Harmonic currents Compensator Grid-Connected Inverter at the Microgrid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, A.; Naderipour, A.; Habibuddin, M.H.
2016-01-01
The main challenge associated with the grid-connected inverter in distributed generation (DG) systems is to maintain the harmonic contents in output current below the specified values and compensates for unbalanced loads even when the grid is subject to disturbances such as harmonic distortion...... and unbalanced loads. To overcome these challenges, a current control strategy for a three-phase grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions is presented. It enables grid-connected inverter by the proposed control method to inject balanced clean currents to the grid even when the local...... loads are unbalanced and/or nonlinear and also compensate of the harmonic currents and control the active and reactive power. The main advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic currents content of the grid current and microgrid without using any compensation...
Current Harmonics from Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
Environmental conditions and operational modes may significantly impact the distortion level of the injected current from single-phase grid-connected inverter systems, such as photovoltaic (PV) inverters, which may operate in cloudy days with a maximum power point tracking, in a non-unity power...... factor, or in the low voltage ride through mode with reactive current injection. In this paper, the mechanism of the harmonic current injection from grid-connected single-phase inverter systems is thus explored, and the analysis is conducted on single-phase PV systems. In particular, the analysis...... is focused on the impacts of the power factor and the feed-in grid current level on the quality of the feed-in grid current from single-phase inverters. As a consequence, an internal model principle based high performance current control solution is tailor-made and developed for single-phase grid-connected...
Mitigation of Voltage and Current Harmonics in Grid-Connected Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza
2012-01-01
In this paper, a control approach is proposed for selective compensation of main voltage and current harmonics in grid-connected microgrids. Two modes of compensation are considered, i.e. voltage and current compensation modes. In the case that sensitive loads are connected to the point of common...... coupling (PCC), voltage compensation mode is activated in order to provide a high voltage quality at PCC. Otherwise, grid current harmonics are mitigated (current compensation mode) in order to avoid excessive harmonic supply by the grid. In both modes, harmonic compensation is achieved through proper...... control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. The compensation effort of each harmonic is shared considering the corresponding current harmonic supplied by the DGs. The control system of each DG comprises harmonic compensator, power controllers, voltage and current controllers and virtual...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barote, L.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the design and implementation of PR current control method in the αβ stationary reference frame for the grid side converter in Distributed Power Generation Systems (DPGS) applications. The goals of this paper are to implement a control technique for the grid side inverter...... including a LC filter, a compensation technique for low-order harmonics and to examine the grid current harmonic content with and without harmonic compensation. A comparative study in terms of current harmonic distortion between two different values of PR proportional gain running in steady state condition...
Harmonic current control for LCL-filtered VSCs connected to ultra-weak grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Yang, Dongsheng; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
This paper addresses the harmonic current control for LCL-filtered Voltage-Source Converters (VSCs) connected to ultra-weak (high-impedance) grids. It is shown that the harmonic current controllers tend to be unstable as the Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) of the system reduces. An active stabilizing...... control scheme is thus proposed by feeding back the filter capacitor voltage and the converter-side current. The method not only stabilizes the harmonic current control with a wide range of SCR values, but also mitigates harmonic distortions in the grid-side current of the VSC. The stabilizing mechanism...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Feng; Sun, Kai; Guan, Yajuan
2015-01-01
currents. Therefore, the reason of generation of distorted grid-feeding current of GF-VCI under the distorted grid voltage is investigated firstly in this paper. Then, a harmonic grid-feeding current suppression control strategy for GF-VCI is proposed. Two different filters are compared and analysed before...... voltage component at the point of common coupling. As a result, the difference of harmonic voltage between PCC and GF-VCI is reduced and the THDi of grid feeding-currents is decreased. Finally, the proposed control strategy is verified through simulations and experimental results....
Harmonic current prediction by impedance modeling of grid-tied inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pereira, Heverton A.; Freijedo, Francisco D.; Silva, M. M.
2017-01-01
and harmonic voltage profiles. Results reinforce that impedance models can represent with relatively accuracy the harmonic current emitted by the PV plants at the point of common coupling (PCC). Lastly, a stress test is performed to show how a variation in the harmonic voltage phase angle impacts the PV plant...... impedance models when used in harmonic integration studies. It is aimed to estimate the harmonic current contribution as a function of the background harmonic voltages components. Time domain simulations based on detailed and average models are compared with the impedance model developed in frequency domain....... In grids with harmonic voltages, impedance models can predict the current distortion for all active power injection scenarios. Furthermore, measurements in a 1.4 MW PV plant connected in a distributed grid are used to validate the simulation based on impedance models during different power injections...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Yu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Based on a brief review on current harmonics generation mechanism for grid-connected inverter under distorted grid voltage, the harmonic disturbances and uncertain items are immersed into the original state-space differential equation of grid-connected inverter. A new algorithm of global current harmonic rejection based on nonlinear backstepping control with multivariable internal model principle is proposed for grid-connected inverter with exogenous disturbances and uncertainties. A type of multivariable internal model for a class of nonlinear harmonic disturbances is constructed. Based on application of backstepping control law of the nominal system, a multivariable adaptive state feedback controller combined with multivariable internal model and adaptive control law is designed to guarantee the closed-loop system globally uniformly bounded, which is proved by a constructed Lyapunov function. The presented algorithm extends rejection of nonlinear single-input systems to multivariable globally defined normal form, the correctness and effectiveness of which are verified by the simulation results.
A current controller of grid-connected converter for harmonic damping in a distribution network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
2011-01-01
Harmonic resonance caused by the increased use of shunt-connected capacitors in LCL-filters and power factor correction devices may become a serious power quality challenge in electric distribution systems. A voltage-detection method based on current control is developed to damp harmonic resonances....... However, it is susceptible to the mismatch between harmonic conductance and characteristic impedance of distribution feeder. This paper proposes a current controller which allows discrete adjustment of harmonic conductance for both the characteristic harmonic and the non-characteristic harmonic voltages...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marques, Hugo S.; Anunciada, Victor; Borges, Beatriz V. [Power Electronics Group, Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Lisbon (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico - Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)
2010-01-15
The great majority of the existing hybrid active power filter solutions is normally focused in 3{phi} systems and, in general, concentrates its domain of application in specific loads with deterministic behavior. Because common use grids do not exhibit these characteristics, it is mandatory to develop solutions for more generic scenarios, encouraging the use of less classical hybrid solutions. In fact, due to the widely use of switch mode converters in a great variety of consumer electronics, the problematic of mains current harmonic mitigation is no longer an exclusive matter of 3{phi} systems. The contribution of this paper is to present a shunt hybrid active power filter topology, initially conceived to work in 1{phi} domestic grids, able to operate the inverter at a voltage rate that can be lower than 10% of the mains voltage magnitude, even under nonspecific working conditions. In addition, the results shown in this paper demonstrate that this topology can, without lack of generality, be suitable to medium voltage (1{phi} or 3{phi}) systems. A new control approach for the proposed topology is discussed in this paper. The control method exhibits an extremely simple architecture requiring single point current sensing only, with no need for any kind of reference. Its practical implementation can be fulfilled by using very few, common use, operational amplifiers. The principle of operation, design criteria, simulation predictions and experimental results are presented and discussed. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Wang, Xiongfei
2013-01-01
In order to utilize DG unit interfacing converters to actively compensate distribution system harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach. It seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function. As the proposed current...... controller has two well decoupled control branches to independently control fundamental and harmonic DG currents, phase-locked loops (PLL) and system harmonic component extractions can be avoided during system harmonic compensation. Moreover, a closed-loop power control scheme is also employed to derive...... the fundamental current reference. The proposed power control scheme effectively eliminates the impacts of steady-state fundamental current tracking errors in the DG units. Thus, an accurate power control is realized even when the harmonic compensation functions are activated. Experimental results from a single...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ashouri, Mani; Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da
This paper investigates the response of first carrier frequency harmonic (FCFH) current for designing a protection algorithm for multi-terminal Voltage source converter-based HVDC (VSC-MTDC) transmission grids. This transient harmonic current has been used before, to discriminate external AC faults...... various kinds of faults with different locations and resistances. This paper will also consider half-bridge MMC instead of two-level VSCs to test the sensitivity of the FCFH based algorithm for lower harmonic values. A modified meshed version of CIGRE DC model has been used in PSCAD and the signal...
