farm

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.

  5. Grid computing for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tarricone, Luciano

    2004-01-01

    Today, more and more practitioners, researchers, and students are utilizing the power and efficiency of grid computing for their increasingly complex electromagnetics applications. This cutting-edge book offers you the practical and comprehensive guidance you need to use this new approach to supercomputing for your challenging projects. Supported with over 110 illustrations, the book clearly describes a high-performance, low-cost method to solving huge numerical electromagnetics problems.

  6. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  7. Grid Voltage Modulated Control of Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters under Unbalanced Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...

  8. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  9. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  10. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  11. Smart Grid Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  12. Grid computing technology for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecca, G.; Petitdidier, M.; Hluchy, L.; Ivanovic, M.; Kussul, N.; Ray, N.; Thieron, V.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryAdvances in e-Infrastructure promise to revolutionize sensing systems and the way in which data are collected and assimilated, and complex water systems are simulated and visualized. According to the EU Infrastructure 2010 work-programme, data and compute infrastructures and their underlying technologies, either oriented to tackle scientific challenges or complex problem solving in engineering, are expected to converge together into the so-called knowledge infrastructures, leading to a more effective research, education and innovation in the next decade and beyond. Grid technology is recognized as a fundamental component of e-Infrastructures. Nevertheless, this emerging paradigm highlights several topics, including data management, algorithm optimization, security, performance (speed, throughput, bandwidth, etc.), and scientific cooperation and collaboration issues that require further examination to fully exploit it and to better inform future research policies. The paper illustrates the results of six different surface and subsurface hydrology applications that have been deployed on the Grid. All the applications aim to answer to strong requirements from the Civil Society at large, relatively to natural and anthropogenic risks. Grid technology has been successfully tested to improve flood prediction, groundwater resources management and Black Sea hydrological survey, by providing large computing resources. It is also shown that Grid technology facilitates e-cooperation among partners by means of services for authentication and authorization, seamless access to distributed data sources, data protection and access right, and standardization.

  13. Antibody-based affinity cryo-EM grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guimei; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The Affinity Grid technique combines sample purification and cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) grid preparation into a single step. Several types of affinity surfaces, including functionalized lipids monolayers, streptavidin 2D crystals, and covalently functionalized carbon surfaces have been reported. More recently, we presented a new affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, which applies the traditional Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) technique to cryo-EM. This approach significantly simplifies the preparation of affinity grids and directly works with native macromolecular complexes without need of target modifications. With wide availability of high affinity and high specificity antibodies, the antibody-based affinity grid would enable cryo-EM studies of the native samples directly from cell cultures, targets of low abundance, and unstable or short-lived intermediate states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New challenges in grid generation and adaptivity for scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This volume collects selected contributions from the “Fourth Tetrahedron Workshop on Grid Generation for Numerical Computations”, which was held in Verbania, Italy in July 2013. The previous editions of this Workshop were hosted by the Weierstrass Institute in Berlin (2005), by INRIA Rocquencourt in Paris (2007), and by Swansea University (2010). This book covers different, though related, aspects of the field: the generation of quality grids for complex three-dimensional geometries; parallel mesh generation algorithms; mesh adaptation, including both theoretical and implementation aspects; grid generation and adaptation on surfaces – all with an interesting mix of numerical analysis, computer science and strongly application-oriented problems.

  15. AstroGrid-D: Enhancing Astronomic Science with Grid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Enke, H.; Steinmetz, M.; Radke, T.; Reiser, A.; Röblitz, T.; Högqvist, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present AstroGrid-D, a project bringing together astronomers and experts in Grid technology to enhance astronomic science in many aspects. First, by sharing currently dispersed resources, scientists can calculate their models in more detail. Second, by developing new mechanisms to efficiently access and process existing datasets, scientific problems can be investigated that were until now impossible to solve. Third, by adopting Grid technology large instruments such as roboti...

  16. The GridSite Web/Grid security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.

  17. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  18. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  19. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  20. Datums, Ellipsoids, Grids, and Grid Reference Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    must be written, e.g., 04. The GEOREF of Salisbury Cathedral is MK PG 12 04. See figure 12. 5-4.2.4 Each of the one degree quadrangles may be further...omitting I and 0). A one degree quadrangle anywAhere on the earth’s surface may now be identified by four letters Salisbury therefore is in the one degree

  1. Recent trends in grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)

  2. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  3. Specialized CFD Grid Generation Methods for Near-Field Sonic Boom Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Campbell, Richard L.; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan E.; Nayani, Sudheer N.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing interest in analysis and design of low sonic boom supersonic transports re- quires accurate and ecient Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools. Specialized grid generation techniques are employed to predict near- eld acoustic signatures of these con- gurations. A fundamental examination of grid properties is performed including grid alignment with ow characteristics and element type. The issues a ecting the robustness of cylindrical surface extrusion are illustrated. This study will compare three methods in the extrusion family of grid generation methods that produce grids aligned with the freestream Mach angle. These methods are applied to con gurations from the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop.

  4. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  5. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  6. A Stationary Reference Frame Grid Synchronization System for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Converters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, P.; Luna, A.; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    Grid synchronization algorithms are of great importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, as fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is crucial in order to implement stable control strategies under generic grid conditions. This paper presents a new grid synchro...

  7. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a

  8. Gridded Data in the Arctic; Benefits and Perils of Publicly Available Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gabbert, R.; Beale, J.; Kenyon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the Arctic Ocean has been hugely advanced by release of gridded bathymetry and potential field anomaly grids. The Arctic Gravity Project grid achieves excellent, near-isotropic coverage of the earth north of 64˚N by combining land, satellite, airborne, submarine, surface ship and ice set-out measurements of gravity anomalies. Since the release of the V 2.0 grid in 2008, there has been extensive icebreaker activity across the Amerasia Basin due to mapping of the Arctic coastal nation's Extended Continental Shelves (ECS). While grid resolution has been steadily improving over time, addition of higher resolution and better navigated data highlights some distortions in the grid that may influence interpretation. In addition to the new ECS data sets, gravity anomaly data has been collected from other vessels; notably the Korean Icebreaker Araon, the Japanese icebreaker Mirai and the German icebreaker Polarstern. Also the GRAV-D project of the US National Geodetic Survey has flown airborne surveys over much of Alaska. These data will be Included in the new AGP grid, which will result in a much improved product when version 3.0 is released in 2015. To make use of these measurements, it is necessary to compile them into a continuous spatial representation. Compilation is complicated by differences in survey parameters, gravimeter sensitivity and reduction methods. Cross-over errors are the classic means to assess repeatability of track measurements. Prior to the introduction of near-universal GPS positioning, positional uncertainty was evaluated by cross-over analysis. GPS positions can be treated as more or less true, enabling evaluation of differences due to contrasting sensitivity, reference and reduction techniques. For the most part, cross-over errors for racks of gravity anomaly data collected since 2008 are less than 0.5 mGals, supporting the compilation of these data with only slight adjustments. Given the different platforms used for various

  9. The Grid2003 Production Grid Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, I; Gose, S; Maltsev, N; May, E; Rodríguez, A; Sulakhe, D; Vaniachine, A; Shank, J; Youssef, S; Adams, D; Baker, R; Deng, W; Smith, J; Yu, D; Legrand, I; Singh, S; Steenberg, C; Xia, Y; Afaq, A; Berman, E; Annis, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Ernst, M; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatkin, N; Pordes, R; Sekhri, V; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Baker, K; Sorrillo, L; Huth, J; Allen, M; Grundhoefer, L; Hicks, J; Luehring, F C; Peck, S; Quick, R; Simms, S; Fekete, G; Van den Berg, J; Cho, K; Kwon, K; Son, D; Park, H; Canon, S; Jackson, K; Konerding, D E; Lee, J; Olson, D; Sakrejda, I; Tierney, B; Green, M; Miller, R; Letts, J; Martin, T; Bury, D; Dumitrescu, C; Engh, D; Gardner, R; Mambelli, M; Smirnov, Y; Voeckler, J; Wilde, M; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Avery, P; Cavanaugh, R J; Kim, B; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; McKee, S; Jordan, C; Prewett, J; Thomas, T; Severini, H; Clifford, B; Deelman, E; Flon, L; Kesselman, C; Mehta, G; Olomu, N; Vahi, K; De, K; McGuigan, P; Sosebee, M; Bradley, D; Couvares, P; De Smet, A; Kireyev, C; Paulson, E; Roy, A; Koranda, S; Moe, B; Brown, B; Sheldon, P

    2004-01-01

    The Grid2003 Project has deployed a multi-virtual organization, application-driven grid laboratory ("GridS") that has sustained for several months the production-level services required by physics experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (ATLAS and CMS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey project, the gravitational wave search experiment LIGO, the BTeV experiment at Fermilab, as well as applications in molecular structure analysis and genome analysis, and computer science research projects in such areas as job and data scheduling. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. We describe the principles that have guided the development of this unique infrastructure and the practical experiences that have resulted from its creation and use. We discuss application requirements for grid services deployment and configur...

  10. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, Ruth; Petravick, Don; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wuerthwein, Frank; Foster, Ian; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; Blatecky, Alan; McGee, John; Quick, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support it's use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared and common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org

  11. The Open Science Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Pordes, Ruth; Olson, Doug; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Avery, Paul; Blackburn, Kent; Wenaus, Torre; Wuerthwein, Frank K.; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; Blatecky, Alan; McGee, John; Quick, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support it's use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  12. The Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  13. On Robustness of Power Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Current and future trends in environmental, economical, and human-caused factors (such as power demand growth, over-ageing of assets in power grids, and extreme weather conditions) challenge power grid robustness in the near future, necessitating research to better analyse and understand the notion

  14. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like...

  15. gCube Grid services

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    gCube is a service-based framework for eScience applications requiring collaboratory, on-demand, and intensive information processing. It provides to these communities Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to support their activities. gCube is build on top of standard technologies for computational Grids, namely the gLite middleware. The software was produced by the DILIGENT project and will continue to be supported and further developed by the D4Science project. gCube reflects within its name a three-sided interpretation of the Grid vision of resource sharing: sharing of computational resources, sharing of structured data, and sharing of application services. As such, gCube embodies the defining characteristics of computational Grids, data Grids, and virtual data Grids. Precisely, it builds on gLite middleware for managing distributed computations and unstructured data, includes dedicated services for managing data and metadata, provides services for distributed information retrieval, allows the orchestration...

  16. An electron-multiplying "Micromegas" grid made in silicon wafer post-processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chefdeville, M; Giomataris, Ioanis; van der Graaf, H; Heijne, Erik H M; Van der Putten, S; Salm, C; Schmitz, J; Smits, S; Timmermans, J; Visschers, J L

    2006-01-01

    A technology for manufacturing an aluminium grid onto a silicon wafer has been developed. The grid is fixed parallel and precisely to the wafer (anode) surface at a distance of 50 \\mum by means of insulating pillars. When some 400 V are applied between the grid and (anode) wafer, gas multiplication occurs : primary electrons from the drift space above the grid enter the holes and cause electron avalanches in the high-field region between the grid and the anode. Production and operational characteristics of the device are described. With this newly developed technology, CMOS (pixel) readout chips can be covered with a gas multiplication grid. Such a chip forms, together with the grid, an integrated device which can be applied as readout in a wide field of gaseous detectors.

  17. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, John B [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support σ, isentropic θ vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  18. Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population density grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's...

  19. Global Population Count Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Count Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's Global...

  20. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Martini, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  1. Surface capturing and multigrid for steady free-surface water flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, J.

    2007-01-01

    Surface capturing is a technique for modelling the water surface in numerical computations of water flow: the computational grid is not deformed, a separate surface model gives the location of the water surface in the grid. Surface capturing is generally applicable and can handle complicated ship

  2. Smart grid security innovative solutions for a modernized grid

    CERN Document Server

    Skopik, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid security ecosystem is complex and multi-disciplinary, and relatively under-researched compared to the traditional information and network security disciplines. While the Smart Grid has provided increased efficiencies in monitoring power usage, directing power supplies to serve peak power needs and improving efficiency of power delivery, the Smart Grid has also opened the way for information security breaches and other types of security breaches. Potential threats range from meter manipulation to directed, high-impact attacks on critical infrastructure that could bring down regi

  3. Grid Integration Studies: Data Requirements, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    A grid integration study is an analytical framework used to evaluate a power system with high penetration levels of variable renewable energy (VRE). A grid integration study simulates the operation of the power system under different VRE scenarios, identifying reliability constraints and evaluating the cost of actions to alleviate those constraints. These VRE scenarios establish where, how much, and over what timeframe to build generation and transmission capacity, ideally capturing the spatial diversity benefits of wind and solar resources. The results help build confidence among policymakers, system operators, and investors to move forward with plans to increase the amount of VRE on the grid.

