WorldWideScience

Sample records for grid related efforts

  1. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  2. Global Data Grid Efforts for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Gardner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past two years computational data grids have emerged as a promising new technology for large scale, data-intensive computing required by the LHC experiments, as outlined by the recent "Hoffman" review panel that addressed the LHC computing challenge. The problem essentially is to seamlessly link physicists to petabyte-scale data and computing resources, distributed worldwide, and connected by high-bandwidth research networks. Several new collaborative initiatives in Europe, the United States, and Asia have formed to address the problem. These projects are of great interest to ATLAS physicists and software developers since their objective is to offer tools that can be integrated into the core ATLAS application framework for distributed event reconstruction, Monte Carlo simulation, and data analysis, making it possible for individuals and groups of physicists to share information, data, and computing resources in new ways and at scales not previously attempted. In addition, much of the distributed IT...

  3. Customer relations data aids marketing efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werronen, H J

    1988-08-01

    A customer relations information system can help improve a hospital's marketing performance. With such a system, the author writes, a medical center can easily redirect its information systems away from the traditional transaction-oriented approach toward the building of long-lasting relationship with customers.

  4. Overview of NASA/OAST efforts related to manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of some of NASA's current efforts related to manufacturing technology and some possible directions for the future are presented. The topics discussed are: computer-aided design, composite structures, and turbine engine components.

  5. Rural Electrification Efforts Based on Off-Grid Photovoltaic Systems in the Andean Region: Comparative Assessment of Their Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Feron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we comparatively assess the sustainability of rural electrification efforts based on off-grid solutions in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural. We found that Ecuador and Chile have consistently failed to ensure mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of the deployed off-grid systems, which has made these solutions in poor Chilean and Ecuadorian communities inevitably unsustainable. Although Peru has adopted a cross-tariff scheme, the Peruvian case shows that ensuring the funding of off-grid PV solutions is not enough. Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation (local values and lifestyles are constantly disregarded and most of the projects have been designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has often led to project failures and payment defaults. However, although each country has its particular challenges, we found that the three Andean countries have consistently neglected the importance of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure, which in turn significantly compromised the rural electrification effort in these countries.

  6. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Efforts in Public Relations on Fusion in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; van Oost, G.

    2001-10-01

    An overview will be given of different published materials currently in use in Europe for public relations on fusion. We will also present a CD-ROM for individual and classroom use, containing (i) a general background on different energy forms, (ii) general principles of fusion, (iii) current research efforts and (iv) future prospects of fusion. This CD-ROM is currently in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian. Fusion posters developed in collaboration with CPEP in Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese will be shown. Several new brochures and leaflets intended to increase the public awareness on fusion in Europe will be on display.

  8. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: survey of inverter and related protection equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T

    2002-12-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme reports on a survey made on inverter and related protection equipment. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and distributed PV power systems. This report summarises the data obtained from survey of recent inverter technology and inverter protection equipment for grid interconnected PV systems. The results are based on the surveys using a questionnaire to identify the current status of grid-interconnection inverters. This report is to serve as a reference for those interested in installing grid-connected PV systems, electric utility company personnel, manufacturers and researchers. The results of the survey are presented and discussed. Technical and financial data is reviewed and two appendices provide details on the results obtained and those institutions involved in the survey.

  9. Scientometrics of drug discovery efforts: pain-related molecular targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissin I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Igor KissinDepartment of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: The aim of this study was to make a scientometric assessment of drug discovery efforts centered on pain-related molecular targets. The following scientometric indices were used: the popularity index, representing the share of articles (or patents on a specific topic among all articles (or patents on pain over the same 5-year period; the index of change, representing the change in the number of articles (or patents on a topic from one 5-year period to the next; the index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of all types of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000 biomedical journals covered by PubMed over a 5-year period; the total number of articles representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs over a 5-year period; and the trial balance index, a ratio of Phase I–II publications to Phase III publications. Articles (PubMed database and patents (US Patent and Trademark Office database on 17 topics related to pain mechanisms were assessed during six 5-year periods from 1984 to 2013. During the most recent 5-year period (2009–2013, seven of 17 topics have demonstrated high research activity (purinergic receptors, serotonin, transient receptor potential channels, cytokines, gamma aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and protein kinases. However, even with these seven topics, the index of expectations decreased or did not change compared with the 2004–2008 period. In addition, publications representing Phase I–III trials of investigational drugs (2009–2013 did not indicate great enthusiasm on the part of the pharmaceutical industry regarding drugs specifically designed for treatment of pain. A promising development related to the new tool of molecular targeting, ie, monoclonal antibodies, for pain treatment has not

  10. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lindsey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservation Index (MCI that assesses the spatial, ecological and financial contributions of 152 nations towards conservation of the world’s terrestrial megafauna. We chose megafauna because they are particularly valuable in economic, ecological and societal terms, and are challenging and expensive to conserve. We categorised these 152 countries as being above- or below-average performers based on whether their contribution to megafauna conservation was higher or lower than the global mean; ‘major’ performers or underperformers were those whose contribution exceeded 1 SD over or under the mean, respectively. Ninety percent of countries in North/Central America and 70% of countries in Africa were classified as major or above-average performers, while approximately one-quarter of countries in Asia (25% and Europe (21% were identified as major underperformers. We present our index to emphasise the need for measuring conservation performance, to help nations identify how best they could improve their efforts, and to present a starting point for the development of more robust and inclusive measures (noting how the IUCN Red List evolved over time. Our analysis points to three approaches that countries could adopt to improve their contribution to global megafauna conservation, depending on their circumstances: (1 upgrading or expanding their domestic protected area networks, with a particular emphasis on conserving large carnivore and herbivore habitat, (2 increase funding for conservation at home or abroad, or (3 ‘rewilding’ their landscapes. Once revised and perfected, we recommend publishing regular conservation rankings in the popular media to recognise major-performers, foster healthy pride and competition among nations, and identify ways for governments to improve their performance.

  12. Brain and effort: brain activation and effort-related working memory in healthy participants and patients with working memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eEngstrom

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the interest in the neuroimaging of working memory, little is still known about the neurobiology of complex working memory in tasks that require simultaneous manipulation and storage of information. In addition to the central executive network, we assumed that the recently described salience network (involving the anterior insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex might be of particular importance to working memory tasks that require complex, effortful processing. Method: Healthy participants (n=26 and participants suffering from working memory problems related to the Kleine-Levin syndrome (a specific form of periodic idiopathic hypersomnia; n=18 participated in the study. Participants were further divided into a high and low capacity group, according to performance on a working memory task (listening span. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, participants were administered the reading span complex working memory task tapping cognitive effort. Principal findings: The fMRI-derived blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal was modulated by 1 effort in both the central executive and the salience network and 2 capacity in the salience network in that high performers evidenced a weaker BOLD signal than low performers. In the salience network there was a dichotomy between the left and the right hemisphere; the right hemisphere elicited a steeper increase of the BOLD signal as a function of increasing effort. There was also a stronger functional connectivity within the central executive network because of increased task difficulty. Conclusion: The ability to allocate cognitive effort in complex working memory is contingent upon focused resources in the executive and in particular the salience network. Individual capacity during the complex working memory task is related to activity in the salience (but not the executive network so that high-capacity participants evidence a lower signal and possibly hence a larger

  13. Integrating PEVs with Renewables and the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, Andrew; Markel, Tony; Jun, Myungsoo; Zhang, Jiucai

    2016-06-29

    This presentation is an overview of NREL's Electric Vehicle Grid Integration (EVGI) efforts toward integrating Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) with renewable energy and the grid. Efforts include managed charging, local power quality, emergency backup power, and bi-directional power flow. Discussion of future vehicle-related activities under the Grid Modernization Initiative by the Multi-Lab EV Smart Grid Working Group.

  14. Improvements in or relating to cellular grid structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolly, R.

    1979-01-01

    In cellular grid structures for positioning an array of nuclear fuel rods by locating them individually in a ferrule joined to its neighbours to form the grid structure, the ferrules are formed in pairs from tubular members each deformed to provide a waist. A bridge piece extends across the waist to divide the tubular member into two cells and it may incorporate a resilient member which projects into the two cells to urge fuel rods in the cells towards co-planar dimples formed in the tubular member opposite the resilient member. (author)

  15. Relative dose efficiencies of antiscatter grids and air gaps in pediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, D.L.; Cohen, G.; Wagner, L.K.; Robinson, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relative dose efficiencies (RDE) of various antiscatter grids and air gaps were determined for conditions simulating those found in pediatric radiography, using phantoms representing a newborn child, a 5-yr-old and a 10-yr-old child. Our data indicate than an air gap is best for the newborn, due to the low levels of scatter. The 8:1 fiber grid or 15.2-cm air gap without a grid can improve dose efficiency (DE) for the 5-yr-old child by 20%--25% relative to the 3.3-cm air gap and no-grid technique, while for the 10-yr-old child, DE can be improved by 40% with an 8:1 fiber grid

  16. Standardization in smart grids. Introduction to IT-related methodologies, architectures and standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslar, Mathias; Specht, Michael; Daenekas, Christian; Trefke, Joern; Rohjans, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Jose M.; Rosinger, Christine; Bleiker, Robert [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Introduction to Standardization for Smart Grids. Presents a tutorial and best practice of Smart Grid Prototype Projects. Written by leading experts in the field. Besides the regulatory and market aspects, the technical level dealing with the knowledge from multiple disciplines and the aspects of technical system integration to achieve interoperability and integration has been a strong focus in the Smart Grid. This topic is typically covered by the means of using (technical) standards for processes, data models, functions and communication links. Standardization is a key issue for Smart Grids due to the involvement of many different sectors along the value chain from the generation to the appliances. The scope of Smart Grid is broad, therefore, the standards landscape is unfortunately very large and complex. This is why the three European Standards Organizations ETSI, CEN and CENELEC created a so called Joint Working Group (JWG). This was the first harmonized effort in Europe to bring together the needed disciplines and experts delivering the final report in May 2011. After this approach proved useful, the Commission used the Mandate M/490: Standardization Mandate to European Standardization Organizations (ESOs) to support European Smart Grid deployment. The focal point addressing the ESO's response to M/490 will be the CEN, CENELEC and ETSI Smart Grids Coordination Group (SG-CG). Based on this mandate, meaningful standardization of architectures, use cases, communication technologies, data models and security standards takes place in the four existing working groups. This book provides an overview on the various building blocks and standards identified as the most prominent ones by the JWG report as well as by the first set of standards group - IEC 61850 and CIM, IEC PAS 62559 for documenting Smart Grid use cases, security requirements from the SGIS groups and an introduction on how to apply the Smart Grid Architecture Model SGAM for utilities. In addition

  17. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  18. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O

    2012-01-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  19. Surface Modeling, Grid Generation, and Related Issues in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Yung K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Steering Committee for Surface Modeling and Grid Generation (SMAGG) sponsored a workshop on surface modeling, grid generation, and related issues in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions at Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, May 9-11, 1995. The workshop provided a forum to identify industry needs, strengths, and weaknesses of the five grid technologies (patched structured, overset structured, Cartesian, unstructured, and hybrid), and to exchange thoughts about where each technology will be in 2 to 5 years. The workshop also provided opportunities for engineers and scientists to present new methods, approaches, and applications in SMAGG for CFD. This Conference Publication (CP) consists of papers on industry overview, NASA overview, five grid technologies, new methods/ approaches/applications, and software systems.

  20. Cognitive Load and Listening Effort: Concepts and Age-Related Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Ulrike; Besser, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Listening effort has been recognized as an important dimension of everyday listening, especially with regard to the comprehension of spoken language. At constant levels of comprehension performance, the level of effort exerted and perceived during listening can differ considerably across listeners and situations. In this article, listening effort is used as an umbrella term for two different types of effort that can arise during listening. One of these types is processing effort, which is used to denote the utilization of "extra" mental processing resources in listening conditions that are adverse for an individual. A conceptual description is introduced how processing effort could be defined in terms of situational influences, the listener's auditory and cognitive resources, and the listener's personal state. Also, the proposed relationship between processing effort and subjectively perceived listening effort is discussed. Notably, previous research has shown that the availability of mental resources, as well as the ability to use them efficiently, changes over the course of adult aging. These common age-related changes in cognitive abilities and their neurocognitive organization are discussed in the context of the presented concept, especially regarding situations in which listening effort may be increased for older people.

  1. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E.; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related

  3. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  4. Measuring listening-related effort and fatigue in school-aged children using pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrigle, Ronan; Dawes, Piers; Stewart, Andrew J; Kuchinsky, Stefanie E; Munro, Kevin J

    2017-09-01

    Stress and fatigue from effortful listening may compromise well-being, learning, and academic achievement in school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) typical of those in school classrooms on listening effort (behavioral and pupillometric) and listening-related fatigue (self-report and pupillometric) in a group of school-aged children. A sample of 41 normal-hearing children aged 8-11years performed a narrative speech-picture verification task in a condition with recommended levels of background noise ("ideal": +15dB SNR) and a condition with typical classroom background noise levels ("typical": -2dB SNR). Participants showed increased task-evoked pupil dilation in the typical listening condition compared with the ideal listening condition, consistent with an increase in listening effort. No differences were found between listening conditions in terms of performance accuracy and response time on the behavioral task. Similarly, no differences were found between listening conditions in self-report and pupillometric markers of listening-related fatigue. This is the first study to (a) examine listening-related fatigue in children using pupillometry and (b) demonstrate physiological evidence consistent with increased listening effort while listening to spoken narratives despite ceiling-level task performance accuracy. Understanding the physiological mechanisms that underpin listening-related effort and fatigue could inform intervention strategies and ultimately mitigate listening difficulties in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relations among school students' self-determined motivation, perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao

    2009-12-01

    Guided by the self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive strength of self-determined motivation toward motivational outcomes (perceived enjoyment, perceived effort, physical activity behaviors) for 286 middle school students in physical education. Analyses indicated that intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and introjected regulation were positively related to students' enjoyment, perceived effort, and physical activity, whereas amotivation was negatively associated with students' enjoyment and perceived effort. The findings highlighted the importance of higher self-determined motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) in students' perceived enjoyment, effort, and physical activity behaviors. This study supports the use of self-determination theory to investigate students' motivational outcomes in school physical education.

  6. Evaluating penalized logistic regression models to predict Heat-Related Electric grid stress days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramer, L. M.; Rounds, J.; Burleyson, C. D.; Fortin, D.; Hathaway, J.; Rice, J.; Kraucunas, I.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the conditions associated with stress on the electricity grid is important in the development of contingency plans for maintaining reliability during periods when the grid is stressed. In this paper, heat-related grid stress and the relationship with weather conditions is examined using data from the eastern United States. Penalized logistic regression models were developed and applied to predict stress on the electric grid using weather data. The inclusion of other weather variables, such as precipitation, in addition to temperature improved model performance. Several candidate models and datasets were examined. A penalized logistic regression model fit at the operation-zone level was found to provide predictive value and interpretability. Additionally, the importance of different weather variables observed at different time scales were examined. Maximum temperature and precipitation were identified as important across all zones while the importance of other weather variables was zone specific. The methods presented in this work are extensible to other regions and can be used to aid in planning and development of the electrical grid.

  7. Business potentials related to smart grid. Issue paper - working group 5; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Erhvervspotentialer i Smart Grid. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauge, B. (Villawatt, Taastrup (Denmark)); Mortensen, E. (DI Energibranchen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Lyck, L.L. (DONG Energy A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)); Hillingsoee Stubberup, M. (Udenrigsministeriet. Invest in Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Baadsgaard Trolle, M. (Dansk Energi, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Lomholt Svensson, N. (Klima- og Energiministeriet, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Roemer Kofod, P. (ABB A/S, Skovlunde); Hauch, R. (IBM A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Cajus, S. (DI ITEK, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Stroem, S. (Vindmoelleindustrien, Frederiksberg (Denmark))

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 5 provides an immediate assessment of business potential at the sector level based on the recommendations contained in the reports of the working groups 1-4. The working group has only drawn preliminary conclusions regarding business opportunities that may arise as a result of the other network groups' recommendations. In particular three areas, Denmark has at present the potential to strengthen the Danish business potential: 1) System Solutions. The intelligent energy system is more about interaction between different system components than the components themselves. Here Denmark belongs to the world elite, including the extensive use of cogeneration and wind power; 2) Market Solutions. The Nordic electricity trading system ''Nord Pool'' is the most efficient market-based electricity system in the world, and Denmark has thus a good basis for creating market-based solutions for future power systems; 3) Large-scale demonstration environments creates opportunities for companies to test and refine their products, solutions and services. In Denmark, Energinet.dk and utility companies have opened up for companies to use the Danish network for testing solutions to real customers. More foreign players thus regard Denmark as an attractive market to test new technologies, partly because the Danish market is homogeneous and clear, and partly because Denmark in relation to the power system has a robust and well-managed network. Finally, the high share of fluctuating energy production helps to clarify the need for a flexible and intelligent power system. It is this combination of strengths that make Denmark a unique market for international companies to locate their

  8. 75 FR 62514 - Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Availability of Report on Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies.'' In this report... report entitled, ``Data Access and Privacy Issues Related to Smart Grid Technologies,'' DOE considered...

  9. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  10. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the “rewarding” impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in effort-related choice behavior. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA-depleted rats show a heightened sensitivity to response costs, especially ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:22287808

  11. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, K.M.; Lessells, C.M.; Komdeur, J.

    2005-01-01

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  12. Male reed buntings do not adjust parental effort in relation to extrapair paternity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, KM; Lessells, CM; Komdeur, J; Lessells, C(Kate). M.

    Parental effort is considered to be costly; therefore, males are expected to provide less care to unrelated offspring. Theoretical models suggest that males should either reduce their care to the entire brood or alternatively distinguish between related and unrelated nestlings and direct

  13. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    OpenAIRE

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenti...

  14. Perceived vocal fatigue and effort in relation to laryngeal functional measures in paresis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, Sheila V; Bielamowicz, Steven A

    2014-07-01

    To determine if differences in objective measures of laryngeal function can meaningfully explain different levels of self-perceptions of effort or fatigue in patients with vocal fold paresis. A retrospective chart review of 72 patients with vocal fold paresis diagnosed using laryngeal electromyography, who had either been observed (n=21), treated only by injection (n=24), or treated only by surgery (n=27). Before and after treatment/observation, patients' subjective ratings of severity of vocal effort and fatigue were assessed using the Glottal Function Index. Laryngeal function was assessed using maximum phonation time and translaryngeal flow. None of the variables demonstrated a significant linear change across time. Post hoc Tukey analyses following analysis of variance (ANOVA) found significant differences in flow among three groups, those rating symptoms of effort as no problem, moderate problem, or severe problem. Post hoc Tukey analyses following ANOVA found significant differences in the amount that flow changed among three groups, those demonstrating no difference, minor differences, or major differences in ratings of effort before and after treatment. Changes in reported symptom severity of effort were related to changes in translaryngeal midvowel flow that were not explained by passage of time. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly determine the expenditure of effort in project teams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojie Han

    Full Text Available The literature on team cooperation has neglected the effects of relative kindness intention on cooperation, which we measure by comparing the kindness intentions of an agent to her group members to the kindness shown by other members to this same agent. We argue that the agent's emotional reaction to material payoff inequity is not constant, but rather affected by her relative kindness intention. Then, we apply the model to team projects with multiple partners and investigate how inequity-aversion and relative kindness intention jointly influence team cooperation. We first consider the case of homogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are the same, and then consider the case of heterogeneous agents, where their marginal productivity levels and technical capacities are not the same. Our results show that inequity-aversion has no effect on effort expenditure in the former case, but does affect it in the latter case. The consideration of relative kindness intention may impact the agents' optimal cooperative effort expenditure when their technical capacities are different. In addition, it is beneficial for team cooperation, and might not only reduce the negative impact but also enhance the positive impact of inequity-aversion on the agents' effort expenditures.

  16. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children's effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Chang, Lei; Ma, Yue; Huang, Xiaorui

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.

  17. Relations of parenting style to Chinese children’s effortful control, ego resilience, and maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EISENBERG, NANCY; CHANG, LEI; MA, YUE; HUANG, XIAORUI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders’ effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children’s EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children’s internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children’s externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children’s ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems. PMID:19338693

  18. Implicit activation of the aging stereotype influences effort-related cardiovascular response: The role of incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiriou, Athina; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2017-09-01

    Based on previous research on implicit effects on effort-related cardiovascular response and evidence that aging is associated with cognitive difficulties, we tested whether the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence young individuals' effort-mobilization during cognitive performance. Young participants performed an objectively difficult short-term memory task during which they processed elderly vs. youth primes and expected low vs. high incentive for success. When participants processed elderly primes during the task, we expected cardiovascular response to be weak in the low-incentive condition and strong in the high-incentive condition. Unaffected by incentive, effort in the youth-prime condition should fall in between the two elderly-prime cells. Effects on cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and heart rate (HR) largely supported these predictions. The present findings show for the first time that the mere activation of the aging stereotype can systematically influence effort mobilization during cognitive performance-even in young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [The US Government's effort in decreasing the cost of sleep-related problems and its outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You Hwi; Nishino, Seiji

    2008-09-01

    Sleepiness and inattention caused by sleep and circadian rhythm disorders or inadequate sleep habits adversely affect workers in many industries as well as the general public, and these disorders are likely to lead to public health and safety problems and adversely affect civilian life. Evidence is accumulating that these sleep related problems are contributing factors not only in many errors of judgement and accidents, but also related to some highly prevalent diseases, such as diabetes, obesity and hypertension. For each of these societal concerns, sleep science must be translated to the general public and to those in policy positions for improving public policy and public health awareness. In the United State, the National Commission for Sleep Disorders Research (established by the US Congress in 1998) completed a comprehensive report of its findings in 1993 to address these problems. The commission estimated that sleep disorders and sleepiness cost the United States $50 billion and called for permanent and concentrated efforts in expanding basic and clinical research on sleep disorders as well as in improving public awareness of the dangers of inadequate sleep hygiene. As a result of these efforts, the number of sleep centers has increased steadily and the total of the NIH (National Institutes of Health) funding for sleep research has also grown. In response to this progress in the US (together with appeals by Japanese Sleep Specialists), the Science Council of Japan published "The Recommendation of Creation of Sleep Science and Progression of Research" in 2002. In this article, we introduce and detail to the Japanese readers the US Government's efforts focusing on the report of the National Commission for Sleep Disorders Research, and we believe that the US Government's effort is a good example for the Japanese society to follow.

  20. Evaluation of Risks Related To Russian Power Grid Companies by Foreign Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria L. Val'kova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the impact of the current crisis on evaluation of risks related to Russian power grid companies by foreign investors as well as on prospects of raising foreign capital. The current situation resulted in a considerable deterioration of investment climate in Russia as well as in aggravation of industry-specific problems. Inflation growth, devaluation of the national currency, GDP decrease, drop in electricity consumption and the crisis in the banking sector negatively impact the investment profile of the country. This leads to increased risk premium for foreign capital investments in any type of Russian assets. At the same time industry-specific problems augmented as well. Those are primarily lack of transparency in regulation, which is subject to constant changes, growth in overdue receivables, limited access to modern technologies. All of the above had a considerable impact on the perception of Russian risks by international investors. A comprehensive approach is needed to improve the investment climate in the country and this would be largely defined by the general macroeconomic development of the Russian Federation and relations with other states. Consistent strategy and integrated actions of the Government and respective Ministries are of particular importance. As for the industry-specific factors, transparent and well-balanced long-term tariff system is the key condition for sustainable improvement of the situation in the sector, according to the major industry participants and leading experts. Thus, the article highlights changes in investor perception of the Russian power grid sector as well as relative impact on the industry development prospects. This analysis is the basis for further elaboration of recommendations regarding easing off of the crisis impact on the power grid companies as well as for assessment of prospects of meeting strategic industry development objectives.

  1. Industry's efforts toward technology development related to aging management of PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    The term, 'aging plants', which refers to nuclear power plants operating more than 30 years, has become popular among local residents around nuclear power plants as well as among the media. The term 'aging' was first used in the title of the document issued by Agency of Natural Resources and Energy in 1996, 'The Basic Concept of Aging Management'. In addressing aging degradation, it was a matter of question which measure of time (date, month or year) should be used as a unit to consider an events. Although the aging plant was defined as a plant operating more than 30 years, the mode and timing of aging degradation depend on the environment and service conditions under which a component has been operating. Previous efforts made by related parties have contributed to the prevention of potential aging events which may challenge the reactor safety. Owing to such efforts, causes of some events attributable to defective design have been clarified and preventive maintenance measures, including the replacement and mitigation, have been taken accordingly. As a result, the number of events resulting from such aging phenomena has been reduced. On other other hand, the events caused by aging phenomena attributable to manufacturing processes (welding, surface treatment, etc.), which hardly emerge, are slightly increasing. There have been many cases that a shorter weld line due to lack of penetration in the narrow gap has been led to fatigue cracking. More recently, incidents of stress corrosion cracking due to work hardening and local tensile stresses on the surface have been observed. It should be noted that an effort to analyze not only the phenomena but also the mechanisms of the above events to clarify the root causes can improve the quality of preventive maintenance by means of rolling-out the analytical results to relevant plants. This paper introduces valuable experiences with the application of the results of technology development regarding to aging degradation of

  2. Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1981-09-01

    The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

  3. Grid-search Moment Tensor Estimation: Implementation and CTBT-related Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, J. C.; Baker, B. I.; Rozhkov, M.; Friberg, P. A.; Leifer, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    This abstract presents a review work related to moment tensor estimation for Expert Technical Analysis at the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. In this context of event characterization, estimation of key source parameters provide important insights into the nature of failure in the earth. For example, if the recovered source parameters are indicative of a shallow source with large isotropic component then one conclusion is that it is a human-triggered explosive event. However, an important follow-up question in this application is - does an alternative hypothesis like a deeper source with a large double couple component explain the data approximately as well as the best solution? Here we address the issue of both finding a most likely source and assessing its uncertainty. Using the uniform moment tensor discretization of Tape and Tape (2015) we exhaustively interrogate and tabulate the source eigenvalue distribution (i.e., the source characterization), tensor orientation, magnitude, and source depth. The benefit of the grid-search is that we can quantitatively assess the extent to which model parameters are resolved. This provides a valuable opportunity during the assessment phase to focus interpretation on source parameters that are well-resolved. Another benefit of the grid-search is that it proves to be a flexible framework where different pieces of information can be easily incorporated. To this end, this work is particularly interested in fitting teleseismic body waves and regional surface waves as well as incorporating teleseismic first motions when available. Being that the moment tensor search methodology is well-established we primarily focus on the implementation and application. We present a highly scalable strategy for systematically inspecting the entire model parameter space. We then focus on application to regional and teleseismic data recorded during a handful of natural and anthropogenic events, report on the grid-search optimum, and

  4. Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-11-01

    At approximately 30, 42, and 54 months of age (N = 231), the relations among children's externalizing symptoms, intrusive maternal parenting, and children's effortful control (EC) were examined. Both intrusive parenting and low EC have been related to psychopathology, but children's externalizing problems and low EC might affect the quality of parenting and one another. Mothers' intrusive behavior with their children was assessed with observations, children's EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, and children's externalizing symptoms were assessed with mothers', fathers', and caregivers' reports. In a structural equation panel model, bidirectional relations between intrusive parenting and EC were found: EC at 30 and 42 months predicted low levels of intrusive parenting a year later, controlling for prior levels of parenting and vice versa. Moreover, high levels of children's externalizing problems at both 30 and 42 months negatively predicted EC a year later, controlling for prior levels of EC. Although externalizing problems positively predicted high EC over time, this appeared to be a suppression effect because these variables had a strong negative pattern in the zero-order correlations. Moreover, when controlling for the stability of intrusive parenting, EC, and externalizing (all exhibited significant stability across time) and the aforementioned cross-lagged predictive paths, EC and externalizing problems were still negatively related within the 54-month assessment. The findings are consistent with the view that children's externalizing behavior undermines their EC and contributes to intrusive mothering and that relations between intrusive parenting and EC are bidirectional across time. Thus, interventions that focus on modifying children's externalizing problems (as well as the quality of parenting) might affect the quality of parenting they receive and, hence, subsequent problems with adjustment.

  5. A Review on Microdialysis Calibration Methods: the Theory and Current Related Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Chun Min; Enche Ab Rahim, Siti Kartini; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Abdullah, Norazharuddin Shah

    2017-07-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling technique first introduced in the late 1950s. Although this technique was originally designed to study endogenous compounds in animal brain, it is later modified to be used in other organs. Additionally, microdialysis is not only able to collect unbound concentration of compounds from tissue sites; this technique can also be used to deliver exogenous compounds to a designated area. Due to its versatility, microdialysis technique is widely employed in a number of areas, including biomedical research. However, for most in vivo studies, the concentration of substance obtained directly from the microdialysis technique does not accurately describe the concentration of the substance on-site. In order to relate the results collected from microdialysis to the actual in vivo condition, a calibration method is required. To date, various microdialysis calibration methods have been reported, with each method being capable to provide valuable insights of the technique itself and its applications. This paper aims to provide a critical review on various calibration methods used in microdialysis applications, inclusive of a detailed description of the microdialysis technique itself to start with. It is expected that this article shall review in detail, the various calibration methods employed, present examples of work related to each calibration method including clinical efforts, plus the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.

  6. Grid Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.

  7. Exploring Transition of Large Technological Systems through Relational Data - A Study of The Danish Smart Grid Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    in the transformation process. While they can contribute with resources, capabilities, and their connections to the development of the new grid infrastructure, they may also impede innovation given their ownership of and assumed interest in the established system. These insights should be considered in policy...... transformation of the energy grid infrastructure. The focus is set on how the interplay between established and new technologies and actors determines the direction and outcomes of innovation in large technological systems (such as the Danish smart grid). Results of several chapters indicate that in the Danish......Combining elements form the Science, Technology and Society (STS) tradition with the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework and utilising unstructured and relational data as well as novel analysis tools, this thesis explores the development of the Danish smart grid and the associated...