Adaptive Harmonic Compensation in Residential Distribution Grid by Roof-Top PV Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil
2018-01-01
grid- connected roof-top PV inverters in residential distribution grid can be an opportunity to engage these systems in the power quality issues as custom power devices. By implementing a proper control for roof-top PV inverters, these systems may in addition to inject the fundamental current......, additionally act like a virtual harmonic resistance and dedicate their additional current capacity to compensate the harmonics of residential distribution grid. In this paper, each roof-top PV system is a grid harmonic supervisor, where it continually measures the PCC voltage harmonics by Sliding Discrete...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of grid impedance variation on harmonic resonant current controllers for gridconnected voltage source converters by means of impedance-based analysis. It reveals that the negative harmonic resistances tend to be derived from harmonic resonant controllers...... in the closed-loop output admittance of converter. Such negative resistances may interact with the grid impedance resulting in steady state error or unstable harmonic compensation. To deal with this problem, a design guideline for harmonic resonant controllers under a wide range of grid impedance is proposed...
Frequency Adaptability of Harmonics Controllers for Grid-Interfaced Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
sensitivity of the most popular harmonic controllers for grid-interfaced converters. The frequency adaptability of these harmonic controllers is evaluated in the presence of a variable grid frequency within a specified reasonable range, e.g., +-1% of the nominal grid frequency (50 Hz). Solutions...
Power quality issues current harmonics
Mikkili, Suresh
2015-01-01
Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
Current quality is one of the most important issues for operating three-phase grid-connected inverter in distributed generation systems. In practice, the grid current quality is degraded in case of non-ideal utility voltage. A new control strategy is proposed for the three-phase gridconnected...... inverter. Different from the traditional method, our proposal utilizes the unique abc-frame complex-coefficient filter and controller to achieve the balanced, sinusoidal grid current. The main feature of the proposed method is simple and easy to implement without any frame transformation. The theoretical...
Impact of grid impedance variations on harmonic emission of grid-connected inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
This paper addresses harmonic magnification due to resonance circuits resulting from interaction between uncertain grid impedance and converter. The source of harmonic may be either the grid or inverter. It is demonstrated that unknown and unpredictable grid impedance may result in variable...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
. In this paper, the main aim is to analyze the effects of the grid unbalanced voltage on the multi-unit three-phase ASDs with the Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)-fed front-end rectifiers, where the DC-link current is controlled utilizing an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique. In this respect, the main...
State-space-based harmonic stability analysis for paralleled grid-connected inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe
2016-01-01
This paper addresses a state-space-based harmonic stability analysis of paralleled grid-connected inverters system. A small signal model of individual inverter is developed, where LCL filter, the equivalent delay of control system, and current controller are modeled. Then, the overall small signal...... model of paralleled grid-connected inverters is built. Finally, the state space-based stability analysis approach is developed to explain the harmonic resonance phenomenon. The eigenvalue traces associated with time delay and coupled grid impedance are obtained, which accounts for how the unstable...... inverter produces the harmonic resonance and leads to the instability of whole paralleled system. The proposed approach reveals the contributions of the grid impedance as well as the coupled effect on other grid-connected inverters under different grid conditions. Simulation and experimental results...
Designing single phase Current-Programmed-Controlled rectifiers by harmonic currents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Blaabjerg, Frede
2002-01-01
The grid current harmonics of a Current-Programmed-Controlled (CPC) pfc rectifier strongly depends on the choice of switching frequency and switching inductance. This paper describes a new simple and vert fast method to calculate the grid current of a CPC controlled pfc converter. The method...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril
2017-01-01
Optimization of the islanded and grid-connected operation of microgrids is important to achieve a high degree of reliability. In this paper, the authors consider the effect of current harmonics in single phase microgrids during both modes of operation. A detailed analysis of the effect of the out......Optimization of the islanded and grid-connected operation of microgrids is important to achieve a high degree of reliability. In this paper, the authors consider the effect of current harmonics in single phase microgrids during both modes of operation. A detailed analysis of the effect...... of the output impedance of the considered primary control loops on the harmonic output of the considered voltage source inverters is initially carried out. A virtual admittance loop is proposed to attenuate the current harmonic output in grid-connected operation that is generated due to the grid voltage...... distortion present at the point of common coupling (PCC) and due to local non-linear loads. This paper also considers the harmonic current sharing and resulting voltage harmonics at the PCC during islanded operation of the microgrid. A capacitive virtual impedance loop was implemented to improve the harmonic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Mattavelli, Paolo; Yao, WenLi
2018-01-01
LCL filters feature low inductance; thus, the injected grid current from an LCL-filtered Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) can be easily distorted by grid voltage harmonics. This problem is especially tough for the control system with Inverter-side Current Feedback (ICF), since the grid current...... harmonics can freely flow into the filter capacitor. In this case, because of the loss of harmonic information, traditional harmonic controllers fail to mitigate the grid current distortion. Although this problem may be avoided using the grid voltage feedforward scheme, the required differentiators may...
Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth
2015-01-01
-model, are introduced to analyze these problems. However, it is found that Linear Time Invariant (LTI) base model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomenon because of time varying system operation trajectories, varying output impedance seen by grid connected systems and neglected switching component......An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average...... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Mattavelli, Paolo; Yao, WenLi
2017-01-01
Due to the low inductance of an LCL-filter, the grid current generated by an LCL-filtered Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is sensitive to low-order grid-voltage harmonics. This issue is especially tough for the control system with Inverter Current Feedback (ICF), because the grid-current harmonics...... can freely flow into the filter capacitor without control. To cope with this issue, this paper develops an approach for the ICF control system to suppress the grid-current harmonics without adding extra sensors. The proposed method applies harmonic controllers and feedforward scheme simultaneously...
A Harmonic Impedance Measurement System for Reduction of Harmonics in the Electricity Grid
Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected
A harmonic impedance measurement system for reduction of harmonics in the electricity grid
Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.
2009-01-01
This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Mattavelli, Paolo; Yao, WenLi
2018-01-01
harmonics can freely flow into the filter capacitor. In this case, because of the loss of harmonic information, traditional harmonic controllers fail to mitigate the grid current distortion. Although this problem may be avoided using the grid voltage feedforward scheme, the required differentiators may...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
-connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....
On-line grid impedance estimation based on harmonic injection for grid-connected PV inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede
2007-01-01
two different signal processing algorithms. The DFT technique is used for the single harmonic injection and the statistic technique is used for the double harmonic injection. The grid impedance estimation is used for compliance with the anti-islanding requirements of the German standard (VDE0126...
Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in grid-connected microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Savaghebi, Mehdi; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Jalilian, Alireza
2013-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for selective compensation of main voltage harmonics in a grid-connected microgrid. The aim of compensation is to provide a high voltage quality at the point of common coupling (PCC). PCC voltage quality is of great importance due to sensitive loads tha...... to an acceptable level....
Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid-connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
research about the harmonic interaction. However, it is found that the Linear Time Invariant (LTI) based model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomena because of the time-varying properties of the power electronic based systems. This paper investigates grid-connected converter by using......An increasing number of power electronic based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate not only characteristic harmonics but also unexpected harmonics. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which are derived from the conventional average model, are introduced to perform...