  4. The Internet of things and Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.

  5. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  6. Constructing the ASCI computational grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEIRIGER,JUDY I.; BIVENS,HUGH P.; HUMPHREYS,STEVEN L.; JOHNSON,WILBUR R.; RHEA,RONALD E.

    2000-06-01

    The Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) computational grid is being constructed to interconnect the high performance computing resources of the nuclear weapons complex. The grid will simplify access to the diverse computing, storage, network, and visualization resources, and will enable the coordinated use of shared resources regardless of location. To match existing hardware platforms, required security services, and current simulation practices, the Globus MetaComputing Toolkit was selected to provide core grid services. The ASCI grid extends Globus functionality by operating as an independent grid, incorporating Kerberos-based security, interfacing to Sandia's Cplant{trademark},and extending job monitoring services. To fully meet ASCI's needs, the architecture layers distributed work management and criteria-driven resource selection services on top of Globus. These services simplify the grid interface by allowing users to simply request ''run code X anywhere''. This paper describes the initial design and prototype of the ASCI grid.

  7. Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.

  8. Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...

  9. Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Nenad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.

  10. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  11. Smart Grid Control and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Pedersen, Rasmus; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre

    2015-01-01

    ) and the quality of the power may become costly. In this light, Smart Grids may provide an answer towards a more active and efficient electrical network. The EU project SmartC2Net aims to enable smart grid operations over imperfect, heterogeneous general purpose networks, which poses a significant challenge...... to the reliability due to the stochastic behavior found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments and its Real-Time Hardware-In-the Loop (HIL) verification. An overview on the required Information...

  12. Power grid control in retreat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2000-01-01

    Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe

  13. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  14. Grid Synchronization for Distributed Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peyghami, Saeed; Mokhtari, Hossein; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Distributed generators (DGs) like photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, and fuel cell modules, as well as distributed storage (DS) units introduce some advantages to the power systems and make it more reliable, flexible, and controllable in comparison with the conventional power systems. Grid...... of interfaces needs to be synchronized with the grid or microgird, and hence, a precise synchronization algorithm—mostly based on phase-locked loop—is required to estimate the phase angle and frequency of the voltage at the coupling point. Unlike synchronous generators, in power electronic interfaced DGs...... grid. Therefore, the synchronization is an important issue in DGs to have a stable and reliable operation....

  15. Grid synchronization structure for wind converters under grid fault conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Jose Ignacio; Candela García, José Ignacio; Luna Alloza, Álvaro; Catalan, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a grid synchronization structure for three-phase electric power systems based on the use of a filtered quadrature signal generator (FQSG) and a phase-locked loop (PLL) structure, named Adaptive Vector Grid Synchronization system (AVGS). This system estimates the magnitude, frequency and phase of a signal, specially three-phase voltages and currents, and allows fast and accurate detection of the symmetrical components meet with the transient operating requirements imposed b...

  16. Aeromagnetic Regional Grid Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several regions are represented in this unique collection of earth surface measurements of magnetic field parameters and their related anomalies. The DNAG Magnetics...

  17. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)

  18. Rugosity grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Thirty-Five Fathom Bank and Thirty-Seven Fathom Bank, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rugosity is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, aboard NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette. Cell values reflect the (surface area) / (planimetric...

  19. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  20. The smart grid research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2013-01-01

    Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...... for Smart Grid research, development and demonstration It is recommended that the electricity sector invite the Ministry to participate in the creation of a road map to ensure that solutions are implemented and coordinated with related policy areas. The sector should also establish a fast-acting working...... group with representatives from universities, distribution companies and the electric industry, in order to produce a mutual, binding schedule for the RDD of the Smart Grid in Denmark. Time prioritisation of part-recommendation: 2011-2012 Responsibility for implementation of part...

  1. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  2. Governments plan data grid projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Thibodeau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Some governments and not-for-profit organizations such as hospitals are beginning to look at data grid technology as a means to improve servies, lower operating costs and spur economic development." (1 page)

  3. 84-KILOMETER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Roe

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the development of a radial grid that is suitable for evaluating the pathways and potential impacts of a release of radioactive materials to the environment within a distance of 84 kilometers (km). The center of the grid represents an approximate location from which a potential release of radioactive materials could originate. The center is located on Nevada State Plane coordinates Northing 765621.5, and Easting 570433.6, which is on the eastern side of Exile Hill at the Yucca Mountain site. The North Portal Pad is located over this point. The grid resulting from this calculation is intended for use primarily in the Radiological Monitoring Program (RadMP). This grid also is suitable for use in Biosphere Modeling and other Yucca Mountain Site Characteristic Project (YMP) activities that require the evaluation of data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates

  4. Influence of glacial ice sheets on the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation through surface wind change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff-Tadano, Sam; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Yoshimori, Masakazu; Oka, Akira; Chan, Wing-Le

    2018-04-01

    Coupled modeling studies have recently shown that the existence of the glacial ice sheets intensifies the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). However, most models show a strong AMOC in their simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is biased compared to reconstructions that indicate both a weaker and stronger AMOC during the LGM. Therefore, a detailed investigation of the mechanism behind this intensification of the AMOC is important for a better understanding of the glacial climate and the LGM AMOC. Here, various numerical simulations are conducted to focus on the effect of wind changes due to glacial ice sheets on the AMOC and the crucial region where the wind modifies the AMOC. First, from atmospheric general circulation model experiments, the effect of glacial ice sheets on the surface wind is evaluated. Second, from ocean general circulation model experiments, the influence of the wind stress change on the AMOC is evaluated by applying wind stress anomalies regionally or at different magnitudes as a boundary condition. These experiments demonstrate that glacial ice sheets intensify the AMOC through an increase in the wind stress at the North Atlantic mid-latitudes, which is induced by the North American ice sheet. This intensification of the AMOC is caused by the increased oceanic horizontal and vertical transport of salt, while the change in sea ice transport has an opposite, though minor, effect. Experiments further show that the Eurasian ice sheet intensifies the AMOC by directly affecting the deep-water formation in the Norwegian Sea.

  5. Smart grid applications and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi

  6. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  7. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulopoulos, N.; Kerl, J.; Sponfeldner, T.; Beyrau, F.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area.

  8. AstroGrid-D: Grid technology for astronomical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Harry; Steinmetz, Matthias; Adorf, Hans-Martin; Beck-Ratzka, Alexander; Breitling, Frank; Brüsemeister, Thomas; Carlson, Arthur; Ensslin, Torsten; Högqvist, Mikael; Nickelt, Iliya; Radke, Thomas; Reinefeld, Alexander; Reiser, Angelika; Scholl, Tobias; Spurzem, Rainer; Steinacker, Jürgen; Voges, Wolfgang; Wambsganß, Joachim; White, Steve

    2011-02-01

    We present status and results of AstroGrid-D, a joint effort of astrophysicists and computer scientists to employ grid technology for scientific applications. AstroGrid-D provides access to a network of distributed machines with a set of commands as well as software interfaces. It allows simple use of computer and storage facilities and to schedule or monitor compute tasks and data management. It is based on the Globus Toolkit middleware (GT4). Chapter 1 describes the context which led to the demand for advanced software solutions in Astrophysics, and we state the goals of the project. We then present characteristic astrophysical applications that have been implemented on AstroGrid-D in chapter 2. We describe simulations of different complexity, compute-intensive calculations running on multiple sites (Section 2.1), and advanced applications for specific scientific purposes (Section 2.2), such as a connection to robotic telescopes (Section 2.2.3). We can show from these examples how grid execution improves e.g. the scientific workflow. Chapter 3 explains the software tools and services that we adapted or newly developed. Section 3.1 is focused on the administrative aspects of the infrastructure, to manage users and monitor activity. Section 3.2 characterises the central components of our architecture: The AstroGrid-D information service to collect and store metadata, a file management system, the data management system, and a job manager for automatic submission of compute tasks. We summarise the successfully established infrastructure in chapter 4, concluding with our future plans to establish AstroGrid-D as a platform of modern e-Astronomy.

  9. Structural vulnerability assessment of electric power grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Y.; Warnier, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures are the typical reasons of blackouts in power grids. The grid topology plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cascading failures in power grids. Measures for vulnerability analysis are crucial to assure a higher level of robustness of power grids. Metrics from

  10. Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.

  11. When social practices meet smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, Robin; Vliet, van Bas; Spaargaren, Gert

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse recent shifts in goals concerning domestic energy uses. Drawing on two Dutch smart grid projects, we observe that in the smart grid transition the balancing of (renewable) supply and demand in energy grids becomes the key priority of grid managers. This shift becomes

  12. 30 CFR 57.12023 - Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guarding electrical connections and resistor... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12023 Guarding electrical connections and resistor grids. Electrical connections and resistor grids that are difficult or impractical to insulate shall be...

  13. An efficient MultiGrid solver for the 3D simulation of composite materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Rethore, J.; Baietto, M.C.; Sainsot, P.; Lecomte-Grosbras, P.; Venner, Cornelis H.; Lubrecht, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    • An efficient Multigrid solver for simulating composites. • A real topology is simulated for the first time by the MultiGrid methods. • MultiGrid application in composite homogenization process. • Factors influencing on surface displacement variation are studied. The subject of this paper is to

  14. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016: a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Oda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1  ×  1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016 and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1 the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers; (2 the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3 the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000–2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data

  15. The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2, version 2016 (ODIAC2016): a global monthly fossil fuel CO2 gridded emissions data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomohiro; Maksyutov, Shamil; Andres, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) is a global high-spatial-resolution gridded emissions data product that distributes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. The emissions spatial distributions are estimated at a 1 × 1 km spatial resolution over land using power plant profiles (emissions intensity and geographical location) and satellite-observed nighttime lights. This paper describes the year 2016 version of the ODIAC emissions data product (ODIAC2016) and presents analyses that help guide data users, especially for atmospheric CO2 tracer transport simulations and flux inversion analysis. Since the original publication in 2011, we have made modifications to our emissions modeling framework in order to deliver a comprehensive global gridded emissions data product. Major changes from the 2011 publication are (1) the use of emissions estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by fuel type (solid, liquid, gas, cement manufacturing, gas flaring, and international aviation and marine bunkers); (2) the use of multiple spatial emissions proxies by fuel type such as (a) nighttime light data specific to gas flaring and (b) ship/aircraft fleet tracks; and (3) the inclusion of emissions temporal variations. Using global fuel consumption data, we extrapolated the CDIAC emissions estimates for the recent years and produced the ODIAC2016 emissions data product that covers 2000-2015. Our emissions data can be viewed as an extended version of CDIAC gridded emissions data product, which should allow data users to impose global fossil fuel emissions in a more comprehensive manner than the original CDIAC product. Our new emissions modeling framework allows us to produce future versions of the ODIAC emissions data product with a timely update. Such capability has become more significant given the CDIAC/ORNL's shutdown. The ODIAC data product could play an important

  16. Directly electrospun ultrafine nanofibres with Cu grid spinneret

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenwang; Zheng Gaofeng; Wang Xiang; Wang Lingyun; Wang Han; Sun Daoheng; Zhang Yulong; Li Lei

    2011-01-01

    A hydrophobic Cu grid was used as an electrospinning spinneret to fabricate ultrafine organic nanofibres. The Cu grid used in this study was that which holds samples in TEM. Due to the hydrophobic surface and larger contact angle of the electrospinning solution on the Cu grid surface, the solution flow was divided into several finer ones by the holes in the Cu grid instead of accumulating. Each finer flow was stretched into individual jets and established a multi-jet mode by the electrical field force. The finer jets played an important role in decreasing the diameter of the nanofibre. The charge repulsion force among charged jets enhanced the whipping instability motion of the liquid jets, which improved the uniformity of the nanofibre and decreased the diameter of the nanofibre. An ultrafine uniform nanofibre of diameter less than 80 nm could be fabricated directly with the novel Cu grid spinneret without any additive. This study provided a unique way to promote the application of one-dimensional organic nanostructures in micro/nanosystems.