  8. The relation of attachment security status to effortful self-regulation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallini, Susanna; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Morelli, Mara; Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2018-05-01

    Secure attachment relationships have been described as having a regulatory function in regard to children's emotions, social cognition, and behavior. Although some theorists and researchers have argued that attachment affects children's self-regulation, most attachment theorists have not strongly emphasized this association. The goal of the current meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of the relation between attachment security status and effortful control (EC)/top-down self-regulation in children up to 18 years of age. One hundred six papers met the inclusion criteria and 101 independent samples were used in analyses. When secure attachment status was compared with insecure attachment status, a significant relation (effect size [ES]) with EC favoring children with a secure attachment was found (100 studies; 20,350 participants; r = .20). A stronger relation was found when the same coder evaluated attachment than when the coder was different and when the measure of attachment was continuous; other moderators were not significant. Securely attached children were higher in EC than their avoidant (r = .10) or resistant (r = .17) counterparts. Children with organized attachments were higher in EC than those with disorganized attachments (r = .17), although this finding could be due to publication bias. For some comparisons of subgroups (B vs. A, B vs. C, and/or D vs. all others), moderation was found by source of information (higher ES for same reporter), age at assessment of EC and/or attachment (higher ES at older ages), method of attachment (lower ES for observational measures), time difference between assessments or research design (higher ESs for smaller time differences and concurrent findings), and published versus unpublished studies (higher ES for unpublished studies for A vs. B). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Chinese Children's Effortful Control and Dispositional Anger/Frustration: Relations to Parenting Styles and Children's Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…

  10. Transfusion-related adverse reactions: From institutional hemovigilance effort to National Hemovigilance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Vasudev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study we have evaluated the various adverse reactions related to transfusion occurring in our institution as a pilot institutional effort toward a hemovigilance program. This study will also help in understanding the problems faced by blood banks/Transfusion Medicine departments in implementing an effective hemovigilance program. Materials and Methods: All the adverse reactions related to transfusion of whole blood and its components in various clinical specialties were studied for a period of 1 year. Any transfusion-related adverse event was worked up in accordance with guidelines laid down by the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS and departmental standard operating procedures. Results: During the study period from November 1, 2011 to October 31, 2012, 45812 components were issued [30939 WB/PRBC; 12704 fresh frozen plasma (FFP; 2169 platelets]. Risk estimation per 1000 units of red cells (WB/PRBC transfused was estimated to be: 0.8 for febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR, 0.7 for allergic reaction, 0.19 for acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AcHTR, 0.002 for anaphylactoid reactions, 0.1 for bacterial sepsis, and 0.06 for hypervolemia and hypocalcemia. 0.09 is the risk for delayed transfusion reaction and 0.03 is the risk for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI. Risk estimate per 1,000 units of platelets transfused was estimated to be 1.38 for FNHTR, 1.18 for allergic reaction, and 1 in case of bacterial sepsis. Risk estimation per 1,000 units of FFP was estimated to be 0.15 for FNHTR and 0.2 for allergic reactions. Conclusions: Factors such as clerical checks at various levels, improvement in blood storage conditions outside blood banks, leukodepletion, better inventory management, careful donor screening, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events may decrease transfusion-related adverse events. Better coordination between transfusion specialists and various clinical

  11. Effort Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities Related to an Arm Stretching Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Wen Liang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “Effort” axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of a 43-year-old, previously healthy, male who developed right axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis, which was possibly associated with an exercise involving arm extension and shaking in a posture of shoulder abduction and outstretched for 10 minutes on 2 consecutive days. The condition improved but returned with increased severity when he resumed the exercise after a 2-day break, when he presented with a swollen and bluish arm at the emergency department. Sonographic examination showed moderate thrombotic stenosis of the right axillary vein. Effort thrombosis was diagnosed after ruling out associated coagulopathy or concomitant malignancy. External compression of the accessory ribs or lymph nodes were not detected. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy for 6 months. Only partial resolution of thrombosis was achieved after 6 months of anticoagulant therapy, but pulmonary embolism did not occur during 18 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that, although unusual, Paget-Schroetter syndrome can occur in a healthy patient as a result of mild to moderate exercise.

  12. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  13. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  14. Foraging effort in relation to the constraints of reproduction in free-ranging albatrosses

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Scott A; Costa, D P; Weimerskirch, H

    2003-01-01

    1. Theoretical models predict that animals will vary their effort to maximize different currencies such as time and energy when the constraints of reproduction change during breeding, but this has been poorly studied in free-ranging animals. 2. Foraging effort (energy per unit time) was examined by comparing mass changes, foraging costs and activity-specific behaviours of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans Linnaeus) during the incubation and chick-brooding stages. In 1998, 38 albatrosses...

  15. Monetary incentive moderates the effect of implicit fear on effort-related cardiovascular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Mathieu; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2016-05-01

    Integrating the implicit-affect-primes-effort model (Gendolla, 2012, 2015) with the principles of motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989) we investigated if the effort mobilization deficit observed in people exposed to fear primes (vs. anger primes) in a difficult short-term memory task could be compensated by high monetary incentive. Effort was operationalized as cardiac response. We expected that fear primes should lead to the strongest cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) reactivity when incentive was high (high subjective demand and high justified effort) and to the weakest response when incentive was low (high subjective demand but only low justified effort). PEP reactivity in the anger-prime conditions should fall in between (high but feasible demand). We obtained the predicted pattern on responses of PEP and systolic blood pressure. The present findings show for the first time that the effort mobilization deficit of participants exposed to fear primes in a difficult cognitive task could be compensated by a high incentive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. AIRS Observations Based Evaluation of Relative Climate Feedback Strengths on a GCM Grid-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, G. I.; Susskind, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate feedback strengths, especially those associated with moist processes, still have a rather wide range in GCMs, the primary tools to predict future climate changes associated with man's ever increasing influences on our planet. Here, we make use of the first 10 years of AIRS observations to evaluate interrelationships/correlations of atmospheric moist parameter anomalies computed from AIRS Version 5 Level-3 products, and demonstrate their usefulness to assess relative feedback strengths. Although one may argue about the possible usability of shorter-term, observed climate parameter anomalies for estimating the strength of various (mostly moist processes related) feedbacks, recent works, in particular analyses by Dessler [2008, 2010], have demonstrated their usefulness in assessing global water vapor and cloud feedbacks. First, we create AIRS-observed monthly anomaly time-series (ATs) of outgoing longwave radiation, water vapor, clouds and temperature profile over a 10-year long (Sept. 2002 through Aug. 2012) period using 1x1 degree resolution (a common GCM grid-scale). Next, we evaluate the interrelationships of ATs of the above parameters with the corresponding 1x1 degree, as well as global surface temperature ATs. The latter provides insight comparable with more traditional climate feedback definitions (e. g., Zelinka and Hartmann, 2012) whilst the former is related to a new definition of "local (in surface temperature too) feedback strengths" on a GCM grid-scale. Comparing the correlation maps generated provides valuable new information on the spatial distribution of relative climate feedback strengths. We argue that for GCMs to be trusted for predicting longer-term climate variability, they should be able to reproduce these observed relationships/metrics as closely as possible. For this time period the main climate "forcing" was associated with the El Niño/La Niña variability (e. g., Dessler, 2010), so these assessments may not be descriptive of longer

  17. Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-06-18

    The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits

  18. Smart grid demonstrators and experiments in France: Economic assessments of smart grids. Challenges, methods, progress status and demonstrators; Contribution of 'smart grid' demonstrators to electricity transport and market architectures; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the distribution network. Focus on the integration of decentralised production; Challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators to the evolution of providing-related professions and to consumption practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, Thierry; Belhomme, Regine; Nekrassov, Andrei; Chartres, Sophie; Chiappini, Florent; Drouineau, Mathilde; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Leonard, Cedric; Bena, Michel; Buhagiar, Thierry; Lemaitre, Christian; Janssen, Tanguy; Guedou, Benjamin; Viana, Maria Sebastian; Malarange, Gilles; Hadjsaid, Nouredine; Petit, Marc; Lehec, Guillaume; Jahn, Rafael; Gehain, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of four articles which give an overview of challenges and contributions of smart grid demonstrators for the French electricity system according to different perspectives and different stakeholders. These articles present the first lessons learned from these demonstrators in terms of technical and technological innovations, of business and regulation models, and of customer behaviour and acceptance. More precisely, the authors discuss economic assessments of smart grids with an overview of challenges, methods, progress status and existing smart grid programs in the World, comment the importance of the introduction of intelligence at hardware, software and market level, highlight the challenges and contributions of smart grids for the integration of decentralised production, and discuss how smart grid demonstrators impact providing-related professions and customer consumption practices

  19. Breaking the Double-Edged Sword of Effort/Trying Hard: Developmental Equilibrium and Longitudinal Relations among Effort, Achievement, and Academic Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Guo, Jiesi; Arens, A. Katrin; Murayama, Kou

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the classic research of Nicholls (1976) and others, effort has been recognized as a double-edged sword: while it might enhance achievement, it undermines academic self-concept (ASC). However, there has not been a thorough evaluation of the longitudinal reciprocal effects of effort, ASC, and achievement, in the context of modern…

  20. The role of sleep in the relation between young children’s mobile media use and effortful control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nathanson, A.I.; Beyens, I.

    We explored the relations among young children's mobile media use, sleep, and a form of self‐regulation, temperamental effortful control (EC), among a national sample of 402 mothers who completed an online survey. We found that the relation between mobile media use and EC was moderated by children's

  1. Identification of gaps in the national research effort related to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.; Plews, M.; Kane, P.

    1987-08-01

    Based on papers submitted to the Government's Radioactivity Research and Environmental Monitoring Committee (RadREM), this report presents a consolidated summary of perceived research requirements for 1988/89 and a comparison with the research proposed for that period. On this basis, discussion is included of gaps in the national research effort to 1989, duplication of research plans and areas where better co-ordination or funding of research might be appropriate. (author)

  2. Reproductive performance and gestational effort in relation to dietary fatty acids in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Siutz, Carina; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Dietary saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can highly affect reproductive functions by providing additional energy, modulating the biochemical properties of tissues, and hormone secretions. In precocial mammals such as domestic guinea pigs the offspring is born highly developed. Gestation might be the most critical reproductive period in this species and dietary fatty acids may profoundly influence the gestational effort. We therefore determined the hormonal status at conception, the reproductive success, and body mass changes during gestation in guinea pigs maintained on diets high in PUFAs or SFAs, or a control diet. The diets significantly affected the females' plasma fatty acid status at conception, while cortisol and estrogen levels did not differ among groups. SFA females exhibited a significantly lower body mass and litter size, while the individual birth mass of pups did not differ among groups and a general higher pup mortality rate in larger litters was diminished by PUFAs and SFAs. The gestational effort, determined by a mother's body mass gain during gestation, increased with total litter mass, whereas this increase was lowest in SFA and highest in PUFA individuals. The mother's body mass after parturition did not differ among groups and was positively affected by the total litter mass in PUFA females. While SFAs reduce the litter size, but also the gestational effort as a consequence, PUFA supplementation may contribute to an adjustment of energy accumulations to the total litter mass, which may both favor a mother's body condition at parturition and perhaps increase the offspring survival at birth.

  3. Research and development efforts relative to superconducting materials. Final report. [Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, E; Beishcher, P; Marancik, W; Lucariello, R; Young, M

    1976-04-01

    Three processes for the production of low-loss superconducting tapes of Nb/sub 3/Sn were investigated. They are the rolled-bronze process, the electron beam (EB) bronze deposition process, and the high-rate sputtering process. Shortly after the start of the investigation, effort on the last two processes was suspended because the process-development time that would be needed to arrive at a suitable transmission-line tape appeared most likely to be the shortest with the rolled-bronze process. Long lengths of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were prepared by the rolled-bronze process from extruded and rolled bronze-clad niobium billets. Tapes were stabilized by removing the bronze layer after reaction and then coating the exposed Nb/sub 3/Sn with high-purity copper by EB evaporation. Several meters of high quality Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced by the rolled-bronze process. Even when the tapes were stabilized with copper, the losses were as low as 1.8 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/ at 4.2 K and a surface current density of 500 rms A/cm. Despite early curtailment of the effort on the EB bronze-deposition process, short samples of Nb/sub 3/Sn tapes were produced.

  4. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Blanchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effect of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks is however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effect of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces revealed that individuals cycled for significantly longer (178 s, p = .04 when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 x 5 (condition x iso-time ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the time to exhaustion (TTE test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = .04. In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer (399 s, p = .04 TTE in comparison to inaction words (p = .04. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = .03. These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

  5. Bodily Effort Enhances Learning and Metacognition: Investigating the Relation Between Physical Effort and Cognition Using Dual-Process Models of Embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Rey, Günter Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Recent embodiment research revealed that cognitive processes can be influenced by bodily cues. Some of these cues were found to elicit disparate effects on cognition. For instance, weight sensations can inhibit problem-solving performance, but were shown to increase judgments regarding recall probability (judgments of learning; JOLs) in memory tasks. We investigated the effects of physical effort on learning and metacognition by conducting two studies in which we varied whether a backpack was worn or not while 20 nouns were to be learned. Participants entered a JOL for each word and completed a recall test. Experiment 1 ( N = 18) revealed that exerting physical effort by wearing a backpack led to higher JOLs for easy nouns, without a notable effect on difficult nouns. Participants who wore a backpack reached higher recall scores. Therefore, physical effort may act as a form of desirable difficulty during learning. In Experiment 2 ( N = 30), the influence of physical effort on JOL s and learning disappeared when more difficult nouns were to be learned, implying that a high cognitive load may diminish bodily effects. These findings suggest that physical effort mainly influences superficial modes of thought and raise doubts concerning the explanatory power of metaphor-centered accounts of embodiment for higher-level cognition.

  6. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    of Major Systems Involved in Processing and Reporting Navy Military Payroll 8 Figure 3: Management Representation Letter Timeline for the April 2013...Figure 3: Management Representation Letter Timeline for the April 2013 Military Payroll Examination Without a policy that addresses...DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related

  7. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  8. Public Relations Efforts for the Third World: Images in the News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Robert B.; Manheim, Jarol B.

    1985-01-01

    Found that, after Argentina, Indonesia, Korea, the Philippines, and Turkey hired U. S. public relations consultants, their news image in the "New York Times" improved in positive coverage and portrayal as more cooperative nations. (PD)

  9. Aspects related to replacing HV lines by HV cables on resonant grid behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Steennis, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    At different places worldwide EHV/HV connections partly consist of sections with underground power cables. Presently in the west of the Netherlands 20 km (i.e. 240 km single phase in total) of power cables is planned in a new 380 kV connection (Randstad380 project) grid to ensure sufficient

  10. Monitoring Urban Stream Restoration Efforts in Relation to Flood Behavior Along Minebank Run, Towson, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Urban stream restoration efforts are commonly undertaken to combat channel degradation and restore natural stream hydrology. We examine changes in flood patterns along an approximately 1.5-mile reach of Minebank Run, located in Towson, MD, by comparing pre-restoration morphology from surveys conducted in 2001, post-restoration morphology in 2007, and current conditions in 2017 following damage to the restoration project from persistent flooding. Hydraulic modeling was conducted in HEC-RAS 2D using three alternative scenarios: 1) topographic contours from a 2001 survey of pre-restoration topography combined with 2005 LiDAR, 2) 2007 survey combined with 2005 LiDAR data representing the post-restoration channel morphology, and 3) a March 2017 DEM of current channel conditions. The 2017 DEM was created using Structure from Motion (SfM) from high resolution 4K video collected via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flights at a resolution of 0.05 meters. Flood hydrographs from a USGS stream gage located within the study reach as well as a simulated hydrograph of the 100-year storm event were routed through the pre-restoration, post-restoration, and current modeled terrain and analyzed for changes in water-surface elevation and depth, inundation extent, 2-d velocity fields, and translation vs. attenuation of the flood wave to assess the net impact on potential flood hazards. In addition, our study demonstrates that SfM is a quick and inexpensive method for collecting topographic data for hydrologic modeling, assessing stream characteristics including channel bed roughness, and for examining short term changes of channel morphology at a very fine scale.

  11. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression.

  12. Novel grid combined with peripheral distortion correction for ultra-widefield image grading of age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellers P

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Oellers,1,* Inês Laíns,1,2,* Steven Mach,1 Shady Garas,1 Ivana K Kim,1 Demetrios G Vavvas,1 Joan W Miller,1 Deeba Husain,1 John B Miller1 1Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD often harbor pathological changes in the retinal periphery and perimacular region. These extramacular changes have not been well classified, but may be phenotypically and functionally relevant. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a novel grid to systematically study peripheral retinal abnormalities in AMD using geometric distortion-corrected ultra-widefield (UWF imaging.Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational case series. Consecutive patients with AMD without any other coexisting vitreoretinal disease and control patients over age 50 without AMD or any other vitreoretinal disease were imaged using Optos 200 Tx. Captured 200° UWF images were corrected for peripheral geometric distortion using Optos transformation software. A newly developed grid to study perimacular and peripheral abnormalities in AMD was then projected onto the images.Results: Peripheral and perimacular changes such as drusen, retinal pigment epithelium changes and atrophy were found in patients with AMD. The presented grid in conjunction with geometric distortion-corrected UWF images allowed for systematic study of these peripheral changes in AMD.Conclusion: We present a novel grid to study peripheral and posterior pole changes in AMD. The grid is unique in that it adds a perimacular zone, which may be important in characterizing certain phenotypes in AMD. Our UWF images were corrected for geometric peripheral distortion to accurately reflect the anatomical dimensions of the retina. This grid offers a reliable and reproducible foundation

  13. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  14. Successful community relations efforts at the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, James E. Jr.; Meyer, Linda L.

    1992-01-01

    The Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Community Relations Program involves many participants from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Prime Management Contractor (PMC) composed of M.K. Ferguson and Jacobs Engineering. The proactive community relations plan exceeds the compliance requirements of NEPA and CERCLA and is coordinated by a three-person staff of professional communicators. The program permeates many of the operating decisions and the result has been public acceptance of the Project and its actions to date, which has been to conduct remedial actions that will place the site in a radiologically and chemically safe condition, eliminating potential hazards to the public and environment. (author)

  15. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  17. Multiple song features are related to paternal effort in common nightingales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Conny; Weiss, Michael; Kipper, Silke

    2015-06-18

    Sexual ornamentation may be related to the degree of paternal care and the 'good-parent' model predicts that male secondary characters honestly advertise paternal investment. In most birds, males are involved in bringing up the young and successful reproduction highly depends on male contribution during breeding. In passerines, male song is indicative of male attributes and for few species it has been shown that song features also signal paternal investment to females. Males of nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos are famous for their elaborate singing but so far there is only little knowledge on the role of male song in intersexual communication, and it is unknown whether male song predicts male parenting abilities. Using RFID technology to record male feeding visits to the nest, we found that nightingale males substantially contribute to chick feeding. Also, we analyzed male nocturnal song with focus on song features that have been shown to signal male quality before. We found that several song features, namely measures of song complexity and song sequencing, were correlated with male feeding rates. Moreover, the combination of these song features had strong predictive power for male contribution to nestling feeding. Since male nightingales are involved in chick rearing, paternal investment might be a crucial variable for female mate choice in this species. Females may assess future paternal care on the basis of song features identified in our study and thus these features may have evolved to signal direct benefits to females. Additionally we underline the importance of multiple acoustic cues for female mating decisions especially in species with complex song such as the nightingale.

  18. Safe Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  19. Smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Bae

    2001-11-01

    This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.

  20. Public acceptance and preferences related to renewable energy and grid expansion policy: Empirical insights for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, Valentin; Hall, Margeret; Weinhardt, Christof; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of renewable energy sources (RES) in many European countries brings about transmission grid expansion requirements. While the transition towards RES-based energy systems is largely perceived positively in general, locally both RES and grid expansion are often confronted with a lack of public acceptance. Using Germany as a case study, we analyse public acceptance of energy infrastructure and its main drivers on local vs. national levels. For this purpose, we conducted a nationally representative survey. Our results show that, on a national level, the acceptance of RES is very high and there is also a high acceptance of grid expansion if it helps to increase the share of RES in the system. In terms of local acceptance problems that may arise for most considered technologies, concerns about landscape modification turn out to be the main driving factor. Moreover, the distance between places of residence and places of energy infrastructure construction is crucial. While acceptance or rejection of technologies will never be entirely tangible or explicable, we find the explicability of rejections to be lowest for new technologies. Finally, age and education turn out to be the most relevant socio-demographic variables determining the participants' acceptance. - Highlights: • A survey to understand drivers of energy technology acceptance was conducted. • Participants were asked to rank energy policy objectives. • Strong differences between acceptance on a national vs. a local level were found. • Landscape modification is the most important factor driving the local acceptance. • Age and education turned out to be the most relevant socio-demographic factors.

  1. Chimera Grid Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.

  2. Gritty people try harder: grit and effort-related cardiac autonomic activity during an active coping challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional composition of epifauna in the south-eastern North Sea in relation to habitat characteristics and fishing effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Hermann; Diekmann, Rabea; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of ecosystem functioning is essential to describe the ecological status of ecosystems and is therefore directly requested in international directives. There is a lack of knowledge regarding functional aspects of benthic communities and their environmental and anthropogenic driving forces in the southern North Sea. This study linked functional composition of epibenthic communities to environmental conditions and fishing effort and investigated spatial correlations between habitat characteristics to gain insight into potential synergistic and/or cumulative effects. Functional composition of epifauna was assessed by using biological trait analysis (BTA), which considered 15 ecological traits of 54 species. Functional composition was related to ten predictor variables derived from sediment composition, bottom temperature and salinity, hydrodynamics, annual primary production and fishing effort. Our results revealed significantly different functional composition between the Dogger Bank, the Oyster Ground, the West and North Frisian coast. Mobility, feeding type, size and adult longevity were the most important traits differentiating the communities. A high proportion of trait modalities related to an opportunistic life mode were obvious in coastal areas especially at the West Frisian coast and in the area of the Frisian Front indicating disturbed communities. In contrast, functional composition in the Dogger Bank area indicated undisturbed communities with prevalence of large, long-lived and permanently attached species being sensitive towards disturbance such as fishing. Tidal stress, mud content of sediments, salinity, stratification and fishing effort were found to be the most important habitat characteristics shaping functional composition. Strong correlations were found between variables, especially between those which changed gradually from the coast to offshore areas including fishing effort. Unfavourable extremes of these factors in coastal areas

  4. The Relations of Temperament Reactivity and Effortful Control to Children’s Adjustment Problems in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The relations of parents’ and teachers’ reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children’s externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both cultures, low effortful control and high anger–irritability were associated with high externalizing problems, although the relations were stronger in the Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. Low positive emotionality was associated with high internalizing problems in both cultures. However, high positive emotionality was associated with noncomorbid externalizing problems (teachers’ reports) in the Chinese sample but not in the U.S. sample. These findings suggest that there are considerable cross-cultural similarities in the temperament-adjustment associations, although some cross-cultural differences might exist. Implications of the findings for the detection and intervention of adjustment problems in Chinese children are discussed. PMID:19413428

  5. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch

    2008-07-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.

  7. Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, L; Schulz, M

    2008-01-01

    Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards

  8. Impact of stimulus-related factors and hearing impairment on listening effort as indicated by pupil dilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlenforst, Barbara; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has reported effects of masker type and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as indicated by the peak pupil dilation (PPD) relative to baseline during speech recognition. At about 50% correct sentence recognition performance, increasing SNRs generally results...... in declining PPDs, indicating reduced effort. However, the decline in PPD over SNRs has been observed to be less pronounced for hearing-impaired (HI) compared to normal-hearing (NH) listeners. The presence of a competing talker during speech recognition generally resulted in larger PPDs as compared......-talker masker) on the PPD during speech perception. Twenty-five HI and 32 age-matched NH participants listened to sentences across a broad range of SNRs, masked with speech from a single talker (-25 dB to +15 dB SNR) or with stationary noise (-12 dB to +16 dB). Correct sentence recognition scores and pupil...

  9. CMS Results of Grid-related activities using the early deployed LCG Implementations

    CERN Document Server

    Coviello, Tommaso; De Filippis, Nicola; Donvito, Giacinto; Maggi, Giorgio; Pierro, A; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Capiluppi, Paolo; Fanfani, Alessandra; Grandi, Claudio; Maroney, Owen; Nebrensky, H; Donno, Flavia; Jank, Werner; Sciabà, Andrea; Sinanis, Nick; Colling, David; Tallini, Hugh; MacEvoy, Barry C; Wang, Shaowen; Kaiser, Joseph; Osman, Asif; Charlot, Claude; Semenjouk, I; Biasotto, Massimo; Fantinel, Sergio; Corvo, Marco; Fanzago, Federica; Mazzucato, Mirco; Verlato, Marco; Go, Apollo; Khan Chia Ming; Andreozzi, S; Cavalli, A; Ciaschini, V; Ghiselli, A; Italiano, A; Spataro, F; Vistoli, C; Tortone, G

    2004-01-01

    The CMS Experiment is defining its Computing Model and is experimenting and testing the new distributed features offered by many Grid Projects. This report describes use by CMS of the early-deployed systems of LCG (LCG-0 and LCG-1). Most of the used features here discussed came from the EU implemented middleware, even if some of the tested capabilities were in common with the US developed middleware. This report describes the simulation of about 2 million of CMS detector events, which were generated as part of the official CMS Data Challenge 04 (Pre-Challenge-Production). The simulations were done on a CMS-dedicated testbed (CMS-LCG-0), where an ad-hoc modified version of the LCG-0 middleware was deployed and where the CMS Experiment had a complete control, and on the official early LCG delivered system (with the LCG-1 version). Modifications to the CMS simulation tools for events produc tion where studied and achieved, together with necessary adaptations of the middleware services. Bilateral feedback (betwee...

  10. Young adult social smokers: their co-use of tobacco and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lee, Youn O; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-12-01

    Young adults frequently report social smoking. This study examined the relationship between different social smoking definitions and the co-use of cigarettes and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts. Cross-sectional data were collected at bars using randomized time location sampling among young adults aged 21-26 in San Diego, California from 2010 to 2011 (73% response rate). Multivariable logistic regression examined if current smoking and quit attempts were associated with tobacco-related attitudes, and whether social smoking self-identification or behavior was associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, tobacco-related attitudes, quit attempts, or quitline use. Among 537 current smokers, 80% self-identified and 49% behaved as social smokers. Social smoking self-identification was positively associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, and quit attempts. Social smoking behavior was negatively associated with tobacco marketing receptivity, quit attempts, and quitline use. Tobacco-related attitudes were associated with smoking but did not generally differ by social smoking status. Identification and behavior as a social smoker have opposing associations with co-use of cigarettes and alcohol and quit attempts. Tobacco cessation programs for self-identified social smokers should address co-use. Interventions denormalizing the tobacco industry or emphasizing the health effects of temporary smoking and secondhand smoke may address smoking among young adult bar patrons regardless of social smoking status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A fast apparent horizon finder for three-dimensional Cartesian grids in numerical relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornburg, Jonathan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-01-21

    In 3 + 1 numerical simulations of dynamic black-hole spacetimes, it is useful to be able to find the apparent horizon(s) (AH) in each slice of a time evolution. A number of AH finders are available, but they often take many minutes to run, so they are too slow to be practically usable at each time step. Here I present a new AH finder, AHFINDERDIRECT, which is very fast and accurate: at typical resolutions it takes only a few seconds to find an AH {approx} 10{sup -5}m accuracy on a GHz-class processor. I assume that an AH to be searched for is a Strahlkoerper ('star-shaped region') with respect to some local origin, and so parametrize the AH shape by r = h(angle) for some single-valued function h:S{sup 2} {yields} R{sup 2}. The AH equation then becomes a nonlinear elliptic PDE in h on S{sup 2}, whose coefficients are algebraic functions of g{sub ij}, K{sub ij}, and the Cartesian-coordinate spatial derivatives of g{sub ij}. I discretize S{sup 2} using six angular patches (one each in the neighbourhood of the {+-}x, {+-} y, and {+-}z axes) to avoid coordinate singularities, and finite difference the AH equation in the angular coordinates using fourth-order finite differencing. I solve the resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations (for h at the angular grid points) by Newton's method, using a 'symbolic differentiation' technique to compute the Jacobian matrix. AHFINDERDIRECT is implemented as a thorn in the CACTUS computational toolkit, and is freely available by anonymous CVS checkout.

  12. The Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.

  13. Effect of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists in real traffic in relation to age and use of pedelecs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele-Vos, M. J.; Commandeur, J. J.F.; Twisk, D. A.M.

    2016-01-01

    To improve cycling safety, insight is required into the factors that contribute to road safety of older cyclists. From the wide range of possible factors, this paper addresses the role of physical effort on mental workload of cyclists with the aim to investigate whether physical effort affects

  14. Age-Related Changes in Children's Understanding of Effort and Ability: Implications for Attribution Theory and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Amy S.; Cole, David A.; Sigal, Amanda B.; Benbow, Lovisa D.; Satterwhite, Lindsay F.; Swygert, Katherine E.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Building on Nicholls's earlier work, we examined developmental changes in children's understanding of effort and ability when faced with a negative outcome. In a sample of 166 children and adolescents (ages 5-15 years), younger children conflated the meaning of effort and ability, explaining that smart students work hard, whereas older children…

  15. Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L

    1992-07-01

    The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.

  16. Effortful echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  17. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2017-01-01

    This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.

  18. GridWise Standards Mapping Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosquet, Mia L.

    2004-04-01

    ''GridWise'' is a concept of how advanced communications, information and controls technology can transform the nation's energy system--across the spectrum of large scale, central generation to common consumer appliances and equipment--into a collaborative network, rich in the exchange of decision making information and an abundance of market-based opportunities (Widergren and Bosquet 2003) accompanying the electric transmission and distribution system fully into the information and telecommunication age. This report summarizes a broad review of standards efforts which are related to GridWise--those which could ultimately contribute significantly to advancements toward the GridWise vision, or those which represent today's current technological basis upon which this vision must build.

  19. Application of Chimera Composite Grid Scheme to Ship Appendages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Cheng-Wen

    1995-01-01

    .... The chimera scheme of grid generation uses a system of relatively simple grids. The grids each define a particular component of the overall geometry, making the initial grid generation much simpler...