Beam test of a grid-less multi-harmonic buncher
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ostroumov, P.N.; Aseev, V.N.; Barcikowski, A.; Clifft, B.; Pardo, R.; Sharamentov, S.I.; Sengupta, M.
2008-01-01
The Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) is the first superconducting heavy-ion linac in the world. Currently ATLAS is being upgraded with the Californium Rare Ion Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU). The latter is a funded project to expand the range of shortlived, neutron-rich rare isotope beams available for nuclear physics research at ATLAS. To avoid beam losses associated with the existing gridded multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), we have developed and built a grid-less four-harmonic buncher with fundamental frequency of 12.125 MHz. In this paper, we report the results of the MHB commissioning and ATLAS beam performance with the new buncher.
Selective Compensation of Voltage Harmonics in a Grid-Connected Microgrid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Savaghebi, M.; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, A.
2011-01-01
In this paper, a method for selective voltage harmonic compensation in a grid-connected microgrid is presented. Harmonic compensation is done through proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. In order to achieve proper sharing of compensation effort among the DGs, a power...... named “Harmonic Distortion Power (HDP)” is defined. In the proposed method, active and reactive power control loops are considered to control the powers injected by the DGs. Also, a virtual impedance loop and voltage and current proportional-resonant controllers are included. Simulation results show...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin
2016-01-01
to resist the effect of the BHV, a feedforward voltage compensator and a proportional resonant regulator with harmonic compensation are often adopted. However, they still have their own limitations, particularly when there are higher order BHVs at the point of common coupling and when the equivalent grid......A high-order (LCL or LLCL) power filter with a small grid-side inductor is becoming more preferred for a grid-tied inverter due to less total inductance and reduced costs. In a microgrid, the background harmonic voltage (BHV) may distort the injected currents of the grid-tied inverters. In order...
Current Control of Grid Converters Connected with Series AC Capacitor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
The series ac capacitor has recently been used with the transformerless grid-connected converters in the distribution power grids. The capacitive characteristic of the resulting series LC filter restricts the use of conventional synchronous integral or stationary resonant current controllers. Thus...... this paper proposes a fourth-order resonant controller in the stationary frame, which guarantees a zero steady-state current tracking error for the grid converters with series LC filter. This method is then implemented in a three-phase experimental system for verification, where the current harmonics below...... the LC filter resonance frequency are effectively eliminated. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed current control scheme....
Song, S. Y.; Liu, Q. H.; Zhao, Y. N.; Liu, S. Y.
2016-08-01
With the rapid development of wind power generation, the related research of wind power control and integration issues has attracted much attention, and the focus of the research are shifting away from the ideal power grid environment to the actual power grid environment. As the main stream wind turbine generator, a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is connected to the power grid directly by its stator, so it is particularly sensitive to the power grid. This paper studies the improvement of DFIG control technology in the power grid harmonic environment. Based on the DFIG dynamic model considering the power grid harmonic environment, this paper introduces the shortcomings of the common control strategy of DFIG, and puts forward the enhanced method. The decoupling control of the system is realized by compensating the coupling between the rotor harmonic voltage and harmonic current, improving the control performance. In addition, the simulation experiments on PSCAD/EMTDC are carried out to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the improved scheme.
Stator Current Harmonic Control with Resonant Controller for Doubly Fed Induction Generator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Changjin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Wenjie
2012-01-01
rotor current control loop for harmonic suppression. The overall control scheme is implemented in dq frame. Based on a mathematical model of the DFIG control system, the effects on system stability using the resonant controller, an analysis of the steady-state error, and the dynamic performance......, are discussed in this paper. Taking these effects into account, the parameters of the resonant controller can be designed and effectively damp the influence from the grid voltage harmonics. As a result, the impacts of the negative sequence fifth- and positive sequence seventh-order voltage harmonics...... harmonics, especially low-order harmonics. This paper proposes a stator current harmonic suppression method using a sixth-order resonant controller to eliminate negative sequence fifth- and positive sequence seventh-order current harmonics. A stator current harmonic control loop is added to the conventional...
Modelling and Analysis of DFIG Wind Turbine Harmonics Generated in Grids
A.Chilambuchelvan; B.BabyPriya,
2010-01-01
In this paper an analytic technique for modelling harmonics is proposed for a DFIG wind turbine connected to the grid. An algorithm based on Hilbert transform for the analysis of harmonics in power systems isdeveloped. The simulation results prove the effectiveness of the Hilbert Transform (HT) for power harmonic analysis in DFIG wind turbine connected to a grid.
A Framework to Analyze the Stochastic Harmonics and Resonance of Wind Energy Grid Interconnection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youngho Cho
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a modeling and analysis methodology for investigating the stochastic harmonics and resonance concerns of wind power plants (WPPs. Wideband harmonics from modern wind turbines (WTs are observed to be stochastic, associated with real power production, and they may adversely interact with the grid impedance and cause unexpected harmonic resonance, if not comprehensively addressed in the planning and commissioning of the WPPs. These issues should become more critical as wind penetration levels increase. We thus propose a planning study framework comprising the following functional steps: First, the best fitted probability density functions (PDFs of the harmonic components of interest in the frequency domain are determined. In operations planning, maximum likelihood estimations (MLEs followed by a chi-square test are used once field measurements or manufacturers’ data are available. Second, harmonic currents from the WPP are represented by randomly-generating harmonic components based on their PDFs (frequency spectrum and then synthesized for time domain simulations via inverse Fourier transform. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive assessment by including the impacts of feeder configurations, harmonic filters and the variability of parameters. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study approach for a 100-MW offshore WPP consisting of 20 units of 5-MW full converter turbines, a realistic benchmark system adapted from a WPP under development in Korea and discuss lessons learned through this research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioannis Bouloumpasis
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Design of PR current control with selective harmonic compensators using Matlab
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Zammit
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure to design a Proportional Resonant (PR current controller with additional PR selective harmonic compensators for Grid Connected Photovoltaic (PV Inverters. The design of the PR current control and the harmonic compensators will be carried out using Matlab. Testing was carried out on a 3 kW Grid-Connected PV Inverter which was designed and constructed for this research. Both simulation and experimental results will be presented. Keywords: Inverters, Proportional-resonant controllers, Harmonic compensation, Photovoltaic, Matlab, SISO design tool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth
2015-01-01
The increasing number of renewable energy sources at the distribution grid is becoming a major issue for utility companies, since the grid connected converters are operating at different operating points due to the probabilistic characteristics of renewable energy. Besides, typically, the harmonics...... proposes a new model of a single phase grid connected renewable energy source using the Harmonic State Space modeling approach, which is able to identify such problems and the model can be extended to be applied in the multiple connected converter analysis. The modeling results show the different harmonic...... and impedance from other renewable energy sources are not taken carefully into account in the installation and design. However, this may bring an unknown harmonic instability into the multiple power sourced system and also make the analysis difficult due to the complexity of the grid network. This paper...
Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid
Smirnova, O.
2012-12-01
Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place
Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, O
2012-01-01
Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place
Variable speed DFIG wind energy system for power generation and harmonic current mitigation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, A.; Saadate, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Nancy Universite - Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Poure, P. [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy, Nancy Universite - Universite Henri Poincare Nancy 1, BP239, 54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy Cedex (France); Machmoum, M. [IREENA, 37 Boulevard de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France)
2009-06-15
This paper presents a novel approach for simultaneous power generation and harmonic current mitigation using variable speed WECS with DFIG. A new control strategy is proposed to upgrade the DFIG control to achieve simultaneously a green active and reactive power source with active filtering capability. To ensure high filtering performance, we studied an improved harmonic isolator in the time-domain, based on a new high selectivity filter developed in our laboratory. We examined two solutions for harmonic current mitigation: first, by compensating the whole harmonic component of the grid currents or second, by selective isolation of the predominant harmonic currents to ensure active filtering of the 5th and 7th harmonics. Simulation results for a 3 MW WECS with DFIG confirm the effectiveness and the performance of the two proposed approaches. (author)
Modified Perfect Harmonics Cancellation Control of a Grid Interfaced SPV Power Generation
Singh, B.; Shahani, D. T.; Verma, A. K.