  17. MrGrid: a portable grid based molecular replacement pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, Jason W; Bate, Mark A; Reboul, Cyril F; Androulakis, Steve G; Phan, Jennifer M N; Whisstock, James C; Goscinski, Wojtek J; Abramson, David; Buckle, Ashley M

    2010-04-06

    The crystallographic determination of protein structures can be computationally demanding and for difficult cases can benefit from user-friendly interfaces to high-performance computing resources. Molecular replacement (MR) is a popular protein crystallographic technique that exploits the structural similarity between proteins that share some sequence similarity. But the need to trial permutations of search models, space group symmetries and other parameters makes MR time- and labour-intensive. However, MR calculations are embarrassingly parallel and thus ideally suited to distributed computing. In order to address this problem we have developed MrGrid, web-based software that allows multiple MR calculations to be executed across a grid of networked computers, allowing high-throughput MR. MrGrid is a portable web based application written in Java/JSP and Ruby, and taking advantage of Apple Xgrid technology. Designed to interface with a user defined Xgrid resource the package manages the distribution of multiple MR runs to the available nodes on the Xgrid. We evaluated MrGrid using 10 different protein test cases on a network of 13 computers, and achieved an average speed up factor of 5.69. MrGrid enables the user to retrieve and manage the results of tens to hundreds of MR calculations quickly and via a single web interface, as well as broadening the range of strategies that can be attempted. This high-throughput approach allows parameter sweeps to be performed in parallel, improving the chances of MR success.

  18. Heat transfer in smooth and roughened rod bundles near spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, J.; Rehme, K.

    1975-03-01

    An experimental investigation was performed of the heat transfer in smooth and rough rod bundles near spacer grids. Detailed wall temperature distributions were measured which clearly demonstrated that even in rod bundles roughened by artificial roughnesses there are no hot spots near spacer grids. On the basis of the few experimental results from the literature and the new data, heat transfer correlations are proposed for smooth and rough surfaces near spacer grids. These correlations allow a prediction to be made in a good approximation of the heat transfer near spacer grids as a function of the flow contraction due to the spacer. (orig.) [de

  19. Adaptive control of grid-connected inverters based on online grid impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes, Mauricio; Sun, Jian [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Stability of a grid-connected inverter depends on the ratio of the grid impedance to the inverter impedance. Since the grid impedance changes during normal power system conditions, this paper uses first an impulse response analysis method built into a grid-connected inverter for online grid impedance identification. Secondly, in order to develop simple adaptation rules for the inverter control system, the grid impedance is assumed inductive, and used to derive, analytically, the stability limits of PLL bandwidth and grid voltage feedforward gains. Experimental measurements demonstrate the online grid impedance identification and the inverter adaptive control implemented together within the DSP of a three-phase grid-connected inverter. (orig.)

  20. Global High Resolution Sea Surface Flux Parameters From Multiple Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Reynolds, R. W.; Shi, L.; Bates, J. J.

    2007-05-01

    Advances in understanding the coupled air-sea system and modeling of the ocean and atmosphere demand increasingly higher resolution data, such as air-sea fluxes of up to 3 hourly and every 50 km. These observational requirements can only be met by utilizing multiple satellite observations. Generation of such high resolution products from multiple-satellite and in-situ observations on an operational basis has been started at the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Here we describe a few products that are directly related to the computation of turbulent air-sea fluxes. Sea surface wind speed has been observed from in-situ instruments and multiple satellites, with long-term observations ranging from one satellite in the mid 1987 to six or more satellites since mid 2002. A blended product with a global 0.25° grid and four snapshots per day has been produced for July 1987 to present, using a near Gaussian 3-D (x, y, t) interpolation to minimize aliases. Wind direction has been observed from fewer satellites, thus for the blended high resolution vector winds and wind stresses, the directions are taken from the NCEP Re-analysis 2 (operationally run near real time) for climate consistency. The widely used Reynolds Optimum Interpolation SST analysis has been improved with higher resolutions (daily and 0.25°). The improvements use both infrared and microwave satellite data that are bias-corrected by in- situ observations for the period 1985 to present. The new versions provide very significant improvements in terms of resolving ocean features such as the meandering of the Gulf Stream, the Aghulas Current, the equatorial jets and other fronts. The Ta and Qa retrievals are based on measurements from the AMSU sounder onboard the NOAA satellites. Ta retrieval uses AMSU-A data, while Qa retrieval uses both AMSU-A and AMSU-B observations. The retrieval algorithms are developed using the neural network approach. Training

  1. A new multi-grid type MSGC with pad readout

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, H; Yano, K; Fukuda, D; Nakazawa, M; Hasegawa, K

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a new multi-grid type MSGC has been proposed. Between the anode and the cathode, additional grid strips are placed in this new type of MSGC. Gaps between these strips are chosen to be around 10 mu m which assure efficient removal of surface charges which even do not need the lower surface resistivity and bare glass can be used up to 10 sup 6 cps/mm sup 2. Another feature of the MSGC is its high gain capability. Owing to the existence of other strips of lower potentials, the field strength around the opposing grid to the anode strip is not so high as conventional small gap detectors. Furthermore, the contribution of the surface streamer is greatly suppressed because the electric field parallel to the surface is screened by the intermediate grid electrodes. However, the existence of additional electrodes also screens all the electric field upper than the substrate and we cannot observe induced signals from backside of the substrate. To overcome the difficulty, we propose another signal readout method ...

  2. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  3. Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Advancing Solar, Wind, and Smart Grid Technologies'. Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid.

  4. Securing the smart grid information exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Steffen; Falk, Rainer [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid is based on information exchange between various stakeholders using open communication technologies, to control the physical electric grid through the information grid. Protection against cyber attacks is essential to ensure a reliable operation of the smart grid. This challenge is addressed by various regulatory, standardization, and research activities. After giving an overview of the security demand of a smart grid, existing and appearing standardization activities are described. (orig.)

  5. Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Since the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was enacted, there has been a large number of websites that discusses smart grid and relevant information, including those from government, academia, industry, private sector and regulatory. These websites collect information independently. Therefore, smart grid information was quite scattered and dispersed. The objective of this work was to develop, populate, manage and maintain the public Smart Grid Information Clearinghouse (SGIC) web portal. The information in the SGIC website is comprehensive that includes smart grid information, research & development, demonstration projects, technical standards, costs & benefit analyses, business cases, legislation, policy & regulation, and other information on lesson learned and best practices. The content in the SGIC website is logically grouped to allow easily browse, search and sort. In addition to providing the browse and search feature, the SGIC web portal also allow users to share their smart grid information with others though our online content submission platform. The Clearinghouse web portal, therefore, serves as the first stop shop for smart grid information that collects smart grid information in a non-bias, non-promotional manner and can provide a missing link from information sources to end users and better serve users’ needs. The web portal is available at www.sgiclearinghouse.org. This report summarizes the work performed during the course of the project (September 2009 – August 2014). Section 2.0 lists SGIC Advisory Committee and User Group members. Section 3.0 discusses SGIC information architecture and web-based database application functionalities. Section 4.0 summarizes SGIC features and functionalities, including its search, browse and sort capabilities, web portal social networking, online content submission platform and security measures implemented. Section 5.0 discusses SGIC web portal contents, including smart grid 101, smart grid projects

  6. The CrossGrid project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, M.

    2003-01-01

    There are many large-scale problems that require new approaches to computing, such as earth observation, environmental management, biomedicine, industrial and scientific modeling. The CrossGrid project addresses realistic problems in medicine, environmental protection, flood prediction, and physics analysis and is oriented towards specific end-users: Medical doctors, who could obtain new tools to help them to obtain correct diagnoses and to guide them during operations; industries, that could be advised on the best timing for some critical operations involving risk of pollution; flood crisis teams, that could predict the risk of a flood on the basis of historical records and actual hydrological and meteorological data; physicists, who could optimize the analysis of massive volumes of data distributed across countries and continents. Corresponding applications will be based on Grid technology and could be complex and difficult to use: the CrossGrid project aims at developing several tools that will make the Grid more friendly for average users. Portals for specific applications will be designed, that should allow for easy connection to the Grid, create a customized work environment, and provide users with all necessary information to get their job done

  7. Power grid reliability and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Anjan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hauser, Carl [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Bakken, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Anderson, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhao, Chuanlin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Liu, Dong [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Yang, Tao [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Meng, Ming [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhang, Lin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Ning, Jiawei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tashman, Zaid [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This project has led to the development of a real-time simulation platform for electric power grids called Grid Simulator or GridSim for simulating the dynamic and information network interactions of large- scale power systems. The platform consists of physical models of power system components including synchronous generators, loads and control, which are simulated using a modified commercial power simulator namely Transient Stability Analysis Tool (TSAT) [1] together with data cleanup components, as well as an emulated substation level and wide-area power analysis components. The platform also includes realistic representations of communication network middleware that can emulate the real-time information flow back and forth between substations and control centers in wide-area power systems. The platform has been validated on a realistic 6000-bus model of the western American power system. The simulator GridSim developed in this project is the first of its kind in its ability to simulate real-time response of large-scale power grids, and serves as a cost effective real-time stability and control simulation platform for power industry.

  8. Energy Management and Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Miceli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines energy management concepts and the smart grid evolution. The necessity of considering energy management as a crucial innovation in load supplying to permit a more powerful penetration of renewable energy usage at the building and city level and to perform energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction is pointed out. The driving factors to enhance the current power distribution are presented, and the benefits concerning smart grids are underlined. In the paper, a specific energy management analysis is reported by considering all the electric value chain, and the demand-side management and distributed on site control actions are described. To verify the benefit of energy management control actions, a house simulator and a grid simulator are here presented and the results discussed in three different scenarios. Moreover, in the paper, the evaluation of ecological benefits are reported, and a cost benefit analysis of the energy management system is performed. Results pointed out that with the standard control actions, the system is not economic for the end user, and only by using energy management systems with renewable energy, in site production remunerative energy savings can be reached. Finally the evolution of smart grids is presented, focusing on potential benefits and technical problems. The active grids, microgrids and virtual utility are described, and final consideration on hypothetical scenarios is presented in the conclusion.

  9. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Birds of the Americas Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Birds of the Americas Family Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of the bird species...

  10. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Mammals of the Americas Original Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mammals of the Americas Original Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are converted 1- kilometer grid cell data in the Geographic Coordinate...

  11. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Birds of the Americas Original Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Birds of the Americas Original Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1are converted 1- kilometer grid cell data in the Geographic Coordinate System...

  12. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Mammals of the Americas Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mammals of the Americas Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are aggregations of the presence grids data at the family level....

  13. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Birds of the Americas Family Richness Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Birds of the Americas Family Richness Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 are the aggregations of the Presence Grids data at the family level....

  14. Grid Technology and Quality Assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippa, A.; Manieri, A.; Begin, M.E.; Di Meglio, A.

    2007-01-01

    Grid is one of the potential architectures of the coming years to support both the research and the commercial environment. Quality assurance techniques need both to adapt to these new architectures and exploit them to improve its effectiveness. Software quality is a key issue in the Digital Era: Industries as well as Public Administrations devote time to check and verify the quality of ICT products and services supplied. The definition of automatic measurement of quality metrics is a key point for implementing effective QA methods. In this paper we propose a quality certification model, named Grid-based Quality Certification Model (GQCM), that uses automatically calculable metrics to asses the quality of software applications; this model has been developed within the ETICS SSA4 activities and exploit grid technology for full automation of metrics calculation. It is however designed to be generic enough such that it can be implemented using any automatic build and test tool. (Author)

  15. Famed lab seeks big grid

    CERN Document Server

    Lillington, K

    2001-01-01

    DUBLIN, Ireland -- CERN, the famed Swiss high-energy particle physics lab, has a problem. It's about to start generating more data than any computer or network anywhere in the world is able to analyze. That prospect has led CERN to drive a major European project to create a vast "grid" research network of computers across Europe. When completed, the 10 million euro, Linux-based endeavor called DataGRID, will become a principal European computing resource for researchers of many disciplines. "I believe grid computing will revolutionize the way we compute, in much the same way as the World Wide Web and Internet changed the way we communicate," said John Ellis, a theoretical physicist and adviser to the director general of CERN.

  16. Wavelet-Based Grid Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Wavelets can provide a basis set in which the basis functions are constructed by dilating and translating a fixed function known as the mother wavelet. The mother wavelet can be seen as a high pass filter in the frequency domain. The process of dilating and expanding this high-pass filter can be seen as altering the frequency range that is 'passed' or detected. The process of translation moves this high-pass filter throughout the domain, thereby providing a mechanism to detect the frequencies or scales of information at every location. This is exactly the type of information that is needed for effective grid generation. This paper provides motivation to use wavelets for grid generation in addition to providing the final product: source code for wavelet-based grid generation.