  20. [Comparison of Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PHP) test and Amsler grid test in the diagnosis of different stages of age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmeier, J; Zorn, M M; Lang, G K; Botros, Y T; Lang, G E

    2006-09-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in people over 65 years of age. A rapid loss of vision occurs especially in cases with choroidal neovascularisation. Early detection of ARMD and timely treatment are mandatory. We have prospectively studied the results of two diagnostic self tests for the early detection of metamorphopsia and scotoma, the PHP test and the Amsler grid test, in different stages of ARMD. Patients with ARMD and best corrected visual acuity of 6/30 or better (Snellen charts) were examined with a standardised protocol, including supervised Amsler grid examination and PHP, a new device for metamorphopsia or scotoma measurement, based on the hyperacuity phenomenon in the central 14 degrees of the visual field. The stages of ARMD were independently graded in a masked fashion by stereoscopic ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic fundus colour photographs, fluorescein angiography, and OCT. The patients were subdivided into 3 non-neovascular groups [early, late (RPE atrophy > 175 microm) and geographic atrophy], a neovascular group (classic and occult CNV) and an age-matched control group (healthy volunteers). 140 patients, with ages ranging from 50 to 90 years (median 68 years), were included in the study. Best corrected visual acuity ranged from 6/30 to 6/6 with a median of 6/12. 95 patients were diagnosed as non-neovascular ARMD. Thirty eyes had early ARMD (9 were tested positive by the PHP test and 9 by the Amsler grid test), and 50 late ARMD (positive: PHP test 23, Amsler grid test 26). The group with geographic atrophy consisted of 15 eyes (positive: PHP test 13, Amsler grid test 10). Forty-five patients presented with neovascular ARMD (positive: PHP test 38, Amsler grid test 36), 34 volunteers served as control group (positive: PHP test 1, Amsler grid test 5). The PHP and Amsler grid tests revealed comparable results detecting metamorphopsia and scotoma in early ARMD (30 vs. 30 %) and late ARMD (46 vs. 52 %). However, the

  1. The use of offensive public relations during a conflict: Hamas's efforts to damage Israel's image during the 2010 flotilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Mozes-Sadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crisis communication models contain strategies to rehabilitate an organization's image, but do not deal with strategies used to damage the image of another player or competitor. Using qualitative content analysis of 178 items published by Palestinian Information Center (PIC, the Hamas's leading website, the purpose of this manuscript is to examine Hamas's efforts to run offensive PR and to harm Israel's image restoration efforts at the time of the flotilla crisis in May 2010. We discover that Hamas deployed a strategy that consisted of five elements: evidence of existence of the crisis event, damages, victims, performance history and undermining the competitor's response.

  2. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  3. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Brauer, Jolanda M P; Vos, Pieter E; Van Der Werf, Sieberen

    2007-03-01

    To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a cohort of 618 consecutive MTBI patients aged 18-60, who attended the emergency department of our level I trauma centre. Effort was tested with the Amsterdam Short Term Memory test. Thirty patients (27%) failed the effort test. Poor effort was associated with significantly poorer scores on seven out of eleven measures, covering all tested domains. Poor effort was associated with lower educational level and changes in work status, but not litigation. Furthermore, poor effort was related to high levels of distress, Type-D personality and fatigue. Even in a sample of non-referred MTBI patients, poor effort was common and was strongly associated with inferior test performance. These findings imply that effort testing should be part of all cognitive assessments, also outside mediolegal settings. Behavioural factors like distress and personality should be considered as potential threats to the validity of neuropsychological testing after MTBI.

  4. The relation of appraisal, coping efforts, and acuteness of trauma to PTS symptoms among former political prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Katri; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir

    2002-06-01

    We examined how trauma-specific appraisals and coping efforts mediate between traumatic experiences, acuteness of trauma, and length of imprisonment and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) among 103 Palestinian former political prisoners. The findings provide support for both direct and mediated models of trauma. The acuteness of trauma (time since release), appraisal of prison experience as harmful and involving loss, and use of both emotion- and problem-focused coping efforts were associated with high levels of PTS symptoms. Torture and ill-treatment had a direct association with intrusion, and recent release from prison with avoidance symptoms. Acuteness of trauma turned out to be important in the coping and symptom association: emotion-focused coping was associated with a low level of PTS symptoms in the long run, whereas problem-focused coping was associated with a low level of PTS symptoms in the short run.

  5. Quantifying relative fishing impact on fish populations based on spatio-temporal overlap of fishing effort and stock density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations of the effects of management measures on fish populations are usually based on the analyses of population dynamics and estimates of fishing mortality from stock assessments. However, this approach may not be applicable in all cases, in particular for data-limited stocks, which may...... GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...... in the impact of the Danish demersal trawl fleet on cod in the Kattegat in recent years, due to a combination of closed areas, introduction of selective gears and changes in overall effort....

  6. Two models at work : A study of interactions and specificity in relation to the Demand-Control Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relation between work and employee health, several work stress models, e.g., the Demand-Control (DC) Model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Model, have been developed. Although these models focus on job demands and job resources, relatively little attention has been devoted

  7. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...

  8. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.

  9. Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung

    1994-01-01

    Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are

  10. Micro grids toward the smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.

  11. Diagnosis of inconsistencies in multi-year gridded precipitation data over mountainous areas and related impacts on hydrologic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, N.; Smith, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    It is common for the error characteristics of long-term precipitation data to change over time due to various factors such as gauge relocation and changes in data processing methods. The temporal consistency of precipitation data error characteristics is as important as data accuracy itself for hydrologic model calibration and subsequent use of the calibrated model for streamflow prediction. In mountainous areas, the generation of precipitation grids relies on sparse gage networks, the makeup of which often varies over time. This causes a change in error characteristics of the long-term precipitation data record. We will discuss the diagnostic analysis of the consistency of gridded precipitation time series and illustrate the adverse effect of inconsistent precipitation data on a hydrologic model simulation. We used hourly 4 km gridded precipitation time series over a mountainous basin in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California from October 1988 through September 2006. The basin is part of the broader study area that served as the focus of the second phase of the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP-2), organized by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To check the consistency of the gridded precipitation time series, double mass analysis was performed using single pixel and basin mean areal precipitation (MAP) values derived from gridded DMIP-2 and Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data. The analysis leads to the conclusion that over the entire study time period, a clear change in error characteristics in the DMIP-2 data occurred in the beginning of 2003. This matches the timing of one of the major gage network changes. The inconsistency of two MAP time series computed from the gridded precipitation fields over two elevation zones was corrected by adjusting hourly values based on the double mass analysis. We show that model

  12. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  13. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2013-11-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA. Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1 and eticlopride (D2, but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a

  15. A performance study of grid workflow engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratan, C.; Iosup, A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    To benefit from grids, scientists require grid workflow engines that automatically manage the execution of inter-related jobs on the grid infrastructure. So far, the workflows community has focused on scheduling algorithms and on interface tools. Thus, while several grid workflow engines have been

  16. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  17. Collaborative research efforts and related activities of the Office of Rare Diseases Research at the USA National Institutes of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Groft

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Rare diseases present unique challenges to meet the numerous and varied needs of the rare diseases community and it is required to identify and address these needs. Significant financial and personnel resources are required to address these needs identified. The Office of Rare Diseases Research (ORDR at the USA National Institutes of Health (NIH has attempted to meet many of these needs in collaborative efforts with the research Institutes and Centers of NIH and other partners in the private and public sectors in the USA and around the world. Several of the activities of the NIH and the ORDR are presented as possible collaborative efforts available to research investigators and include the Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network, the Bench-to-Bedside research program at NIH, the Genetic and Rare Diseases Information center, the genetic test development program, and the information on clinical research studies made available through Clinical trials.gov. The value of an appropriate family medical history is discussed as are the provisions of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act of 2008 (GINA. Definitions of rare or orphan diseases vary from country to country and may cause some confusion to the rare diseases community.

    Conclusions: Rare diseases are not limited by geographical or historical boundaries and global partnerships of the rare diseases community are experiencing rapid expansion to assist in the development of orphan products for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of rare diseases and conditions. The unmet needs of the rare diseases community require additional innovative research and educational programs to reach the extensive global populations affected by the thousands of different rare diseases including activities with the National Organization for Rare Disorders and the Genetic Alliance.

  18. Multicultural, Intercultural Diversity--What Do We Call "It" and How Do These Terms Show Up in Public Relations Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Diversity should be first understood from an individual's own culture. Yet few public relations professionals have had a course in interpersonal communication. If public relations is viewed as a profession where the management of people is important, then knowledge of diversity in the workplace seems imperative. The multicultural, intercultural,…

  19. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  20. Baseline autonomic nervous system arousal and physical and relational aggression in preschool: the moderating role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-09-01

    The current study investigates whether established associations between physical aggression and low autonomic nervous system arousal, as indexed by heart rate and blood pressure, also apply to the study of the development of relational aggression. Baseline heart rate and blood pressure were collected in two samples of preschoolers, and teachers reported on classroom physical and relational aggression. In Study 1, lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure were related to increased engagement in relational aggression among older preschoolers. In Study 2, lower heart rate and blood pressure predicted increased engagement in classroom physical and relational aggression concurrently and across a preschool year in some cases. Low baseline arousal-aggression associations were strongest for children with poorer self-regulation abilities, whereas high self-regulation appeared to protect children with low heart rate and blood pressure from engagement in aggressive classroom behavior. These findings suggest the utility of examining baseline physiological measures in the study of relational aggression as well as physical aggression. Implications for interventions targeted to physical and relational aggression in early childhood are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Designing Interventions that Last: A Classification of Environmental Behaviors in Relation to the Activities, Costs, and Effort Involved for Adoption and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Harriet E.; Boldero, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers draw on behavioral research to design interventions that promote the voluntary adoption of environmental behavior in societies. Many environmental behaviors will only be effective if they are maintained over the long-term. In the context of climate change and concerns about future water security, behaviors that involve reducing energy consumption and improving water quality must be continued indefinitely to mitigate global warming and preserve scarce resources. Previous reviews of environmental behavior have focused exclusively on factors related to adoption. This review investigates the factors that influence both adoption and maintenance, and presents a classification of environmental behaviors in terms of the activities, costs, and effort required for both adoption and maintenance. Three categories of behavior are suggested. One-off behaviors involve performing an activity once, such as purchasing an energy efficient washing machine, or signing a petition. Continuous behaviors involve the performance of the same set of behaviors for adoption and for maintenance, such as curbside recycling. Dynamic behaviors involve the performance of different behaviors for adoption and maintenance, such as revegetation. Behaviors can also be classified into four categories related to cost and effort: those that involve little cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve moderate cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve a high cost or effort for adoption and less for maintenance, and those that involve less cost or effort for adoption and a higher amount for maintenance. In order to design interventions that last, policy makers should consider the factors that influence the maintenance as well as the adoption of environmental behaviors. PMID:29163265

  2. Smart grids - French Expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-11-01

    particular by working to develop storage solutions at all levels within the grid, and by preparing to introduce electric vehicles. Developing solutions for tomorrow: strong willingness of public authorities in France to develop Smart Grids has notably led to the creation of support mechanisms for innovation and for demonstration projects, and to a strategic business sector plan dedicated to Smart Grids. Related competencies have also emerged, in the development of market design, and cyber security. The French Smart Grid vision focuses on mastering complexity, on large scale deployments, and on the development of systems showing a high degree of dependability and reliable functioning. World leaders, mid-cap companies and small businesses specialized in the full range of Smart Grid technologies: operators of electrical and telecommunications networks, equipment and component manufacturers, software engineering companies, data centre managers etc. Over 100 Smart Grid projects are currently underway in France. Strong R and D and innovation capacity: some 20 demonstration projects have started up under the Smart Grids segment of the Investments for the Future programme. France ranks first in Europe for Smart Grid investments

  3. GROWTH OF CORMORANT PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS CHICKS IN RELATION TO BROOD SIZE, AGE RANKING AND PARENTAL FISHING EFFORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; KOFFIJBERG, K; DUBBELDAM, W

    1995-01-01

    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  4. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  5. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  6. Grid: From EGEE to EGI and from INFN-Grid to IGI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giselli, A.; Mazzuccato, M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last fifteen years the approach of the computational Grid has changed the way to use computing resources. Grid computing has raised interest worldwide in academia, industry, and government with fast development cycles. Great efforts, huge funding and resources have been made available through national, regional and international initiatives aiming at providing Grid infrastructures, Grid core technologies, Grid middle ware and Grid applications. The Grid software layers reflect the architecture of the services developed so far by the most important European and international projects. In this paper Grid e-Infrastructure story is given, detailing European, Italian and international projects such as EGEE, INFN-Grid and NAREGI. In addition the sustainability issue in the long-term perspective is described providing plans by European and Italian communities with EGI and IGI.

  7. Transfusion-related adverse events at the tertiary care center in North India: An institutional hemovigilance effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Prasun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to analyze the incidence and spectrum of adverse effects of blood transfusion so as to initiate measures to minimize risks and improve overall transfusion safety in the institute. Materials and Methods: During the period from July 2002 to July 2003 all the adverse events related to transfusion of blood and blood components in various clinical specialties were recorded. They were analyzed and classified on the basis of their clinical features and laboratory tests. Attempt was also made to study the predisposing risk factors. Results: During the study period 56,503 blood and blood components were issued to 29,720 patients. A total of 105 adverse reactions due to transfusion were observed during the study period. A majority of the adverse reactions was observed in hemato-oncology patients 43% (n = 45 and in presensitized patient groups 63% (n = 66. FNHTR 41% (n = 43 and allergic reactions 34% (n = 36 were the most common of all types of adverse transfusion reactions, followed by AcHTR 8.56% (n = 9. Majority of these AcHTR were due to unmonitored storage of blood in the refrigerator of wards resulting in hemolysis due to thermal injury. Less frequently observed reactions were anaphylactoid reactions (n = 4, bacterial sepsis (n = 4, hypervolemia (n = 2, hypocalcemia (n = 2, TRALI (n = 1, DHTR (n = 1, and TAGvHD (n = 1. Conclusion: Analysis of transfusion-related adverse outcomes is essential for improving safety. Factors such as improvement of blood storage conditions outside the blood bank, improvement in cross-matching techniques, careful donor screening, adherence to good manufacturing practices while component preparation, bedside monitoring of transfusion, and documentation of adverse events will help in reducing transfusion-related morbidity and mortality.

  8. Blocking the benefit of group-based HIV-prevention efforts during adolescence: the problem of HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David H; Swenson, Rebecca R; Brown, Larry K; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about its effects on prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-stigma and HIV-knowledge following completion of a validated group-based intervention. Data were provided by 1,654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results suggested that adolescents participating in the intervention showed improvements in knowledge and decreases in stigma when compared to controls. Improvements in stigma appeared to be partly driven by improvements in knowledge. Higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups. Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.

  9. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  10. Grid pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs

  11. The grid

    OpenAIRE

    Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid   Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK   Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia   Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...

  12. CERISE - Combining energy and spatial information standards as enabler for smart grids - TKI smart grid project : TKISG01010 - D4.1 Semantic mappings to harmonize energy, geo and government-related information models. Work package 40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.; Knibbe, F.; Quak, C.W.; Janssen, P.; Stap, R.; Daniele, L.

    2015-01-01

    Version 1.0 - Final The CERISE-SG project (Combining Energy and Geo information standards as enabler for Smart Grids) focuses on interoperability with a special interest in the information exchanges between smart grids and their surroundings. We hereby focus on the exchange of information to and

  13. Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechl, M; Field, L

    2008-01-01

    A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization

  14. The smart grid research network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler

    2013-01-01

    Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...

  15. Probabilistic Learning by Rodent Grid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Allen

    2016-10-01

    Mounting evidence shows mammalian brains are probabilistic computers, but the specific cells involved remain elusive. Parallel research suggests that grid cells of the mammalian hippocampal formation are fundamental to spatial cognition but their diverse response properties still defy explanation. No plausible model exists which explains stable grids in darkness for twenty minutes or longer, despite being one of the first results ever published on grid cells. Similarly, no current explanation can tie together grid fragmentation and grid rescaling, which show very different forms of flexibility in grid responses when the environment is varied. Other properties such as attractor dynamics and grid anisotropy seem to be at odds with one another unless additional properties are assumed such as a varying velocity gain. Modelling efforts have largely ignored the breadth of response patterns, while also failing to account for the disastrous effects of sensory noise during spatial learning and recall, especially in darkness. Here, published electrophysiological evidence from a range of experiments are reinterpreted using a novel probabilistic learning model, which shows that grid cell responses are accurately predicted by a probabilistic learning process. Diverse response properties of probabilistic grid cells are statistically indistinguishable from rat grid cells across key manipulations. A simple coherent set of probabilistic computations explains stable grid fields in darkness, partial grid rescaling in resized arenas, low-dimensional attractor grid cell dynamics, and grid fragmentation in hairpin mazes. The same computations also reconcile oscillatory dynamics at the single cell level with attractor dynamics at the cell ensemble level. Additionally, a clear functional role for boundary cells is proposed for spatial learning. These findings provide a parsimonious and unified explanation of grid cell function, and implicate grid cells as an accessible neuronal population

  16. Communication and Networking in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate for researchers, practitioners, and students alike, Communication and Networking in Smart Grids presents state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for communication networks in smart grids. It explains how contemporary grid networks are developed and deployed and presents a collection of cutting-edge advances to help improve current practice. Prominent researchers working on smart grids and in related fields around the world explain the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grids. Describing the role that communication and networking will play in future smart grids

  17. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Márcia A; van Batenburg, Marinus F; Roos, Marco; Belloum, Adam S Z; Vasunin, Dmitry; Wibisono, Adianto; van Kampen, Antoine H C; Breit, Timo M

    2008-08-08

    Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic) features in a (DNA) sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs) in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the proof-of-principle for the modular e-Science based concept

  18. The DataGrid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggieri, F

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the objectives and status of the DataGrid Project is presented, together with a brief introduction to the Grid metaphor and some references to the Grid activities and initiatives related to DataGrid. High energy physics experiments have always requested state of the art computing facilities to efficiently perform several computing activities related with the handling of large amounts of data and fairly large computing resources. Some of the ideas born inside the community to enhance the user friendliness of all the steps in the computing chain have been, sometimes, successfully applied also in other contexts: one bright example is the World Wide Web. The LHC computing challenge has triggered inside the high energy physics community, the start of the DataGrid Project. The objective of the project is to enable next generation scientific exploration requiring intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases. (12 refs).

  19. One grid to rule them all

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Efforts are under way to create a computer the size of the world. The stated goal of grid computing is to create a worldwide network of computers interconnected so well and so fast that they act as one (1 page)

  20. Acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on effort-related decision-making and reward learning: an evaluation of the cannabis 'amotivational' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Freeman, Tom P; Pope, Rebecca A; Joye, Alyssa; Harvey, Lisa; Hindocha, Chandni; Mokrysz, Claire; Moss, Abigail; Wall, Matthew B; Bloomfield, Michael Ap; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia Ja; Nutt, David J; Curran, H Valerie

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotally, both acute and chronic cannabis use have been associated with apathy, amotivation, and other reward processing deficits. To date, empirical support for these effects is limited, and no previous studies have assessed both acute effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as associations with cannabis dependence. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine acute effects of cannabis with CBD (Cann + CBD) and without CBD (Cann-CBD) on effort-related decision-making and (2) to examine associations between cannabis dependence, effort-related decision-making and reward learning. In study 1, 17 participants each received three acute vaporized treatments, namely Cann-CBD (8 mg THC), Cann + CBD (8 mg THC + 10 mg CBD) and matched placebo, followed by a 50 % dose top-up 1.5 h later, and completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). In study 2, 20 cannabis-dependent participants were compared with 20 non-dependent, drug-using control participants on the EEfRT and the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT) in a non-intoxicated state. Cann-CBD reduced the likelihood of high-effort choices relative to placebo (p = 0.042) and increased sensitivity to expected value compared to both placebo (p = 0.014) and Cann + CBD (p = 0.006). The cannabis-dependent and control groups did not differ on the EEfRT. However, the cannabis-dependent group exhibited a weaker response bias than the control group on the PRT (p = 0.007). Cannabis acutely induced a transient amotivational state and CBD influenced the effects of THC on expected value. In contrast, cannabis dependence was associated with preserved motivation alongside impaired reward learning, although confounding factors, including depression, cannot be disregarded. This is the first well powered, fully controlled study to objectively demonstrate the acute amotivational effects of THC.

  1. SigWin-detector: a Grid-enabled workflow for discovering enriched windows of genomic features related to DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibisono Adianto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome location is often used as a scaffold to organize genomic information in both the living cell and molecular biological research. Thus, ever-increasing amounts of data about genomic features are stored in public databases and can be readily visualized by genome browsers. To perform in silico experimentation conveniently with this genomics data, biologists need tools to process and compare datasets routinely and explore the obtained results interactively. The complexity of such experimentation requires these tools to be based on an e-Science approach, hence generic, modular, and reusable. A virtual laboratory environment with workflows, workflow management systems, and Grid computation are therefore essential. Findings Here we apply an e-Science approach to develop SigWin-detector, a workflow-based tool that can detect significantly enriched windows of (genomic features in a (DNA sequence in a fast and reproducible way. For proof-of-principle, we utilize a biological use case to detect regions of increased and decreased gene expression (RIDGEs and anti-RIDGEs in human transcriptome maps. We improved the original method for RIDGE detection by replacing the costly step of estimation by random sampling with a faster analytical formula for computing the distribution of the null hypothesis being tested and by developing a new algorithm for computing moving medians. SigWin-detector was developed using the WS-VLAM workflow management system and consists of several reusable modules that are linked together in a basic workflow. The configuration of this basic workflow can be adapted to satisfy the requirements of the specific in silico experiment. Conclusion As we show with the results from analyses in the biological use case on RIDGEs, SigWin-detector is an efficient and reusable Grid-based tool for discovering windows enriched for features of a particular type in any sequence of values. Thus, SigWin-detector provides the

  2. How should grid operators govern smart grid innovation projects? An embedded case study approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, Mark de; Lei, Telli van der; Lukszo, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Grid operators increasingly have to collaborate with other actors in order to realize smart grid innovations. For routine maintenance, grid operators typically acquire technologies in one-off transactions, but the innovative nature of smart grid projects may require more collaborate relationships. This paper studies how a transactional versus relational approach to governing smart grid innovation projects affects incentives for other actors to collaborate. We analyse 34 cases of smart grid innovation projects based on extensive archival data as well as interviews. We find that projects relying on relational governance are more likely to provide incentives for collaboration. Especially non-financial incentives such as reputational benefits and shared intellectual property rights are more likely to be found in projects relying on relational governance. Policy makers that wish to stimulate smart grid innovation projects should consider stimulating long-term relationships between grid operators and third parties, because such relationships are more likely to produce incentives for collaboration. - Highlights: • Smart grids require collaboration between grid operators and other actors. • We contrast transactional and relational governance of smart grid projects. • Long-term relations produce more incentives for smart grid collaboration. • Non-financial incentives are more important in long-term relations. • Policy makers should stimulate long-term relations to stimulate smart grids.

  3. Cost related sensitivity analysis for optimal operation of a grid-parallel PEM fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Tanrioven, M.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M. S.

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPP) as a combined source of heat, power and hydrogen (CHP&H) can be considered as a potential option to supply both thermal and electrical loads. Hydrogen produced from the FCPP can be stored for future use of the FCPP or can be sold for profit. In such a system, tariff rates for purchasing or selling electricity, the fuel cost for the FCPP/thermal load, and hydrogen selling price are the main factors that affect the operational strategy. This paper presents a hybrid evolutionary programming and Hill-Climbing based approach to evaluate the impact of change of the above mentioned cost parameters on the optimal operational strategy of the FCPP. The optimal operational strategy of the FCPP for different tariffs is achieved through the estimation of the following: hourly generated power, the amount of thermal power recovered, power trade with the local grid, and the quantity of hydrogen that can be produced. Results show the importance of optimizing system cost parameters in order to minimize overall operating cost.

  4. OGC and Grid Interoperability in enviroGRIDS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Rodila, Denisa; Bacu, Victor; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    EnviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is a 4-years FP7 Project aiming to address the subjects of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management. The project develops a Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Black Sea Catchment region. The geospatial technologies offer very specialized functionality for Earth Science oriented applications as well as the Grid oriented technology that is able to support distributed and parallel processing. One challenge of the enviroGRIDS project is the interoperability between geospatial and Grid infrastructures by providing the basic and the extended features of the both technologies. The geospatial interoperability technology has been promoted as a way of dealing with large volumes of geospatial data in distributed environments through the development of interoperable Web service specifications proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with applications spread across multiple fields but especially in Earth observation research. Due to the huge volumes of data available in the geospatial domain and the additional introduced issues (data management, secure data transfer, data distribution and data computation), the need for an infrastructure capable to manage all those problems becomes an important aspect. The Grid promotes and facilitates the secure interoperations of geospatial heterogeneous distributed data within a distributed environment, the creation and management of large distributed computational jobs and assures a security level for communication and transfer of messages based on certificates. This presentation analysis and discusses the most significant use cases for enabling the OGC Web services interoperability with the Grid environment and focuses on the description and implementation of the most promising one. In these use cases we give a special attention to issues such as: the relations between computational grid and

  5. Synchronization in single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic systems under grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The highly increasing penetration of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the grid requirements related to the integration of PV power systems to be updated. These upcoming regulations are expected to direct the grid-connected renewable generators to support the grid operation and stabil......The highly increasing penetration of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems pushes the grid requirements related to the integration of PV power systems to be updated. These upcoming regulations are expected to direct the grid-connected renewable generators to support the grid operation...

  6. Security and privacy in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Presenting the work of prominent researchers working on smart grids and related fields around the world, Security and Privacy in Smart Grids identifies state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for smart grid communication and security. It investigates the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grid security and privacy and reports on the latest advances in the range of related areas-making it an ideal reference for students, researchers, and engineers in these fields. The book explains grid security development and deployment and introduces novel approaches for securing today'

  7. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  8. A Theorem on Grid Access Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU ZhiWei(徐志伟); BU GuanYing(卜冠英)

    2003-01-01

    The current grid security research is mainly focused on the authentication of grid systems. A problem to be solved by grid systems is to ensure consistent access control. This problem is complicated because the hosts in a grid computing environment usually span multiple autonomous administrative domains. This paper presents a grid access control model, based on asynchronous automata theory and the classic Bell-LaPadula model. This model is useful to formally study the confidentiality and integrity problems in a grid computing environment. A theorem is proved, which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions to a grid to maintain confidentiality.These conditions are the formalized descriptions of local (node) relations or relationship between grid subjects and node subjects.

  9. Additional Security Considerations for Grid Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidson, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    The use of Grid computing environments is growing in popularity. A Grid computing environment is primarily a wide area network that encompasses multiple local area networks, where some of the local area networks are managed by different organizations. A Grid computing environment also includes common interfaces for distributed computing software so that the heterogeneous set of machines that make up the Grid can be used more easily. The other key feature of a Grid is that the distributed computing software includes appropriate security technology. The focus of most Grid software is on the security involved with application execution, file transfers, and other remote computing procedures. However, there are other important security issues related to the management of a Grid and the users who use that Grid. This note discusses these additional security issues and makes several suggestions as how they can be managed.

  10. Smart grid security innovative solutions for a modernized grid

    CERN Document Server

    Skopik, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The Smart Grid security ecosystem is complex and multi-disciplinary, and relatively under-researched compared to the traditional information and network security disciplines. While the Smart Grid has provided increased efficiencies in monitoring power usage, directing power supplies to serve peak power needs and improving efficiency of power delivery, the Smart Grid has also opened the way for information security breaches and other types of security breaches. Potential threats range from meter manipulation to directed, high-impact attacks on critical infrastructure that could bring down regi

  11. Renewables-Friendly Grid Development Strategies. Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with "renewables-friendly"" grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  12. DanGrid. Report from working group 24. Roadmap for Smart Grid in Denmark with emphasis on the transmission companies' role; DanGrid. Delrapport. Arbejdsgruppe 24. Roadmap for Smart Grid i Danmark med saerlig vaegt pae netselskabernes rolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomholt Finnemann, K. [DONG Energy, Virum (Denmark); Soerensen, Per [TRE-FOR, Kolding (Denmark); Larsen, Jim [EnergiMidt, Silkeborg (Denmark); Balasiu, A. [Siemens, Ballerup (Denmark); Holmberg Rasmussen, L. [Nordjysk Elhandel, Aalborg (Denmark); Moeller Joergensen, J. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Norsk Jensen, A.; Nejsum, T.; Andersen, Kim [Dansk Energi, Frederiksberg (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The present report identifies a number of recommendations where specifically grid companies, but also authorities, customers and market players must initiate actions and activities to realize Smart Grid in Denmark by 2020. The report forms the basis for each network operator to implement Smart Grid, and is divided such that: 1 the management can create an overview of the steps to be taken in connection with the implementation, and 2. the technical department can develop a series of concrete actions to be implemented in the Smart Grid. The measures are divided into four groups: 1 - Establishment of business case and strategy: Efforts that support that each network operator prepares a business case and define a strategy for the creation of a Smart Grid. 2 - New technology in the grid: Measures relating to the importation of new technology in the grid, for example establishment of technology solutions for automating and monitoring the load on the network, and installing additional measurements at strategic points in the distribution network. 3 - Enabling customers' demand response: Initiatives that support that the grid company actively involves end users through price signals or by entering into agreements to regulate or move power consumption to a time of free capacity in the grid. 4 - Other activities: Measures which are horizontal and support that network companies develop a Smart Grid. New economic regulation of network companies is required to support the introduction of new technology in the grid, and at the same time crucial to enable customers' demand response. IT and data security must be established and customer engagement as active consumers of electricity should be strengthened. (LN)

  13. The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...

  14. Can Clouds replace Grids? Will Clouds replace Grids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiers, J D

    2010-01-01

    The world's largest scientific machine - comprising dual 27km circular proton accelerators cooled to 1.9 o K and located some 100m underground - currently relies on major production Grid infrastructures for the offline computing needs of the 4 main experiments that will take data at this facility. After many years of sometimes difficult preparation the computing service has been declared 'open' and ready to meet the challenges that will come shortly when the machine restarts in 2009. But the service is not without its problems: reliability - as seen by the experiments, as opposed to that measured by the official tools - still needs to be significantly improved. Prolonged downtimes or degradations of major services or even complete sites are still too common and the operational and coordination effort to keep the overall service running is probably not sustainable at this level. Recently 'Cloud Computing' - in terms of pay-per-use fabric provisioning - has emerged as a potentially viable alternative but with rather different strengths and no doubt weaknesses too. Based on the concrete needs of the LHC experiments - where the total data volume that will be acquired over the full lifetime of the project, including the additional data copies that are required by the Computing Models of the experiments, approaches 1 Exabyte - we analyze the pros and cons of Grids versus Clouds. This analysis covers not only technical issues - such as those related to demanding database and data management needs - but also sociological aspects, which cannot be ignored, neither in terms of funding nor in the wider context of the essential but often overlooked role of science in society, education and economy.