2015-03-01
This paper deals with a grid interfaced solar photo voltaic (SPV) power generating system with modified perfect harmonic cancellation (MPHC) control for power quality improvement in terms of mitigation of the current harmonics, power factor correction, control of point of common coupling (PCC) voltage with reactive power compensation and load balancing in a three phase distribution system. The proposed grid interfaced SPV system consists of a SPV array, a dc-dc boost converter and a voltage source converter (VSC) used for the compensation of other connected linear and nonlinear loads at PCC. The reference grid currents are estimated using MPHC method and control signals are derived by using pulse width modulation (PWM) current controller of VSC. The SPV power is fed to the common dc bus of VSC and dc-dc boost converter using maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The dc link voltage of VSC is regulated by using dc voltage proportional integral (PI) controller. The analysis of the proposed SPV power generating system is carried out under dc/ac short circuit and severe SPV-SX and SPV-TX intrusion.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Micallef, A.; Apap, M.; Spitero-Stanies, C.
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on the islanded operation of microgrids. In this mode of operation, the microsources are required to cooperate autonomously to regulate the local grid voltage and frequency. Droop control is typically used to achieve this autonomous voltage and frequency regulation. Inverters...... having LCL output filters would cause voltage distortion to be present at the PCC of the local load when non-linear current is supplied to the load due to the voltage drop across the grid side inductor. Techniques to reduce the output voltage distortion typically consist of installing either passive...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kwon, JunBum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth
2014-01-01
This paper addresses the harmonic compensation error problem existing with parallel connected inverter in the same grid interface conditions by means of impedance-based analysis and modeling. Unlike the single grid connected inverter, it is found that multiple parallel connected inverters and grid...... impedance can make influence to each other if they each have a harmonic compensation function. The analysis method proposed in this paper is based on the relationship between the overall output impedance and input impedance of parallel connected inverter, where controller gain design method, which can...
Model Predictive Current Control for High-Power Grid-Connected Converters with Output LCL Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Delpino, Hernan Anres Miranda; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro
2009-01-01
A model predictive control strategy for a highpower, grid connected 3-level neutral clamped point converter is presented. Power losses constraints set a limit on commutation losses so reduced switching frequency is required, thus producing low frequency current harmonics. To reduce these harmonics...
Flexible Compensation of Voltage and Current Unbalance and Harmonics in Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Jalilian, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2017-01-01
In recent years, the harmonics and unbalance problem endanger the voltage and current quality of power systems due to increasing usage of nonlinear and unbalance loads. Using DG interfacing inverters is proposed for voltage or current compensation. In this paper, a flexible control method...... is proposed to compensate voltage and current unbalance and harmonics using the Distributed Generation (DG) interfacing inverters. This method is applicable to both grid-connected and islanded microgrids. In the proposed method, not only the proper control of active and reactive powers can be achieved......) frame. An extensive simulation study has been performed and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. The results show that depending on the compensation mode, the harmonics and unbalance compensation of DGs’ output current, MG’s injected current to the grid as well...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fatu, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, I.
2014-01-01
This paper describes a variable-speed motion-sensorless control system for permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected to grid via back-to-back inverters for wind energy generation. The grid-side inverter control system employs proportional-integral (PI) current controllers with cross...... and automatic seamless transfer method from grid connected to stand alone and vice versa. In stand-alone mode, a voltage control scheme with selective harmonic compensation is employed. The PMSG motion-sensorless control system uses an active power controller and a PLL-based observer to estimate the rotor...... and voltage harmonics compensation. While some of the aforementioned issues have been treated rather individually in previous conference publications of the authors, the present paper integrates them into a comprehensive control system of PMSG....
Harmonic currents circulation in electrical networks simulation and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Em-Mamlouk, W.M. [MEP, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sharkawy, M.A. [Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Electrical Power and Machines; Mostafa, H.E. [Jazan Univ., Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Electrical Dept.
2009-07-01
A detailed harmonic flow analysis for a 13-bus balanced industrial distribution system was presented. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of harmonic sources in various branches of the system on voltage and current waveforms before disruptions to the utility supply system occurred. The current harmonic contents of an adjustable speed drive (ASD) were studied under various loading conditions. The test system was simulated using a standard study test system. Harmonic effects from multiple sources were investigated, and voltage distortion on the different buses was monitored. The study demonstrated that while the harmonic loads circulated harmonic currents in all system branches, no harmonic source was directly connected to the system buses. Many of the investigated cases exceeded allowable voltage total harmonic distortion and or current total harmonic distortion standards set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). It was concluded that active harmonic filters should be used to prevent the effects of harmonic current circulation at different buses on neighbouring loads within a system. 8 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs.
Harmonic Mitigation Using a Polarized Ramp-time Current-Controlled Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lawrence J. Borle
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of a shunt active power filter for a three-phase four-wire system to compensate for power quality problems generated by mixed non-linear loads, which are a combination of harmonic, reactive and unbalanced components. The filter is a three-phase current-controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI with a filter inductor at the AC output and a DC-bus capacitor. The CC-VSI is operated to directly control the grid current to be sinusoidal and in phase with the grid voltage without sensing the load currents. The switching is controlled using polarized ramp-time current control, which is based on the concept of zero average current error (ZACE with a fixed switching frequency. The laboratory experiment results indicate that the filter is able to mitigate predominantly the harmonics, as well as the reactive power, so that the grid currents are sinusoidal, in phase with the grid voltages and symmetrical although the grid voltage contains harmonics.
Research on Harmonic Characteristic of Electronic Current Transformer Based on the Rogowski Coil
Shen, Diqiu; Hu, Bei; Wang, Xufeng; Zhu, Mingdong; Wang, Liang; Lu, Wenxing
2017-05-01
The nonlinear load present in the power system will cause the distortion of AC sine wave and generate the harmonic, which havea severe impact on the accuracy of energy metering and reliability of relay protection. Tosatisfy the requirements of energy metering and relay protection for the new generation of intelligent substation, based on the working principle of Rogowski coil current transformer, mathematical model and transfer characteristics of Rogowski coil sensors were studied in this paper, and frequency response characteristics of Rogowski coil current transformer system were analysed. Finally, the frequency response characteristics of the Rogowski coil current transformer at 2 to 13 harmonics was simulated and experimented. Simulation and experiments show that Rogowski coil current transformer couldmeet 0.2 accuracy requirements of harmonic power measurement of power system, and measure the harmonic components of the grid reliably.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
It is mandatory for grid-connected power converters to synchronize the feed-in currents with the grid. Moreover, the power converters should produce feed-in currents with low total harmonic distortions according to the demands, by employing advanced current controllers, e.g., Proportional Resonant...... deviations. Experiments on a single-phase grid-connected inverter system are presented, which have verified the proposals and also the effectiveness of the frequency adaptive current controllers....... (PR) and Repetitive Controllers (RC). The synchronization is actually to detect the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. As a consequence, harmonics and deviations...
Hysteresis current control technique of VSI for compensation of grid-connected unbalanced loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pouresmaeil, Edris; Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel
2014-01-01
interconnection issues that usually arise as DG units connect to the electric grid. The proposed strategy, implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment in different operating scenarios, provides compensation for active, reactive, unbalanced, and harmonic current components of grid-connected nonlinear unbalanced...... resources as they connect to the exiting power grid could provoke many power quality problems on the grid side. For this reason, due considerations must be given to power generation and safe running before DG units is actually integrated into the power grid. The main aim of this paper is to address the grid...... loads. The simulation results obtained in this study demonstrate the level of accuracy of the proposed technique, which ensure a balance in the overall grid phase currents, injection of maximum available power from DG resources to the grid, improvement of the utility grid power factor, and a reduction...