  17. Solar Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown here is one of the first images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander of one of the octagonal solar panels, which opened like two handheld, collapsible fans on either side of the spacecraft. Beyond this view is a small slice of the north polar terrain of Mars. The successfully deployed solar panels are critical to the success of the 90-day mission, as they are the spacecraft's only means of replenishing its power. Even before these images reached Earth, power readings from the spacecraft indicated to engineers that the solar panels were already at work recharging the spacecraft's batteries. Before deploying the Surface Stereo Imager to take these images, the lander waited about 15 minutes for the dust to settle. This image was taken by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol, or Martian day, 0 (May 25, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Solar Power Grid Unfurled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Shown here is one of the first images taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander of one of the octagonal solar panels, which opened like two handheld, collapsible fans on either side of the spacecraft. Beyond this view is a small slice of the north polar terrain of Mars. The successfully deployed solar panels are critical to the success of the 90-day mission, as they are the spacecraft's only means of replenishing its power. Even before these images reached Earth, power readings from the spacecraft indicated to engineers that the solar panels were already at work recharging the spacecraft's batteries. Before deploying the Surface Stereo Imager to take these images, the lander waited about 15 minutes for the dust to settle. This image was taken by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol, or Martian day, 0 (May 25, 2008). This image has been geometrically corrected. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Grid Integration of Wind Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giæver Tande, John Olav

    2003-07-01

    This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.

  20. A global hierarchical and Equal-Area Sphere Grid and Its Geometry Distortion Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W. B.; Zhou, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    A spatial data management and analysis frame is required for global problem application. Global Discrete Grid (GDG) has seamless, excellent hierarchy characteristics. GDG has been used for spatial data management, indexing and cartographic generalization. However, most GDGs are unequal-area. To extend GDG application ranges in spatial modelling and statistical analysis, the method for constructing hierarchical and equal-area GDG is discussed in this paper. The detail steps to build GDG based on inscribe polyhedron is presented. The method of transferring polyhedron surface grids onto sphere surface is described. The ratio of max, min length of grid edges and grid angle is acquired. Length ratio converges to1.7 and angle ratio converges to 3.0. The result indicates that there exists difference in length and grid angle and the ratios of them are convergent.

  1. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  2. Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4): Land and Water Area, Revision 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gridded Population of the World, Version 4 (GPWv4) Land and Water Area, Revision 10 consists of two rasters that measure surface areas of land and water in square...

  3. BOREAS Follow-On HMet-02 Area and Regional Hourly Gridded Met. Data, 1994-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase II and III gridded data sets have been generated by an objective analysis scheme using all of the surface meteorological station data over BOREAS region for...

  4. Grid Collector: Facilitating Efficient Selective Access from DataGrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kesheng; Gu, Junmin; Lauret, Jerome; Poskanzer, Arthur M.; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2005-05-17

    The Grid Collector is a system that facilitates the effective analysis and spontaneous exploration of scientific data. It combines an efficient indexing technology with a Grid file management technology to speed up common analysis jobs on high-energy physics data and to enable some previously impractical analysis jobs. To analyze a set of high-energy collision events, one typically specifies the files containing the events of interest, reads all the events in the files, and filters out unwanted ones. Since most analysis jobs filter out significant number of events, a considerable amount of time is wasted by reading the unwanted events. The Grid Collector removes this inefficiency by allowing users to specify more precisely what events are of interest and to read only the selected events. This speeds up most analysis jobs. In existing analysis frameworks, the responsibility of bringing files from tertiary storages or remote sites to local disks falls on the users. This forces most of analysis jobs to be performed at centralized computer facilities where commonly used files are kept on large shared file systems. The Grid Collector automates file management tasks and eliminates the labor-intensive manual file transfers. This makes it much easier to perform analyses that require data files on tertiary storages and remote sites. It also makes more computer resources available for analysis jobs since they are no longer bound to the centralized facilities.

  5. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  6. A Production-Grid: Answers to WissGrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); Alexander Beck-Ratzka

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDie D-Grid Initiative stellt Bundesweit derzeit >30.000 Rechencores insgesamt 36 Community-Projekten zur Verfügung. Insgesamt wurden bisher in 3 „Calls“ und mehreren Infrastruktursonderinvestitionen ca. 134 Millionen Euro investiert. Auf den Resourcen laufen mehrere sogenannte

  7. Production-Grid: Task-Farming in D-Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); Alexander Beck-Ratzka

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDie D-Grid Initiative stellt Bundesweit derzeit >30.000 Rechencores insgesamt 36 Community-Projekten zur Verfügung. Insgesamt wurden bisher in 3 „Calls“ und mehreren Infrastruktursonderinvestitionen ca. 134 Millionen Euro investiert. Auf den Resourcen laufen mehrere sogenannte

  8. caGrid 1.0: A Grid Enterprise Architecture for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIGTM) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIGTM. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5. PMID:18693901

  9. caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2007-10-11

    caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5.

  10. MrGrid: a portable grid based molecular replacement pipeline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Schmidberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The crystallographic determination of protein structures can be computationally demanding and for difficult cases can benefit from user-friendly interfaces to high-performance computing resources. Molecular replacement (MR is a popular protein crystallographic technique that exploits the structural similarity between proteins that share some sequence similarity. But the need to trial permutations of search models, space group symmetries and other parameters makes MR time- and labour-intensive. However, MR calculations are embarrassingly parallel and thus ideally suited to distributed computing. In order to address this problem we have developed MrGrid, web-based software that allows multiple MR calculations to be executed across a grid of networked computers, allowing high-throughput MR. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MrGrid is a portable web based application written in Java/JSP and Ruby, and taking advantage of Apple Xgrid technology. Designed to interface with a user defined Xgrid resource the package manages the distribution of multiple MR runs to the available nodes on the Xgrid. We evaluated MrGrid using 10 different protein test cases on a network of 13 computers, and achieved an average speed up factor of 5.69. CONCLUSIONS: MrGrid enables the user to retrieve and manage the results of tens to hundreds of MR calculations quickly and via a single web interface, as well as broadening the range of strategies that can be attempted. This high-throughput approach allows parameter sweeps to be performed in parallel, improving the chances of MR success.

  11. Communication and Networking in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for researchers, practitioners, and students alike, Communication and Networking in Smart Grids presents state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for communication networks in smart grids. It explains how contemporary grid networks are developed and deployed and presents a collection of cutting-edge advances to help improve current practice. Prominent researchers working on smart grids and in related fields around the world explain the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grids. Describing the role that communication and networking will play in future smart grids

  12. Grid technologies and applications: architecture and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ian Foster

    2001-01-01

    The 18 months since CHEP'2000 have seen significant advances in Grid computing, both within and outside high energy physics. While in early 2000, Grid computing was a novel concept that most CHEP attendees were being exposed to for the first time, now considerable consensus is seen on Grid architecture, a solid and widely adopted technology base, major funding initiatives, a wide variety of projects developing applications and technologies, and major deployment projects aimed at creating robust Grid infrastructures. The author provides a summary of major developments and trends, focusing on the Globus open source Grid software project and the GriPhyN data grid project

  13. Smart grid standards specifications, requirements, and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takuro; Duan, Bin; Macuha, Martin; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wu, Jun; Tariq, Muhammad; Asfaw, Solomon A

    2015-01-01

    With numerous existing Smart Grid standards, it is clear that governments and industrial organizations world-wide have understood and acknowledged the critical role they play. This timely book is a useful guide for Smart Grid professionals in easily classifying fundamental Smart Grid standards, and to quickly find the building blocks they need to analyse and implement a Smart Grid system. The standards are organized in a systematic manner that aids identification, according to grid requirements. It also covers broader Smart Grid areas including, but not limited to, the following: A fully c

  14. Smart grids are advancing, light and supple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    While indicating some innovations produced by the Greenlys laboratory (SmartScan to localize losses by means of smart counters, a system for grid self-healing, Sequoia to manage a low voltage network, a tool for the prediction of photovoltaic production in real time), and also the main smart grid projects in France (Nice Grid, Solenn, SoGrid, Smart Electric Lyon, Poste intelligent, Greenlys, Smart Grids Vendee, BienVEnu), this article comments the emergence of several experiments on smart grids in France, the first drawn conclusions and recommendations. Some issues for this new architecture are discussed: the active demand management, cut-offs and flexibility, and the search for profitability

  15. Distribution Grid Integration of Photovoltaic Systems in Germany – Implications on Grid Planning and Grid Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic is the most dispersed renewable energy source in Germany, typically interconnected to low and medium voltage systems. In recent years, cost-intensive grid reinforcements had to be undertaken all across Germany’s distribution grids in order to increase their hosting capacity for these photovoltaic installations. This paper presents an overview on research results which show that photovoltaic itself can provide ancillary services to reduce its cost of interconnection. Especially the provision of reactive power turned out to be a technically effective and economically efficient method to increase a grid’s hosting capacity for photovoltaic capacity. Different reactive power control methods were investigated, revealing significant differences with regards to their grid operation implications. Business cases for residential-scale photovoltaic applications have shifted from feed-in-tariff based active power feed-in to self-consumption. However, increasing the photovoltaic self-consumption by additional battery-storage systems is still not economically reliable in Germany. (author)

  16. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  17. Global gridded crop model evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Christoph; Elliott, Joshua; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Arneth, Almut; Balkovic, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Deryng, Delphine; Folberth, Christian; Glotter, Michael; Hoek, Steven; Iizumi, Toshichika; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Jones, Curtis; Khabarov, Nikolay; Lawrence, Peter; Liu, Wenfeng; Olin, Stefan; Pugh, Thomas A.M.; Ray, Deepak K.; Reddy, Ashwan; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ruane, Alex C.; Sakurai, Gen; Schmid, Erwin; Skalsky, Rastislav; Song, Carol X.; Wang, Xuhui; Wit, De Allard; Yang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Crop models are increasingly used to simulate crop yields at the global scale, but so far there is no general framework on how to assess model performance. Here we evaluate the simulation results of 14 global gridded crop modeling groups that have contributed historic crop yield simulations for

  18. Redes GRID: compartir para investigar

    CERN Multimedia

    Campos Plasencia, I

    2006-01-01

    "Share to investigae": this sentence summarizes the philosophy of the GRID Network. Before the flux of data and the huge calculation operations for actual physics and astronomy, the scientists share the work thanks to a computers network all over the world (2 pages)

  19. Electromagnetic Interference in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. If equipped with a communication link they are called smart meter. Because the smart meter is a key device in smart grids, any deviation has huge impact on

  20. Shining examples of grid applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Hammerle, Hannelore

    2006-01-01

    Users in more than 150 virtual organisations from fields as diverse as biomedicine, earth Sciences and high-energy physics are now using the distributed computing infrastructure of the enabling grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) project, which shows the wide adoption and versatiblity of this new technology (1 page)

  1. Smart grids and renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies

    2010-07-01

    Smart grids serve to integrate advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) into power systems. Increased use of ICTs enable a range of information sources to be deployed in the management of the power system. Therefore, the particular advantages that renewable electricity can offer can be more easily accessed. This presentation discussed the ways in which smart grids could promote increased use of renewable electricity in grid-connected systems. The presentation provided both a general review of global activity in this area, and focused on a project underway in Ontario. The energy hub management system project is based out of the University of Waterloo and represents a partnership among universities, utilities, government and the private sector. The purpose of the project is to provide energy managers increased information and control on their energy producing, consuming and storing devices by developing pilot projects across Ontario to deploy the energy hub management system in residential, commercial/institutional, industrial and agricultural settings. Perspectives on how smart grids could continue to develop around the world were provided. figs.

  2. Speeding the traffic on grids

    CERN Multimedia

    Port, O

    2002-01-01

    CERN is one of a number of organizations looking at ways to to accelerate grid computing. CERN researcher Wolfgang Hoschek said new software will soon scan all the available computers on the Web and find the most efficient combination to solve a particular problem (1/3 page).

  3. Virtual MHD Jets on Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lery, Thibaut; Combet, Céline; Murphy, G C

    2005-01-01

    As network performance has outpaced computational power and storage capacity, a new paradigm has evolved to enable the sharing of geographically distributed resources. This paradigm is known as Grid computing and aims to offer access to distributed resource irrespective of their physical location...... the first jet simulations and their corresponding models that could help to understand results from laboratory experiments....