  15. Can Clouds replace Grids? Will Clouds replace Grids?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiers, J D, E-mail: Jamie.Shiers@cern.c [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    The world's largest scientific machine - comprising dual 27km circular proton accelerators cooled to 1.9{sup o}K and located some 100m underground - currently relies on major production Grid infrastructures for the offline computing needs of the 4 main experiments that will take data at this facility. After many years of sometimes difficult preparation the computing service has been declared 'open' and ready to meet the challenges that will come shortly when the machine restarts in 2009. But the service is not without its problems: reliability - as seen by the experiments, as opposed to that measured by the official tools - still needs to be significantly improved. Prolonged downtimes or degradations of major services or even complete sites are still too common and the operational and coordination effort to keep the overall service running is probably not sustainable at this level. Recently 'Cloud Computing' - in terms of pay-per-use fabric provisioning - has emerged as a potentially viable alternative but with rather different strengths and no doubt weaknesses too. Based on the concrete needs of the LHC experiments - where the total data volume that will be acquired over the full lifetime of the project, including the additional data copies that are required by the Computing Models of the experiments, approaches 1 Exabyte - we analyze the pros and cons of Grids versus Clouds. This analysis covers not only technical issues - such as those related to demanding database and data management needs - but also sociological aspects, which cannot be ignored, neither in terms of funding nor in the wider context of the essential but often overlooked role of science in society, education and economy.

  16. Can Clouds replace Grids? Will Clouds replace Grids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiers, J. D.

    2010-04-01

    The world's largest scientific machine - comprising dual 27km circular proton accelerators cooled to 1.9oK and located some 100m underground - currently relies on major production Grid infrastructures for the offline computing needs of the 4 main experiments that will take data at this facility. After many years of sometimes difficult preparation the computing service has been declared "open" and ready to meet the challenges that will come shortly when the machine restarts in 2009. But the service is not without its problems: reliability - as seen by the experiments, as opposed to that measured by the official tools - still needs to be significantly improved. Prolonged downtimes or degradations of major services or even complete sites are still too common and the operational and coordination effort to keep the overall service running is probably not sustainable at this level. Recently "Cloud Computing" - in terms of pay-per-use fabric provisioning - has emerged as a potentially viable alternative but with rather different strengths and no doubt weaknesses too. Based on the concrete needs of the LHC experiments - where the total data volume that will be acquired over the full lifetime of the project, including the additional data copies that are required by the Computing Models of the experiments, approaches 1 Exabyte - we analyze the pros and cons of Grids versus Clouds. This analysis covers not only technical issues - such as those related to demanding database and data management needs - but also sociological aspects, which cannot be ignored, neither in terms of funding nor in the wider context of the essential but often overlooked role of science in society, education and economy.

  17. Analysis of the public debate on health hazards due to high-voltage transmission lines. Recommendations for the radiation protection related communication with respect of grid extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Florian; Kuehne, Olaf; Jenal, Corinna; Sanio, Tina; Langer, Kerstin; Igel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    With its phase-out of nuclear power generation and the expansion of renewably sourced energy, the German energy turnaround ('Energiewende') has radically changed existing power supply structures, with wide geographical repercussions. One aspect of this is changes to the national power grid. Existing networks are to be upgraded and new long-distance north-south power-lines built. This creates resistance and conflict. Commissioned by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, and the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety, the research project entitled Analysis of public discourse on the health impacts of high-voltage power lines - recommendations for action in radiation-protection discourse related to the extension of the power grid starts precisely at the point of conflict. It first investigates from a discourse theory perspective how power grid extensions and possible health-related consequences are communicatively constructed, and what argumentation patterns dominate the discussion. From this it derives recommendations for action, with a focus on health politics information and discourse. Behind the research project stands a socio-constructivist discourse theory that sees 'social reality' not as a given but as a socially evolved entity, and its meanings, therefore, not as stable but as subject to change. The central mechanism for the communication of an objectivized social world is language. The analyses undertaken here of power grid extension are based on a methodological mix of quantitative and qualitative elements that facilitates both the differentiation of central issues and detailed examination of individual aspects. Analysis focuses on the discussion of health issues not only in the relevant literature and on civic initiative websites, but also in the first 50 Google hits, in articles from the Sueddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) and Focus, and in talk shows. The resultant discourse analysis

  18. The MicroGrid: A Scientific Tool for Modeling Computational Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Song

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and dynamic nature of the Internet (and the emerging Computational Grid demand that middleware and applications adapt to the changes in configuration and availability of resources. However, to the best of our knowledge there are no simulation tools which support systematic exploration of dynamic Grid software (or Grid resource behavior. We describe our vision and initial efforts to build tools to meet these needs. Our MicroGrid simulation tools enable Globus applications to be run in arbitrary virtual grid resource environments, enabling broad experimentation. We describe the design of these tools, and their validation on micro-benchmarks, the NAS parallel benchmarks, and an entire Grid application. These validation experiments show that the MicroGrid can match actual experiments within a few percent (2% to 4%.

  19. A Neural Circuit Mechanism for the Involvements of Dopamine in Effort-Related Choices: Decay of Learned Values, Secondary Effects of Depletion, and Calculation of Temporal Difference Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option. The underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that findings i–iii can be explained by the dopaminergic representation of temporal-difference reward-prediction error (TD-RPE), whose mechanisms have now become clarified, if (1) the synaptic strengths storing the values of actions mildly decay in time and (2) the obtained-reward-representing excitatory input to dopamine neurons increases after dopamine depletion. The former is potentially caused by background neural activity–induced weak synaptic plasticity, and the latter is assumed to occur through post-depletion increase of neural activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus, where neurons representing obtained reward exist and presumably send excitatory projections to dopamine neurons. We further show that finding iv, which is nontrivial given the suggested distinct functions of the D1 and D2 corticostriatal pathways, can also be explained if we additionally assume a proposed mechanism of TD-RPE calculation, in which the D1 and D2 pathways encode the values of actions with a temporal difference. These results suggest a possible circuit mechanism for the involvements of dopamine in effort-related choices and, simultaneously, provide implications for the mechanisms of TD-RPE calculation. PMID:29468191

  20. DIGRD: an interactive grid generating program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, H.P.; Rice, W.A.; Kincaid, C.T.

    1982-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has completed the development and documentation of an interactive grid generating program (DIGRD, digitize grid). This program is designed to rapidly generate or modify grids necessary for the unsaturated flow code TRUST. In addition to the code, a user's manual was prepared. Unfortunately, the computer hardware that comprises the PNL interactive graphics capability is unique. Direct technology transfer is not possible, therefore, this report is intended to convey the utility of interactive graphics in supplying a grid generating capability. DIGRD has already been effectively used in the preparation of grids for the analysis of leachate movement from uranium mill tailings. The principal conclusion is that the interactive graphics employed in DIGRD are useful and economical in the development of complex grids. Grid generation activities that previously took between a half- and a full-man month can now be completed in less than a week. DIGRD users have recommended development of an uniform grid of either rectangles or equilateral triangles, which could be superimposed on any domain and then adjusted through the DIGRD program to match the boundaries of a tailings disposal facility. This improvement to the DIGRD package could further reduce the effort in grid generation while providing more optimal grids

  1. A gridding method for object-oriented PIC codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, G.; Peter, W.; Nash, H.; Acquah, J.; Lin, C.; Rine, D.

    1993-01-01

    A simple, rule-based gridding method for object-oriented PIC codes is described which is not only capable of dealing with complicated structures such as multiply-connected regions, but is also computationally faster than classical gridding techniques. Using, these smart grids, vacant cells (e.g., cells enclosed by conductors) will never have to be stored or calculated, thus avoiding the usual situation of having to zero electromagnetic fields within conductors after valuable cpu time has been spent in calculating the fields within these cells in the first place. This object-oriented gridding technique makes use of encapsulating characteristics of actual physical objects (particles, fields, grids, etc.) in C ++ classes and supporting software reuse of these entities through C ++ class inheritance relations. It has been implemented in the form of a simple two-dimensional plasma particle-in-cell code, and forms the initial effort of an AFOSR research project to develop a flexible software simulation environment for particle-in-cell algorithms based on object-oriented technology

  2. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  3. Systematic investigation of gridding-related scaling effects on annual statistics of daily temperature and precipitation maxima: A case study for south-east Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Francia B. Avila; Siyan Dong; Kaah P. Menang; Jan Rajczak; Madeleine Renom; Markus G. Donat; Lisa V. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Using daily station observations over the period 1951–2013 in a region of south-east Australia, we systematically compare how the horizontal resolution, interpolation method and order of operation in generating gridded data sets affect estimates of annual extreme indices of temperature and precipitation maxima (hottest and wettest days). Three interpolation methods (natural neighbors, cubic spline and angular distance weighting) are used to calculate grids at five different horizontal gridded...

  4. A roadmap for caGrid, an enterprise Grid architecture for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltz, Joel; Hastings, Shannon; Langella, Stephen; Oster, Scott; Kurc, Tahsin; Payne, Philip; Ferreira, Renato; Plale, Beth; Goble, Carole; Ervin, David; Sharma, Ashish; Pan, Tony; Permar, Justin; Brezany, Peter; Siebenlist, Frank; Madduri, Ravi; Foster, Ian; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Mead, Charlie; Chue Hong, Neil

    2008-01-01

    caGrid is a middleware system which combines the Grid computing, the service oriented architecture, and the model driven architecture paradigms to support development of interoperable data and analytical resources and federation of such resources in a Grid environment. The functionality provided by caGrid is an essential and integral component of the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. This program is established by the National Cancer Institute as a nationwide effort to develop enabling informatics technologies for collaborative, multi-institutional biomedical research with the overarching goal of accelerating translational cancer research. Although the main application domain for caGrid is cancer research, the infrastructure provides a generic framework that can be employed in other biomedical research and healthcare domains. The development of caGrid is an ongoing effort, adding new functionality and improvements based on feedback and use cases from the community. This paper provides an overview of potential future architecture and tooling directions and areas of improvement for caGrid and caGrid-like systems. This summary is based on discussions at a roadmap workshop held in February with participants from biomedical research, Grid computing, and high performance computing communities.

  5. Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)

  6. Calculation approaches for grid usage fees to influence the load curve in the distribution grid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illing, Bjoern

    2014-01-01

    Dominated by the energy policy the decentralized German energy market is changing. One mature target of the government is to increase the contribution of renewable generation to the gross electricity consumption. In order to achieve this target disadvantages like an increased need for capacity management occurs. Load reduction and variable grid fees offer the grid operator solutions to realize capacity management by influencing the load profile. The evolution of the current grid fees towards more causality is required to adapt these approaches. Two calculation approaches are developed in this assignment. On the one hand multivariable grid fees keeping the current components demand and energy charge. Additional to the grid costs grid load dependent parameters like the amount of decentralized feed-ins, time and local circumstances as well as grid capacities are considered. On the other hand the grid fee flat-rate which represents a demand based model on a monthly level. Both approaches are designed to meet the criteria for future grid fees. By means of a case study the effects of the grid fees on the load profile at the low voltage grid is simulated. Thereby the consumption is represented by different behaviour models and the results are scaled at the benchmark grid area. The resulting load curve is analyzed concerning the effects of peak load reduction as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally the combined effect of grid fees and electricity tariffs is evaluated. Finally the work discusses the launching of grid fees in the tense atmosphere of politics, legislation and grid operation. Results of this work are two calculation approaches designed for grid operators to define the grid fees. Multivariable grid fees are based on the current calculation scheme. Hereby demand and energy charges are weighted by time, locational and load related dependencies. The grid fee flat-rate defines a limitation in demand extraction. Different demand levels

  7. Grid Integration Webinars | Energy Systems Integration Facility | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Webinars Grid Integration Webinars Watch presentations from NREL analysts on various topics related to grid integration. Wind Curtailment and the Value of Transmission under a 2050 renewable curtailment under these high wind scenarios. Text Version Grid Integration Webinar: Exploring

  8. Resolving Neighbourhood Relations in a Parallel Fluid Dynamic Solver

    KAUST Repository

    Frisch, Jerome

    2012-06-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations require an enormous computational effort if a physically reasonable accuracy should be reached. Therefore, a parallel implementation is inevitable. This paper describes the basics of our implemented fluid solver with a special aspect on the hierarchical data structure, unique cell and grid identification, and the neighbourhood relations in-between grids on different processes. A special server concept keeps track of every grid over all processes while minimising data transfer between the nodes. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Public Relations: The Route to Success and Influence. Public Relations for Your Library: A Tool for Effective Communications; Tooting Your Own Horn: Web-Based Public Relations for the School Media Specialist; Bookmarks as a Teaching Tool; Customers and Culture: The Who and What of Library Public Relations Efforts; Strategies for Successful Job Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Linda; Silverstein, Roberta; Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann; Hegel, Claudette; Miller, Donna; Moyer, Mary

    2002-01-01

    This special section includes five articles that discuss public relations strategies for school librarians. Highlights include effective communication, including measuring and evaluating the success of public relations efforts; Web-based public relations; giving bookmarks to students; customers and cultural contexts; and successful job…

  10. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of

  11. The Adoption of Grid Computing Technology by Organizations: A Quantitative Study Using Technology Acceptance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Emmanuel E.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in grid technology have enabled some organizations to harness enormous computational power on demand. However, the prediction of widespread adoption of the grid technology has not materialized despite the obvious grid advantages. This situation has encouraged intense efforts to close the research gap in the grid adoption process. In this…

  12. Emergency surgery and Limitation of therapeutic effort in relation to neurologic deterioration in elderly patients – a survey of European surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Păduraru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In emergency surgery, a very heterogeneous approach is required in the decision making process, especially when considering the patient’s postoperative quality of life as well as medical, ethical, and legal factors. In some cases, the presence of an Advance Directive (AD form may potentially help resolve the surgeon’s dilemma. Objectives. The primary objective of this survey was to investigate the opinions of surgeons across a representative cross-section of European countries regarding the decision making process using a specific case scenario so as to identify similarities and differences in practice. A secondary objective was to identify the possibility of establishing a more uniform approach and best practice. Method. A survey was conducted of surgeons from a range of European countries. Questionnaires were designed to obtain an overview of decision making in relation to the Limitation of Therapeutic Effort (LTE using a specific case study and the level of awareness and practical use of ADs. Surveys were distributed via email to the members of the ESTES (European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery and AEC (Association of Spanish surgeons, with voluntary, anonymous participation. Conclusions. Clear and additional support in the form of legal and ethical guidance with clinical protocols for surgical practice in such case scenarios is necessary. Wider use of ADs, together with education about their role and support for patients and relatives, would benefit the type of patient described in our scenario. A multidisciplinary team should play a more active role in decision making in order to avoid surgical procedures that are potentially futile. The concepts of LTE and Quality of life need a broader understanding among surgeons as well as more consistent application.

  13. Grids in Europe - a computing infrastructure for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranzlmueller, D.

    2008-01-01

    Grids provide sheer unlimited computing power and access to a variety of resources to todays scientists. Moving from a research topic of computer science to a commodity tool for science and research in general, grid infrastructures are built all around the world. This talk provides an overview of the developments of grids in Europe, the status of the so-called national grid initiatives as well as the efforts towards an integrated European grid infrastructure. The latter, summarized under the title of the European Grid Initiative (EGI), promises a permanent and reliable grid infrastructure and its services in a way similar to research networks today. The talk describes the status of these efforts, the plans for the setup of this pan-European e-Infrastructure, and the benefits for the application communities. (author)

  14. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  15. Smart Grids Cyber Security Issues and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Imen Aouini; Lamia Ben Azzouz

    2015-01-01

    The energy need is growing rapidly due to the population growth and the large new usage of power. Several works put considerable efforts to make the electricity grid more intelligent to reduce essentially energy consumption and provide efficiency and reliability of power systems. The Smart Grid is a complex architecture that covers critical devices and systems vulnerable to significant attacks. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the success and the wide deployment of...

  16. Parallel grid population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  17. The effects of scaffolding in the classroom : support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Janneke; Volman, Monique; Oort, Frans; Beishuizen, Jos

    2015-01-01

    Teacher scaffolding, in which teachers support students adaptively or contingently, is assumed to be effective. Yet, hardly any evidence from classroom studies exists. With the current experimental classroom study we investigated whether scaffolding affects students’ achievement, task effort, and

  18. [Comparison between the risk of mobbing at work and conditions of job strain and effort-reward imbalance in relation to stress-related disorders: a study in the public administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, C; Fraccaroli, E

    2013-01-01

    A limitation of previous research on mobbing at work was that the individual consequences of the phenomenon were often assessed on 'clinical' samples of victims. Studies in organizations are less numerous and those available rarely evaluated the potential effect of mobbing over and above that of other psychosocial factors which provided robust evidence of adverse health effects. The relationship between exposure to mobbing and stress-related psychophysical conditions was investigated taking in consideration the possible concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. Cross-sectional study on public administration administrative employees (No. = 538, 48% women). The psychosocial factors considered were assessed by means of well known and validated scales. The four health outcomes considered were psychological caseness (as operationalized by means of the general health questionnaire-12-item version), depression, gastritis and colitis/irritable colon syndrome as indicated by having reported a medical diagnosis of such conditions. Covariates: gender, age, body mass index, smoking habits and experience of a traumatic event in the last year. Analysis consisted of a series of logistic regressions. Exposure to mobbing was significantly associated with all the outcomes considered over and above the covariates. The inclusion in the models of job strain and effort-reward imbalance did not substantially alter the results. The relationship between mobbing at work and health outcomes is not confounded by concomitant exposure to job strain and effort-reward imbalance. These results offer further confirmation of the uniqueness of mobbing as a psychosocial risk factor.

  19. Smart grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b

  20. HLRmon: a role-based grid accounting report web tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pra, S D; Fattibene, E; Misurelli, G; Pescarmona, F; Gaido, L

    2008-01-01

    Both Grid users and Grid operators need ways to get CPU usage statistics about jobs executed in a given time period at various different levels, depending on their specific Grid's role and rights. While a Grid user is interested in reports about its own jobs and should not get access to other's data, Site or Virtual Organization (VO) or Regional Operation Centre (ROC) manager would also like to see how resources are used through the Grid in a per Site or per VO basis, or both. The whole set of different reports turns out to be quite large, and various existing tools made to create them tend to better satisfy a single user's category, eventually despite of another. HLRmon results from our efforts to generate suitable reports for all existing categories and has been designed to serve them within a unified layout. Thanks to its ability to authenticate clients through certificate and related authorization rights, it can a-priori restrict the selectable items range offered to the web user, so that sensitive information can only be provided to specifically enabled people. Information are gathered by HLRmon from a Home Location Register (HLR) which stores complete accounting data in a per job basis. Depending on the kind of reports that are to be generated, it directly queries the HLR server using an ad-hoc Distributed Grid Accounting System (DGAS) query tool (tipically user's level detail info), or a local RDBMS table with daily aggregate information in a per Day, Site, VO basis, thus saving connection delay time and needless load on the HLR server

  1. Smart power grids 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines

  2. Modeling and Grid Generation of Iced Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Pennline, James A.; Schilling, Herbert W.

    2007-01-01

    SmaggIce Version 2.0 is a software toolkit for geometric modeling and grid generation for two-dimensional, singleand multi-element, clean and iced airfoils. A previous version of SmaggIce was described in Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 8 (August 2004), page 32. To recapitulate: Ice shapes make it difficult to generate quality grids around airfoils, yet these grids are essential for predicting ice-induced complex flow. This software efficiently creates high-quality structured grids with tools that are uniquely tailored for various ice shapes. SmaggIce Version 2.0 significantly enhances the previous version primarily by adding the capability to generate grids for multi-element airfoils. This version of the software is an important step in streamlining the aeronautical analysis of ice airfoils using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. The user may prepare the ice shape, define the flow domain, decompose it into blocks, generate grids, modify/divide/merge blocks, and control grid density and smoothness. All these steps may be performed efficiently even for the difficult glaze and rime ice shapes. Providing the means to generate highly controlled grids near rough ice, the software includes the creation of a wrap-around block (called the "viscous sublayer block"), which is a thin, C-type block around the wake line and iced airfoil. For multi-element airfoils, the software makes use of grids that wrap around and fill in the areas between the viscous sub-layer blocks for all elements that make up the airfoil. A scripting feature records the history of interactive steps, which can be edited and replayed later to produce other grids. Using this version of SmaggIce, ice shape handling and grid generation can become a practical engineering process, rather than a laborious research effort.

  3. European electricity grid. Status and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    There is no doubt about the need to expand and modernize the European electricity grid, especially in order to allow renewable energies to be fed stochastically into existing systems. As it is hardly possible at the present time and also in the near future to store electricity on a major scale and at adequate prices, electricity must be transmitted from the point of generation to the point of consumption directly and in real time. The development of grid systems, including cross-border transmission systems, is still behind expectations. This is not due to a shortage of projects or a lack of interest on the part of grid operators; the necessary political support is available as well, and investments at present are covered by the feed tariffs. The problem is the lack of acceptance. It is difficult to obtain new permits or commission new grids. This problem of the licensing authorities often results in considerable delays. Consequently, it is up to the grid operators to handle this situation and promote new, intelligent grid systems in an effort to achieve acceptance of a technical-scale infrastructure. This includes transparency in grid expansion, exchange with the public in order to reach mutual understanding and trust and also find compromises as well as the willingness to discuss various approaches to solutions (underground routing, upgrading of existing grid systems, smart systems, and intelligent designs) so as to optimize the use of the existing infrastructure. (orig.)

  4. Interoperability and HealthGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bescos, C; Schmitt, D; Kass, J; García-Barbero, M; Kantchev, P

    2005-01-01

    GRID technology, with initiatives like the GGF, will have the potential to allow both competition and interoperability not only among applications and toolkits, but also among implementations of key services. The pyramid of eHealth interoperability should be achieved from standards in communication and data security, storage and processing, to the policy initiatives, including organizational protocols, financing procedures, and legal framework. The open challenges for GRID use in clinical fields illustrate the potential of the combination of grid technologies with medical routine into a wider interoperable framework. The Telemedicine Alliance is a consortium (ESA, WHO and ITU), initiated in 2002, in building a vision for the provision of eHealth to European citizens by 2010. After a survey with more that 50 interviews of experts, interoperability was identified as the main showstopper to eHealth implementation. There are already several groups and organizations contributing to standardization. TM-Alliance is supporting the "e-Health Standardization Coordination Group" (eHSCG). It is now, in the design and development phase of GRID technology in Health, the right moment to act with the aim of achieving an interoperable and open framework. The Health area should benefit from the initiatives started at the GGF in terms of global architecture and services definitions, as well as from the security and other web services applications developed under the Internet umbrella. There is a risk that existing important results of the standardization efforts in this area are not taken up simply because they are not always known.

  5. Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Emanuele; Richetin, Juliette; Suttora, Chiara; Pisani, Alberto

    2016-04-30

    Dysfunctions in social cognition characterize personality disorders. However, mixed results emerged from literature on emotion processing. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) traits are either associated with enhanced emotion recognition, impairments, or equal functioning compared to controls. These apparent contradictions might result from the complexity of emotion recognition tasks used and from individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. We conducted a study in a sample of undergraduate students (n=80), assessing BPD traits, using an emotion recognition task that requires the processing of only visual information or both visual and acoustic information. We also measured individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. Results demonstrated the moderating role of some components of impulsivity and effortful control on the capability of BPD traits in predicting anger and happiness recognition. We organized the discussion around the interaction between different components of regulatory functioning and task complexity for a better understanding of emotion recognition in BPD samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grid generation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Liseikin, Vladimir D

    2010-01-01

    This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...

  7. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  8. Smart grid in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...

  9. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, M.; Andriessen, T.M.J.C.; Brauer, J.M.; Vos, P.E.; Werf, S.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. RESEARCH DESIGN: (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a

  10. Vagal cardiac control throughout the day : the relative importance of effort-reward imbalance and within-day measurements of mood, demand and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanson, E.; Godaert, G.L R; Maas, C.J.M.; Meijman, T.F.

    The effects of variables derived from a work stress theory (the effort-reward imbalance theory) on the power in the high frequency (HF_HRV) band of heart rate (0.14-0.40 Hz) throughout a work day, were determined using multilevel analysis. Explanatory variables were analysed at two levels: at the

  11. Do Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Math and Reading Related Ability and Effort Predict Children's Self-Concept of Ability in Math and Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadyaya, Katja; Eccles, Jacquelynne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent primary school teachers' perceptions of their students' ability and effort predict developmental changes in children's self-concepts of ability in math and reading after controlling for students' academic performance and general intelligence. Three cohorts (N?=?849) of elementary school children and their…

  12. First Thuesday - CERN, The Grid gets real

    CERN Multimedia

    Robertson, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    A few years ago, "the Grid" was just a vision dreamt up by some computer scientists who wanted to share processor power and data storage capacity between computers around the world - in much the same way as today's Web shares information seamlessly between millions of computers. Today, Grid technology is a huge enterprise, involving hundreds of software engineers, and generating exciting opportunities for industry. "Computing on demand", "utility computing", "web services", and "virtualisation" are just a few of the buzzwords in the IT industry today that are intimately connected to the development of Grid technology. For this third First Tuesday @CERN, the panel will survey some of the latest major breakthroughs in building international computer Grids for science. It will also provide a snapshot of Grid-related industrial activities, with contributions from both major players in the IT sector as well as emerging Grid technology start-ups.

  13. Smart grid business case for private homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villefrance, Rasmus; Brandt, Jonas; Eriksen, Poul Svante

    2013-01-01

    We describe and consider how the potential of energy savings may drive the penetration of smart grid technology into private homes. We assess the sociological processes which lead to energy savings when the residents have access to smart grid technology. We propose a way to establish a cash flow...... from consumers via electrical distribution companies to smart grid technology providers on the Danish market. Finally, we assess the impact of such a business development on the society, as well as relating the penetration of smart grid technology in private homes to the societal goal of 100% renewable...

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  15. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  16. Smart grid technologies in local electric grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.

    2017-08-01

    The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.

  17. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  18. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...

  19. Grids for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, G.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to grids for nuclear fuel assemblies with the object of providing an improved grid, tending to have greater strength and tending to offer better location of the fuel pins. It comprises sets of generally parallel strips arranged to intersect to define a structure of cellular form, at least some of the intersections including a strip which is keyed to another strip at more than one point. One type of strip may be dimpled along its length and another type of strip may have slots for keying with the dimples. (Auth.)

  20. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  1. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  2. Hierarchical Control for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of autonomous consumers. The control system is tasked with balancing electric power production and consumption within the smart grid, and makes active use of the flexibility of a large number of power producing and/or power consuming units. The objective is to accommodate the load variation on the grid, arising......This paper deals with hierarchical model predictive control (MPC) of smart grid systems. The design consists of a high level MPC controller, a second level of so-called aggregators, which reduces the computational and communication-related load on the high-level control, and a lower level...... on one hand from varying consumption, and on the other hand by natural variations in power production e.g. from wind turbines. The high-level MPC problem is solved using quadratic optimisation, while the aggregator level can either involve quadratic optimisation or simple sorting-based min-max solutions...

  3. Integrating GRID tools to build a computing resource broker: activities of DataGrid WP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglano, C.; Barale, S.; Gaido, L.; Guarise, A.; Lusso, S.; Werbrouck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Resources on a computational Grid are geographically distributed, heterogeneous in nature, owned by different individuals or organizations with their own scheduling policies, have different access cost models with dynamically varying loads and availability conditions. This makes traditional approaches to workload management, load balancing and scheduling inappropriate. The first work package (WP1) of the EU-funded DataGrid project is addressing the issue of optimizing the distribution of jobs onto Grid resources based on a knowledge of the status and characteristics of these resources that is necessarily out-of-date (collected in a finite amount of time at a very loosely coupled site). The authors describe the DataGrid approach in integrating existing software components (from Condor, Globus, etc.) to build a Grid Resource Broker, and the early efforts to define a workable scheduling strategy

  4. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  5. Virtual Experiments on the Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Vickie E; Cobb, John W; Farhi, Emmanuel N; Miller, Stephen D; Taylor, M

    2008-01-01

    The TeraGrid's outreach effort to the neutron science community is creating an environment that is encouraging the exploration of advanced cyberinfrastructure being incorporated into facility operations in a way that leverages facility operations to multiply the scientific output of its users, including many NSF supported scientists in many disciplines. The Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway serves as an exploratory incubator for several TeraGrid projects. Virtual neutron scattering experiments from one exploratory project will be highlighted

  6. MESH2D Grid generator design and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program originally designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). x-coordinates depending only on index i implies strictly vertical x-grid lines, whereas the y-grid lines can undulate. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations. Since the original development effort, Mesh2d has been extended to more general two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i,j),(i,j)].

  7. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application. - Highlights: • Data fusion application is taken into account for the choice of the vertical grid. • The study is performed using ozone profiles retrieved from MIPAS measurements. • A very fine vertical grid is not needed for the analysis of a single instrument. • The instrument dependent vertical grid is not the best choice for data fusion. • A data fusion dependent vertical grid must be used for profiles that will be fused.

  8. Development of a smart DC grid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made, E-mail: imadejoni@phys.unpad.ac.id [Lab. of Instrumentation System and Functional Material Processing, Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM21, Jatinangor 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  9. Development of a smart DC grid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma’rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-01-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become ‘smart’. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  10. Grid for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdidier, Monique; Schwichtenberg, Horst

    2013-04-01

    The civil society at large has addressed to the Earth Science community many strong requirements related in particular to natural and industrial risks, climate changes, new energies. The main critical point is that on one hand the civil society and all public ask for certainties i.e. precise values with small error range as it concerns prediction at short, medium and long term in all domains; on the other hand Science can mainly answer only in terms of probability of occurrence. To improve the answer or/and decrease the uncertainties, (1) new observational networks have been deployed in order to have a better geographical coverage and more accurate measurements have been carried out in key locations and aboard satellites. Following the OECD recommendations on the openness of research and public sector data, more and more data are available for Academic organisation and SMEs; (2) New algorithms and methodologies have been developed to face the huge data processing and assimilation into simulations using new technologies and compute resources. Finally, our total knowledge about the complex Earth system is contained in models and measurements, how we put them together has to be managed cleverly. The technical challenge is to put together databases and computing resources to answer the ES challenges. However all the applications are very intensive computing. Different compute solutions are available and depend on the characteristics of the applications. One of them is Grid especially efficient for independent or embarrassingly parallel jobs related to statistical and parametric studies. Numerous applications in atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, seismology, hydrology, pollution, climate and biodiversity have been deployed successfully on Grid. In order to fulfill requirements of risk management, several prototype applications have been deployed using OGC (Open geospatial Consortium) components with Grid middleware. The Grid has permitted via a huge number of runs to

  11. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Allison M; Nunes, Eric J; Collins, Lyndsey E; Port, Russell G; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-05-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A(2A) antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A(2A) and A(1) antagonism. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05-0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Adenosine A(2A) and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders.