Modification of double vector control algorithm to filter out grid harmonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Awad, Hilmy; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
terminals in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments......, which have been carried out on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....
Frequency Adaptive Selective Harmonic Control for Grid-Connected Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Wang, Huai
2015-01-01
SHC scheme consists of multiple parallel recursive (nk±m)-order (k = 0, 1, 2, . . ., and m ≤ n/2) harmonic control modules with independent control gains, which can be optimally weighted in accordance with the harmonic distribution. The hybrid SHC thus offers an optimal trade-off among cost...
Estimation and reduction of harmonic currents from power converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asiminoaei, Lucian
-based method depends very much on the amount and accuracy of collected data in the development stage. The outcome of this investigation is a Harmonic Calculation Software compiled into a Graphical User Interface PC-software application, which can be applied for fast estimations of the harmonic currents...... control of the proposed topologies are given together with laboratory tests. One harmonic current mitigation solution found is to connect (two) smaller power APF's in parallel, sharing the same ac- and dc-bus. It is proven that parallel APF's may have lower passive components although other issues arises......, like circulation currents, which is removed here by common mode coils. Another harmonic solution is to use cascade connection of (two) independent APF's that cooperatively share the task of the harmonic mitigation. Two cooperative control methods are proposed called load-sharing and harmonic-sharing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Borup, Uffe
2004-01-01
disturbance rejection capability leads to the need of grid feed-forward compensation. However the imperfect compensation action of the feed-forward control results in high harmonic distortion of the current and consequently non-compliance with international standards. In this paper a new control strategy...... aimed to mitigate these problems is proposed. Stationary-frame generalized integrators are used to control the fundamental current and to compensate the grid harmonics providing disturbance rejection capability without the need of feed-forward grid compensation. Moreover the use of a grid LCL......The PI current control of a single-phase inverter has well known drawbacks: steady-state magnitude and phase-error and limited disturbance rejection capability. When the current controlled inverter is connected to the grid, the phase error results in a power factor decrement and the limited...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Yang, Yongheng
2016-01-01
Synchronization is a crucial aspect in grid-tied systems, including single-phase photovoltaic inverters, and it can affect the overall performance of the system. Among prior-art synchronization schemes, the Multi Harmonic Decoupling Cell Phase-Locked Loop (MHDC-PLL) presents a fast response under...
Flexible Compensation of Voltage and Current Unbalance and Harmonics in Microgrids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyyed Yousef Mousazadeh Mousavi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the harmonics and unbalance problems endanger the voltage and current quality of power systems, due to increasing usage of nonlinear and unbalanced loads. Use of Distributed Generation (DG-interfacing inverters is proposed for voltage or current compensation. In this paper, a flexible control method is proposed to compensate voltage and current unbalance and harmonics using the distributed generation (DG-interfacing inverters. This method is applicable to both grid-connected and islanded Microgrids (MGs. In the proposed method, not only the proper control of active and reactive powers can be achieved, but also there is flexibility in compensating the voltage or current quality problems at DG terminals or Points of Common Coupling (PCCs. This control strategy consists of active and reactive power controllers and a voltage/current quality-improvement block. The controller is designed in a stationary (αβ frame. An extensive simulation study has been performed and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Depending on the compensation modes, the harmonics and unbalance compensation of DG output current, MG-injected current to the grid, as well as PCC and DG voltages, can be achieved in grid-connected operation of MG while in the islanded operation, and the PCC and DG voltages compensation can be obtained through the proposed control scheme.
H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...... distortions considered include asymmetric voltage dips and grid background harmonics. An uncertain DFIG model is developed with uncertain factors originating from distorted stator voltage, and changed generator parameters due to the flux saturation effect, the skin effect, etc. Weighting functions...... are designed to efficiently track the unbalanced current components and the 5th and 7th background harmonics. The robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) of the proposed controller are verified by the structured singular value µ. The performance of the H∞ robust current controller was demonstrated...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz
2016-01-01
at the rectification stage to synthesize sinusoidal input currents. The input voltage sensing is avoided in order to minimize the number of required sensors, and the grid synchronization also has been implemented based on a common Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) using the DC-link capacitor voltage ripple. Experimental results......The majority of the industrial motor drive systems are equipped with the conventional line-commutated front-end rectifiers, and being one of the main sources of harmonics in the power line. While a parallel combination of these drive units elevates current quality issues, a proper arrangement...... of them can lead to the cancellation of specific harmonics. This paper proposes a new cost-effective harmonic mitigation solution for multi-drive systems using a predictive pulse pattern current modulation control strategy. The proposed technique applies suitable interaction among parallel drive units...
Smart grid overview and current industry activities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dignard-Bailey, L. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Integration Div.
2009-07-01
Electricity demand continues to increase among growing concerns about security, power quality, and grid reliability. This presentation discussed reviewed programs and strategies developed to merge grid applications with existing utility infrastructure in Canada. Smart grid applications include real-time simulation and contingency analysis; distributed generation and alternative energy sources; self-healing wide-area protection and islanding; asset management and on-line equipment monitoring; demand response and dynamic pricing; and participation in energy markets. Distributed automation and advanced metering programs are currently underway in various provinces throughout Canada, and many utilities are exploring methods of improving the integration of renewable energy sources. Canadian utilities are now involved in large data transfers to ensure that rural networks receive spectrum with good propagation. WiFi meshed installations have also been installed throughout the country, and various advanced distribution automation technologies are being implemented. A smart grid working group has been formed to identify technology gaps, and programs have been developed to educate industry leaders on smart grid drivers, technologies, and opportunities. Various pilot and research programs were outlined, legislation related to utility regulation was discussed. tabs., figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Lin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Harmonic resonance may cause abnormal operation and even damage of power facilities, further threatening normal and safe operation of power systems. For renewable energy generations, controlled loads and parallel reactive power compensating equipment, their operating statuses can vary frequently. Therefore, the parameters of equivalent fundamental and harmonic admittance/impedance of these components exist in uncertainty, which will change the elements and eigenvalues of harmonic network admittance matrix. Consequently, harmonic resonance in power grid is becoming increasingly more complex. Hence, intense research about prevention and suppression of harmonic resonance, particularly the parameter feasible domain (PFD which can keep away from harmonic resonance, are needed. For rapid online evaluation of PFD, a novel method without time-consuming pointwise precise eigenvalue computations is proposed. By analyzing the singularity of harmonic network admittance matrix, the explicit sufficient condition that the matrix elements should meet to prevent harmonic resonance is derived by the extended Gersgorin theorem. Further, via the non-uniqueness of similar transformation matrix (STM, a strategy to determine the appropriate STM is proposed to minimize the conservation of the obtained PFD. Eventually, the availability and advantages in computation efficiency and conservation of the method, are demonstrated through four different scale benchmarks.
Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2006-10-15
Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gonzalo Abad
2018-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical model, oriented to study harmonic mitigation aspects in AC grids. As it is well known, the presence of non-desired harmonics in AC grids can be palliated in several manners. However, in this paper, a power electronic-based active impedance at selective frequencies (ACISEF is used, due to its already proven flexibility and adaptability to the changing characteristics of AC grids. Hence, the proposed analytical model approach is specially conceived to globally consider both the model of the AC grid itself with its electric equivalent impedances, together with the power electronic-based ACISEF, including its control loops. In addition, the proposed analytical model presents practical and useful properties, as it is simple to understand and simple to use, it has low computational cost and simple adaptability to different scenarios of AC grids, and it provides an accurate enough representation of the reality. The benefits of using the proposed analytical model are shown in this paper through some examples of its usefulness, including an analysis of stability and the identification of sources of instability for a robust design, an analysis of effectiveness in harmonic mitigation, an analysis to assist in the choice of the most suitable active impedance under a given state of the AC grid, an analysis of the interaction between different compensators, and so on. To conclude, experimental validation of a 2.15 kA ACISEF in a real 33 kV AC grid is provided, in which real users (household and industry loads and crucial elements such as wind parks and HVDC systems are near inter-connected.