  4. Interoperability and HealthGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescos, C; Schmitt, D; Kass, J; García-Barbero, M; Kantchev, P

    2005-01-01

    GRID technology, with initiatives like the GGF, will have the potential to allow both competition and interoperability not only among applications and toolkits, but also among implementations of key services. The pyramid of eHealth interoperability should be achieved from standards in communication and data security, storage and processing, to the policy initiatives, including organizational protocols, financing procedures, and legal framework. The open challenges for GRID use in clinical fields illustrate the potential of the combination of grid technologies with medical routine into a wider interoperable framework. The Telemedicine Alliance is a consortium (ESA, WHO and ITU), initiated in 2002, in building a vision for the provision of eHealth to European citizens by 2010. After a survey with more that 50 interviews of experts, interoperability was identified as the main showstopper to eHealth implementation. There are already several groups and organizations contributing to standardization. TM-Alliance is supporting the "e-Health Standardization Coordination Group" (eHSCG). It is now, in the design and development phase of GRID technology in Health, the right moment to act with the aim of achieving an interoperable and open framework. The Health area should benefit from the initiatives started at the GGF in terms of global architecture and services definitions, as well as from the security and other web services applications developed under the Internet umbrella. There is a risk that existing important results of the standardization efforts in this area are not taken up simply because they are not always known.

  5. Cern-Grid besteht Belastungsprobe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In the European Center for Nuclear Research, CERN, in Geneva the Grid Computing infrastructure's building took a further hurdle: between CERN and seven Research Centers around the World, during 10 days, a continuous flow of about 600 MByte was achieved (¼ page)

  6. GRID integration of oceanographic remote instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salon, S.; Bolzon, G.; Mauri, E.; Poulain, P.-M.

    2009-04-01

    The observations provided by oceanographic remote instruments are essential for the purposes of the operational oceanography, nowadays a constantly growing and powerful tool to monitor, analyze and predict the state of the marine resources as well as the sustainable development of coastal areas [1]. Near real time (NRT) observations at the sea surface and in the water column, e.g., temperature and salinity (T/S) profiles, are of central importance for the operational forecasting system in the Mediterranean Sea. The management of the network of floats deployed in the Mediterranean Sea and handled by the MedArgo Regional Argo Centre at OGS [2][3] is a complex task that may be greatly supported by the fast developing ICT infrastructures. Such workflow includes the communication system, the data downloading and treatment, the post-processing and the visualization of the information gathered by the observations. GRID technology may greatly help in providing a remote control of the entire flow of information associated with the observational instruments, from the raw data measured by the sensor at sea (i.e. temperature, salinity, current velocity) to the data-processing software running on the researcher's laptop. In particular, interactive applications of the GRID technology could support the management of the complex workflow related to the instrument interconnections (i.e. buoys, floats, autonomous vehicles), to the eventual technical problems bound to appear intermittently and the subsequent NRT corrections and/or adjustments of the sensors. Moreover, the communication to operative structures such as the Civil Protection, Coast Guards or local/regional administrations represents a composite multi-task process that involves different actors and that could be successfully integrated in a GRID environment. We will present the activity done so far and planned in the framework of the DORII EU-FP7 project [4] concerning the GRID integration of the MedArgo floats managed by

  7. British effort builds world's biggest grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Thomson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The world's largest grid computing system has opened for business, and the UK has been its biggest single contributor; the grid has been built to handle data form the Large Hadron Collider being built by CERN (½ page)

  8. NEW RSW & Wall Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEW RSW Fine Fully Tetrahedral Grid with Viscous Wind Tunnel wall at the root. This grid is for a node-based unstructured solver. Note that the CGNS file is very...

  9. HIRENASD Unstructured Grids - VGRID software FINAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These grids were constructed using VGRID software from NASA Langley. The grids designed for node based (labeled 'nc') and cell-centered (labeled 'cc') solvers are...

  10. Das Cern-Grid ist Marke Eigenbau

    CERN Multimedia

    Stark, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Because, commercially, the tools are hardly available, CERN develops in Geneva its own Grid. Les Robertson, which is responsible for the setting up of Grid counts on its own tools, for lack of commercial offer in this field (½ page)

  11. US National Grid - Minnesota 1000 meter Tile

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The United States National Grid (USNG) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric referencing system derived from the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) that is being...

  12. Smart grids opportunities, developments, and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A B M Shawkat

    2013-01-01

    This book provides up to date knowledge, research results, and innovations in smart grids spanning design, implementation, analysis and evaluation of smart grid solutions to the challenging problems in all areas of the power industry.

  13. Seasonal controls on surface pCO2 in the central and eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , low-level atmospheric. Findlater Jet (Findlater 1969, 1974) generates strong gradients in the wind stress over the Arabian Sea. To the northwest of the jet axis, a positive wind stress curl drives divergence (open-ocean upwelling) through.

  14. Data privacy for the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid and PrivacyWhat Is the Smart Grid? Changes from Traditional Energy Delivery Smart Grid Possibilities Business Model Transformations Emerging Privacy Risks The Need for Privacy PoliciesPrivacy Laws, Regulations, and Standards Privacy-Enhancing Technologies New Privacy Challenges IOT Big Data What Is the Smart Grid?Market and Regulatory OverviewTraditional Electricity Business SectorThe Electricity Open Market Classifications of Utilities Rate-Making ProcessesElectricity Consumer

  15. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  16. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  17. Probabilistic Learning by Rodent Grid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen

    2016-10-01

    Mounting evidence shows mammalian brains are probabilistic computers, but the specific cells involved remain elusive. Parallel research suggests that grid cells of the mammalian hippocampal formation are fundamental to spatial cognition but their diverse response properties still defy explanation. No plausible model exists which explains stable grids in darkness for twenty minutes or longer, despite being one of the first results ever published on grid cells. Similarly, no current explanation can tie together grid fragmentation and grid rescaling, which show very different forms of flexibility in grid responses when the environment is varied. Other properties such as attractor dynamics and grid anisotropy seem to be at odds with one another unless additional properties are assumed such as a varying velocity gain. Modelling efforts have largely ignored the breadth of response patterns, while also failing to account for the disastrous effects of sensory noise during spatial learning and recall, especially in darkness. Here, published electrophysiological evidence from a range of experiments are reinterpreted using a novel probabilistic learning model, which shows that grid cell responses are accurately predicted by a probabilistic learning process. Diverse response properties of probabilistic grid cells are statistically indistinguishable from rat grid cells across key manipulations. A simple coherent set of probabilistic computations explains stable grid fields in darkness, partial grid rescaling in resized arenas, low-dimensional attractor grid cell dynamics, and grid fragmentation in hairpin mazes. The same computations also reconcile oscillatory dynamics at the single cell level with attractor dynamics at the cell ensemble level. Additionally, a clear functional role for boundary cells is proposed for spatial learning. These findings provide a parsimonious and unified explanation of grid cell function, and implicate grid cells as an accessible neuronal population

  18. Probabilistic Learning by Rodent Grid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows mammalian brains are probabilistic computers, but the specific cells involved remain elusive. Parallel research suggests that grid cells of the mammalian hippocampal formation are fundamental to spatial cognition but their diverse response properties still defy explanation. No plausible model exists which explains stable grids in darkness for twenty minutes or longer, despite being one of the first results ever published on grid cells. Similarly, no current explanation can tie together grid fragmentation and grid rescaling, which show very different forms of flexibility in grid responses when the environment is varied. Other properties such as attractor dynamics and grid anisotropy seem to be at odds with one another unless additional properties are assumed such as a varying velocity gain. Modelling efforts have largely ignored the breadth of response patterns, while also failing to account for the disastrous effects of sensory noise during spatial learning and recall, especially in darkness. Here, published electrophysiological evidence from a range of experiments are reinterpreted using a novel probabilistic learning model, which shows that grid cell responses are accurately predicted by a probabilistic learning process. Diverse response properties of probabilistic grid cells are statistically indistinguishable from rat grid cells across key manipulations. A simple coherent set of probabilistic computations explains stable grid fields in darkness, partial grid rescaling in resized arenas, low-dimensional attractor grid cell dynamics, and grid fragmentation in hairpin mazes. The same computations also reconcile oscillatory dynamics at the single cell level with attractor dynamics at the cell ensemble level. Additionally, a clear functional role for boundary cells is proposed for spatial learning. These findings provide a parsimonious and unified explanation of grid cell function, and implicate grid cells as an accessible neuronal population

  19. Deliverable 1.1 Smart grid scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korman, Matus; Ekstedt, Mathias; Gehrke, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the SALVAGE project is to develop better support for managing and designing a secure future smart grid. This approach includes cyber security technologies dedicated to power grid operation as well as support for the migration to the future smart grid solutions, including the legacy....... In particular the focus of the project will be on smart grid with many small distributed energy resources, in particular LV substation automation systems and LV distribution system....

  20. Integrating PEVs with Renewables and the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Markel, Tony; Jun, Myungsoo; Zhang, Jiucai

    2016-06-29

    This presentation is an overview of NREL's Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) efforts toward integrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) with renewable energy and the grid. Efforts include managed charging, local power quality, emergency backup power, and bi-directional power flow. Discussion of future vehicle-related activities under the Grid Modernization Initiative by the Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Working Group.

  1. A measurement method for micro 3D shape based on grids-processing and stereovision technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chuanwei; Xie, Huimin; Liu, Zhanwei

    2013-01-01

    An integrated measurement method for micro 3D surface shape by a combination of stereovision technology in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and grids-processing methodology is proposed. The principle of the proposed method is introduced in detail. By capturing two images of the tested specimen with grids on the surface at different tilt angles in an SEM, the 3D surface shape of the specimen can be obtained. Numerical simulation is applied to analyze the feasibility of the proposed method. A validation experiment is performed here. The surface shape of the metal-wire/polymer-membrane structures with thermal deformation is reconstructed. By processing the surface grids of the specimen, the out-of-plane displacement field of the specimen surface is also obtained. Compared with the measurement results obtained by a 3D digital microscope, the experimental error of the proposed method is discussed (paper)

  2. Grid-code of Croatian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toljan, I.; Mesic, M.; Kalea, M.; Koscak, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Grid Rules by the Croatian Electricity Utility deal with the control and usage of the Croatian power system's transmission and distribution grid. Furthermore, these rules include obligations and permissions of power grid users and owners, with the aim of a reliable electricity supply.(author)

  3. Full speed ahead for the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "With the final plenary session, Europe's biggest grid event comes to an end today, with more than 900 participants gathering for the 20th Open grid Forum (OCG20) and the 2nd Enabling Grids for E-scienceE (EGEE) User Forum." (1,5 page)

  4. 76 FR 12711 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... will be posted on the Smart Grid Web site at http://www.nist.gov/smartgrid . DATES: The SGAC will hold...

  5. 76 FR 70412 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... agenda may change to accommodate Committee business. The final agenda will be posted on the Smart Grid...

  6. 76 FR 46279 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... should be sent to Office of the National Coordinator for Smart Grid Interoperability, National Institute...

  7. 77 FR 38768 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel transition plan, review the status of the research subcommittee...

  8. 75 FR 55306 - Smart Grid Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Smart Grid Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Smart Grid... provide an update on NIST's Smart Grid program. The agenda may change to accommodate Committee business...

  9. Transition to smart grids : A psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Perlaviciute, Goda; Steg, Linda; Beaulieu, Anne; de Wilde, Jaap; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2016-01-01

    A transition to smart grids requires a wide range of changes in household energy behaviour. In this chapter we discuss four key issues important for understanding and promoting behaviour in smart grids. First, we need to identify which behaviour needs to be changed. A transition to smart grids

  10. Ecosystem Based Business Model of Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Morten Raahauge; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    the infrastructural challenges, such as the interoperability of business components for smart grid. So far little research has explored the business ecosystem in the smart grid concept. The study on the smart grid with the theory of business ecosystem may open opportunities to understand market catalysts. This study...

  11. Southampton uni's computer whizzes develop "mini" grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Sherriff, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    "In a bid to help its students explore the potential of grid computing, the University of Southampton's Computer Science department has developed what it calls a "lightweight grid". The system has been designed to allow students to experiment with grid technology without the complexity of inherent security concerns of the real thing. (1 page)

  12. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  13. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, H; Koenig, T, E-mail: holger.marten@kit.ed, E-mail: tobias.koenig@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Steinbuch Centre for Computing Herman-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard 'IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)' [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  14. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, H; Koenig, T

    2010-01-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard 'IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)' [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  15. How should grid operators govern smart grid innovation projects? An embedded case study approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, G.A.; van der Lei, T.E.; Lukszo, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Grid operators increasingly have to collaborate with other actors in order to realize smart grid innovations. For routine maintenance, grid operators typically acquire technologies in one-off transactions, but the innovative nature of smart grid projects may require more collaborate

  16. Laser-induced superhydrophobic grid patterns on PDMS for droplet arrays formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshchian, Bahador; Gatabi, Javad R.; Bernick, Steven M.; Park, Sooyeon; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Droopad, Ravindranath; Kim, Namwon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic grid patterns were processed on the surface of PDMS using a pulsed nanosecond laser. • Droplet arrays form instantly on the laser-patterned PDMS with the superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water. • Droplet size can be controlled by controlling the pitch size of superhydrophobic grid and the withdrawal speed. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile single step laser treatment process to render a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface superhydrophobic. By synchronizing a pulsed nanosecond laser source with a motorized stage, superhydrophobic grid patterns were written on the surface of PDMS. Hierarchical micro and nanostructures were formed in the irradiated areas while non-irradiated areas were covered by nanostructures due to deposition of ablated particles. Arrays of droplets form spontaneously on the laser-patterned PDMS with superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water due to different wetting properties of the irradiated and non-irradiated areas. The effects of withdrawal speed and pitch size of superhydrophobic grid on the size of formed droplets were investigated experimentally. The droplet size increases initially with increasing the withdrawal speed and then does not change significantly beyond certain points. Moreover, larger droplets are formed by increasing the pitch size of the superhydrophobic grid. The droplet arrays formed on the laser-patterned PDMS with wettability contrast can be used potentially for patterning of particles, chemicals, and bio-molecules and also for cell screening applications.