  12. Smart grid security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology

    2013-11-01

    The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.

  13. Mini-grid Policy Tool-kit. Policy and business frameworks for successful mini-grid roll-outs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Michael; Hayek, Niklas; Peterschmidt, Nico; Rohrer, Michael; Kondev, Bozhil; Adib, Rana; Cader, Catherina; Carter, Andrew; George, Peter; Gichungi, Henry; Hankins, Mark; Kappiah, Mahama; Mangwengwende, Simbarashe E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-grid Policy Tool-kit is for policy makers to navigate the mini-grid policy design process. It contains information on mini-grid operator models, the economics of mini-grids, and necessary policy and regulation that must be considered for successful implementation. The publication specifically focuses on Africa. Progress on extending the electricity grid in many countries has remained slow because of high costs of gird-extension and limited utility/state budgets for electrification. Mini-grids provide an affordable and cost-effective option to extend needed electricity services. Putting in place the right policy for min-grid deployment requires considerable effort but can yield significant improvement in electricity access rates as examples from Kenya, Senegal and Tanzania illustrate. The tool-kit is available in English, French and Portuguese

  14. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals.

  15. Electric Vehicle Grid Experiments and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    This project developed a low cost building energy management system (EMS) and conducted vehicle-to-grid (V2G) experiments on a commercial office building. The V2G effort included theinstallation and operation of a Princeton Power System CA-30 bi-dire...

  16. A study of factors enhancing smart grid consumer engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Yang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is important to ensure consumer acceptance in a smart grid since the ultimate deployment of the smart grid depends on the end users' acceptance of smart grid products and services such as smart meters and advanced metering services. We examine how residential consumers perceive the smart grid and what factors influence their acceptance of the smart grid through a survey for electricity consumers in Korea. In this study, consumers' smart grid acceptance factors, including the perceived risk, were examined with the existing technology acceptance model suggested by Davis. This study has an implication that it has provided theoretical and empirical ground, based on which the policies to promote consumer participation in the deployment of the smart grid can be developed. Since there are few studies on the policies from the perspective of the smart grid users, this study will contribute directly to the development of the strategy to ensure the acceptance of the smart grid. - Highlights: • We examine what factors influence electricity consumers' smart grid acceptance. • We test the smart grid technology acceptance model including the perceived risk as a main factor. • The importance of consumer education and public relations of the smart grid has been confirmed. • Another shortcut to ensure the acceptance of the smart grid is to mitigate the anxiety about the risk in the use of the smart grid

  17. Estimation of inspection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.F.; Wincek, M.A.

    1979-06-01

    An overview of IAEA inspection activities is presented, and the problem of evaluating the effectiveness of an inspection is discussed. Two models are described - an effort model and an effectiveness model. The effort model breaks the IAEA's inspection effort into components; the amount of effort required for each component is estimated; and the total effort is determined by summing the effort for each component. The effectiveness model quantifies the effectiveness of inspections in terms of probabilities of detection and quantities of material to be detected, if diverted over a specific period. The method is applied to a 200 metric ton per year low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. A description of the model plant is presented, a safeguards approach is outlined, and sampling plans are calculated. The required inspection effort is estimated and the results are compared to IAEA estimates. Some other applications of the method are discussed briefly. Examples are presented which demonstrate how the method might be useful in formulating guidelines for inspection planning and in establishing technical criteria for safeguards implementation

  18. LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)

  19. Urban micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel

    2017-02-01

    ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases

  20. High density grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-16

    An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.

  1. 'For good and for bad': the relations between universal obligations and particular efforts in the field of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassen Van, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The world has 'nuclear non-proliferation' on its lips. Presidents, politicians, journalists and others refer to it as the number one peril in our times. This may be right or wrong but irrespective of the real salience of 'nuclear dangers' it has a grip on our minds and wallets. A long range of states now make active investments in the improvement of nuclear security; not only at home as they used to do, but even abroad in other places and countries where there is concern with regard to how safe nuclear and materials are kept and stored. This development is surely an expression of a shared broadening of our sense of responsibility beyond the narrow confines of statehood and borders, and therefore this development should please us. On the other hand, the truly universal measures and instruments of the NPT and the regime round it are in trouble. It is being stated in some quarters that the NPT is inadequate in a new era with new threats from sub-state actors. Nevertheless, the NPT is the only legal instrument that is a framework that either by itself or as a starting-point can serve as a tool box for long-term storage of the proliferation risks. The reason for this is that the NPT is an expression of fairness in terms of rights and balances for all states committed to non-proliferation. And its foundations are those of international law. To the extent the NPT is being questioned will there also be a risk that non-proliferation efforts in the framework of cooperative threat reduction and for instance global partnership will lose legitimacy; simply for the reason that only a small number of the non-proliferation concerns are given attention. This relationship between cooperative threat reduction efforts on the one hand and universal legal instruments for non-proliferation on the other is a double-edged sword. While the two can reinvigorate and strengthen each other, there is also a risk that the one - cooperative threat reduction - when given preference over

  2. GridICE: monitoring the user/application activities on the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Pra, S D; Andreozzi, S; Fattibene, E; Misurelli, G; Cuscela, G; Donvito, G; Dudhalkar, V; Maggi, G; Pierro, A; Fantinel, S

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of the grid user activity and application performance is extremely useful to plan resource usage strategies particularly in cases of complex applications. Large VOs, such as the LHC VOs, do their monitoring by means of dashboards. Other VOs or communities, like for example the BioinfoGRID one, are characterized by a greater diversification of the application types: so the effort to provide a dashboard like monitor is particularly heavy. The main theme of this paper is to show the improvements introduced in GridICE, a web tool built to provides an almost complete grid monitoring. These recent improvements allows GridICE to provide new reports on the resources usage with details of the VOMS groups, roles and users. By accessing the GridICE web pages, the grid user can get all information that is relevant to keep track of his activity on the grid. In the same way, the activity of a VOMS group can be distinguished from the activity of the entire VO. In this paper we briefly talk about the features and advantages of this approach and, after discussing the requirements, we describe the software solutions, middleware and prerequisite to manage and retrieve the user's credentials

  3. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  4. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  5. Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

    The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…

  6. A principled approach to grid middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Bardino, Jonas; Vinter, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of MiG, a Grid middleware for advanced job execution, data storage and group collaboration in an integrated, yet lightweight solution using standard software. In contrast to most other Grid middlewares, MiG is developed with a particular focus on usability and mini......This paper provides an overview of MiG, a Grid middleware for advanced job execution, data storage and group collaboration in an integrated, yet lightweight solution using standard software. In contrast to most other Grid middlewares, MiG is developed with a particular focus on usability...... and minimal system requirements, applying strict principles to keep the middleware free of legacy burdens and overly complicated design. We provide an overview of MiG and describe its features in view of the Grid vision and its relation to more recent cloud computing trends....

  7. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Smolenski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    As power systems develop to incorporate renewable energy sources, the delivery systems may be disrupted by the changes involved. The grid’s technology and management must be developed to form Smart Grids between consumers, suppliers and producers. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids considers the specific side effects related to electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by the application of these Smart Grids. Conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) in Smart Grids presents specific EMI conducted phenomena as well as effective methods to filter and handle them once identified. After introduction to Smart Grids, the following sections cover dedicated methods for EMI reduction and potential avenues for future development including chapters dedicated to: •potential system services, •descriptions of the EMI spectra shaping methods, •methods of interference voltage compensation, and theoretical analysis of experimental results.  By focusing on these key aspects, Conducted El...

  8. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  9. Space weather and power grids: findings and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Elisabeth; Andersson, Emmelie; Murtagh, William; Mitchison, Neil

    2014-05-01

    The impact of space weather on the power grid is a tangible and recurring threat with potentially serious consequences on society. Of particular concern is the long-distance high-voltage power grid, which is vulnerable to the effects of geomagnetic storms that can damage or destroy equipment or lead to grid collapse. In order to launch a dialogue on the topic and encourage authorities, regulators and operators in European countries and North America to learn from each other, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, and NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Centre, with the contribution of the UK Civil Contingencies Secretariat, jointly organised a workshop on the impact of extreme space weather on the power grid on 29-30 October 2013. Being structured into 6 sessions, the topics addressed were space-weather phenomena and the dynamics of their impact on the grid, experiences with prediction and now-casting in the USA and in Europe, risk assessment and preparedness, as well as policy implications arising from increased awareness of the space-weather hazard. The main workshop conclusions are: • There is increasing awareness of the risk of space-weather impact among power-grid operators and regulators and some countries consider it a priority risk to be addressed. • The predictability of space-weather phenomena is still limited and relies, in part, on data from ageing satellites. NOAA is working with NASA to launch the DSCOVR solar wind spacecraft, the replacement for the ACE satellite, in early 2015. • In some countries, models and tools for GIC prediction and grid impact assessment have been developed in collaboration with national power grids but equipment vulnerability models are scarce. • Some countries have successfully hardened their transmission grids to space-weather impact and sustained relatively little or no damage due to currents induced by past moderate space-weather events. • While there is preparedness

  10. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  11. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  12. Performance Analysis of Information Services in a Grid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The Information Service is a fundamental component in a grid environment. It has to meet a lot of requirements such as access to static and dynamic information related to grid resources, efficient and secure access to dynamic data, decentralized maintenance, fault tolerance etc., in order to achieve better performance, scalability, security and extensibility. Currently there are two different major approaches. One is based on a directory infrastructure and another one on a novel approach that exploits a relational DBMS. In this paper we present a performance comparison analysis between Grid Resource Information Service (GRIS and Local Dynamic Grid Catalog relational information service (LDGC, providing also information about two projects (iGrid and Grid Relational Catalog in the grid data management area.

  13. Security for grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  14. The LHCb Grid Simulation

    CERN Multimedia

    Baranov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...

  15. The play grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...

  16. Planning in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation

  17. Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...

  18. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  19. The GRID seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.

  20. Grid and Data Analyzing and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh SHOKRI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the importance of secure structures in the process of analyzing and distributing information with aid of Grid-based technologies. The advent of distributed network has provided many practical opportunities for detecting and recording the time of events, and made efforts to identify the events and solve problems of storing information such as being up-to-date and documented. In this regard, the data distribution systems in a network environment should be accurate. As a consequence, a series of continuous and updated data must be at hand. In this case, Grid is the best answer to use data and resource of organizations by common processing.

  1. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  2. The Smart Grid Impact on the Danish DSOs’ Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Sommer, Simon; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    The transformation progress of the smart grid challenges the market players' business models. One of those market players is the Distribution System Operators (DSOs). This paper aims to elaborate how smart grid influences the DSOs' business models with case studies of two Danish DSOs — Energi......Fyn and TREFOR. The main findings indicate that the Danish smart grid transformation process influences the Danish DSOs' business models via four smart grid related factors: (1) smart meters, (2) Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), (3) Bidirectional electricity flow, and (4) R&D. Therefore, the results show...... that the smart grid incrementally not revolutionary influences the Danish DSOs' business models, and the smart grid transformation of the Danish electricity grid is slower than the agenda of the official Danish smart grid development strategy....

  3. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  4. Influence of Cancer Worry on Four Cancer Related Health Protective Behaviors among a Nationally Representative Sample: Implications for Health Promotion Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O; Mkuu, Rahma S; Jacobs, Wura; Ejembi, Agbenu Z

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to assess what sociodemographic characteristics are associated with cancer worry and what the influence of cancer worry is on four cancer-related protective health behaviors. Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (4th cycle of the 4th iteration) were used. Multiple regression models were used for all analyses. Behaviors analyzed were as follows: physical activity, diets, smoking, and routine medical screening. Demographics controls included participant age, income, body mass index (BMI), race/ethnicity, and education. N = 2630, Older participants (OR = .99, p health behavior and may be short-lived, the influence of worry on health-related decision making is likely to be lasting even when the emotions are no longer present.

  5. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  6. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  7. The open science grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus

  8. SuperGrid or SmartGrid: Competing strategies for large-scale integration of intermittent renewables?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blarke, Morten B.; Jenkins, Bryan M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines and compares two strategies for integrating intermittent renewables: SuperGrid and SmartGrid. While conventional energy policy suggests that these strategies may be implemented alongside each other, the paper identifies significant technological and socio-economic conflicts of interest between the two. The article identifies differences between a domestic strategy for the integration of intermittent renewables, vis-à-vis the SmartGrid, and a cross-system strategy, vis-à-vis the SuperGrid. Policy makers and transmission system operators must understand the need for both strategies to evolve in parallel, but in different territories, or with strategic integration, avoiding for one strategy to undermine the feasibility of the other. A strategic zoning strategy is introduced from which attentive societies as well as the global community stand to benefit. The analysis includes a paradigmatic case study from West Denmark which supports the hypothesis that these strategies are mutually exclusive. The case study shows that increasing cross-system transmission capacity jeopardizes the feasibility of SmartGrid technology investments. A political effort is required for establishing dedicated SmartGrid innovation zones, while also redefining infrastructure to avoid the narrow focus on grids and cables. SmartGrid Investment Trusts could be supported from reallocation of planned transmission grid investments to provide for the equitable development of SmartGrid strategies. - Highlights: • Compares SuperGrid and SmartGrid strategies for integrating intermittent renewables. • Identifies technological and socio-economic conflicts of interest between the two. • Proposes a strategic zoning strategy allowing for both strategies to evolve. • Presents a paradigmatic case study showing that strategies are mutually exclusive. • Proposes dedicated SmartGrid innovation zones and SmartGrid investment trusts

  9. Association between childhood health, socioeconomic and school-related factors and effort-reward imbalance at work: a 25-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Sanderson, Kristy; Venn, Alison; Dwyer, Terence; Gall, Seana

    2018-01-01

    Stress pathways can have origins in childhood, but few early predictors have been explored in relation to adult job stress. This study examined whether childhood school, health or socioeconomic factors were associated with adult job stress. Data came from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study that began in 1985 with children aged 7-15 years who reported effortreward imbalance (ERI) scales at ages 31-41 years. Linear regression assessed the association between childhood factors and adult ERI adjusted for age and socioeconomic position (SEP) in childhood and adulthood. There were between 999 and 1390 participants in each analysis. Lower adulthood ERI, indicating less job stress, was predicted by several school-related factors in men. For example, each higher category of learner self-concept was associated with a 19% (95% CI - 32% to 6%) reduction in adult ERI, and each unit increase in academic attainment was associated with a 15% (95% CI -28% to 3%) reduction in adult ERI. Childhood health was associated with adult ERI. For example, in women, overweight children had 14% (95% CI 5% to 22%) higher adult ERI scores compared with healthy weight children, and each unit of negative affect was associated with 2% (95% CI 1% to 4%) increase in adult ERI. Adult SEP had no effect on these associations for men but explained some of the effect in women. Childhood SEP had inconsistent associations with adult ERI. Our findings suggest that a range of childhood socioeconomic, school- and health-related factors might contribute to the development of job stress in adulthood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Desktop grid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cerin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical

  11. Transmission grid security

    CERN Document Server

    Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2011-01-01

    In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve

  12. Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konagaya Akihiko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.

  13. High-Performance Secure Database Access Technologies for HEP Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Vranicar; John Weicher

    2006-04-17

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory will become the largest scientific instrument in the world when it starts operations in 2007. Large Scale Analysis Computer Systems (computational grids) are required to extract rare signals of new physics from petabytes of LHC detector data. In addition to file-based event data, LHC data processing applications require access to large amounts of data in relational databases: detector conditions, calibrations, etc. U.S. high energy physicists demand efficient performance of grid computing applications in LHC physics research where world-wide remote participation is vital to their success. To empower physicists with data-intensive analysis capabilities a whole hyperinfrastructure of distributed databases cross-cuts a multi-tier hierarchy of computational grids. The crosscutting allows separation of concerns across both the global environment of a federation of computational grids and the local environment of a physicist’s computer used for analysis. Very few efforts are on-going in the area of database and grid integration research. Most of these are outside of the U.S. and rely on traditional approaches to secure database access via an extraneous security layer separate from the database system core, preventing efficient data transfers. Our findings are shared by the Database Access and Integration Services Working Group of the Global Grid Forum, who states that "Research and development activities relating to the Grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, in many scientific and commercial domains, database management systems have a central role in data storage, access, organization, authorization, etc, for numerous applications.” There is a clear opportunity for a technological breakthrough, requiring innovative steps to provide high-performance secure database access technologies for grid computing. We believe that an innovative database architecture where the

  14. High-Performance Secure Database Access Technologies for HEP Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranicar, Matthew; Weicher, John

    2006-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory will become the largest scientific instrument in the world when it starts operations in 2007. Large Scale Analysis Computer Systems (computational grids) are required to extract rare signals of new physics from petabytes of LHC detector data. In addition to file-based event data, LHC data processing applications require access to large amounts of data in relational databases: detector conditions, calibrations, etc. U.S. high energy physicists demand efficient performance of grid computing applications in LHC physics research where world-wide remote participation is vital to their success. To empower physicists with data-intensive analysis capabilities a whole hyperinfrastructure of distributed databases cross-cuts a multi-tier hierarchy of computational grids. The crosscutting allows separation of concerns across both the global environment of a federation of computational grids and the local environment of a physicist's computer used for analysis. Very few efforts are on-going in the area of database and grid integration research. Most of these are outside of the U.S. and rely on traditional approaches to secure database access via an extraneous security layer separate from the database system core, preventing efficient data transfers. Our findings are shared by the Database Access and Integration Services Working Group of the Global Grid Forum, who states that 'Research and development activities relating to the Grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, in many scientific and commercial domains, database management systems have a central role in data storage, access, organization, authorization, etc, for numerous applications'. There is a clear opportunity for a technological breakthrough, requiring innovative steps to provide high-performance secure database access technologies for grid computing. We believe that an innovative database architecture where the secure

  15. A Framework for Testing Automated Detection, Diagnosis, and Remediation Systems on the Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Shing-hon

    2011-01-01

    America's electrical grid is currently undergoing a multi-billion dollar modernization effort aimed at producing a highly reliable critical national infrastructure for power - a Smart Grid. While the goals for the Smart Grid include upgrades to accommodate large quantities of clean, but transient, renewable energy and upgrades to provide customers with real-time pricing information, perhaps the most important objective is to create an electrical grid with a greatly increased robustness.

  16. Lincoln Laboratory Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...

  17. CMS computing on grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Wen; Sun Gongxing

    2007-01-01

    CMS has adopted a distributed system of services which implement CMS application view on top of Grid services. An overview of CMS services will be covered. Emphasis is on CMS data management and workload Management. (authors)

  18. Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.

  19. Meet the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie

    2005-01-01

    Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries

  20. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  1. Spacer grid corner gusset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  2. US National Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  3. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption

  4. Grid Computing Education Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Crumb

    2008-01-15

    The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.

  5. Study of Swept Angle Effects on Grid Fins Aerodynamics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faza, G. A.; Fadillah, H.; Silitonga, F. Y.; Agoes Moelyadi, Mochamad

    2018-04-01

    Grid fin is an aerodynamic control surface that usually used on missiles and rockets. In the recent several years many researches have conducted to develop a more efficient grid fins. There are many possibilities of geometric combination could be done to improve aerodynamics characteristic of a grid fin. This paper will only discuss about the aerodynamics characteristics of grid fins compared by another grid fins with different swept angle. The methodology that used to compare the aerodynamics is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The result of this paper might be used for future studies to answer our former question or as a reference for related studies.

  6. Mini Smart Grid @ Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus U.; Furtak, Simon J.; Häuser, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish an unders......Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish...... an understanding of micro-economic and IT challenges related to Smart Grid technology. The mini-smart-grid project at Copenhagen Business School (MSC@CBS) project seeks to investigate the business opportunities and issues that arise from this new technology. The project revolves around the concepts of Smart Grids......, Smart Meters and prosumers. Smart Grids are a new method of managing electricity and power supply. It has not reached its full potential yet, but it offers a more interactive platform for both the consumer and the main supplier e.g. Dong Energy. The Smart Grid will collect and control the behavior...

  7. Beyond grid security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeft, B; Epting, U; Koenig, T

    2008-01-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls

  8. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  9. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine alters effort-related decision making as measured by the T-maze barrier choice task: reversal with the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E; Thompson, Christian; Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Müller, Christa E; Baqi, Younis; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-04-01

    Depressed people show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, retardation, lassitude, and fatigue. Animal tests can model these motivational symptoms, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, at low doses, preferentially depletes dopamine. The current studies investigated the effects of tetrabenazine on effort-based decision making using the T-maze barrier task. Rats were tested in a T-maze in which the choice arms of the maze contain different reinforcement densities, and under some conditions, a vertical barrier was placed in the high-density arm to provide an effort-related challenge. The first experiment assessed the effects of tetrabenazine under different maze conditions: a barrier in the arm with 4 food pellets and 2 pellets in the no barrier arm (4-2 barrier), 4 pellets in one arm and 2 pellets in the other with no barrier in either arm (no barrier), and 4 pellets in the barrier arm with no pellets in the other (4-0 barrier). Tetrabenazine (0.25-0.75 mg/kg IP) decreased selection of the high cost/high reward arm when the barrier was present, but had no effect on choice under the no barrier and 4-0 barrier conditions. The effects of tetrabenazine on barrier climbing in the 4-2 condition were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders.

  10. National transmission grid study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  11. Sensitivity and related factors in iodine-123-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy to detect stable effort angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Yumi; Takechi, Norikazu; Suzuki, Kenji; Nishibori, Yoshiharu; Matsuo, Akiko; Inoue, Keiji; Fujita, Hiroshi; Inoue, Naoto

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the sensitivity and the related factors in iodine-123-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy to detect stable angina. The subjects were 198 patients with stable angina who underwent BMIPP before percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass graft surgery. Patients with unstable angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy and vasospastic angina were excluded. After investigation of the sensitivity of BMIPP, the patients with single-vessel disease without collateral flow were classified into the normal 12 3 I-BMIPP uptake group (normal group) or decreased 123 I-BMIPP uptake group (decreased group), and various factors were compared between the two groups. Sensitivity was 61% overall, 58% in single-vessel disease, 69% in double-vessel disease, 53% in triple-vessel disease, 43% in only left main vessel disease, and 89% in left main and other vessel disease (NS). In single-vessel disease, the sensitivity was 40% in 75% coronary artery stenosis, 58% in 90% stenosis, 89% in 99% stenosis, and 69% in total occlusion (p=0.003). Comparing the decreased and normal groups, diabetes mellitus was more frequent in the normal group (14.6% vs 39.5%), minimal lumen diameter was smaller (0.75±0.37 vs 0.98±0.49 mm) and lesion length was longer in the decreased group (15.4±4.9 vs 11.6±5.5 mm). Logistic multivariate analysis showed that the independent factors were diabetes mellitus [odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.87, p=0.03], minimal lumen diameter (odds ratio 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.48, p=0.003) and lesion length (odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25, p=0.03). BMIPP is useful in stable angina patients because of the acceptable sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus, minimal lumen diameter and lesion length were independent factors associated with decreased BMIPP uptake. (author)

  12. Application of the Chimera overlapped grid scheme to simulation of Space Shuttle ascent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Parks, Steven J.; Chan, William M.; Renze, Kevin J.

    1992-01-01

    Several issues relating to the application of Chimera overlapped grids to complex geometries and flowfields are discussed. These include the addition of geometric components with different grid topologies, gridding for intersecting pieces of geometry, and turbulence modeling in grid overlap regions. Sample results are presented for transonic flow about the Space Shuttle launch vehicle. Comparisons with wind tunnel and flight measured pressures are shown.

  13. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  14. Smart Grid Integration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2011-12-22

    The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3

  15. CRIS and the GRIDs Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jeffery

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The end-user demands low effort threshold access to systems providing e-information, e-business, and e-entertainment. Innovators and entrepreneurs require also equally low-energy access to heterogeneous information homogenised to a form and language familiar to them. On top of that, decision-makers, whether in a control room or government strategic planning, demand equally easy access to information that is statistically or inductively enhanced to knowledge and access to modelling or simulation systems to allow 'what if?' requests. Researchers and technical workers have an additional requirement for rapid integration of information with statistical, induction, modelling, and simulation systems to generate and verify hypotheses so generating data and information, to be used by others, which in turn advances knowledge. Access is required, and can now be provided, anytime, anyhow, anywhere through ambient computing technology. A new paradigm, GRIDs, provides the architectural framework.

  16. PANDA Grid – a Tool for Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopopescu, D; Schwarz, K

    2011-01-01

    PANDA Grid is the computing tool of the P-bar ANDA experiment at FAIR with concerted efforts dedicated to evolving it beyond passive computing infrastructure, into a complete and transparent solution for physics simulation, reconstruction and analysis, a tool right at the fingertips of the physicist. P-bar ANDA's position within the larger FAIR community, synergies with other FAIR experiments and with ALICE-LHC, together with recent progress are reported.

  17. Grid support capabilities of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalke, Gabriele; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Wind power has gained a significant penetration level in several power systems all over the world. Due to this reason modern wind turbines are requested to contribute to power system support. Power system operators have thus introduced grid codes, which specify a set of requirements for wind...... turbines, such as fault ride-through and reactive power supply during voltage sags. To date different wind turbine concepts exist on the market comprising different control features in order to provide ancillary services to the power system. In the first place the present chapter emphasizes the most...... important issues related to wind power grid integration. Then different wind turbine concepts are characterized and their grid support capabilities are analysed and compared. Simulation cases are presented in which the respective wind turbine concepts are subjected to a voltage dip specified in a grid code....

  18. A partial grid for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demario, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a nuclear-reactor fuel assembly including fuel-rod supporting transverse grids. The fuel assembly includes at least one additional transverse grid which is disposed between two fuel-rod supporting grids and consists of at least one partial grid structure extending across only a portion of the fuel assembly and having fuel rods and control-rod guide thimbles of only said portion extending therethrough. The partial grid structure includes means for providing lateral support of the fuel rods and/or means for laterally deflecting coolant flow, and it is formed of inter-leaved inner straps and border straps, the interleaved inner straps preferably being of substantially smaller height than the border straps to reduce the amount of material capable of parasitically absorbing neutrons. The additional transverse grid may comprise several partial grid structures associated with different groups of fuel rods of the fuel assembly

  19. First Tuesday@CERN - THE GRID GETS REAL !

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    A few years ago, "the Grid" was just a vision dreamt up by some computer scientists who wanted to share processor power and data storage capacity between computers around the world - in much the same way as today's Web shares information seamlessly between millions of computers. Today, Grid technology is a huge enterprise, involving hundreds of software engineers, and generating exciting opportunities for industry. "Computing on demand", "utility computing", "web services", and "virtualisation" are just a few of the buzzwords in the IT industry today that are intimately connected to the development of Grid technology. For this third First Tuesday @CERN, the panel will survey some of the latest major breakthroughs in building international computer Grids for science. It will also provide a snapshot of Grid-related industrial activities, with contributions from both major players in the IT sector as well as emerging Grid technology start-ups. Panel: - Les Robertson, Head of the LHC Computing Grid Project, IT ...

  20. Importance of Grid Center Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.

    2012-12-01

    In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs

  1. Feature combination analysis in smart grid based using SOM for Sudan national grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Yusof, M. A. M.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Nasir, M. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the investigation of power grid security, the cascading failure in multicontingency situations has been a test because of its topological unpredictability and computational expense. Both system investigations and burden positioning routines have their limits. In this project, in view of sorting toward Self Organizing Maps (SOM), incorporated methodology consolidating spatial feature (distance)-based grouping with electrical attributes (load) to evaluate the vulnerability and cascading impact of various part sets in the force lattice. Utilizing the grouping result from SOM, sets of overwhelming stacked beginning victimized people to perform assault conspires and asses the consequent falling impact of their failures, and this SOM-based approach viably distinguishes the more powerless sets of substations than those from the conventional burden positioning and other bunching strategies. The robustness of power grids is a central topic in the design of the so called "smart grid". In this paper, to analyze the measures of importance of the nodes in a power grid under cascading failure. With these efforts, we can distinguish the most vulnerable nodes and protect them, improving the safety of the power grid. Also we can measure if a structure is proper for power grids.

  2. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaktionov, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  3. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  4. Literality and Cognitive Effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacruz, Isabel; Carl, Michael; Yamada, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a notion of pause-word ratio computed using ranges of pause lengths rather than lower cutoffs for pause lengths. Standard pause-word ratios are indicators of cognitive effort during different translation modalities.The pause range version allows for the study of how different types...... remoteness. We use data from the CRITT TPR database, comparing translation and post-editing from English to Japanese and from English to Spanish, and study the interaction of pause-word ratio for short pauses ranging between 300 and 500ms with syntactic remoteness, measured by the CrossS feature, semantic...... remoteness, measured by HTra, and syntactic and semantic remoteness, measured by Literality....

  5. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  6. Mapping telemedicine efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    are being utilized? What medical disciplines are being addressed using telemedicine systems? Methods: All data was surveyed from the "Telemedicinsk Landkort", a newly created database designed to provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of all telemedicine technologies in Denmark. Results......Objectives: The aim of this study is to survey telemedicine services currently in operation across Denmark. The study specifically seeks to answer the following questions: What initiatives are deployed within the different regions? What are the motivations behind the projects? What technologies......: The results of this study suggest that a growing number of telemedicine initiatives are currently in operation across Denmark but that considerable variations existed in terms of regional efforts as the number of operational telemedicine projects varied from region to region. Conclusions: The results...

  7. Huddersfield University Campus Grid: QGG of OSCAR Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Violeta; Kureshi, Ibad

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade Grid Computing Technology, an innovative extension of distributed computing, is becoming an enabler for computing resource sharing among the participants in 'Virtual Organisations' (VO). Although there exist enormous research efforts on grid-based collaboration technologies, most of them are concentrated on large research and business institutions. In this paper we are considering the adoption of Grid Computing Technology in a VO of small to medium Further Education (FE) and Higher-Education (HE) institutions. We will concentrate on the resource sharing among the campuses of The University of Huddersfield in Yorkshire and colleges in Lancashire, UK, enabled by the Grid. Within this context, it is important to focus on standards that support resource and information sharing, toolkits and middleware solutions that would promote Grid adoption among the FE/HE institutions in the Virtual HE organisation.