Evaluation of Harmonic Content from a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection System for Wind Power
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Apelfröjd
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Simulations done in MATLAB/Simulink together with experiments conducted at the Ångströms laboratory are used to evaluate and discuss the total harmonic distortion (THD and total demand distortion (TDD of a tap transformer based grid connection system. The grid connection topology can be used with different turbine and generator topologies and is here applied on a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG and its operational scheme. The full variable-speed wind conversion system consists of a diode rectifier, DC link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. The full variable-speed operation is enabled by the use of the different step-up ratios of the tap transformer. In the laboratory study, a full experimental setup of the system was used, a clone of the on-site PMSG driven by a motor was used, and the grid was replaced with a resistive load. With a resistive load, grid harmonics and possible unbalances are removed. The results show a TDD and THD below 5% for the full operating range and harmonic values within the limits set up by IEEE-519. Furthermore, a change in tap, going to a lower step-up ratio, results in a reduction in both THD and TDD for the same output power.
Stator Current Harmonic Reduction in a Novel Half Quasi-Z-Source Wind Power Generation System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shoudao Huang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The generator stator current gets distorted with unacceptable levels of total harmonic distortion (THD because impedance-source wind power generation systems use three-phase diode rectifiers. The stator current harmonics will cause increasing losses and torque ripple, which reduce the efficiency and stability of the system. This paper proposes a novel half quasi-Z-source inverter (H-qZSI for grid-connected wind power generation systems, which can reduce the generator stator current harmonics a great deal. When H-qZSI operates in the shoot-through zero state, the derivative of the generator stator current is only determined by the instantaneous value of the generator stator voltage, so the nonlinear relationship between generator stator current and stator voltage is improved compared with the traditional impedance-source inverter. Theoretically, it is indicated that the stator current harmonics can be reduced effectively by means of the proposed H-qZSI. Finally, simulation and experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis.
Harmonic current interaction at a low voltage customer's installations
Bhattacharyya, S.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Casteren, van J.
2009-01-01
The increased uses of power electronics and switching devices in the electricity network have changed the operational environment of the power system. These devices have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics and produce harmonic currents, and consequently distort the voltage waveform. A low
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz
2016-01-01
of a new DC link modulation scheme with a phase-shifted current control enabled by the SCR. The DC-link current modulation scheme is implemented by adding and subtracting specific modulation levels, which makes the total currents drawn from the grid “multi-level”, resulting in an improved current quality......This letter proposes a harmonic mitigation strategy to cancel out current harmonics induced by the front-end rectifiers in multi-drive systems, which consist of diode rectifiers, Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR), and boost converters in the DC-link. The proposed strategy is a combination...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz
2017-01-01
In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions....... It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method...... is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenzhou Lu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the general properties of IMP-based controller and presents an internal-model-principle-based (IMP-based specific harmonics repetitive control (SHRC scheme. The proposed SHRC is effective for specific nk±m order harmonics, with n>m≥0 and k=0,1,2,…. Using the properties of exponential function, SHRC can also be rewritten into the format of multiple resonant controllers in parallel, where the control gain of SHRC is n/2 multiple of that of conventional RC (CRC. Therefore, including SHRC in a stable closed-loop feedback control system, asymptotic disturbance eliminating, or reference tracking for any periodic signal only including these specific harmonic components at n/2 times faster error convergence rate compared with CRC can be achieved. Application examples of SHRC controlled three-phase/single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed SHRC scheme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nian-Cheng Zhou
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Unbalanced voltage will inevitably cause power and DC voltage fluctuations in a three-phase PV system. The deterioration of power quality will do great harm to the PV panels and the loads, so it is necessary to suppress the power fluctuations. This paper further explores the coefficients control strategy of PV converters under unbalanced voltage conditions, aiming to suppress power fluctuations by controlling the injection of some specific orders of current harmonics into the grid. In order to achieve this, the current reference of the PV inverter has been changed by bringing in two control coefficients, and the expression of each order of the current harmonics has been deduced. Based on the standards of PV systems, the regions from which the coefficients can be selected are determined. Then, by tuning these coefficients in the feasible regions, the output parameters (power fluctuation, current THD and odd harmonics can be controlled precisely. The model of this method is built and simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC, and as a result, it is shown that the power fluctuations can be restricted according to different power quality requirements.
Harmonic voltage excess problem test and analysis in UHV and EHV grid particular operation mode
Lv, Zhenhua; Shi, Mingming; Fei, Juntao
2018-02-01
The test and analysis of the power quality of some 1000kV UHV transmission lines and 500kV EHV transmission lines is carried out. It is found that there is harmonic voltage excess problems when the power supply of the UHV and EHV voltage line is single-ended or single-loop, the problem basically disappeared after the operation mode change, different operating conditions, the harmonic current has not been greatly affected, indicating that the harmonic voltage changes mainly caused by the system harmonic impedance. With the analysis of MATLAB Simulink system model, it can be seen that there are specific harmonic voltage excess in the system under the specific operating mode, which results in serious distortion of the specific harmonic voltage. Since such phenomena are found in 500kV and 1000kV systems, it is suggested that the test evaluation work should be done under the typical mode of operation in 500kV, 1000kV Planning and construction process to prevent the occurrence of serious distortion and the regional harmonic current monitoring and suppression work should be done.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Changjin; Xu, Dehong; Zhu, Nan
2013-01-01
Unbalanced grid voltage causes a large second-order harmonic current in the dc-link capacitors as well as dc-voltage fluctuation, which potentially will degrade the lifespan and reliability of the capacitors in voltage source converters. This paper proposes a novel dc-capacitor current control...... method for a grid-side converter (GSC) to eliminate the negative impact of unbalanced grid voltage on the dc-capacitors. In this method, a dc-capacitor current control loop, where a negative-sequence resonant controller is used to increase the loop gain, is added to the conventional GSC current control...... loop. The rejection capability to the unbalanced grid voltage and the stability of the proposed control system are discussed. The second-order harmonic current in the dc capacitor as well as dc-voltage fluctuation is very well eliminated. Hence, the dc capacitors will be more reliable under unbalanced...
Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)
2016-12-31
This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.