  17. Wind Turbine Providing Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is arranged to provide additional electrical power to counteract non-periodic disturbances in an electrical grid. A controller monitors events indicating a need to increase the electrical output power from the wind turbine to the electrical grid. The controller...... is arranged to control the wind turbine as follows: after an indicating event has been detected, the wind turbine enters an overproduction period in which the electrical output power is increased, wherein the additional electrical output power is taken from kinetic energy stored in the rotor and without...... changing the operation of the wind turbine to a more efficient working point.; When the rotational speed of the rotor reaches a minimum value, the wind turbine enters a recovery period to re-accelerate the rotor to the nominal rotational speed while further contributing to the stability of the electrical...

  18. Vehicle to Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett Kempton; Meryl Gardner; Michael Hidrue; Fouad Kamilev; Sachin Kamboj; Jon Lilley; Rodney McGee; George Parsons; Nat Pearre; Keith Trnka

    2010-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of a two-year DOE-funded project on Grid-Integrated Vehicles (GIV) with vehicle to grid power (V2G). The project included several research and development components: an analysis of US driving patterns; an analysis of the market for EVs and V2G-capable EVs; development and testing of GIV components (in-car and in-EVSE); interconnect law and policy; and development and filing of patents. In addition, development activities included GIV manufacturing and licensing of technologies developed under this grant. Also, five vehicles were built and deployed, four for the fleet of the State of Delaware, plus one for the University of Delaware fleet.

  19. Grid for Meso american Archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucet, G.

    2007-01-01

    Meso american archaeology works with large amounts of disperse and diverse information, thus the importance of including new methods that optimise the acquisition, conservation, retrieval, and analysis of data to generate knowledge more efficiently and create a better understanding of history. Further, this information --which includes texts, coordinates, raster graphs, and vector graphs-- comes from a considerable geographical area --parts of Mexico, Nicaragua, Honduras and Costa Rica as well as Guatemala, El Salvador and Belize-- is constantly expanding. This information includes elements like shards, buildings, mural paintings, high and low reliefs, topography, maps, and information about the fauna and soil. Grid computing offers a solution to handle all this information: it respects researchers' need for independence while supplying a platform to share, process and compare the data obtained. Additionally, the Grid can enhance space-time analyses with remote visualisation techniques that can, in turn, incorporate geographical information systems and virtual reality. (Author)

  20. Application of synchronous grid-connected controller in the wind-solar-storage micro grid

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hua; Ren, Yongfeng; Li, Le; Luo, Zhenpeng

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in using distributed generators (DG) not only to inject power into the grid, but also to enhance the power quality. In this study, a space voltage pulse width modulation (SVPWM) control method is proposed for a synchronous grid-connected controller in a wind-solar-storage micro grid. This method is based on the appropriate topology of the synchronous controller. The wind-solar-storage micro grid is controlled to reconnect to the grid synchronous...

  1. An Improved Current Control Strategy for a Grid-Connected Inverter under Distorted Grid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoc Bao Lai; Kyeong-Hwa Kim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase grid-connected inverter under distorted grid conditions. The main challenge associated with the grid-connected inverter in distributed generation (DG) systems is to maintain the harmonic contents in output current below the specified values even when the grid is subject to uncertain disturbances such as harmonic distortion. To overcome such a challenge, an improved current control scheme is proposed for a grid-connecte...

  2. Designing Resilient Electrical Distribution Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Yamangil, Emre; Bent, Russell; Backhaus, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Modern society is critically dependent on the services provided by engineered infrastructure networks. When natural disasters (e.g. Hurricane Sandy) occur, the ability of these networks to provide service is often degraded because of physical damage to network components. One of the most critical of these networks is electric power, with medium voltage distribution circuits often suffering the most severe damage. However, well-placed upgrades to these distribution grids can greatly improve po...

  3. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  4. Developing LHCb Grid Software: Experiences and Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes-Rees, I; Cioffi, C; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Garonne, V; Graciani, R; Sanchez, M; Frank, M; Closier, J; Kuznetsov, G

    2004-01-01

    The LHCb grid software has been used for two Physics Data Challenges, the most recent of which will have produced 90 TB of data and required over 400 processor-years of computing power. This paper discusses the group's experience with developing Grid Services, interfacing to the LCG, running LHCb experiment software on the grid, and the integration of a number of new technologies into the LHCb grid software. Our experience and utilisation of the following core technologies will be discussed: OGSI, XML-RPC, grid services, LCG middle-ware, and instant messaging.

  5. Certainty grids for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical representation of uncertain and incomplete sensor knowledge called Certainty Grids has been used successfully in several mobile robot control programs, and has proven itself to be a powerful and efficient unifying solution for sensor fusion, motion planning, landmark identification, and many other central problems. Researchers propose to build a software framework running on processors onboard the new Uranus mobile robot that will maintain a probabilistic, geometric map of the robot's surroundings as it moves. The certainty grid representation will allow this map to be incrementally updated in a uniform way from various sources including sonar, stereo vision, proximity and contact sensors. The approach can correctly model the fuzziness of each reading, while at the same time combining multiple measurements to produce sharper map features, and it can deal correctly with uncertainties in the robot's motion. The map will be used by planning programs to choose clear paths, identify locations (by correlating maps), identify well-known and insufficiently sensed terrain, and perhaps identify objects by shape. The certainty grid representation can be extended in the same dimension and used to detect and track moving objects.

  6. GridMol: a grid application for molecular modeling and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanhua; Shen, Bin; Lu, Zhonghua; Jin, Zhong; Chi, Xuebin

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we present GridMol, an extensible tool for building a high performance computational chemistry platform in the grid environment. GridMol provides computational chemists one-stop service for molecular modeling, scientific computing and molecular information visualization. GridMol is not only a visualization and modeling tool but also simplifies control of remote Grid software that can access high performance computing resources. GridMol has been successfully integrated into China National Grid, the most powerful Chinese Grid Computing platform. In Section "Grid computing" of this paper, a computing example is given to show the availability and efficiency of GridMol. GridMol is coded using Java and Java3D for portability and cross-platform compatibility (Windows, Linux, MacOS X and UNIX). GridMol can run not only as a stand-alone application, but also as an applet through web browsers. In this paper, we will present the techniques for molecular visualization, molecular modeling and grid computing. GridMol is available free of charge under the GNU Public License (GPL) from our website: http://www.sccas.cn/ syh/GridMol/index.html.

  7. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  8. Structured grid generator on parallel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Higashida, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Ichiro.

    1997-03-01

    A general purpose structured grid generator on parallel computers, which generates a large-scale structured grid efficiently, has been developed. The generator is applicable to Cartesian, cylindrical and BFC (Boundary-Fitted Curvilinear) coordinates. In case of BFC grids, there are three adaptable topologies; L-type, O-type and multi-block type, the last of which enables any combination of L- and O-grids. Internal BFC grid points can be automatically generated and smoothed by either algebraic supplemental method or partial differential equation method. The partial differential equation solver is implemented on parallel computers, because it consumes a large portion of overall execution time. Therefore, high-speed processing of large-scale grid generation can be realized by use of parallel computer. Generated grid data are capable to be adjusted to domain decomposition for parallel analysis. (author)

  9. A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...

  10. Influence of grid resolution in fluid-model simulation of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Weizhuo; Fukagata, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator, driven by a nanosecond voltage pulse, is conducted. A special focus is laid upon the influence of grid resolution on the computational result. It is found that the computational result is not very sensitive to the streamwise grid spacing, whereas the wall-normal grid spacing has a critical influence. In particular, the computed propagation velocity changes discontinuously around the wall-normal grid spacing about 2 μm due to a qualitative change of discharge structure. The present result suggests that a computational grid finer than that was used in most of previous studies is required to correctly capture the structure and dynamics of streamer: when a positive nanosecond voltage pulse is applied to the upper electrode, a streamer forms in the vicinity of upper electrode and propagates along the dielectric surface with a maximum propagation velocity of 2 × 108 cm/s, and a gap with low electron and ion density (i.e., plasma sheath) exists between the streamer and dielectric surface. Difference between the results obtained using the finer and the coarser grid is discussed in detail in terms of the electron transport at a position near the surface. When the finer grid is used, the low electron density near the surface is caused by the absence of ionization avalanche: in that region, the electrons generated by ionization is compensated by drift-diffusion flux. In contrast, when the coarser grid is used, underestimated drift-diffusion flux cannot compensate the electrons generated by ionization, and it leads to an incorrect increase of electron density.

  11. A HYBRID SOLAR WIND MODEL OF THE CESE+HLL METHOD WITH A YIN-YANG OVERSET GRID AND AN AMR GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xueshang; Zhang Shaohua; Xiang Changqing; Yang Liping; Jiang Chaowei; Wu, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid three-dimensional (3D) MHD model for solar wind study is proposed in the present paper with combined grid systems and solvers. The computational domain from the Sun to Earth space is decomposed into the near-Sun and off-Sun domains, which are respectively constructed with a Yin-Yang overset grid system and a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) grid system and coupled with a domain connection interface in the overlapping region between the near-Sun and off-Sun domains. The space-time conservation element and solution element method is used in the near-Sun domain, while the Harten-Lax-Leer method is employed in the off-Sun domain. The Yin-Yang overset grid can avoid well-known singularity and polar grid convergence problems and its body-fitting property helps achieve high-quality resolution near the solar surface. The block structured AMR Cartesian grid can automatically capture far-field plasma flow features, such as heliospheric current sheets and shock waves, and at the same time, it can save significant computational resources compared to the uniformly structured Cartesian grid. A numerical study of the solar wind structure for Carrington rotation 2069 shows that the newly developed hybrid MHD solar wind model successfully produces many realistic features of the background solar wind, in both the solar corona and interplanetary space, by comparisons with multiple solar and interplanetary observations.

  12. AstroGrid: AstroGrid: Powering the virtual universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N. A.

    2002-02-01

    Nic Walton describes a programme to break down wavelength barriers and empower astronomers, as well as making full use of astronomical archives. The full potential of the data from the major new observational facilities (e.g. VISTA) available to the community will only be realized if inclusive, rich, data access and manipulation mechanisms are provided. Astronomical endeavour will be further leveraged if these mechanisms enable ``science-driven'' research programmes benefiting from access to multiple data sources. I describe here the reasons and resources behind AstroGrid.

  13. Generating Free-Form Grid Truss Structures from 3D Scanned Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction, according to physical shape, is a novel way to generate free-form grid truss structures. 3D scanning is an effective means of acquiring physical form information and it generates dense point clouds on surfaces of objects. However, generating grid truss structures from point clouds is still a challenge. Based on the advancing front technique (AFT which is widely used in Finite Element Method (FEM, a scheme for generating grid truss structures from 3D scanned point clouds is proposed in this paper. Based on the characteristics of point cloud data, the search box is adopted to reduce the search space in grid generating. A front advancing procedure suit for point clouds is established. Delaunay method and Laplacian method are used to improve the quality of the generated grids, and an adjustment strategy that locates grid nodes at appointed places is proposed. Several examples of generating grid truss structures from 3D scanned point clouds of seashells are carried out to verify the proposed scheme. Physical models of the grid truss structures generated in the examples are manufactured by 3D print, which solidifies the feasibility of the scheme.