  8. 'Renewables-Friendly' Grid Development Strategies: Experience in the United States, Potential Lessons for China (Chinese Translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-03

    This is a Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-64940. This report aims to help China's reform effort by providing a concise summary of experience in the United States with 'renewables-friendly' grid management, focusing on experiences that might be applicable to China. It focuses on utility-scale renewables and sets aside issues related to distributed generation.

  9. Grid sleeve bulge tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly

  10. Solar activity and economic fundamentals: Evidence from 12 geographically disparate power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Kevin F.; St. Cyr, O. C.

    2008-10-01

    This study uses local (ground-based) magnetometer data as a proxy for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) to address whether there is a space weather/electricity market relationship in 12 geographically disparate power grids: Eirgrid, the power grid that serves the Republic of Ireland; Scottish and Southern Electricity, the power grid that served northern Scotland until April 2005; Scottish Power, the power grid that served southern Scotland until April 2005; the power grid that serves the Czech Republic; E.ON Netz, the transmission system operator in central Germany; the power grid in England and Wales; the power grid in New Zealand; the power grid that serves the vast proportion of the population in Australia; ISO New England, the power grid that serves New England; PJM, a power grid that over the sample period served all or parts of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia; NYISO, the power grid that serves New York State; and the power grid in the Netherlands. This study tests the hypothesis that GIC levels (proxied by the time variation of local magnetic field measurements (dH/dt)) and electricity grid conditions are related using Pearson's chi-squared statistic. The metrics of power grid conditions include measures of electricity market imbalances, energy losses, congestion costs, and actions by system operators to restore grid stability. The results of the analysis indicate that real-time market conditions in these power grids are statistically related with the GIC proxy.

  11. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  12. Smart Grid Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...

  13. Instant jqGrid

    CERN Document Server

    Manricks, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.

  14. Smart Grid, Smart Europe

    OpenAIRE

    VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...

  15. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  16. SuperGrid or SmartGrid: Competing strategies for large-scale integration of intermittent renewables?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten; M. Jenkins, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines and compares two strategies for integrating intermittent renewables: SuperGrid and SmartGrid. While conventional energy policy suggests that these strategies may be implemented alongside each other, the paper identifies significant technological and socio-economic conflicts...... of interest between the two. The article identifies differences between a domestic strategy for the integration of intermittent renewables, vis-à-vis the SmartGrid, and a cross-system strategy, vis-à-vis the SuperGrid. Policy makers and transmission system operators must understand the need for both...... a paradigmatic case study from West Denmark which supports the hypothesis that these strategies are mutually exclusive. The case study shows that increasing cross-system transmission capacity jeopardizes the feasibility of SmartGrid technology investments. A political effort is required for establishing...

  17. Standard Procedure for Grid Interaction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Bertil; Lindahl, Sture; Karlsson, Daniel; Joensson, Jonas; Heyman, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Grid events, simultaneously affecting all safety related auxiliary systems in a nuclear power plant, are critical and must be carefully addressed in the design, upgrading and operational processes. Up to now, the connecting grid has often been treated as either fully available or totally unavailable, and too little attention has been paid to specify the grid performance criteria. This paper deals with standard procedures for grid interaction analysis, to derive tools and criteria to handle grid events challenging the safety systems of the plant. Critical external power system events are investigated and characterised, with respect to severity and rate of occurrence. These critical events are then grouped with respect to impact on the safety systems, when a disturbance propagates into the plant. It is then important to make sure that 1) the impact of the disturbance will never reach any critical system, 2) the impact of the disturbance will be eliminated before it will hurt any critical system, or 3) the critical systems will be proven to be designed in such a way that they can withstand the impact of the disturbance, and the associated control and protection systems can withstand voltage and frequency transients associated with the disturbances. A number of representative disturbance profiles, reflecting connecting grid conditions, are therefore derived, to be used for equipment testing. (authors)

  18. Cernavoda NPP integration in the Romanian grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The intention of this material is to present our point of view about some specific matters that arise from having a relatively large power production unit (706 MW) connected to a National Grid in which the second largest units are only 330 MW. The material consists in three major parts. In the first section is presented the 'big picture' of the Romanian National Grid. The second section covers the role played by CNPP in the grid power balance and frequency/voltage adjustment. CNPP is located at the base of the daily load curve and thus not normally participating at frequency adjustment. CNPP also has a contribution in increasing the dynamic stability of the National Grid. The third section is a more detailed presentation of CNPP behavior during grid upsets, with reference to the reactor and turbine control systems, and also the types of transients that our plant could induce to the grid due to internal malfunctions. The over-all unit control is based on the 'reactor power constant' policy, all the fluctuations in the power output to the grid being compensated by the Boiler Pressure Control System. Some features of the Turbine Electro-Hydraulic Control System and how it interacts with the Boiler Pressure Control Sys. will also be presented. The types of transients that CNPP could experience are reactor power setbacks (automatic ramped power reductions), reactor power step-backs (fast controlled power reduction) and unit trips, which are the most severe. There are two ways from the grid point of view to deal with such transients; to compensate the power loss by increasing the production and to disconnect unimportant power consumers. These actions are taken both automatically and manually (some details will be presented). (author)

  19. Grid today, clouds on the horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiers, Jamie

    2009-04-01

    By the time of CCP 2008, the largest scientific machine in the world - the Large Hadron Collider - had been cooled down as scheduled to its operational temperature of below 2 degrees Kelvin and injection tests were starting. Collisions of proton beams at 5+5 TeV were expected within one to two months of the initial tests, with data taking at design energy ( 7+7 TeV) foreseen for 2009. In order to process the data from this world machine, we have put our "Higgs in one basket" - that of Grid computing [The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), in: Proceedings of the Conference on Computational Physics 2006 (CCP 2006), vol. 177, 2007, pp. 219-223]. After many years of preparation, 2008 saw a final "Common Computing Readiness Challenge" (CCRC'08) - aimed at demonstrating full readiness for 2008 data taking, processing and analysis. By definition, this relied on a world-wide production Grid infrastructure. But change - as always - is on the horizon. The current funding model for Grids - which in Europe has been through 3 generations of EGEE projects, together with related projects in other parts of the world, including South America - is evolving towards a long-term, sustainable e-infrastructure, like the European Grid Initiative (EGI) [The European Grid Initiative Design Study, website at http://web.eu-egi.eu/]. At the same time, potentially new paradigms, such as that of "Cloud Computing" are emerging. This paper summarizes the results of CCRC'08 and discusses the potential impact of future Grid funding on both regional and international application communities. It contrasts Grid and Cloud computing models from both technical and sociological points of view. Finally, it discusses the requirements from production application communities, in terms of stability and continuity in the medium to long term.

  20. Carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Trevor S. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, 1100 23rd Avenue, Port Huenem, CA 93043 (United States); Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas (United States); Weeks, Kelly [Department of Maritime Administration, Texas A and M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX 77553 (United States); Tucker, Coleman [Department of Management, Marketing, and Business Administration, University of Houston - Downtown, Houston, Texas 77002 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This effort presents a framework for reducing carbon emissions through the use of large-scale grid-energy-storage (GES) systems. The specific questions under investigation herein are as follows: Is it economically sound to invest in a GES system and is the system at least carbon footprint neutral? This research will show the answer to both questions is in the affirmative. Scilicet, when utilized judiciously, grid energy storage systems can be both net present value positive as well as be total carbon footprint negative. The significant contribution herein is a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving carbon footprint reductions via grid energy storage systems.

  1. Integration of Large-scale Consumers in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Samira

    2015-01-01

    A prominent feature of the smart grid is to involve the consumer side in balancing effort, rather than placing the entire burden of maintaining this balance on the producers. This thesis investigates the utilization of flexible consumers in the future smart grid. The focus of this work is on industrial consumers. We propose a three-level hierarchical control framework, in which a so-called “Aggregator” is located between a number of flexible industrial demands and a grid operator. The aggrega...

  2. Smart Grid Security A Smart Meter-Centric Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Roberto; Yuksel, Ender; Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    2012-01-01

    , leading to what is known as the Smart Grid. The development of this Cyber-Physical System introduces new security issues, thus calling for efforts in studying possible attacks and devising suitable countermeasures. In this paper, we review a generic model for the Smart Grid, and present possible attacks......The electricity grid is a key infrastructure for our society, therefore its security is a critical public concern. This physical system is becoming more and more complex as it is coupled with a cyber layer carrying information about power usage and control instructions for intelligent appliances...

  3. Modelling noise propagation using Grid Resources. Progress within GDI-Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehle, Christian; Mayer, Christian; Padberg, Alexander; Stapelfeld, Hartmut

    2010-05-01

    . This immense intensive calculation needs to be performed for a major part of European landscape. A LINUX version of the commercial LimA software for noise mapping analysis has been implemented on a test cluster within the German D-GRID computer network. Results and performance indicators will be presented. The presentation is an extension to last-years presentation "Spatial Data Infrastructures and Grid Computing: the GDI-Grid project" that described the gridification concept developed in the GDI-Grid project and provided an overview of the conceptual gaps between Grid Computing and Spatial Data Infrastructures. Results from the GDI-Grid project are incorporated in the OGC-OGF (Open Grid Forum) collaboration efforts as well as the OGC WPS 2.0 standards working group developing the next major version of the WPS specification.

  4. Quality Assurance Framework for Mini-Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burman, Kari [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, Mohit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mutiso, Rose [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); McGregor, Caroline [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    will drive investment and scale-up in this sector. The QAF implementation process also defines a set of implementation guidelines that help the deployment of mini-grids on a regional or national scale, helping to insure successful rapid deployment of these relatively new remote energy options. Note that the QAF is technology agnostic, addressing both alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) mini-grids, and is also applicable to renewable, fossil-fuel, and hybrid systems.

  5. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  6. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  7. Grid computing the European Data Grid Project

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...

  8. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  9. Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  10. Key figures for the regional- and distribution grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikingstad, S.

    1996-02-01

    In Norway, improving the efficiency of the hydroelectric grid operation is a stated goal of the Energy Act. Several studies have identified potential profits of such improvement. This publication focuses on costs and improvement potentials. Publication of key figures may stimulate grid owners, boards and administrations to improve the operating efficiency of their grids. The publication shows key figures for the regional- and distribution grid and is based on accounting data for 1994. The key figures are divided into: (1) Cost structure: The key figures express the relative contributions of each cost component to the total income of the grid, (2) Costs and physical quantities: The key figures show the cost of delivering the transport services, (3) Physical quantities: The key figures describe the working conditions of the energy utility. It appears that the cost structure of the sector varies considerably. The same is true of the cost related to the delivery of grid services. 30 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Assessment of grid optimisation measures for the German transmission grid using open source grid data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.

    2018-02-01

    The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.

  12. Utah Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Utah. Number of columns is 196 and number of rows is 245. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  13. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  14. Grid attacks avian flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...

  15. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  16. Multi-Grid Lanczos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.

  17. Nevada Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  18. Steering the Smart Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies and optimization methodologies were developed to increase the efficiency, maintain the grid stability and support large scale

  19. Cutback for grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulmeester, P.; De Laat, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are [nl

  20. Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.

  1. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  2. Smart grid voor comfort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er

  3. Kids Enjoy Grids

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...

  4. Reconsidering solar grid parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.

  5. Maine Bouguer Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  6. Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...

  7. Molecular Grid Membranes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    ...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...

  8. The Grid challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Lundquest, E

    2003-01-01

    At a customer panel discussion during OracleWorld in San Franciso, grid computing was being pushed as the next big thing - even if panellists couldsn't quite agree on what it is, what it will cost or when it will appear (1 page).

  9. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  10. Controlling smart grid adaptivity

    OpenAIRE

    Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.

  11. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  12. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  13. Socioeconomic assessment of smart grids - Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Tanguy

    2015-07-01

    In September of 2013, the President of France identified smart grids as an important part of the country's industrial strategy, given the opportunities and advantages they can offer French industry, and asked the Chairman of the RTE Management Board to prepare a road-map outlining ways to support and accelerate smart grid development. This road-map, prepared in cooperation with stakeholders from the power and smart grids industries, identifies ten actions that can be taken in priority to consolidate the smart grids sector and help French firms play a leading role in the segment. These priorities were presented to the President of France on 7 May 2014. Action items 5 and 6 of the road-map on smart grid development relate, respectively, to the quantification of the value of smart grid functions from an economic, environmental and social (impact on employment) standpoint and to the large-scale deployment of some of the functions. Two tasks were set out in the 'Smart Grids' plan for action item 5: - Create a methodological framework that, for all advanced functions, allows the quantification of benefits and costs from an economic, environmental and social (effect on jobs) standpoint; - Quantify, based on this methodological framework, the potential benefits of a set of smart grid functions considered sufficiently mature to be deployed on a large scale in the near future. Having a methodology that can be applied in the same manner to all solutions, taking into account their impacts on the environment and employment in France, will considerably add to and complement the information drawn from demonstration projects. It will notably enable comparisons of benefits provided by smart grid functions and thus help give rise to a French smart grids industry that is competitive. At first, the smart grids industry was organised around demonstration projects testing different advanced functions within specific geographic areas. These projects covered a wide enough

  14. Socioeconomic assessment of smart grids. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-07-01

    In September of 2013, the President of France identified smart grids as an important part of the country's industrial strategy, given the opportunities and advantages they can offer French industry, and asked the Chairman of the RTE Management Board to prepare a road-map outlining ways to support and accelerate smart grid development. This road-map, prepared in cooperation with stakeholders from the power and smart grids industries, identifies ten actions that can be taken in priority to consolidate the smart grids sector and help French firms play a leading role in the segment. These priorities were presented to the President of France on 7 May 2014. Action items 5 and 6 of the road-map on smart grid development relate, respectively, to the quantification of the value of smart grid functions from an economic, environmental and social (impact on employment) standpoint and to the large-scale deployment of some of the functions. Two tasks were set out in the 'Smart Grids' plan for action item 5: - Create a methodological framework that, for all advanced functions, allows the quantification of benefits and costs from an economic, environmental and social (effect on jobs) standpoint; - Quantify, based on this methodological framework, the potential benefits of a set of smart grid functions considered sufficiently mature to be deployed on a large scale in the near future. Having a methodology that can be applied in the same manner to all solutions, taking into account their impacts on the environment and employment in France, will considerably add to and complement the information drawn from demonstration projects. It will notably enable comparisons of benefits provided by smart grid functions and thus help give rise to a French smart grids industry that is competitive. At first, the smart grids industry was organised around demonstration projects testing different advanced functions within specific geographic areas. These projects covered a wide enough

  15. Survey of cyber security issues in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Thomas M.

    2010-04-01

    The future smart grid will enable cost savings and lower energy use by means of smart appliances and smart meters which support dynamic load management and real-time monitoring of energy use and distribution. The introduction of two-way communications and control into power grid introduces security and privacy concerns. This talk will survey the security and privacy issues in smart grids using the NIST reference model, and relate these issues to cyber security in the Internet.

  16. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  17. Allegheny County Map Index Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...

  18. UPVG efforts to commercialize photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfass, J.A.; Wills, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called TEAM-UP, is a partnership of the US electric utility industry and the US Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA)--an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA)--an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the TEAM-UP process

  19. GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management; GridCom, Grid Commander: graficheskij interfejs dlya raboty s zadachami i dannymi v gride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaktionov, V V

    2011-07-01

    GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations

  20. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  1. The Effort Paradox: Effort Is Both Costly and Valued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Shenhav, Amitai; Olivola, Christopher Y

    2018-04-01

    According to prominent models in cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and economics, effort (be it physical or mental) is costly: when given a choice, humans and non-human animals alike tend to avoid effort. Here, we suggest that the opposite is also true and review extensive evidence that effort can also add value. Not only can the same outcomes be more rewarding if we apply more (not less) effort, sometimes we select options precisely because they require effort. Given the increasing recognition of effort's role in motivation, cognitive control, and value-based decision-making, considering this neglected side of effort will not only improve formal computational models, but also provide clues about how to promote sustained mental effort across time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...

  3. Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the

  4. What is a smart grid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the

  5. Pyramid solar micro-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen

    2018-03-01

    A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.

  6. Analysis of Grid Emission Factors for the Electricity Sector in Caribbean Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinostroza, Miriam L.; Desgain, Denis DR; Perez Martín, David

    by undertaking a study to calculate standardized grid emissionfactors (GEF) for sixteen independent nations or groups of countries in the Caribbean region as a basis to the further identification of mitigation activities such as CDM PoAs or any other market-related instrument to be approved by the UNFCCC......As part of their capacity development efforts to promote mitigation actions, the UNEP DTU Partnership, together with the UNFCCC Regional Collaborating Centre in the Caribbean, UNDP and OLADE, agreed to collaborate with Caribbean countries willing to update or establish their grid emission factors...... emission factor for countries with generation units with similar characteristics. Data on the power systems of the different countries have been collected from several centres and institutions, including the UNEP DTU Partnership, the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), the Caribbean Community...

  7. Grid Cell Relaxation Effects on the High Frequency Vibration Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Joo-Young; Eom, Kyong-Bo; Jeon, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jae-Ik

    2015-01-01

    The plate structure of the grid of fuel assembly is always exposed to serious vortex induced vibration. Also, High Frequency flow induced Vibration (HFV) is primarily generated by vortex-shedding effect. When it comes to grid design as a fuel assembly component, HFV should be considered in advance since it is one of the critical factors. Excessive HFV has a possibility of making degradation of the fuel reliability that is directly related to the fuel robustness and operating performance. KEPCO NF (KNF) has performed HFV tests with various grid designs. While studying the HFV characteristics through the HFV tests, it has been observed that HFV amplitudes show different levels according to grid cell relaxation. It means that the testing could give different interpretations due to the condition of grid cell. Since the amount of relaxation is different under operating conditions and environments in a reactor, test specimens should be modified as much as possible to the real state of the fuel. Therefore, in order to consider the grid cell relaxation effects on the HFV tests, it is important to use cell sized or non-cell sized grids. The main focus of this study is to find out how the HFV characteristics such as amplitude and frequency are affected by grid cell relaxation. Three cases of the grid cell sized specimen which is nickel alloy were prepared and tested. Through the comparison of the test results, it could be concluded that HFV amplitudes show decreasing trend according to the grid cell relaxation in the case of nickel alloy grid. It is also possible to expect the tendency of grid cell relaxation of a zirconium alloy grid based on test results

  8. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  9. Constitutive equations for discrete electromagnetic problems over polyhedral grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codecasa, Lorenzo; Trevisan, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a novel approach is proposed for constructing discrete counterparts of constitutive equations over polyhedral grids which ensure both consistency and stability of the algebraic equations discretizing an electromagnetic field problem. The idea is to construct discrete constitutive equations preserving the thermodynamic relations for constitutive equations. In this way, consistency and stability of the discrete equations are ensured. At the base, a purely geometric condition between the primal and the dual grids has to be satisfied for a given primal polyhedral grid, by properly choosing the dual grid. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed discrete constitutive equations lead to accurate approximations of the electromagnetic field

  10. Grid computing : enabling a vision for collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Laszewski, G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the authors provide a motivation for Grid computing based on a vision to enable a collaborative research environment. The authors vision goes beyond the connection of hardware resources. They argue that with an infrastructure such as the Grid, new modalities for collaborative research are enabled. They provide an overview showing why Grid research is difficult, and they present a number of management-related issues that must be addressed to make Grids a reality. They list projects that provide solutions to subsets of these issues

  11. A Survey on Next-generation Power Grid Data Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shutang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Dr. Lin [University of Tennessee (UT); Liu, Yong [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Robertson, Russell [Grid Protection Alliance; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The operation and control of power grids will increasingly rely on data. A high-speed, reliable, flexible and secure data architecture is the prerequisite of the next-generation power grid. This paper summarizes the challenges in collecting and utilizing power grid data, and then provides reference data architecture for future power grids. Based on the data architecture deployment, related research on data architecture is reviewed and summarized in several categories including data measurement/actuation, data transmission, data service layer, data utilization, as well as two cross-cutting issues, interoperability and cyber security. Research gaps and future work are also presented.

  12. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  13. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  14. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  15. The Grid PC farm

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.

  16. Simulating the Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...

  17. Smart Grid Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cosma Sorinel

    2010-01-01

    The largest interconnected machine on Earth, the century-old power grid is so massively complex and inextricably linked to human involvement and endeavor that it has been called an ecosystem. To meet sustainability requirements, the electric industry is poised to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumerinteractive. This move promises to change the industry’s entire business model and its relationship with all sta...

  18. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  19. Research on the comparison of extension mechanism of cellular automaton based on hexagon grid and rectangular grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xinyan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Weng, Jie

    2009-10-01

    Historically, cellular automata (CA) is a discrete dynamical mathematical structure defined on spatial grid. Research on cellular automata system (CAS) has focused on rule sets and initial condition and has not discussed its adjacency. Thus, the main focus of our study is the effect of adjacency on CA behavior. This paper is to compare rectangular grids with hexagonal grids on their characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. They have great influence on modeling effects and other applications including the role of nearest neighborhood in experimental design. Our researches present that rectangular and hexagonal grids have different characteristics. They are adapted to distinct aspects, and the regular rectangular or square grid is used more often than the hexagonal grid. But their relative merits have not been widely discussed. The rectangular grid is generally preferred because of its symmetry, especially in orthogonal co-ordinate system and the frequent use of raster from Geographic Information System (GIS). However, in terms of complex terrain, uncertain and multidirectional region, we have preferred hexagonal grids and methods to facilitate and simplify the problem. Hexagonal grids can overcome directional warp and have some unique characteristics. For example, hexagonal grids have a simpler and more symmetric nearest neighborhood, which avoids the ambiguities of the rectangular grids. Movement paths or connectivity, the most compact arrangement of pixels, make hexagonal appear great dominance in the process of modeling and analysis. The selection of an appropriate grid should be based on the requirements and objectives of the application. We use rectangular and hexagonal grids respectively for developing city model. At the same time we make use of remote sensing images and acquire 2002 and 2005 land state of Wuhan. On the base of city land state in 2002, we make use of CA to simulate reasonable form of city in 2005. Hereby, these results provide a proof of

  20. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  1. Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni

    This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.

  2. Wireless Communications in Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan

    Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.

  3. Calculation approaches for grid usage fees to influence the load curve in the distribution grid level; Berechnungsansaetze fuer Netznutzungsentgelte zur Beeinflussung des Lastverlaufs in der Verteilernetzebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illing, Bjoern

    2014-09-08

    Dominated by the energy policy the decentralized German energy market is changing. One mature target of the government is to increase the contribution of renewable generation to the gross electricity consumption. In order to achieve this target disadvantages like an increased need for capacity management occurs. Load reduction and variable grid fees offer the grid operator solutions to realize capacity management by influencing the load profile. The evolution of the current grid fees towards more causality is required to adapt these approaches. Two calculation approaches are developed in this assignment. On the one hand multivariable grid fees keeping the current components demand and energy charge. Additional to the grid costs grid load dependent parameters like the amount of decentralized feed-ins, time and local circumstances as well as grid capacities are considered. On the other hand the grid fee flat-rate which represents a demand based model on a monthly level. Both approaches are designed to meet the criteria for future grid fees. By means of a case study the effects of the grid fees on the load profile at the low voltage grid is simulated. Thereby the consumption is represented by different behaviour models and the results are scaled at the benchmark grid area. The resulting load curve is analyzed concerning the effects of peak load reduction as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally the combined effect of grid fees and electricity tariffs is evaluated. Finally the work discusses the launching of grid fees in the tense atmosphere of politics, legislation and grid operation. Results of this work are two calculation approaches designed for grid operators to define the grid fees. Multivariable grid fees are based on the current calculation scheme. Hereby demand and energy charges are weighted by time, locational and load related dependencies. The grid fee flat-rate defines a limitation in demand extraction. Different demand levels

  4. A business model for the establishment of the European grid infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candiello, A; Cresti, D; Ferrari, T; Mazzucato, M; Perini, L

    2010-01-01

    An international grid has been built in Europe during the past years in the framework of various EC-funded projects to support the growth of e-Science. After several years of work spent to increase the scale of the infrastructure, to expand the user community and improve the availability of the services delivered, effort is now concentrating on the creation of a new organizational model, capable of fulfilling the vision of a sustainable European grid infrastructure. The European Grid Initiative (EGI) is the proposed framework to seamlessly link at a global level the European national grid e-Infrastructures operated by the National Grid Initiatives and European International Research Organizations, and based on a European Unified Middleware Distribution, which will be the result of a joint effort of various European grid Middleware Consortia. This paper describes the requirements that EGI addresses, the actors contributing to its foundation, the offering and the organizational structure that constitute the EGI business model.

  5. NOAA ESRI Grid - predictions of relative uncertainty for seabird diversity metrics in the New York offshore planning area by NOAA Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents relative seabird abundance predictions from spatial models developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. This raster was derived...

  6. NOAA ESRI Grid - predictions of relative seabird abundance in the New York offshore planning area made by the NOAA Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents relative seabird abundance predictions from spatial models developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. This raster was derived...

  7. Can Clouds Replace Grids? Will Clouds Replace Grids?

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J

    2010-01-01

    The world’s largest scientific machine – comprising dual 27km circular proton accelerators cooled to 1.9oK and located some 100m underground – currently relies on major production Grid infrastructures for the offline computing needs of the 4 main experiments that will take data at this facility. After many years of sometimes difficult preparation the computing service has been declared “open” and ready to meet the challenges that will come shortly when the machine restarts in 2009. But the service is not without its problems: reliability – as seen by the experiments, as opposed to that measured by the official tools – still needs to be significantly improved. Prolonged downtimes or degradations of major services or even complete sites are still too common and the operational and coordination effort to keep the overall service running is probably not sustainable at this level. Recently “Cloud Computing” – in terms of pay-per-use fabric provisioning – has emerged as a potentially viable al...

  8. Data privacy considerations in Intensive Care Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Jesus; Dikaiakos, Marios D; Kyprianou, Theodoros; Bilas, Angelos; Marazakis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    Novel eHealth systems are being designed to provide a citizen-centered health system, however the even demanding need for computing and data resources has required the adoption of Grid technologies. In most of the cases, this novel Health Grid requires not only conveying patient's personal data through public networks, but also storing it into shared resources out of the hospital premises. These features introduce new security concerns, in particular related with privacy. In this paper we survey current legal and technological approaches that have been taken to protect a patient's personal data into eHealth systems, with a particular focus in Intensive Care Grids. However, thanks to a security analysis applied over the Intensive Care Grid system (ICGrid) we show that these security mechanisms are not enough to provide a comprehensive solution, mainly because the data-at-rest is still vulnerable to attacks coming from untrusted Storage Elements where an attacker may directly access them. To cope with these issues, we propose a new privacy-oriented protocol which uses a combination of encryption and fragmentation to improve data's assurance while keeping compatibility with current legislations and Health Grid security mechanisms.

  9. Smart grid overview and current industry activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dignard-Bailey, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Integration Div.

    2009-07-01

    Electricity demand continues to increase among growing concerns about security, power quality, and grid reliability. This presentation discussed reviewed programs and strategies developed to merge grid applications with existing utility infrastructure in Canada. Smart grid applications include real-time simulation and contingency analysis; distributed generation and alternative energy sources; self-healing wide-area protection and islanding; asset management and on-line equipment monitoring; demand response and dynamic pricing; and participation in energy markets. Distributed automation and advanced metering programs are currently underway in various provinces throughout Canada, and many utilities are exploring methods of improving the integration of renewable energy sources. Canadian utilities are now involved in large data transfers to ensure that rural networks receive spectrum with good propagation. WiFi meshed installations have also been installed throughout the country, and various advanced distribution automation technologies are being implemented. A smart grid working group has been formed to identify technology gaps, and programs have been developed to educate industry leaders on smart grid drivers, technologies, and opportunities. Various pilot and research programs were outlined, legislation related to utility regulation was discussed. tabs., figs.

  10. Novel Simulation Approaches for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Tsampasis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the power grid, in conjunction with the ever increasing demand for electricity, creates the need for efficient analysis and control of the power system. The evolution of the legacy system towards the new smart grid intensifies this need due to the large number of sensors and actuators that must be monitored and controlled, the new types of distributed energy sources that need to be integrated and the new types of loads that must be supported. At the same time, integration of human-activity awareness into the smart grid is emerging and this will allow the system to monitor, share and manage information and actions on the business, as well as the real world. In this context, modeling and simulation is an invaluable tool for system behavior analysis, energy consumption estimation and future state prediction. In this paper, we review current smart grid simulators and approaches for building and user behavior modeling, and present a federated smart grid simulation framework, in which building, control and user behavior modeling and simulation are decoupled from power or network simulators and implemented as discrete components. This framework enables evaluation of the interactions between the communication infrastructure and the power system taking into account the human activities, which are at the focus of emerging energy-related applications that aim to shape user behavior. Validation of the key functionality of the proposed framework is also presented.

  11. Computer Simulation of the UMER Gridded Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Haber, Irving; Friedman, Alex; Grote, D P; Kishek, Rami A; Reiser, Martin; Vay, Jean-Luc; Zou, Yun

    2005-01-01

    The electron source in the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) injector employs a grid 0.15 mm from the cathode to control the current waveform. Under nominal operating conditions, the grid voltage during the current pulse is sufficiently positive relative to the cathode potential to form a virtual cathode downstream of the grid. Three-dimensional computer simulations have been performed that use the mesh refinement capability of the WARP particle-in-cell code to examine a small region near the beam center in order to illustrate some of the complexity that can result from such a gridded structure. These simulations have been found to reproduce the hollowed velocity space that is observed experimentally. The simulations also predict a complicated time-dependent response to the waveform applied to the grid during the current turn-on. This complex temporal behavior appears to result directly from the dynamics of the virtual cathode formation and may therefore be representative of the expected behavior in...

  12. Dynamic overset grid communication on distributed memory parallel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barszcz, Eric; Weeratunga, Sisira K.; Meakin, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    A parallel distributed memory implementation of intergrid communication for dynamic overset grids is presented. Included are discussions of various options considered during development. Results are presented comparing an Intel iPSC/860 to a single processor Cray Y-MP. Results for grids in relative motion show the iPSC/860 implementation to be faster than the Cray implementation.

  13. Smart Grid Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian

    Current electricity infrastructure is being stressed from several directions -- high demand, unreliable supply, extreme weather conditions, accidents, among others. Infrastructure planners have, traditionally, focused on only the cost of the system; today, resilience and sustainability are increasingly becoming more important. In this dissertation, we develop computational tools for efficiently managing electricity resources to help create a more reliable and sustainable electrical grid. The tools we present in this work will help electric utilities coordinate demand to allow the smooth and large scale integration of renewable sources of energy into traditional grids, as well as provide infrastructure planners and operators in developing countries a framework for making informed planning and control decisions in the presence of uncertainty. Demand-side management is considered as the most viable solution for maintaining grid stability as generation from intermittent renewable sources increases. Demand-side management, particularly demand response (DR) programs that attempt to alter the energy consumption of customers either by using price-based incentives or up-front power interruption contracts, is more cost-effective and sustainable in addressing short-term supply-demand imbalances when compared with the alternative that involves increasing fossil fuel-based fast spinning reserves. An essential step in compensating participating customers and benchmarking the effectiveness of DR programs is to be able to independently detect the load reduction from observed meter data. Electric utilities implementing automated DR programs through direct load control switches are also interested in detecting the reduction in demand to efficiently pinpoint non-functioning devices to reduce maintenance costs. We develop sparse optimization methods for detecting a small change in the demand for electricity of a customer in response to a price change or signal from the utility

  14. Grid planning in a competitive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinto, J. de

    2007-01-01

    One principle that the electricity sector must fulfil is to simultaneously guarantee generation free entrance, new and old demand supply and a harmonic network development. This development is contained in the grid planning, a process assumed by a neutral institution apart from the grid or the interests of the market agents: In the case of Spain the ministry. The development of such planning, the investment to be built, are limited by the physical network and formal structure and by how the retribution is designed. In this article there is an evaluation of the problems related to develop the network planning in a competitive environment and also some proposals are suggested. (Author)

  15. Expanding the grid in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the changes and strategies that are currently being adopted by AltaLink to expand Alberta's electricity grid in relation to wind power development. The company is Alberta's largest transmission facility operator. Wind power currently accounts for approximately 5 percent of the province's generation mix. Applications for new wind farms will increase Alberta's 629 MW of wind power generation capacity to 5530 MW. Alberta's transmission regulation requires that 100 percent of in-merit generation can occur when transmission facilities are in service, and that 95 percent of in-merit generation can occur under abnormal operating conditions. A new transmission line is being constructed in the Pincher Creek and Lethbridge region as part of a southern Alberta transmission reinforcement project. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) and Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) are working together to ensure that adequate resources are available while system reliability is maintained. The Ardenville wind farm is the first wind power project to be energized under the new connection model launched by the AESO. The connection model was developed to identify, connect, and construct new energy projects. The project will also identify connection routes with the lowest overall impact on the province. Alberta will also continue to implement technologies that ensure the development of a smart grid. tabs., figs.

  16. Service Oriented Gridded Atmospheric Radiances (SOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Goldberg, M. D.; Tilmes, C.; Zhou, L.; Shen, S.; Yesha, Y.

    2005-12-01

    We are developing a scalable web service tool that can provide complex griding services on-demand for atmospheric radiance data sets from multiple temperature and moisture sounding sensors on the NASA and NOAA polar orbiting satellites collected over the past three decades. This server-to-server middle ware tool will provide the framework for transforming user requests for an arbitrary spatial/temporal/spectral gridded radiance data set from one or more instruments into an action to invoke a griding process from a set of scientifically validated application programs that have been developed to perform such functions. The invoked web service agents will access, subset, concatenate, convolve, perform statistical and physically based griding operations and present the data as specified level 3 gridded fields for analysis and visualization in multiple formats. Examples of the griding operations consist of spatial-temporal radiance averaging accounting for the field of view instrument response function, first footprint in grid bin, selecting min/max brightness temperatures within a grid element, ratios of channels, filtering, convolving high resolution spectral radiances to match broader band spectral radiances, limb adjustments, calculating variances of radiances falling in grid box and creating visual displays of these fields. The gridded web services tool will support both human input through a WWW GUI as well as a direct computer request through a W3C SOAP/XML web service interface. It will generate regional and global gridded data sets on demand. A second effort will demonstrate the ability to locate, access, subset and grid radiance data for any time period and resolution from remote archives of NOAA and NASA data. The system will queue the work flow requests, stage processing and delivery of arbitrary gridded data sets in a data base and notify the users when the request is completed. This tool will greatly expand satellite sounding data utilization by

  17. Grid administration: towards an autonomic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda Garcia, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Charpentier, P; Bernardof, V

    2012-01-01

    Within the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we deployed an autonomous policy system acting as a central status information point for grid elements. Experts working as grid administrators have a broad and very deep knowledge about the underlying system which makes them very precious. We have attempted to formalize this knowledge in an autonomous system able to aggregate information, draw conclusions, validate them, and take actions accordingly. The DIRAC Resource Status System (RSS) is a monitoring and generic policy system that enforces managerial and operational actions automatically. As an example, the status of a grid entity can be evaluated using a number of policies, each making assessments relative to specific monitoring information. Individual results of these policies can be combined to evaluate and propose a global status for the resource. This evaluation goes through a validation step driven by a state machine and an external validation system. Once validated, actions can be triggered acco...

  18. Sensor Transmission Power Schedule for Smart Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Huang, Y. H.; Li, J.; Liu, X. D.

    2017-11-01

    Smart grid has attracted much attention by the requirement of new generation renewable energy. Nowadays, the real-time state estimation, with the help of phasor measurement unit, plays an important role to keep smart grid stable and efficient. However, the limitation of the communication channel is not considered by related work. Considering the familiar limited on-board batteries wireless sensor in smart grid, transmission power schedule is designed in this paper, which minimizes energy consumption with proper EKF filtering performance requirement constrain. Based on the event-triggered estimation theory, the filtering algorithm is also provided to utilize the information contained in the power schedule. Finally, its feasibility and performance is demonstrated using the standard IEEE 39-bus system with phasor measurement units (PMUs).

  19. Collaborative DFA learning applied to Grid administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.; Jacobs, C.J.H.; van Someren, M.; van Erp, M.; Stehouwer, H.; van Zaanen, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed learning mechanism that learns patterns from distributed datasets. The complex and dynamic settings of grid environments requires supporting systems to be of a more sophisticated level. Contemporary tools lack the ability to relate and infer events. We developed an

  20. Enterprise grid and the future of IT

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Interview with Rolf Kubli, a fellow of EDS, a Switzerland-based technology services company and CERN openlab contributors, previews his presentation at this week's OGF20/EGEE User Forum event and shares his thoughts on its theme" "Beliefs about the future of IT and how they relate to the enterprise grid vision. (2,5 pages)

  1. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, P.F.; Duque, C.A.; Da Silveira, P.M.; Cerqueira, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power

  2. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Triasih Kurniawan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA towards overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal’s motivation towards effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia (BG and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action.

  3. Smart Grid as advanced technology enabler of demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellings, C.W.; Samotyj, M. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Numerous papers and articles presented worldwide at different conferences and meetings have already covered the goals, objectives, architecture, and business plans of Smart Grid. The number of electric utilities worldwide has followed up with demonstration and deployment efforts. Our initial assumptions and expectations of Smart Grid functionality have been confirmed. We have indicated that Smart Grid will fulfill the following goals: enhance customer service, improve operational efficiency, enhance demand response and load control, transform customer energy use behavior, and support new utility business models. For the purpose of this paper, we shall focus on which of those above-mentioned Smart Grid functionalities are going to facilitate the ever-growing need for enhanced demand response and load control.

  4. PV GRID Advisory Paper. Consultation version: key recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Bianca; Concas, Giorgia; Cossent, Rafael; Franz, Oliver; Frias, Pablo; Hermes, Roland; Lama, Riccardo; Loew, Holger; Mateo, Carlos; Rekinger, Manoel; Sonvilla, Paolo Michele; Vandenbergh, Michel

    2014-01-15

    PV GRID is a transnational collaborative effort under the umbrella of the Intelligent Energy Europe programme. The main project goal is to enhance photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity in distribution grids while overcoming regulatory and normative barriers hampering the application of available technical solutions. The European PV GRID advisory paper aims at providing an overview of the issues and barriers that need to be addressed in order to enhance the distribution grid hosting capacity for PV and other distributed generation (DG).To this purpose, barriers are classified as either cross-cutting challenges or specific barriers, depending on whether they have an overarching, system-wide character or rather focus on one single issue such as curtailment, self-consumption or storage. Finally, a set of preliminary recommendations on how to overcome these issues is presented, allowing for the implementation of the identified technical solutions.

  5. SmartPrivacy for the smart grid : embedding privacy into the design of electricity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavoukian, A. [Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner, Toronto, ON (Canada); Polonetsky, J.; Wolf, C. [Future of Privacy Forum, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Modernization efforts are underway to make the current electrical grid smarter. The future of the Smart Grid will be capable of informing consumers of their day-to-day energy use, curbing greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing consumers' energy bills. However, the Smart Grid also brings with it the possibility of collecting detailed information on individual energy consumption use and patterns within peoples' homes. This paper discussed the Smart Grid and its benefits, as well as the questions that should be examined regarding privacy. The paper also outlined the concept of SmartPrivacy and discussed its application to the Smart Grid scenario. Privacy by design foundational principles and Smart Grid components were also presented in an appendix. It was concluded that the information collected on a Smart Grid will form a library of personal information. The mishandling of this information could be extremely invasive of consumer privacy. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 appendices.

  6. Smart Grids as keys to a successful energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Stephane

    2013-07-01

    This publication addresses several issues related to the role of smart grids in energy transition. The contributions discuss whether the future of smart grid markets can be found in developing countries, outline that the deployment of smart counters announces the development of smart grids in France, comment the search for a new business model for the smart grid market, and question the role of power storage as a key for the integration of renewable energies into the grid. They also address the case of French non interconnected areas which could be a laboratory to develop and test smart grids. They outline that smart grids display an economic logic against energy poverty, that smart grids in developing countries could be a lever against blackouts and electricity thefts, and that they can be a solution for the electrification of rural areas in developing countries. They present energy cooperatives as a successful model for smart grid projects. A last contribution addresses the smart management of water as a solution to preserve the resource while generating profits

  7. Task 5. Grid interconnection of building integrated and other dispersed photovoltaic power systems. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: power value and capacity value of PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppi, F.

    2002-02-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 5 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the power value and capacity value of photovoltaic power systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. Task 5 deals with issues concerning grid-interconnection and dispersed PV power systems. This report summarises the results of a study aimed to assess the benefits that may be obtained when distributed PV production systems are present in a low-voltage grid. The basic aspects concerning the power-value and those related to the capacity-value are discussed. Data obtained from simulations are presented and discussed. A simple concept shows that great variation occurs if varying load patterns are taken into account. The power-value of PV generation in the grid varies instant by instant depending on the current level of power production and on the surrounding load conditions. Although the three case-studies considered do not cover all the possibilities of coupling between PV and loads, the results obtained show a good differentiation among users with PV production which leads to interesting conclusions.

  8. Optimal control in a micro gas grid of prosumers using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Nefkens, W.J.; Scherpen, Jacqueline M.A.; Volkerts, M.

    This paper studies the optimal control of a micro grid of biogas prosumers equipped with local storage devices. Excess biogas can be upgraded and injected into the low- pressure gas grid or, alternatively, shipped per lorry to be used elsewhere in an effort to create revenue. The aim of the control

  9. Sharing lessons learned on developing and operating smart grid pilots with households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, C.B.A.; Klaassen, E.A.M.; Kohlmann, J.; Knigge, J.D.; Boots, S.

    2013-01-01

    Today, technology is still leading Smart Grid development. Nevertheless, the awareness that it should be a multidisciplinary effort to foster public acceptance and even desirability of Smart Grids is increasing. This paper illustrates the added value of a multidisciplinary approach by sharing the

  10. Mixing vane grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  11. The Knowledge Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuge, Hai

    2004-01-01

    The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.

  12. The GridSite Web/Grid security system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.

  13. Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J

    2013-01-01

    Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.

  14. Storage sizing for a micro gas grid of prosumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti; Nefkens, W.J.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; Volkerts, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies optimal control of a micro grid of biogas prosumers. The biogas production is kept at a nearly constant level due to the time and effort associated with establishing the right microbial populations. However, as (bio)gas is predominantly used for space heating, the consumption

  15. Reliability Oriented Design of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Microinverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanfeng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    High reliability performance of microinverters in Photovoltaic (PV) systems is a merit to match lifetime with PV panels, and to reduce the required maintenance efforts and costs. This digest applies a reliability oriented design method for a grid-connected PV microinverter to achieve specific...

  16. GRID[subscript C] Renewable Energy Data Streaming into Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, V. William; Carpenter, Pam; Lari, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    For years, researchers have shown the value of using real-world data to enhance instruction in mathematics, science, and social studies. In an effort to help develop students' higher-order thinking skills in a data-rich learning environment, Green Research for Incorporating Data in the Classroom (GRID[subscript C]), a National Science…

  17. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  18. Recent trends in grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)

  19. Workshop on Future Generation Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas

  20. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, I. [Arise Technologies Corp., Kitchener, ON (Canada)

    2004-06-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market

  1. Grid-connected solar electricity going mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLellan, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 20 days, the sun provides the equivalent amount of energy found in all known fossil fuel reserves. This paper provides an outline of solar energy industry activities from the perspective of Arise Technologies, a Canadian-based solar energy company. An overview of the company's vision and marketing strategy was presented, including annual sales. Details of the company's commercial projects were reviewed, with specific reference to the first Canadian grid-connected solar electric subdivision. An introduction to photovoltaic electricity (PV) as an environmentally positive energy source was presented. Statistics included information on the current solar market worldwide as well as government and industry investment. Portable solar energy applications were provided, as well as grid-tied products in relation to private dwelling and commercial, industrial and institutional buildings. Details of an Arise solar home were presented. An outline of the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) was presented, with reference to the federal government's Climate Change Action Plan. The benefits of solar economics were given. PV factory production was overviewed, with a presentation of the experience curve and the number of grid-connected solar electric homes globally. Top global PV manufacturers were listed as well as a chart of world energy transitions underlining the emergence of renewable energy programs and systems. A summary of solar energy in Japan was provided, along with details of mid and long term solar energy planning, as well as other projects around the world. Canadian investment in PV was compared with other countries and details of past government spending on other energy sources were also presented. It was concluded that Canada was far behind other G-8 countries with reference to grid-connected PV, but that off-grid PV was a real business in Canada. It was also concluded that Japan would represent the first real mainstream grid-connected market, followed by Europe

  2. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE, Self Adaptive Grid codE, is a flexible tool for adapting and restructuring both 2D and 3D grids. Solution-adaptive grid methods are useful tools for efficient and accurate flow predictions. In supersonic and hypersonic flows, strong gradient regions such as shocks, contact discontinuities, shear layers, etc., require careful distribution of grid points to minimize grid error and produce accurate flow-field predictions. SAGE helps the user obtain more accurate solutions by intelligently redistributing (i.e. adapting) the original grid points based on an initial or interim flow-field solution. The user then computes a new solution using the adapted grid as input to the flow solver. The adaptive-grid methodology poses the problem in an algebraic, unidirectional manner for multi-dimensional adaptations. The procedure is analogous to applying tension and torsion spring forces proportional to the local flow gradient at every grid point and finding the equilibrium position of the resulting system of grid points. The multi-dimensional problem of grid adaption is split into a series of one-dimensional problems along the computational coordinate lines. The reduced one dimensional problem then requires a tridiagonal solver to find the location of grid points along a coordinate line. Multi-directional adaption is achieved by the sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The tension forces direct the redistribution of points to the strong gradient region. To maintain smoothness and a measure of orthogonality of grid lines, torsional forces are introduced that relate information between the family of lines adjacent to one another. The smoothness and orthogonality constraints are direction-dependent, since they relate only the coordinate lines that are being adapted to the neighboring lines that have already been adapted. Therefore the solutions are non-unique and depend on the order and direction of adaption. Non-uniqueness of the adapted grid is

  3. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  4. Visual cues and listening effort: individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and 2 presentation modalities (audio only [AO] and auditory-visual [AV]). Signal-to-noise ratios were adjusted to provide matched speech recognition across audio-only and AV noise conditions. Also measured were subjective perceptions of listening effort and 2 predictive variables: (a) lipreading ability and (b) WMC. Objective and subjective results indicated that listening effort increased in the presence of noise, but on average the addition of visual cues did not significantly affect the magnitude of listening effort. Although there was substantial individual variability, on average participants who were better lipreaders or had larger WMCs demonstrated reduced listening effort in noise in AV conditions. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that integrating auditory and visual cues requires cognitive resources in some participants. The data indicate that low lipreading ability or low WMC is associated with relatively effortful integration of auditory and visual information in noise.

  5. Grid cut-off-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1992-01-01

    Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de

  6. Smart Grids and Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin BICĂ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of Smart Grids and distributed generation. Smart Grids can be defined as a modernization of the power system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements (power plants, transmission and distribution system, industrial and residential loads. Distributed generation (DG refers to the production of electricity near the consumption place using renewable energy sources. A load flow analysis is performed for the IEEE14 system in which a DG source (a 5MW wind turbine is added that is on-grid or off-grid. The power losses are determined for these two cases.

  7. Flames in fractal grid generated turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, K H H; Hampp, F; Lindstedt, R P [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Geipel, P, E-mail: p.lindstedt@imperial.ac.uk [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden)

    2013-12-15

    Twin premixed turbulent opposed jet flames were stabilized for lean mixtures of air with methane and propane in fractal grid generated turbulence. A density segregation method was applied alongside particle image velocimetry to obtain velocity and scalar statistics. It is shown that the current fractal grids increase the turbulence levels by around a factor of 2. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to show that the fractal grids produce slightly larger turbulent structures that decay at a slower rate as compared to conventional perforated plates. Conditional POD (CPOD) was also implemented using the density segregation technique and the results show that CPOD is essential to segregate the relative structures and turbulent kinetic energy distributions in each stream. The Kolmogorov length scales were also estimated providing values {approx}0.1 and {approx}0.5 mm in the reactants and products, respectively. Resolved profiles of flame surface density indicate that a thin flame assumption leading to bimodal statistics is not perfectly valid under the current conditions and it is expected that the data obtained will be of significant value to the development of computational methods that can provide information on the conditional structure of turbulence. It is concluded that the increase in the turbulent Reynolds number is without any negative impact on other parameters and that fractal grids provide a route towards removing the classical problem of a relatively low ratio of turbulent to bulk strain associated with the opposed jet configuration. (paper)

  8. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  9. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  10. Grid Generation Techniques Utilizing the Volume Grid Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents grid generation techniques available in the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) code. The VGM code is designed to manipulate existing line, surface and volume grids to improve the quality of the data. It embodies an easy to read rich language of commands that enables such alterations as topology changes, grid adaption and smoothing. Additionally, the VGM code can be used to construct simplified straight lines, splines, and conic sections which are common curves used in the generation and manipulation of points, lines, surfaces and volumes (i.e., grid data). These simple geometric curves are essential in the construction of domain discretizations for computational fluid dynamic simulations. By comparison to previously established methods of generating these curves interactively, the VGM code provides control of slope continuity and grid point-to-point stretchings as well as quick changes in the controlling parameters. The VGM code offers the capability to couple the generation of these geometries with an extensive manipulation methodology in a scripting language. The scripting language allows parametric studies of a vehicle geometry to be efficiently performed to evaluate favorable trends in the design process. As examples of the powerful capabilities of the VGM code, a wake flow field domain will be appended to an existing X33 Venturestar volume grid; negative volumes resulting from grid expansions to enable flow field capture on a simple geometry, will be corrected; and geometrical changes to a vehicle component of the X33 Venturestar will be shown.

  11. From the grid to the smart grid, topologically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.

  12. Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a

  13. Oscillating plasma bubbles. IV. Grids, geometry, and gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Urrutia, J. M. [Urrutia Scientific, Van Nuys, California 91406 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Plasma bubbles are created in an ambient plasma. The bubble is formed inside a cavity bounded by a negatively biased grid. Ions are injected through the grid and neutralized by electrons from either the background plasma or an internal electron emitter. The external electron supply is controlled by the grid bias relative to the external plasma potential. When the electron flux is restricted to the ion flux, the sheath of the bubble becomes unstable and causes the plasma potential to oscillate near the ion plasma frequency. The exact frequency depends on the net space charge density in the bubble sheath. The frequency increases with density and grid voltage, provided the grid forms a parallel equipotential surface. The present investigation shows that when the Debye length becomes smaller than the grid openings the electron flux cannot be controlled by the grid voltage. The frequency dependence on grid voltage and density is modified creating frequency and amplitude jumps. Low frequency sheath oscillations modulate the high frequency normal oscillations. Harmonics and subharmonics are excited by electrons in an ion-rich sheath. When the plasma parameters vary over the bubble surface, the sheath may oscillate at different frequencies. A cavity with two isolated grids has been used to investigate anisotropies of the energetic electron flux in a discharge plasma. The frequency dependence on grid voltage is entirely different when the grid controls the energetic electrons or the bulk electrons. These observations are important to several fields of basic plasma physics, such as sheaths, sheath instabilities, diagnostic probes, current, and space charge neutralization of ion beams.

  14. The adoption of new smart-grid technologies incentives, outcomes, and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Christopher; Narayanan, Anu

    2015-01-01

    RAND Corporation researchers review the current technical, regulatory, and economic context of the electricity market and theoretical benefits of developing a smart grid; discuss some entrepreneurial opportunities associated with smart-grid data; examine empirical evidence related to smart-grid adoption and implementation; and offer policy suggestions for overcoming identified barriers.

  15. Wind power integration in island-based smart grid projects : A comparative study between Jeju Smart Grid Test-bed and Smart Grid Gotland

    OpenAIRE

    Piehl, Hampus

    2014-01-01

    Smart grids seem to be the solution to use energy from renewable and intermittent energy sources in an efficient manner. There are many research projects around the world and two of them are Jeju Smart Grid Test-bed and Smart Grid Gotland. They have in common that they are both island-based projects and connected to the Powergrid on the mainland by HVDC-link. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the two projects and find out what challenges and strategies they have related to wind power i...

  16. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters

    OpenAIRE

    Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two methods for controlling the on-line transference from connected to stand-alone mode and vice versa in converters for micro-grids. The first proposes a method where the converter changes from CSI (Current Source Inverter) in grid-connected mode to VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) in off-grid. In the second method, the inverter always works as a non-ideal voltage source, acting as VSI, using AC droop control strategy.

  18. The Grid2003 Production Grid Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, I; Gose, S; Maltsev, N; May, E; Rodríguez, A; Sulakhe, D; Vaniachine, A; Shank, J; Youssef, S; Adams, D; Baker, R; Deng, W; Smith, J; Yu, D; Legrand, I; Singh, S; Steenberg, C; Xia, Y; Afaq, A; Berman, E; Annis, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Ernst, M; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatkin, N; Pordes, R; Sekhri, V; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Baker, K; Sorrillo, L; Huth, J; Allen, M; Grundhoefer, L; Hicks, J; Luehring, F C; Peck, S; Quick, R; Simms, S; Fekete, G; Van den Berg, J; Cho, K; Kwon, K; Son, D; Park, H; Canon, S; Jackson, K; Konerding, D E; Lee, J; Olson, D; Sakrejda, I; Tierney, B; Green, M; Miller, R; Letts, J; Martin, T; Bury, D; Dumitrescu, C; Engh, D; Gardner, R; Mambelli, M; Smirnov, Y; Voeckler, J; Wilde, M; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Avery, P; Cavanaugh, R J; Kim, B; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; McKee, S; Jordan, C; Prewett, J; Thomas, T; Severini, H; Clifford, B; Deelman, E; Flon, L; Kesselman, C; Mehta, G; Olomu, N; Vahi, K; De, K; McGuigan, P; Sosebee, M; Bradley, D; Couvares, P; De Smet, A; Kireyev, C; Paulson, E; Roy, A; Koranda, S; Moe, B; Brown, B; Sheldon, P

    2004-01-01

    The Grid2003 Project has deployed a multi-virtual organization, application-driven grid laboratory ("GridS") that has sustained for several months the production-level services required by physics experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (ATLAS and CMS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey project, the gravitational wave search experiment LIGO, the BTeV experiment at Fermilab, as well as applications in molecular structure analysis and genome analysis, and computer science research projects in such areas as job and data scheduling. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. We describe the principles that have guided the development of this unique infrastructure and the practical experiences that have resulted from its creation and use. We discuss application requirements for grid services deployment and configur...

  19. Integration operators for generating RDF/OWL-based user defined mediator views in a grid environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tawil, Abdel-Rahman H.; Taweel, Adel; Naeem, Usman; Montebello, Matthew; Bashroush, Rabih; Al-Nemrat, Ameer

    2014-01-01

    Research and development activities relating to the grid have generally focused on applications where data is stored in files. However, many scientific and commercial applications are highly dependent on Information Servers (ISs) for storage and organization of their data. A data-information system that supports operations on multiple information servers in a grid environment is referred to as an interoperable grid system. Different perceptions by end-users of interoperable systems in a grid ...

  20. The Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.

    2007-06-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  1. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  2. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  3. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  4. Advanced KSNP fuel, plus7 : grid-to-rod fretting wear resistance of the plus7 spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Tae; Kim, Yong Hwan; Jang, Young Ki; Choi, Joon Hyung

    2003-01-01

    Vibration-induced grid-to-rod fretting wear initiates at a certain critical gap correlated with a critical work rate. A critical gap between grid and rod forms due to in-reactor performance of fuel, thermal relaxation of grid spring and irradiation growth of grid strap, etc. A critical work rate may be generated by three vibration mechanisms proposed in this paper. Three vibration mechanisms have been derived with various fretting wear experience in commercial reactors as well as various out-of-pile hydraulic test results. The first active vibration mechanism is high turbulence-induced excessive fuel rod vibration with the combination of excessive grid-to-rod gap. The second active vibration mechanism is self-excited fuel assembly vibration in a low frequency range caused by hydraulically unbalanced mixing vanes of the spacer grid assembly. The third active vibration mechanism is self-excited spacer grid strap vibration in quite a high frequency range caused by some spacer grid designs. In this study, each vibration mechanism on the grid-to-rod fretting wear damage is discussed. On the other hand, the effects of various grid designs on the fretting wear damage in the commercial reactors are predicted using the long-term fretting wear test results. It is found that the larger grid-to-rod initial contact area generates the less fretting wear damage. Consequently the conformal spring of PLUS7 is superior to typical convex shaped spring with regard to fretting wear resistance since the former generates relatively larger contact area than the latter

  5. The Czech National Grid Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudoba, J.; Křenková, I.; Mulač, M.; Ruda, M.; Sitera, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Czech National Grid Infrastructure is operated by MetaCentrum, a CESNET department responsible for coordinating and managing activities related to distributed computing. CESNET as the Czech National Research and Education Network (NREN) provides many e-infrastructure services, which are used by 94% of the scientific and research community in the Czech Republic. Computing and storage resources owned by different organizations are connected by fast enough network to provide transparent access to all resources. We describe in more detail the computing infrastructure, which is based on several different technologies and covers grid, cloud and map-reduce environment. While the largest part of CPUs is still accessible via distributed torque servers, providing environment for long batch jobs, part of infrastructure is available via standard EGI tools in EGI, subset of NGI resources is provided into EGI FedCloud environment with cloud interface and there is also Hadoop cluster provided by the same e-infrastructure.A broad spectrum of computing servers is offered; users can choose from standard 2 CPU servers to large SMP machines with up to 6 TB of RAM or servers with GPU cards. Different groups have different priorities on various resources, resource owners can even have an exclusive access. The software is distributed via AFS. Storage servers offering up to tens of terabytes of disk space to individual users are connected via NFS4 on top of GPFS and access to long term HSM storage with peta-byte capacity is also provided. Overview of available resources and recent statistics of usage will be given.

  6. Investigation of grid performance using simple image quality tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Bor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiscatter grids improve the X-ray image contrast at a cost of patient radiation doses. The choice of appropriate grid or its removal requires a good knowledge of grid characteristics, especially for pediatric digital imaging. The aim of this work is to understand the relation between grid performance parameters and some numerical image quality metrics for digital radiological examinations. The grid parameters such as bucky factor (BF, selectivity (Σ, Contrast improvement factor (CIF, and signal-to-noise improvement factor (SIF were determined following the measurements of primary, scatter, and total radiations with a digital fluoroscopic system for the thicknesses of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm polymethyl methacrylate blocks at the tube voltages of 70, 90, and 120 kVp. Image contrast for low- and high-contrast objects and high-contrast spatial resolution were measured with simple phantoms using the same scatter thicknesses and tube voltages. BF and SIF values were also calculated from the images obtained with and without grids. The correlation coefficients between BF values obtained using two approaches (grid parameters and image quality metrics were in good agreement. Proposed approach provides a quick and practical way of estimating grid performance for different digital fluoroscopic examinations.

  7. Eastern Cape hybrid mini-grid systems - a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides a rationale for off-grid projects, and then briefly discusses renewable energy for rural electrification in the Eastern Cape. The impact of this project, and related research work, is also touched on....

  8. TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark

    1992-01-01

    A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.

  9. Resource allocation in grid computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, Ger; Righter, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Grid computing, in which a network of computers is integrated to create a very fast virtual computer, is becoming ever more prevalent. Examples include the TeraGrid and Planet-lab.org, as well as applications on the existing Internet that take advantage of unused computing and storage capacity of

  10. Auction Mechanism of Micro-Grid Project Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Long

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-grid project transfer is the primary issue of micro-grid development. The efficiency and quality of the micro-grid project transfer directly affect the quality of micro-grid project construction and development, which is very important for the sustainable development of micro-grid. This paper constructs a multi-attribute auction model of micro-grid project transfer, which reflects the characteristics of micro-grid system and the interests of stakeholders, calculates the optimal bidding strategy and analyzes the influence of relevant factors on auction equilibrium by multi-stage dynamic game with complete information, and makes a numerical simulation analysis. Results indicate that the optimal strategy of auction mechanism is positively related to power quality, energy storage quality, and carbon emissions. Different from the previous lowest price winning mechanism, the auction mechanism formed in this paper emphasizes that the energy suppliers which provide the comprehensive optimization of power quality, energy storage quality, carbon emissions, and price will win the auction, when both the project owners and energy suppliers maximize their benefits under this auction mechanism. The auction mechanism is effective because it is in line with the principle of individual rationality and incentive compatibility. In addition, the number of energy suppliers participating in the auction and the cost of the previous auction are positively related to the auction equilibrium, both of which are adjusting the equilibrium results of the auction. At the same time, the utilization rate of renewable energy and the comprehensive utilization of energy also have a positive impact on the auction equilibrium. In the end, this paper puts forward a series of policy suggestions about micro-grid project auction. The research in this paper is of great significance to improve the auction quality of micro-grid projects and promote the sustainable development of micro-grid.