  14. Unstructured mesh based elastic wave modelling on GPU: a double-mesh grid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jianfeng; Gao, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    We present an unstructured mesh based numerical technique for modelling elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous media with complex geometrical settings. The scheme is developed by adapting the so-called grid method with a double-mesh implementation. The double-mesh is generated by subdividing each triangular grid of the first-level mesh into a group of congruent smaller grids with equally dividing each edge of the triangle. The resulting double-mesh grid method incorporates the advantages of structured- and unstructured-mesh schemes. The irregular, unstructured first-level mesh, which is generated by centroidal Voronoi tessellation based on Delaunay triangulation with a velocity-dependent density function, can accurately describe the surface topography and interfaces, and the size of the grid cells can vary according to local velocities. Congruent smaller grids within each grid cell of the first-level mesh greatly reduce the memory requirement of geometrical coefficients compared to a whole irregular, unstructured mesh. Applying the double-mesh approach can also alleviate the discontinuity of memory accessing mainly caused by adoption of fully unstructured mesh. As a result, the GPU implementation of the proposed scheme can obtain a high speedup rate. Numerical examples demonstrate the good behaviour of the double-mesh elastic grid method.

  15. Grid: From EGEE to EGI and from INFN-Grid to IGI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giselli, A.; Mazzuccato, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last fifteen years the approach of the computational Grid has changed the way to use computing resources. Grid computing has raised interest worldwide in academia, industry, and government with fast development cycles. Great efforts, huge funding and resources have been made available through national, regional and international initiatives aiming at providing Grid infrastructures, Grid core technologies, Grid middle ware and Grid applications. The Grid software layers reflect the architecture of the services developed so far by the most important European and international projects. In this paper Grid e-Infrastructure story is given, detailing European, Italian and international projects such as EGEE, INFN-Grid and NAREGI. In addition the sustainability issue in the long-term perspective is described providing plans by European and Italian communities with EGI and IGI.

  16. Calculation approaches for grid usage fees to influence the load curve in the distribution grid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    Dominated by the energy policy the decentralized German energy market is changing. One mature target of the government is to increase the contribution of renewable generation to the gross electricity consumption. In order to achieve this target disadvantages like an increased need for capacity management occurs. Load reduction and variable grid fees offer the grid operator solutions to realize capacity management by influencing the load profile. The evolution of the current grid fees towards more causality is required to adapt these approaches. Two calculation approaches are developed in this assignment. On the one hand multivariable grid fees keeping the current components demand and energy charge. Additional to the grid costs grid load dependent parameters like the amount of decentralized feed-ins, time and local circumstances as well as grid capacities are considered. On the other hand the grid fee flat-rate which represents a demand based model on a monthly level. Both approaches are designed to meet the criteria for future grid fees. By means of a case study the effects of the grid fees on the load profile at the low voltage grid is simulated. Thereby the consumption is represented by different behaviour models and the results are scaled at the benchmark grid area. The resulting load curve is analyzed concerning the effects of peak load reduction as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally the combined effect of grid fees and electricity tariffs is evaluated. Finally the work discusses the launching of grid fees in the tense atmosphere of politics, legislation and grid operation. Results of this work are two calculation approaches designed for grid operators to define the grid fees. Multivariable grid fees are based on the current calculation scheme. Hereby demand and energy charges are weighted by time, locational and load related dependencies. The grid fee flat-rate defines a limitation in demand extraction. Different demand levels

  17. Power Quality of Grid-Connected Wind Turbines with DFIG and Their Interaction with the Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao

    quality issues of grid-connected wind turbines and the interaction between wind turbines and the grid. The specific goal of the research has been to investigate flicker emission and mitigation of grid-connected wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) during continuous operation......, and voltage recovery of such kind of grid-connected wind turbines after the clearance of a short circuit fault in the grid. As a basis of the research, a model of grid-connected wind turbines with DFIG is developed in the dedicated power system analysis tool PSCAD/EMTDC, which simulates the dynamics...... of the system from the turbine rotor, where the kinetic wind energy is converted to mechanical energy, to the grid connection point where the electric power is fed into the grid. The complete grid-connected wind turbine model includes the wind speed model, the aerodynamic model of the wind turbine...

  18. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, Th.

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  19. Choosing an adequate FEM grid for global mantle convection modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieulot, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    Global numerical models of mantle convection are typically run on a grid which represents a hollow sphere. In the context of using the Finite Element method, there are many ways to discretise a hollow sphere by means of cuboids in a regular fashion (adaptive mesh refinement is here not considered). I will here focus on the following two: the cubed sphere [1], which is a quasi-uniform mapping of a cube to a sphere (considering both equidistant and equiangular projections), and the 12-block grid used for instance in CITCOM [2]. By means of simple experiments, I will show that at comparable resolutions (and all other things being equal), the 12-block grid is surprisingly vastly superior to the cubed-sphere grid, when used in combination with trilinear velocity - constant pressure elements, while being more difficult to build/implement. [1] C. Ronchi, R. Iacono, and P. S. Paolucci, The "Cubed Sphere": A New Method for the Solution of Partial Differential Equations in Spherical Geometry, Journal of Computational Physics, 124, p93-114 (1996). [2] S. Zhong and M.T. Zuber and L.N. Moresi and M. Gurnis, Role of temperature-dependent viscosity and surface plates in spherical shell models of mantle convection, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105 (B5), p 11,063-11,082 (2000).

  20. Conference on wind energy and grid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffaille, Didier; Boemer, Jens; Fraisse, Jean-Luc; Mignon, Herve; Gonot, Jean-Pierre; Rohrig, Kurt; Lange, Matthias; Bagusche, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Schiel, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the grid integration of wind farms. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, more than 80 participants exchanged views on the evolutions of tariffs and licensing procedures, and on grid capacity improvements and production forecasts. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - The necessary evolution of billing and procedures for wind turbines connection to the grid in France (Didier Laffaille); 2 - Improvement of wind turbines integration to the grid in the framework of the EEG 2009 law (Jens Boemer); 3 - Decentralized power generation on the French power grids - 15, 20 kV and low voltage (Jean-Luc Fraisse); 4 - GOTTESWIND? Solution for the future: towards a grid evolution (Herve Mignon); 5 - Production forecasts in Germany - State-of-the-art and challenges for the grid exploitation (Kurt Rohrig); 6 - High-voltage lines capacity evaluation in meteorological situations with high wind energy production (Matthias Lange); 7 - The IPES project for the integration of wind energy production in the exploitation of the French power system (Jean-Pierre Gonot); 8 - Experience feedback from a wind turbine manufacturer in France and in Germany (Daniel Bagusche); 9 - Solutions for grid security improvement and capacity enhancement: cooperation between grid and power plant operators (Stefan Wagner); 10 - Open questions on wind energy integration to French and German grids (Johannes Schiel)

  1. Conference on grid integration of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Pierre; Goeke, Berthold; Mignon, Herve; Brakelmann, Heinrich; Huebner, Gundula; Tanja Schmedes; Remy Garaude Verdier; Pierre-Guy Therond; Werner Diwald

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on grid integration of renewable energies. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about a hundred of participants exchanged views on the similarities and differences between the French and German approaches of renewable energies integration to grids. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Power grid development - Policy and challenges (Pierre Fontaine); 2 - Grid Development: German Strategy (Berthold Goeke); 3 - Power grids development: situational analysis (Herve Mignon); 4 - Traditional Power Lines, Partial Underground Cabling and HVDC lines: Costs, Benefits and Acceptance (Heinrich Brakelmann); 5 - Transmission Lines - Local Acceptance (Gundula Huebner); 6 - eTelligence- energy meets Intelligence: experience feedback from the grid operator EWe on smart grids and the integration of renewable energies (Tanja Schmedes); 7 - Nice Grid, The French Smart Grid Project within Grid4eU (Remy Garaude Verdier); 8 - Economical Analysis Of energy Storage For Renewable energy Farms - experience of EDF en on the basis of 3 call for tender issued by the French Government in 01/2010, 11/2010, and 09/2011: what conditions for a real deployment (Pierre-Guy Therond); 9 - Hydrogen as a renewable energies storage mean (Werner Diwald)

  2. DIGRD: an interactive grid generating program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, H.P.; Rice, W.A.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed the development and documentation of an interactive grid generating program (DIGRD, digitize grid). This program is designed to rapidly generate or modify grids necessary for the unsaturated flow code TRUST. In addition to the code, a user's manual was prepared. Unfortunately, the computer hardware that comprises the PNL interactive graphics capability is unique. Direct technology transfer is not possible, therefore, this report is intended to convey the utility of interactive graphics in supplying a grid generating capability. DIGRD has already been effectively used in the preparation of grids for the analysis of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings. The principal conclusion is that the interactive graphics employed in DIGRD are useful and economical in the development of complex grids. Grid generation activities that previously took between a half- and a full-man month can now be completed in less than a week. DIGRD users have recommended development of an uniform grid of either rectangles or equilateral triangles, which could be superimposed on any domain and then adjusted through the DIGRD program to match the boundaries of a tailings disposal facility. This improvement to the DIGRD package could further reduce the effort in grid generation while providing more optimal grids

  3. Preparation and characterization of micro-grid modified In2O3:W films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Dongmei; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten doped indium oxide (In 2 O 3 :W, IWO) thin films with IWO micro-grid covered surface were prepared at room temperature using techniques of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and polystyrene (PS) microsphere template. The composition, crystallization structures, surface morphologies, and optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometer from visible to near infrared (NIR) range and Hall effect measurement, respectively. Periodic micro-grid modified surface was obtained to improve light trapping properties. The effects of the PS micro-spheres diameters and the sputtering time on the surface morphology, transmittance in NIR range, diffuse reflection and conductive properties of the IWO films are investigated. Experiments show that surface modification of the IWO film with micro-grid under the optimized condition can improve the conductivity of the films by 15%, and the diffuse reflectance by 150%, with less than 8% decrease of the transmittance in the visible region. The study would be beneficial to the light trapping effect of solar cells using IWO films as transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • In 2 O 3 :W (IWO) films were obtained by reactive frequency magnetron sputtering. • IWO micro-grids were prepared on the surface of IWO films. • Influences of micro-grid size and sputtering time on IWO films were analyzed. • Both high conductivity and transparency are acquired in near-infrared region.

  4. Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, A N; Diotte, M P; Dudas, I; Michaud, G L

    1978-07-01

    Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.

  5. Grid computing and biomolecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Christopher J; Ng, Muan Hong; Johnston, Steven; Murdock, Stuart E; Wu, Bing; Tai, Kaihsu; Fangohr, Hans; Jeffreys, Paul; Cox, Simon; Frey, Jeremy G; Sansom, Mark S P; Essex, Jonathan W

    2005-08-15

    Biomolecular computer simulations are now widely used not only in an academic setting to understand the fundamental role of molecular dynamics on biological function, but also in the industrial context to assist in drug design. In this paper, two applications of Grid computing to this area will be outlined. The first, involving the coupling of distributed computing resources to dedicated Beowulf clusters, is targeted at simulating protein conformational change using the Replica Exchange methodology. In the second, the rationale and design of a database of biomolecular simulation trajectories is described. Both applications illustrate the increasingly important role modern computational methods are playing in the life sciences.

  6. Grid diagrams and Khovanov homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droz, Jean-Marie; Wagner, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    We explain how to compute the Jones polynomial of a link from one of its grid diagrams and we observe a connection between Bigelow’s homological definition of the Jones polynomial and Kauffman’s definition of the Jones polynomial. Consequently, we prove that the Maslov grading on the Seidel–Smith...... symplectic link invariant coincides with the difference between the homological grading on Khovanov homology and the Jones grading on Khovanov homology. We give some evidence for the truth of the Seidel–Smith conjecture....

  7. Incremental Trust in Grid Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkløv, Michael Hvalsøe; Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a comparative simulation study of some incremental trust and reputation algorithms for handling behavioural trust in large distributed systems. Two types of reputation algorithm (based on discrete and Bayesian evaluation of ratings) and two ways of combining direct trust...... and reputation (discrete combination and combination based on fuzzy logic) are considered. The various combinations of these methods are evaluated from the point of view of their ability to respond to changes in behaviour and the ease with which suitable parameters for the algorithms can be found in the context...... of Grid computing systems....

  8. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...... in a flexible manner. This paper presents a survey of various aspects of DR including the different types of participants, as well as the underlying challenges and the overall potential of DR when it comes to large-scale implementations. Benefits of DR as reported in the literature for performance metrics...

  9. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  10. Mini Smart Grid @ Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus U.; Furtak, Simon J.; Häuser, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    , Smart Meters and prosumers. Smart Grids are a new method of managing electricity and power supply. It has not reached its full potential yet, but it offers a more interactive platform for both the consumer and the main supplier e.g. Dong Energy. The Smart Grid will collect and control the behavior......Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish...... an understanding of micro-economic and IT challenges related to Smart Grid technology. The mini-smart-grid project at Copenhagen Business School (MSC@CBS) project seeks to investigate the business opportunities and issues that arise from this new technology. The project revolves around the concepts of Smart Grids...