  11. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...... populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...

  12. gCube Grid services

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    gCube is a service-based framework for eScience applications requiring collaboratory, on-demand, and intensive information processing. It provides to these communities Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to support their activities. gCube is build on top of standard technologies for computational Grids, namely the gLite middleware. The software was produced by the DILIGENT project and will continue to be supported and further developed by the D4Science project. gCube reflects within its name a three-sided interpretation of the Grid vision of resource sharing: sharing of computational resources, sharing of structured data, and sharing of application services. As such, gCube embodies the defining characteristics of computational Grids, data Grids, and virtual data Grids. Precisely, it builds on gLite middleware for managing distributed computations and unstructured data, includes dedicated services for managing data and metadata, provides services for distributed information retrieval, allows the orchestration...

  13. Wind energy in offshore grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...

  14. Smart grid: hope or hype?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...

  15. Pandemic Influenza: Domestic Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lister, Sarah A

    2005-01-01

    .... Though influenza pandemics occur with some regularity, and the United States has been involved in specific planning efforts since the early 1990s, the H5N1 situation has created a sense of urgency...

  16. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Drews, Christopher; Lantow, Birger

    2018-01-01

    Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation re...

  17. Ex-ante evaluation of profitability and government's subsidy policy on vehicle-to-grid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Junhee; Koo, Yoonmo; Jeong, Gicheol; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Abstact: Although the electric vehicle reduces pollutant emissions and results in reduced energy costs, lack of battery charging infrastructure and relatively high vehicle prices create challenges to the automobile industry and affect government support policies. To create a battery charging infrastructure, such as a vehicle-to-grid system, stakeholders need a quantitative analysis that decreases profitability uncertainty. The high cost of an electric vehicle can be offset by government subsidies that promote early marketing efforts, but an ex-ante evaluation of consumer demand is needed to analyze the effectiveness of any policy. This study provides information about optimal pricing based on consumer demand as well as the social welfare change effected by possible government subsidy polices for electric vehicles. Results show that the maximum profit for a vehicle-to-grid service provider will be 1.27 trillion Korean won/year with an annual subscription fee of 0.65 million Korean won. The government subsidy of 1 trillion Korean won, given annually, will increase social welfare by 1.94 trillion won and also boost the profit of vehicle-to-grid service provider to 1.98 trillion won. - Highlights: ▶ We evaluate consumer preference on electric vehicle and V2G service. ▶ Based on the consumer preference, we calculate profitability of V2G service. ▶ Also, the effect of government subsidy on electric vehicle market is analyzed. ▶ The empirical results will be useful to the V2G service providers and policy makers

  18. Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population density grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's...

  19. Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, A. P.

    1969-01-01

    Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.

  20. Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Martini, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.

  1. Workplace High Tech Spurs Retraining Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dwight B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses who should provide training for displaced workers who need new skills. Areas examined include: (1) the need for retraining; (2) current corporate efforts; (3) agreements in the automotive industry; (4) job quality; (5) the federal government's role; and (6) federal legislation related to the problem. (JN)

  2. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  3. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  4. The Internet of things and Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing

    2018-02-01

    The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.

  5. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  6. Collaboration Services: Enabling Chat in Disadvantaged Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    grids in the tactical domain" [2]. The main focus of this group is to identify what we call tactical SOA foundation services. By this we mean which...Here, only IPv4 is supported, as differences relating to IPv4 and IPv6 addressing meant that this functionality was not easily extended to use IPv6 ...multicast groups. Our IPv4 implementation is fully compliant with the specification, whereas the IPv6 implementation uses our own interpretation of

  7. Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...

  8. Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Nenad A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.

  9. Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang

    2018-03-01

    Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.

  10. Communication challenges and solutions in the smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Bouhafs, Fayçal; Merabti, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the rise of the smart grid from the perspective of computing and communications. It explains how current and next-generation network technology and methodologies help recognize the potential that the smart grid initiative promises.Chapters provide context on the smart grid before exploring specific challenges related to communication control and energy management. Topics include control in heterogeneous power supply, solutions for backhaul and wide area networks, home energy management systems, and technologies for smart energy management systems.Designed for resea

  11. An overset algorithm for 3D unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pishevar, A.R.; Shateri, A.R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology is introduced to simulate flows around complex geometries by using overset unstructured grids. The proposed algorithm can also be used for the unsteady flows about objects in relative motions. In such a case since the elements are not deformed during the computation the costly part of conventional methods, re-meshing, is prevented. This method relies on the inter-grid boundary definition to establish communications among independent grids in the overset system. At the end, the Euler set of equations are integrated on several overset systems to examine the capabilities of this methodology. (author)

  12. New challenges in grid generation and adaptivity for scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggia, Luca

    2015-01-01

    This volume collects selected contributions from the “Fourth Tetrahedron Workshop on Grid Generation for Numerical Computations”, which was held in Verbania, Italy in July 2013. The previous editions of this Workshop were hosted by the Weierstrass Institute in Berlin (2005), by INRIA Rocquencourt in Paris (2007), and by Swansea University (2010). This book covers different, though related, aspects of the field: the generation of quality grids for complex three-dimensional geometries; parallel mesh generation algorithms; mesh adaptation, including both theoretical and implementation aspects; grid generation and adaptation on surfaces – all with an interesting mix of numerical analysis, computer science and strongly application-oriented problems.

  13. Cyber Security for Smart Grid, Cryptography, and Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Iyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention of “smart grid” promises to improve the efficiency and reliability of the power system. As smart grid is turning out to be one of the most promising technologies, its security concerns are becoming more crucial. The grid is susceptible to different types of attacks. This paper will focus on these threats and risks especially relating to cyber security. Cyber security is a vital topic, since the smart grid uses high level of computation like the IT. We will also see cryptography and key management techniques that are required to overcome these attacks. Privacy of consumers is another important security concern that this paper will deal with.

  14. Power grid control in retreat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2000-01-01

    Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe

  15. Smart Grid Security. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.

  16. Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.

  17. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  18. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)

  19. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  20. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  1. Effort Estimation in BPMS Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Drews

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually Business Process Management Systems (BPMS are highly integrated in the IT of organizations and are at the core of their business. Thus, migrating from one BPMS solution to another is not a common task. However, there are forces that are pushing organizations to perform this step, e.g. maintenance costs of legacy BPMS or the need for additional functionality. Before the actual migration, the risk and the effort must be evaluated. This work provides a framework for effort estimation regarding the technical aspects of BPMS migration. The framework provides questions for BPMS comparison and an effort evaluation schema. The applicability of the framework is evaluated based on a simplified BPMS migration scenario.

  2. The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...

  3. Governments plan data grid projects

    CERN Multimedia

    Thibodeau, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Some governments and not-for-profit organizations such as hospitals are beginning to look at data grid technology as a means to improve servies, lower operating costs and spur economic development." (1 page)

  4. Distribution Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distribution Integration Distribution Integration The goal of NREL's distribution integration research is to tackle the challenges facing the widespread integration of distributed energy resources NREL engineers mapping out a grid model on a whiteboard. NREL's research on the integration of

  5. Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power

  6. 84-KILOMETER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING GRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. Roe

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to document the development of a radial grid that is suitable for evaluating the pathways and potential impacts of a release of radioactive materials to the environment within a distance of 84 kilometers (km). The center of the grid represents an approximate location from which a potential release of radioactive materials could originate. The center is located on Nevada State Plane coordinates Northing 765621.5, and Easting 570433.6, which is on the eastern side of Exile Hill at the Yucca Mountain site. The North Portal Pad is located over this point. The grid resulting from this calculation is intended for use primarily in the Radiological Monitoring Program (RadMP). This grid also is suitable for use in Biosphere Modeling and other Yucca Mountain Site Characteristic Project (YMP) activities that require the evaluation of data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates

  7. U.S. Topographic Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...

  8. VT US National Grid Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) USNGVT is a U.S. National Grid Index (1000m x 1000m) covering Vermont. It is a polygon feature class originally constructed by the Center for...

  9. Homogeneity and EPR metrics for assessment of regular grids used in CW EPR powder simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crăciun, Cora

    2014-08-01

    CW EPR powder spectra may be approximated numerically using a spherical grid and a Voronoi tessellation-based cubature. For a given spin system, the quality of simulated EPR spectra depends on the grid type, size, and orientation in the molecular frame. In previous work, the grids used in CW EPR powder simulations have been compared mainly from geometric perspective. However, some grids with similar homogeneity degree generate different quality simulated spectra. This paper evaluates the grids from EPR perspective, by defining two metrics depending on the spin system characteristics and the grid Voronoi tessellation. The first metric determines if the grid points are EPR-centred in their Voronoi cells, based on the resonance magnetic field variations inside these cells. The second metric verifies if the adjacent Voronoi cells of the tessellation are EPR-overlapping, by computing the common range of their resonance magnetic field intervals. Beside a series of well known regular grids, the paper investigates a modified ZCW grid and a Fibonacci spherical code, which are new in the context of EPR simulations. For the investigated grids, the EPR metrics bring more information than the homogeneity quantities and are better related to the grids' EPR behaviour, for different spin system symmetries. The metrics' efficiency and limits are finally verified for grids generated from the initial ones, by using the original or magnetic field-constraint variants of the Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive grid generation in a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F.; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan

    2013-11-01

    Adapting grid density to flow behavior provides the advantage of increasing solution accuracy while decreasing the number of grid elements in the simulation domain, therefore reducing the computational time. One method for grid adaptation requires successive refinement of grid density based on observed solution behavior until the numerical errors between successive grids are negligible. However, such an approach is time consuming and it is often neglected by the researchers. We present a technique to calculate the grid size distribution of an adaptive grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in a complex cerebral aneurysm geometry based on the kinematic curvature and torsion calculated from the velocity field. The relationship between the kinematic characteristics of the flow and the element size of the adaptive grid leads to a mathematical equation to calculate the grid size in different regions of the flow. The adaptive grid density is obtained such that it captures the more complex details of the flow with locally smaller grid size, while less complex flow characteristics are calculated on locally larger grid size. The current study shows that kinematic curvature and torsion calculated from the velocity field in a cerebral aneurysm can be used to find the locations of complex flow where the computational grid needs to be refined in order to obtain an accurate solution. We found that the complexity of the flow can be adequately described by velocity and vorticity and the angle between the two vectors. For example, inside the aneurysm bleb, at the bifurcation, and at the major arterial turns the element size in the lumen needs to be less than 10% of the artery radius, while at the boundary layer, the element size should be smaller than 1% of the artery radius, for accurate results within a 0.5% relative approximation error. This technique of quantifying flow complexity and adaptive remeshing has the potential to improve results accuracy and reduce

  11. Towards a global service registry for the world-wide LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Laurence; Pradillo, Maria Alandes; Girolamo, Alessandro Di

    2014-01-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages

  12. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  13. Smart electric grids in the United Kingdom energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloaguen, Olivier; Dreyfus, Charles-Antoine

    2011-09-01

    This study first gives an overview of the current status and limitations of the British power grid. It indicates the British energy mix, describes the network structure and its economic operation (gross and retail market with the bid and offer system, role of the System Operator, ways to increase the electricity production). It presents the energy policy and its regulation framework, outlines the current limitations and challenges (ageing grid, power crunch, de-carbonation challenges). It presents the development of a smart grid as a solution to economy de-carbonation challenges: definition of the 'smart grid concept', smart grid development planning (from 2010 to 2050), technological transition associated with smart electric grid development (a cleaner but more intermittent and random electricity production, better use of fossil fuels, electric energy storage, consequences for the grid, introduction and effects of smart meters). It describes the new associated economic model: evolution of the value chain, financial challenges (required investments, expected benefits, subsidies), new regulation system. It addresses the strategic challenges and the various uncertainties (notably in terms of consumption, privacy issue in relation with the use of smart meters, and project implementation).

  14. Moving Towards Sustainable and Resilient Smart Water Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mutchek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban water systems face sustainability and resiliency challenges including water leaks, over-use, quality issues, and response to drought and natural disasters. Information and communications technology (ICT could help address these challenges through the development of smart water grids that network and automate monitoring and control devices. While progress is being made on technology elements, as a system, the smart water grid has received scant attention. This article aims to raise awareness of the systems-level idea of smart water grids by reviewing the technology elements and their integration into smart water systems, discussing potential sustainability and resiliency benefits, and challenges relating to the adoption of smart water grids. Water losses and inefficient use stand out as promising areas for applications of smart water grids. Potential barriers to the adoption of smart water grids include lack of funding for research and development, economic disincentives as well as institutional and political structures that favor the current system. It is our hope that future work can clarify the benefits of smart water grids and address challenges to their further development.

  15. The anatomy of the grid : enabling scalable virtual organizations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.; Tuecke, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Southern California

    2001-10-01

    'Grid' computing has emerged as an important new field, distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its focus on large-scale resource sharing, innovative applications, and, in some cases, high performance orientation. In this article, the authors define this new field. First, they review the 'Grid problem,' which is defined as flexible, secure, coordinated resource sharing among dynamic collections of individuals, institutions, and resources -- what is referred to as virtual organizations. In such settings, unique authentication, authorization, resource access, resource discovery, and other challenges are encountered. It is this class of problem that is addressed by Grid technologies. Next, the authors present an extensible and open Grid architecture, in which protocols, services, application programming interfaces, and software development kits are categorized according to their roles in enabling resource sharing. The authors describe requirements that they believe any such mechanisms must satisfy and discuss the importance of defining a compact set of intergrid protocols to enable interoperability among different Grid systems. Finally, the authors discuss how Grid technologies relate to other contemporary technologies, including enterprise integration, application service provider, storage service provider, and peer-to-peer computing. They maintain that Grid concepts and technologies complement and have much to contribute to these other approaches.

  16. Fault tolerance in computational grids: perspectives, challenges, and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sajjad; Nazir, Babar

    2016-01-01

    Computational grids are established with the intention of providing shared access to hardware and software based resources with special reference to increased computational capabilities. Fault tolerance is one of the most important issues faced by the computational grids. The main contribution of this survey is the creation of an extended classification of problems that incur in the computational grid environments. The proposed classification will help researchers, developers, and maintainers of grids to understand the types of issues to be anticipated. Moreover, different types of problems, such as omission, interaction, and timing related have been identified that need to be handled on various layers of the computational grid. In this survey, an analysis and examination is also performed pertaining to the fault tolerance and fault detection mechanisms. Our conclusion is that a dependable and reliable grid can only be established when more emphasis is on fault identification. Moreover, our survey reveals that adaptive and intelligent fault identification, and tolerance techniques can improve the dependability of grid working environments.

  17. Grid Voltage Modulated Control of Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters under Unbalanced Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...... objectives are selected to eliminate the negative sequence components of currents. The modified GVM method is designed to obtain two separate second-order systems for not only the fast convergence rate of the instantaneous active and reactive powers but also the robust performance. In addition, this method...

  18. Optimal Wind Energy Integration in Large-Scale Electric Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaijat, Mohammad H.

    profit for investors for renting their transmission capacity, and cheaper electricity for end users. We propose a hybrid method based on a heuristic and deterministic method to attain new transmission lines additions and increase transmission capacity. Renewable energy resources (RES) have zero operating cost, which makes them very attractive for generation companies and market participants. In addition, RES have zero carbon emission, which helps relieve the concerns of environmental impacts of electric generation resources' carbon emission. RES are wind, solar, hydro, biomass, and geothermal. By 2030, the expectation is that more than 30% of electricity in the U.S. will come from RES. One major contributor of RES generation will be from wind energy resources (WES). Furthermore, WES will be an important component of the future generation portfolio. However, the nature of WES is that it experiences a high intermittency and volatility. Because of the great expectation of high WES penetration and the nature of such resources, researchers focus on studying the effects of such resources on the electric grid operation and its adequacy from different aspects. Additionally, current market operations of electric grids add another complication to consider while integrating RES (e.g., specifically WES). Mandates by market rules and long-term analysis of renewable penetration in large-scale electric grid are also the focus of researchers in recent years. We advocate a method for high-wind resources penetration study on large-scale electric grid operations. PMU is a geographical positioning system (GPS) based device, which provides immediate and precise measurements of voltage angle in a high-voltage transmission system. PMUs can update the status of a transmission line and related measurements (e.g., voltage magnitude and voltage phase angle) more frequently. Every second, a PMU can provide 30 samples of measurements compared to traditional systems (e.g., supervisory control and

  19. Grid for a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention has one or more corrugations formed in the surface of a fuel element grid for a nuclear reactor. Not only does the corrugation enhance the strength of the grid plate in which it is formed, but it also provides a simple and convenient means for regulating the reactor coolant pressure drop through an appropriate choice of the corrugation depth

  20. Smart grid applications and developments

    CERN Document Server

    Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi

  1. Micro Grid: A Smart Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Naveenkumar, M; Ratnakar, N

    2012-01-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. Todays DG technologies often consist of renewable generators, and offer a number of potential benefits. This paper presents a design of micro grid as part of Smart grid technologies with renewable energy resources like solar, wind and Diesel generator. The design of the microgrid with integration of Renewable energy sources are done in PSCAD/EMTDC.This paper...

  2. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  3. High Performance Parallel Multigrid Algorithms for Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a high performance parallel multigrid algorithm for a rather general class of unstructured grid problems in two and three dimensions. The algorithm PUMG, for parallel unstructured multigrid, is related in structure to the parallel multigrid algorithm PSMG introduced by McBryan and Frederickson, for they both obtain a higher convergence rate through the use of multiple coarse grids. Another reason for the high convergence rate of PUMG is its smoother, an approximate inverse developed by Baumgardner and Frederickson.

  4. The roles of households in the smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The smart grid is often mentioned as one of the key examples of IT playing a positive role for the environment, because it is regarded as a precondition for a low carbon transition of the energy system. Households are expected to play a variety of roles in relation to the development of the smart...... grid. The changes are complex and involve a number of concerns and challenges for policy-making....

  5. CMS on the GRID: Toward a fully distributed computing architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innocente, Vincenzo

    2003-01-01

    The computing systems required to collect, analyse and store the physics data at LHC would need to be distributed and global in scope. CMS is actively involved in several grid-related projects to develop and deploy a fully distributed computing architecture. We present here recent developments of tools for automating job submission and for serving data to remote analysis stations. Plans for further test and deployment of a production grid are also described

  6. The more the merrier: grid based modelling of Kepler dwarfs with 5-dimensional stellar grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenelli Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of our grid based modelling (GBM of the dwarf/subgiant sample of stars observed with Kepler including global asteroseismic parameters. GBM analysis in this work is based on a large grid of stellar models that is characterized by five independent parameters: model mass and age, initial metallicity (Zini, initial helium (Yini, and mixing length parameter (αMLT. Using this grid relaxes assumptions used in all previous GBM work where the initial composition is determined by a single parameter and that αMLT is fixed to a solar-calibrated value. The new grid allows us to study, for example, the impact of different galactic chemical enrichment models on the determination of stellar parameters such as mass radius and age. Also, it allows to include new results from stellar atmosphere models on αMLT in the GBM analysis in a simple manner. Alternatively, it can be tested if global asteroseismology is a useful tool to constraint our ignorance on quantities such as Yini and αMLT. Initial findings show that mass determination is robust with respect to freedom in the latter quantities, with a 4.4% maximum deviation for extreme assumptions regarding prior information on Yini – Zini relations and aMLT. On the other hand, tests carried out so far seem to indicate that global seismology does not have much power to constrain Yini – Zni relations of αMLT values without resourcing to additional information.

  7. Grid scale energy storage in salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crotogino, Fritz; Donadei, Sabine [KBB Underground Technologies GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Fossil energy sources require some 20% of the annual consumption to be stored to secure emergency cover, peak shaving, seasonal balancing, etc. Today the electric power industry benefits from the extreme high energy density of fossil fuels. This is one important reason why the German utilities are able to provide highly reliable grid operation at a electric power storage capacity at their pumped hydro power stations of less then 1 hour (40 GWh) related to the total load in the grid - i.e. only 0,06% related to natural gas. Along with the changeover to renewable wind based electricity production this ''outsourcing'' of storage services to fossil fuels will decline. One important way out will be grid scale energy storage. The present discussion for balancing short term wind and solar power fluctuations focuses primarily on the installation of Compressed Air Energy Storages (CAES) in addition to existing pumped hydro plants. Because of their small energy density, these storage options are, however, generally not suitable for balancing for longer term fluctuations in case of larger amounts of excess wind power or even seasonal fluctuations. Underground hydrogen storages, however, provide a much higher energy density because of chemical energy bond - standard practice since many years. The first part of the article describes the present status and performance of grid scale energy storages in geological formations, mainly salt caverns. It is followed by a compilation of generally suitable locations in Europe and particularly Germany. The second part deals with first results of preliminary investigations in possibilities and limits of offshore CAES power stations. (orig.)

  8. Integration of Large-scale Consumers in Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahnama, Samira

    A prominent feature of the smart grid is to involve the consumer side in balancing effort, rather than placing the entire burden of maintaining this balance on the producers. This thesis investigates the utilization of flexible consumers in the future smart grid. The focus of this work is on indu......A prominent feature of the smart grid is to involve the consumer side in balancing effort, rather than placing the entire burden of maintaining this balance on the producers. This thesis investigates the utilization of flexible consumers in the future smart grid. The focus of this work...... the demand that these consumers represent. The exact responsibility of the aggregator, however, can vary depending on several factors such as control strategies, demand types, provided services etc. This thesis addresses the aggregator design for a specific class of consumers. The work involves selecting...... an appropriate control scenario, formulating the optimal objective function at the aggregator, modeling the flexibility of our specific case studies and determining the required information flow. This thesis also investigates different types of aggregation, when we have different types of consumers...

  9. ARC Cache: A solution for lightweight Grid sites in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Garonne, Vincent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Many Grid sites have the need to reduce operational manpower, and running a storage element consumes a large amount of effort. In addition, setting up a new Grid site including a storage element involves a steep learning curve and large investment of time. For these reasons so-called storage-less sites are becoming more popular as a way to provide Grid computing resources with less operational overhead. ARC CE is a widely-used and mature Grid middleware which was designed from the start to be used on sites with no persistent storage element. Instead, it maintains a local self-managing cache of data which retains popular data for future jobs. As the cache is simply an area on a local posix shared filesystem with no external-facing service, it requires no extra maintenance. The cache can be scaled up as required by increasing the size of the filesystem or adding new filesystems. This paper describes how ARC CE and its cache are an ideal solution for lightweight Grid sites in the ATLAS experiment, and the integr...

  10. Electricity Markets, Smart Grids and Smart Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcey, Jonathan M.

    A smart grid is an electricity network that accommodates two-way power flows, and utilizes two-way communications and increased measurement, in order to provide more information to customers and aid in the development of a more efficient electricity market. The current electrical network is outdated and has many shortcomings relating to power flows, inefficient electricity markets, generation/supply balance, a lack of information for the consumer and insufficient consumer interaction with electricity markets. Many of these challenges can be addressed with a smart grid, but there remain significant barriers to the implementation of a smart grid. This paper proposes a novel method for the development of a smart grid utilizing a bottom up approach (starting with smart buildings/campuses) with the goal of providing the framework and infrastructure necessary for a smart grid instead of the more traditional approach (installing many smart meters and hoping a smart grid emerges). This novel approach involves combining deterministic and statistical methods in order to accurately estimate building electricity use down to the device level. It provides model users with a cheaper alternative to energy audits and extensive sensor networks (the current methods of quantifying electrical use at this level) which increases their ability to modify energy consumption and respond to price signals The results of this method are promising, but they are still preliminary. As a result, there is still room for improvement. On days when there were no missing or inaccurate data, this approach has R2 of about 0.84, sometimes as high as 0.94 when compared to measured results. However, there were many days where missing data brought overall accuracy down significantly. In addition, the development and implementation of the calibration process is still underway and some functional additions must be made in order to maximize accuracy. The calibration process must be completed before a reliable

  11. GENIUS: a web portal for the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronico, A.; Barbera, R.; Falzone, A.; Lo Re, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Rodolico, A.

    2003-01-01

    The architecture and the current implementation of the grid portal GENIUS (Grid Enabled web environment for site Independent User job Submission), jointly developed by INFN and NICE within the context of the INFN Grid and DataGrid Project, is presented and discussed

  12. Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.

  13. Promotional drivers for grid-connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2009-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at promotional measures for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the core objective of this study which was to analyse the success of various governmental regulatory programs and governmental and non-governmental marketing programs for grid-connected PV systems. To meet this objective, a review of the most important past and current programs around the world was conducted. The theoretical bases of supply and demand are explained and the types of existing strategies are documented in a second Section. In Chapter 3, various programs around the world are described. Chapter 4 focuses on defining success criteria which will be used for the analysis of the programs. Finally, the major conclusions drawn complete this analysis.

  14. The impact of the year 2000 issue on electricity grid performance and nuclear power plant operation in Bulgaria, the Russian Federation and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The Y2K date conversion is a potential source of problems to the operation of nuclear power plants through external events and interfaces with electrical power systems, telecommunication systems, and other supporting infrastructures, even if diagnostic and corrective actions within the plant itself, both planned or implemented, are successful. At the end of 1998 there were 425 nuclear power plants in operation in 31 Member States. Most countries and regions are conducting intensive diagnostic and corrective activities to 'find and fix' Y2K software (including embedded software) and equipment problems in their nuclear power plants. These efforts are supplemented by contingency plans. Other countries and regions have not been making comparable efforts and are relying mainly on contingency planning and preparedness. Results of diagnostic and corrective activities can be of benefit to all Member States. Activities on 'find and fix' Y2K problems in electricity grid control systems and computer related technology in national and regional dispatch centers could be of considerable benefit due to the widespread use of the same components, equipment, and software. Consistent with the objectives of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Y2K program, an experts meeting was convened to collect information on Y2K activities related to grid operation in countries that operate nuclear power plants and also to identify specific actions to be taken and issues to be addressed in connection with expected grid disturbances. The countries of eastern Europe and the Russian Federation were considered to be a very important region due to delays in taking Y2K corrective actions but also due to the similarity of their electricity grid systems both in components and design but also in mode of operation. Most of these countries either operate their own nuclear power plants or are linked through their electricity grid interconnections to a neighboring country that operates nuclear power

  15. Effect of top ligament blanking on reducing flow induced vibration of protective grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Kyong Bo; Ryu, Joo Young; Kwon, Oh Joon; Park, Joon Kyoo; Jeon, Sang Youn; Suh, Jung Min [KEPCO NF Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The protective grid is a Inconel 718 spacer grid located just above the bottom nozzle in many kinds of fuel assemblies for PWR. The purpose of using protective grid is to capture debris before they flow up into the fuel assembly and get trapped by the other grids causing fuel rod damages as well as to provide support at the lower end plugs of fuel rods. Recently, it has been reported that strap failure has occurred in the protective grids and the flow induced vibration of the strap has resulted in the strap fatigue failure. After the root cause of the protective grid failure was found to be the flow induced vibration of the strap, KEPCO NF has made an effort to find the vibration tendencies of grid strap and draw vibration mitigation concepts of the protective grid strap. The vibration tendency and the effect of the vibration mitigation concept of the protective grid which have been found by the results of the loop tests and simulations in KEPCO NF are presented herein.

  16. Creating a Smarter U.S. Electricity Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Paul L. Joskow

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on efforts to build what policymakers call the "smart grid," involving 1) improved remote monitoring and automatic and remote control of facilities in high-voltage electricity transmission networks; 2) improved remote monitoring, two-way communications, and automatic and remote control of local distribution networks; and 3) installation of "smart" metering and associated communications capabilities on customer premises so that customers can receive real-time price informati...

  17. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  18. Environmental Determinants of Lexical Processing Effort

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Institute for Adaptive and Neural Computation A central concern of psycholinguistic research is explaining the relative ease or difficulty involved in processing words. In this thesis, we explore the connection between lexical processing effort and measurable properties of the linguistic environment. Distributional information (information about a word’s contexts of use) is easily extracted from large language corpora in the form of co-occurrence statistics. We claim that su...

  19. Managing Dynamic User Communities in a Grid of Autonomous Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, R; Gianoli, A; Spataro, F; Ciaschini, Vincenzo; dell'Agnello, L; Bonnassieux, F; Broadfoot, P; Lowe, G; Cornwall, L; Jensen, J; Kelsey, D; Frohner, A; Groep, DL; Som de Cerff, W; Steenbakkers, M; Venekamp, G; Kouril, D; McNab, A; Mulmo, O; Silander, M; Hahkala, J; Lhorentey, K

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts in Grid computing is the creation of Virtual Organizations (VO's): a set of resource consumers and providers that join forces to solve a common problem. Typical examples of Virtual Organizations include collaborations formed around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. To date, Grid computing has been applied on a relatively small scale, linking dozens of users to a dozen resources, and management of these VO's was a largely manual operation. With the advance of large collaboration, linking more than 10000 users with a 1000 sites in 150 counties, a comprehensive, automated management system is required. It should be simple enough not to deter users, while at the same time ensuring local site autonomy. The VO Management Service (VOMS), developed by the EU DataGrid and DataTAG projects[1, 2], is a secured system for managing authorization for users and resources in virtual organizations. It extends the existing Grid Security Infrastructure[3] architecture with embedded VO ...

  20. Utilities’ Technology Management of Smart Grid Innovation and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    To create sustainability in society’s energy system, power producers and consumers need smart grid technology to balance among producing and consuming units. Smart grid makes up a host of specifications, unproven products and concepts as well as a strong and dedicated innovation process for utility...... companies. Few proven concepts exist, and with the prolongation, smart grid represents an excellent case of technology management. The current study uses a series of loosely related technological studies of smart grid technologies in SME electricity companies to highlight and characterise critical issues....... Major findings are that the companies have limited capabilities in management of technology despite both strong push and pull, and they suffer from vaguely expressed objectives....