  11. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlaoui, Y. B.; BenAyed, L. J.

    2007-07-01

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  12. Triple-layer smart grid business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lundgaard, Morten; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    Viewing the smart grid with the theory of business models may open opportunities in understanding and capturing values in new markets. This study tries to discover and map the smart grid ecosystem-based business model framework with two different environments (sub-Saharan Africa and Denmark......), and identifies the parameters for the smart grid solutions to the emerging markets. This study develops a triple-layer business model including the organizational (Niche), environmental (Intermediate), and global (Dominators) factors. The result uncovers an interface of market factors and stakeholders...... in a generic smart grid constellation. The findings contribute the transferability potential of the smart grid solutions between countries, and indicate the potential to export and import smart grid solutions based on the business modeling....

  13. First Thuesday - CERN, The Grid gets real

    CERN Multimedia

    Robertson, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    A few years ago, "the Grid" was just a vision dreamt up by some computer scientists who wanted to share processor power and data storage capacity between computers around the world - in much the same way as today's Web shares information seamlessly between millions of computers. Today, Grid technology is a huge enterprise, involving hundreds of software engineers, and generating exciting opportunities for industry. "Computing on demand", "utility computing", "web services", and "virtualisation" are just a few of the buzzwords in the IT industry today that are intimately connected to the development of Grid technology. For this third First Tuesday @CERN, the panel will survey some of the latest major breakthroughs in building international computer Grids for science. It will also provide a snapshot of Grid-related industrial activities, with contributions from both major players in the IT sector as well as emerging Grid technology start-ups.

  14. Toward a Grid Work flow Formal Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaoui, Y. B.; BenAyed, L. J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper exposes a new approach for the composition of grid work flow models. This approach proposes an abstract syntax for the UML Activity Diagrams (UML-AD) and a formal foundation for grid work flow composition in form of a work flow algebra based on UML-AD. This composition fulfils the need for collaborative model development particularly the specification and the reduction of the complexity of grid work flow model verification. This complexity has arisen with the increase in scale of grid work flow applications such as science and e-business applications since large amounts of computational resources are required and multiple parties could be involved in the development process and in the use of grid work flows. Furthermore, the proposed algebra allows the definition of work flow views which are useful to limit the access to predefined users in order to ensure the security of grid work flow applications. (Author)

  15. Vote for the GridCafé!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN's GridCafé website (http://www.gridcafe.org) has been nominated for the 8th Annual Webby Awards, together with four other finalists in the Technical Achievement category. The Webby Awards have been hailed as the "online Oscars" by Time Magazine, and are the leading international honours for websites, so this nomination represents a significant achievement. The winner in this category last year was Google. The GridCafé website, which was launched at Telecom '03 and forms part of the Microcosm exhibit on computing, introduces Grid technology to the general public, and provides information on all major Grid projects around the world, focusing in particular on the pioneering Grid developments being carried out by CERN and its many international partners for the Large Hadron Collider project. Being nominated for a Webby Award represents a great opportunity to draw positive media attention to Grid technology, to CERN and to science in general. Last year's nominees were covered...

  16. How should grid operators govern smart grid innovation projects? An embedded case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, Mark de; Lei, Telli van der; Lukszo, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Grid operators increasingly have to collaborate with other actors in order to realize smart grid innovations. For routine maintenance, grid operators typically acquire technologies in one-off transactions, but the innovative nature of smart grid projects may require more collaborate relationships. This paper studies how a transactional versus relational approach to governing smart grid innovation projects affects incentives for other actors to collaborate. We analyse 34 cases of smart grid innovation projects based on extensive archival data as well as interviews. We find that projects relying on relational governance are more likely to provide incentives for collaboration. Especially non-financial incentives such as reputational benefits and shared intellectual property rights are more likely to be found in projects relying on relational governance. Policy makers that wish to stimulate smart grid innovation projects should consider stimulating long-term relationships between grid operators and third parties, because such relationships are more likely to produce incentives for collaboration. - Highlights: • Smart grids require collaboration between grid operators and other actors. • We contrast transactional and relational governance of smart grid projects. • Long-term relations produce more incentives for smart grid collaboration. • Non-financial incentives are more important in long-term relations. • Policy makers should stimulate long-term relations to stimulate smart grids.

  17. Benefits Analysis of Smart Grid Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Marnay, C; Liu, L; Yu, J; Zhang, D; Mauzy, J; Shaffer, B; Dong, X; Agate, W; Vitiello, S; karali, N; Liu, X; He, G; Zhao, L; Zhu, L

    2016-01-01

    Smart grids are rolling out internationally, with the United States (U.S.) nearing completion of a significant USD4-plus-billion federal program funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA-2009). The emergence of smart grids is widespread across developed countries. Multiple approaches to analyzing the benefits of smart grids have emerged. The goals of this white paper are to review these approaches and analyze examples of each to highlight their differences, advantages, ...

  18. FINAL REPORT - CENTER FOR GRID MODERNIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, Daniel R

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the CGM was to develop high-priority grid modernization technologies in advanced sensors, communications, controls and smart systems to enable use of real-time or near real-time information for monitoring, analyzing and managing distribution and transmission grid conditions. The key strategic approach to carry out individual CGM research and development (R&D) projects was through partnerships, primarily with the GridApp™ Consortium utility members.

  19. Governing effective and legitimate smart grid developments

    OpenAIRE

    Langendahl, Per-Anders; Cook, Matthew; Potter, Stephen; Roby, Helen; Collins, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Smart grids which use Information and Communication Technologies to augment energy network management have been developed in several locations including London and Stockholm. Common rationales for smart grids include: de-carbonising energy supply, maintaining security of supply and promoting affordability. However, beyond these general abstractions, smart grids seem to exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their characteristics and rationales for development. Thus, while the term smart g...

  20. Flow Battery Solution for Smart Grid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-11-30

    To address future grid requirements, a U.S. Department of Energy ARRA Storage Demonstration program was launched in 2009 to commercialize promising technologies needed for stronger and more renewables-intensive grids. Raytheon Ktech and EnerVault received a cost-share grant award from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a grid-scale storage system based on EnerVault’s iron-chromium redox flow battery technology.

  1. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Buran Anna; Nizkodubov Gavriil; Pryahin Ilya

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for rese...

  2. Improved Gridded Aerosol Data for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueymard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Using point data from ground sites in and around India equipped with multiwavelength sunphotometers, as well as gridded data from space measurements or from existing aerosol climatologies, an improved gridded database providing the monthly aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and Angstrom exponent (AE) over India is produced. Data from 83 sunphotometer sites are used here as ground truth tocalibrate, optimally combine, and validate monthly gridded data during the period from 2000 to 2012.

  3. Integration of Energy Storage in Distribution Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Geth, Frederik; Tant, Jeroen; Haesen, Edwin; Driesen, Johan; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Electrical energy storage services can bring benefit to multiple stakeholders in the distribution grid. Energy storage owners maximize their profit on an external energy market. This can cause a conflict with the distribution system operator because a grid is designed in terms of peak power, not energy. The subject of this paper is a optimization method for the siting and sizing of energy storage in distribution grids. The optimization is implemented multi-objective as to visualize the trade-...

  4. Monitoring in a grid cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David; Mitchell, Mark; Roy, Gareth; Skipsey, Samuel Cadellin; Britton, David; Purdie, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring of a grid cluster (or of any piece of reasonably scaled IT infrastructure) is a key element in the robust and consistent running of that site. There are several factors which are important to the selection of a useful monitoring framework, which include ease of use, reliability, data input and output. It is critical that data can be drawn from different instrumentation packages and collected in the framework to allow for a uniform view of the running of a site. It is also very useful to allow different views and transformations of this data to allow its manipulation for different purposes, perhaps unknown at the initial time of installation. In this context, we present the findings of an investigation of the Graphite monitoring framework and its use at the ScotGrid Glasgow site. In particular, we examine the messaging system used by the framework and means to extract data from different tools, including the existing framework Ganglia which is in use at many sites, in addition to adapting and parsing data streams from external monitoring frameworks and websites.

  5. The CMS Integration Grid Testbed

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, G E; Aziz, Shafqat; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Ernst, Michael; Kaiser, Joseph; Ratnikova, Natalia; Wenzel, Hans; Wu, Yu-jun; Aslakson, Erik; Bunn, Julian; Iqbal, Saima; Legrand, Iosif; Newman, Harvey; Singh, Suresh; Steenberg, Conrad; Branson, James; Fisk, Ian; Letts, James; Arbree, Adam; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cavanaugh, Richard; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Kategari, Suchindra; Couvares, Peter; DeSmet, Alan; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Tannenbaum, Todd; Graham, Gregory E.; Aziz, Shafqat; Ernst, Michael; Kaiser, Joseph; Ratnikova, Natalia; Wenzel, Hans; Wu, Yujun; Aslakson, Erik; Bunn, Julian; Iqbal, Saima; Legrand, Iosif; Newman, Harvey; Singh, Suresh; Steenberg, Conrad; Branson, James; Fisk, Ian; Letts, James; Arbree, Adam; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cavanaugh, Richard; Rodriguez, Jorge; Kategari, Suchindra; Couvares, Peter; Smet, Alan De; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; Tannenbaum, Todd

    2003-01-01

    The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distrib ution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuo us two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. ...

  6. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  7. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  8. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  9. Smart grid business case for private homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villefrance, Rasmus; Brandt, Jonas; Eriksen, Poul Svante

    2013-01-01

    We describe and consider how the potential of energy savings may drive the penetration of smart grid technology into private homes. We assess the sociological processes which lead to energy savings when the residents have access to smart grid technology. We propose a way to establish a cash flow...... from consumers via electrical distribution companies to smart grid technology providers on the Danish market. Finally, we assess the impact of such a business development on the society, as well as relating the penetration of smart grid technology in private homes to the societal goal of 100% renewable...

  10. Layered Communications Architecture for the Global Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, B. E

    2006-01-01

    ...), the communications infrastructure of the Global Information Grid (GIG). A seven-layer reference model consisting of Mission, Application, Service, Transport, Network, Link, and Physical Layers is introduced...

  11. Overview of Grid Codes for Photovoltaic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qianwei; Li, Jiaming; Ai, Xiaomeng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power stations might threaten the safety and stability of power system. Therefore, the grid code is developed for PV power stations to ensure the security of PV integrated power systems. In this paper, requirements for PV power integration...... in different grid codes are first investigated. On this basis, the future advocacy is concluded. Finally, several evaluation indices are proposed to quantify the grid code compliance so that the system operators can validate all these requirements by simulation....

  12. Smart grid fundamentals of design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James

    2012-01-01

    The book is written as primer hand book for addressing the fundamentals of smart grid. It provides the working definition the functions, the design criteria and the tools and techniques and technology needed for building smart grid. The book is needed to provide a working guideline in the design, analysis and development of Smart Grid. It incorporates all the essential factors of Smart Grid appropriate for enabling the performance and capability of the power system. There are no comparable books which provide information on the how to of the design and analysis. The book prov.

  13. Development of a smart DC grid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made, E-mail: imadejoni@phys.unpad.ac.id [Lab. of Instrumentation System and Functional Material Processing, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  14. Development of a smart DC grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  15. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  16. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  17. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H.

    2007-03-01

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models

  18. Smart Grid Technologies: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buran Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the role of Smart Grid technologies, giving sustainable, reliable and safe energy. These technologies will provide an economic benefit to the government, the investors and the consumers. The paper overviews global trends and perspectives of using Smart Grid technologies in Russia and in other countries. The Smart Grid concept is especially important for Russia, because there are many power supply problems in the energy sector. This study is expected to be important for researchers and engineers studying Smart Grid technologies.

  19. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  20. On joint deterministic grid modeling and sub-grid variability conceptual framework for model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Jason; Herwehe, Jerold; Swall, Jenise

    The general situation (but exemplified in urban areas), where a significant degree of sub-grid variability (SGV) exists in grid models poses problems when comparing grid-based air-quality modeling results with observations. Typically, grid models ignore or parameterize processes and features that are at their sub-grid scale. Also, observations may be obtained in an area where significant spatial variability in the concentration fields exists. Consequently, model results and observations cannot be expected to be equal. To address this issue, we suggest a framework that can provide for qualitative judgments on model performance based on comparing observations to the grid predictions and its SGV distribution. Further, we (a) explore some characteristics of SGV, (b) comment on the contributions to SGV and (c) examine the implications to the modeling results at coarse grid resolution using examples from fine scale grid modeling of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system.