Cheng, Yuhua; Chen, Kai; Bai, Libing; Yang, Jing
2014-02-01
Precise control of the grid-connected current is a challenge in photovoltaic inverter research. Traditional Proportional-Integral (PI) control technology cannot eliminate steady-state error when tracking the sinusoidal signal from the grid, which results in a very high total harmonic distortion in the grid-connected current. A novel PI controller has been developed in this paper, in which the sinusoidal wave is discretized into an N-step input signal that is decided by the control frequency to eliminate the steady state error of the system. The effect of periodical error caused by the dead zone of the power switch and conduction voltage drop can be avoided; the current tracking accuracy and current harmonic content can also be improved. Based on the proposed PI controller, a 700 W photovoltaic grid-connected inverter is developed and validated. The improvement has been demonstrated through experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiske, David R
2006-01-01
Computing spherical harmonic decompositions is a ubiquitous technique that arises in a wide variety of disciplines and a large number of scientific codes. Because spherical harmonics are defined by integrals over spheres, however, one must perform some sort of interpolation in order to compute them when data are stored on a cubic lattice. Misner (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 S243) presented a novel algorithm for computing the spherical harmonic components of data represented on a cubic grid, which has been found in real applications to be both efficient and robust to the presence of mesh refinement boundaries. At the same time, however, practical applications of the algorithm require knowledge of how the truncation errors of the algorithm depend on the various parameters in the algorithm. Based on analytic arguments and experience using the algorithm in real numerical simulations, I explore these dependences and provide a rule of thumb for choosing the parameters based on the truncation errors of the underlying data. I also demonstrate that symmetries in the spherical harmonics themselves allow for an even more efficient implementation of the algorithm than was suggested by Misner in his original paper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meenakshi Jayaraman
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Recently, multilevel inverters are more researched due to the advantages they offer over conventional voltage source inverters in grid connected applications. Passive filters are connected at the output of these inverters to produce sinusoidal waveforms with reduced harmonics and to satisfy grid interconnection standard requirements. This work proposes a new passive filter topology for a pulse width modulated five-level cascaded inverter interfaced grid connected system. The proposed passive filter inserts an additional resistance-capacitance branch in parallel to the filter capacitor of the traditional inductive–capacitive–inductive filter in addition to a resistance in series with it to reduce damping power loss. It can attenuate the switching frequency harmonic current components much better than the traditional filter while maintaining the same overall inductance, reduced capacitance and resistance values. The basic parameter design procedure and an approach to discover the parameters of the proposed filter is introduced. Further, a novel methodology using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is recommended to guarantee minimum damping loss while ensuring reduced peak during resonance. In addition, PSO algorithm is newly employed in this work to maximize harmonic attenuation in and around the switching frequency on the premise of allowable values of filter inductance and capacitance. A comparative discussion considering traditional passive filters and the proposed filter is presented and evaluated through experiments conducted on a 110 V, 1 kW five-level grid connected inverter. The modulation algorithm for the multilevel inverter is implemented using a SPARTAN 6-XC6SLX25 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA processor. The analysis shows that the proposed filter not only provides decreased damping power loss but also is capable of providing considerable harmonic ripple reduction in the high frequency band, improved output waveforms and lesser
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Yang; Li, Zipeng; Yang, Ping
2017-01-01
The LCL grid-connected inverter has the ability to attenuate the high-frequency current harmonics. However, the inherent resonance of the LCL filter affects the system stability significantly. To damp the resonance effect, the dual-loop current control can be used to stabilize the system. The grid...... Control Strategy for LCL-Type Grid-Connected Inverters. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313734269_Analysis_and_Design_of_Improved_Weighted_Average_Current_Control_Strategy_for_LCL-Type_Grid-Connected_Inverters [accessed Apr 20, 2017]....... current plus capacitor current feedback system is widely used for its better transient response and high robustness against the grid impedance variations. While the weighted average current (WAC) feedback scheme is capable to provide a wider bandwidth at higher frequencies but show poor stability...
A Voltage Feedback Based Harmonic Compensation Strategy for Current-Controlled Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Xie, Chuan
2018-01-01
Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in future power grids. With the increasing demand in advanced control functions, power electronic converter interfaced distributed generators (DGs) are expected to perform harmonic compensation when necessary. It has been demonstrated in a...
A unified grid current control for grid-interactive DG inverters in microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a unified grid current control for grid-interactive distributed generation inverters. In the approach, the grid-side current, instead of inverter-side current, is controlled as an inner loop, while the filter capacitor voltage is indirectly regulated through a virtual admittan...... locus analyses in the discrete z-domain are performed for elaborating the controller design. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the performances of the proposed approach.......This paper proposes a unified grid current control for grid-interactive distributed generation inverters. In the approach, the grid-side current, instead of inverter-side current, is controlled as an inner loop, while the filter capacitor voltage is indirectly regulated through a virtual admittance...... in the outer loop. It, therefore, provides several superior features over traditional control schemes: 1) high-quality grid current in the grid-connected mode, 2) inherent derivative-less virtual output impedance control, and 3) the unified active damping for both grid-connected and islanded operations. Root...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
Grid-connected power converters should employ advanced current controllers, e.g., Proportional Resonant (PR) and Repetitive Controllers (RC), in order to produce high-quality feed-in currents that are required to be synchronized with the grid. The synchronization is actually to detect...... of the resonant controllers and by approximating the fractional delay using a Lagrange interpolating polynomial for the RC, respectively, the frequency-variation-immunity of these periodic current controllers with a fixed sampling rate is improved. Experiments on a single-phase grid-connected system are presented...... the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. Hence, harmonics and deviations in the estimated frequency by the PLL could lead to current tracking performance degradation, especially...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Weimin; Liu, Yuan; He, Yuanbin
2017-01-01
Grid-tied voltage source inverters using LCL filter have been widely adopted in distributed power generation systems (DPGSs). As high-order LCL filters contain multiple resonant frequencies, switching harmonics generated by the inverter and current harmonics generated by the active/passive loads...... innovative damping methods have been proposed. A comprehensive overview on those contributions and their classification on the inverter- and grid-side damping measures are presented. Based on the concept of the impedance-based stability analysis, all damping methods can ensure the system stability...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Leming; Chen, Yandong
2018-01-01
In this paper, a robust grid-current-feedback reso-nance suppression (GCFRS) method for LCL-type grid-connected inverter is proposed to enhance the system damping without introducing the switching noise and eliminate the impact of control delay on system robustness against grid-impedance variation....... It is composed of GCFRS method, the full duty-ratio and zero-beat-lag PWM method, and the lead-grid-current-feedback-resonance-suppression (LGCFRS) method. Firstly, the GCFRS is used to suppress the LCL-resonant peak well and avoid introducing the switching noise. Secondly, the proposed full duty-ratio and zero......-beat-lag PWM method is used to elimi-nate the one-beat-lag computation delay without introducing duty cycle limitations. Moreover, it can also realize the smooth switching from positive to negative half-wave of the grid current and improve the waveform quality. Thirdly, the proposed LGCFRS is used to further...
A Hierarchical Control Scheme for Reactive Power and Harmonic Current Sharing in Islanded Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorzadeh, Iman; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein
2015-01-01
In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme consisting of primary and secondary levels is proposed for achieving accurate reactive power and harmonic currents sharing among interface inverters of distributed generators (DGs) in islanded microgrids. Firstly, fundamental and main harmonic componen...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Jalilian, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2018-01-01
In this paper, a coordinated harmonic compensation and voltage support scheme is presented for distributed generations’ (DGs’) interface inverters in a resistive grid-connected microgrid. Voltage support is performed by reactive power compensation which can mitigate the over/under voltage problem...
Thyristor based short circuit current injection in isolated grids
Hoff, Bjarte; Sharma, Pawan; Østrem, Trond
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a thyristor based short circuit current injector for providing short circuit current in isolated and weak grids, where sufficient fault current to trigger circuit breakers may not be available. This will allow the use of conventional miniature circuit breakers, which requires high fault current for instantaneous tripping. The method has been validated through experiments.
Improving the voltage quality of an inverter via by-passing the harmonic current components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhong, Qing-Chang; Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.
2012-01-01
In this paper, a control strategy is proposed to improve the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of an inverter. The physical interpretation of the control strategy is to connect shunt resonant filters at harmonic frequencies to the output so that the harmonic current components...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz
2017-01-01
A phase-shifted current control can be employed to mitigate certain harmonics induced by the Diode Rectifiers (DR) and Silicon-Controlled Rectifiers (SCR) as the front-ends of multiple parallel Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. However, the effectiveness of the phase-shifted control relies...... on the loading condition of each drive unit as well as the number of drives in parallel. In order to enhance the harmonic cancellation by means of the phase-shifted current control, the currents drawn by the rectifiers should be maintained almost at the same level. Thus, this paper firstly analyzes the impact...... of unequal loading among the parallel drives, and a scheme to enhance the performance is introduced to improve the quality of the total grid current, where partial loading operation should be enabled. Simulation and experimental case studies on multidrive systems have demonstrated that the enhanced phase...
Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M.
2017-01-01
In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method. PMID:28192436
Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz; Miveh, Mohammad Reza; Guerrero, Josep M
2017-01-01
In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions. It is challenging to suppress the harmonic content in the output current below a pre-set value in the GCI. It is also difficult to compensate for unbalanced loads even when the grid is under disruption due to total harmonic distortion (THD) and unbalanced loads. The primary advantage and objective of this method is to effectively compensate for the harmonic current content of the grid current and microgrid without the use of any compensation devices, such as active and passive filters. This method leads to a very low THD in both the GCI currents and the current exchanged with the grid. The control approach is designed to control the active and reactive power and harmonic current compensation, and it also corrects the system unbalance. The proposed control method features the synchronous reference frame (SRF) method. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effective performance of the proposed method.
Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus
2010-01-01
Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic char...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik
1999-01-01
One of the origins of harmonic distortion in current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the mirror transistors. In this brief we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop analytical expressions for the mismatch induced harmonic distortion. ...
Currents and fluctuations of quantum heat transport in harmonic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motz, T; Ankerhold, J; Stockburger, J T
2017-01-01
Heat transport in open quantum systems is particularly susceptible to the modeling of system–reservoir interactions. It thus requires us to consistently treat the coupling between a quantum system and its environment. While perturbative approaches are successfully used in fields like quantum optics and quantum information, they reveal deficiencies—typically in the context of thermodynamics, when it is essential to respect additional criteria such as fluctuation-dissipation theorems. We use a non-perturbative approach for quantum dissipative dynamics based on a stochastic Liouville–von Neumann equation to provide a very general and extremely efficient formalism for heat currents and their correlations in open harmonic chains. Specific results are derived not only for first- but also for second-order moments, which requires us to account for both real and imaginary parts of bath–bath correlation functions. Spatiotemporal patterns are compared with weak coupling calculations. The regime of stronger system–reservoir couplings gives rise to an intimate interplay between reservoir fluctuations and heat transfer far from equilibrium. (paper)
[Current aspects of harmonization of classification of occupational hearing loss].
Pankova, V B; Sinëva, E L; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N; Preobrazhenskaia, E A; Mukhamedova, G R
2013-01-01
The objective of the present work was to develop unified criteria for the evaluation of the severity of noise-induced hearing loss. Current approaches to taking expert decisions based on the results of medical examination of the patients with impaired hearing are substantially different due to the considerable difference between the criteria for the estimation of hearing envisaged by the international classification, occupational pathology classification, and the national system of medico-social expertise. We undertook an attempt to correct and harmonize the existing criteria for the estimation of severity of occupational hearing loss based on the integration of all the three classification in order to "reduce them to a common denominator" and thereby to ensure the basis for the unified diagnostic and expert decisions for the cases of hearing impairment of any etiology. The project proposed in this paper makes it possible to use unified criteria for the assessment of the degree of hearing loss caused by occupational noises for diagnostic purposes and expertise compatible with the internationally accepted approaches.
Algaddafi, Ali; Altuwayjiri, Saud A; Ahmed, Oday A; Daho, Ibrahim
2017-01-01
Grid connected inverters play a crucial role in generating energy to be fed to the grid. A filter is commonly used to suppress the switching frequency harmonics produced by the inverter, this being passive, and either an L- or LCL-filter. The latter is smaller in size compared to the L-filter. But choosing the optimal values of the LCL-filter is challenging due to resonance, which can affect stability. This paper presents a simple inverter controller design with an L-filter. The control topology is simple and applied easily using traditional control theory. Fast Fourier Transform analysis is used to compare different grid connected inverter control topologies. The modelled grid connected inverter with the proposed controller complies with the IEEE-1547 standard, and total harmonic distortion of the output current of the modelled inverter has been just 0.25% with an improved output waveform. Experimental work on a commercial PV inverter is then presented, including the effect of strong and weak grid connection. Inverter effects on the resistive load connected at the point of common coupling are presented. Results show that the voltage and current of resistive load, when the grid is interrupted, are increased, which may cause failure or damage for connecting appliances.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; Li, Yun
2016-01-01
The capacitor-current-feedback active damping method is attractive for high-order-filter-based high power grid-tied inverter when the grid impedance varies within a wide range. In order to improve the system control bandwidth and attenuate the high order grid background harmonics by using the quasi....... In this paper, a low pass filter is proposed to be inserted in the capacitor current feedback loop op LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter together with a digital proportional and differential compensator. The detailed theoretical analysis is given. For verification, simulations on a 2kW/220V/10kHz LLCL...
Current control loop of 3-phase grid-connected inverter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jabbar, A F; Mansor, M
2013-01-01
This paper presents a comparative study of current control loop in 3-phase inverter which is used to control the active and reactive output power. Generally, current control loop, power control loop and phase lock-loop are the conventional parameters that can be found in an inverter system controlled by the conventional linear control type, for instance proportional (P), integral (I) and derivative (D). If the grid remains stable throughout the day, PID control can be use. However variation of magnitude, frequency, voltage dips, transient, and other related power quality issues occur in a 3-phase grid often affects the control loop. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the available current control techniques used in grid connected system.
Active current control in wind power plants during grid faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Phillip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro
2010-01-01
Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in electrical networks, subject to fault clearing. Wind turbine fault current contribution is required from most countries with a high amount of wind power penetration. In order to comply with such grid code requirements......, wind turbines usually have solutions that enable the turbines to control the generation of reactive power during faults. This paper addresses the importance of using an optimal injection of active current during faults in order to fulfil these grid codes. This is of relevant importance for severe...... faults, causing low voltages at the point of common coupling. As a consequence, a new wind turbine current controller for operation during faults is proposed. It is shown that to achieve the maximum transfer of reactive current at the point of common coupling, a strategy for optimal setting of the active...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Xianping; Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, BJ (China)
2008-07-01
Grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) is important for variable speed turbines with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), and bad performance of current loop of VSC may cause VSC inject much low and high order harmonics into grid. Therefore, design of current controller of VSC is very important. PI regulator is often used to regulate current error in dq rotating coordinate to obtain zero steady error. However, it is complex to design PI parameters, and researchers need many trial-and-error steps. Therefore, a novel and simple design method of PI regulator for grid-connected VSC, which is based internal model control (IMC), has been presented in this paper. The parameters of PI regulator can be expressed directly with certain L-type line filter parameters and the desired closed-loop bandwidth. At last, The simulation has been done and result shows that the method in this paper is easy and useful to regulate PI parameters. (orig.)
A Smart Current Modulation Scheme for Harmonic Reduction in Three- Phase Motor Drive Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
Electric motor-driven systems consume considerable amount of the global electricity. Majority of three-phase motor drives are equipped with conventional diode rectifier and passive harmonic mitigation, being witnessed as the main source in generating input current harmonics. While many active har...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Leming; Zhou, Xiaoping; Chen, Yandong
2018-01-01
For the LCL-type grid-connected distributed generation system, the grid-current-feedback active damping (GCFAD) methods have a conflict between the resonance-suppression ability and harmonic-currents amplification. For this, an inverter-current-feedback reso-nance-suppression (ICFRS) method without...... additional sensors is proposed to reduce resonance-frequency offset and grid-inductance effect due to its unattenuated damping characteristic under high-frequency bandwidth. By analyzing two types of equivalent impedance models of ICFRS and GCFAD with a high-pass filter (HPF), GCFAD can suppress...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2016-01-01
Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) operating in very weak grids with low Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) are known to meet stability challenges. This article investigates instability of a grid connected current-controlled converter under weak grid conditions, which is often attributed to the dynamic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Sulligoi, Giorgio
2016-01-01
The microgrid inverter experiences the power oscillations and current harmonics in case of the unbalanced grid voltage faults. However, there is a trade-off between power oscillations and current harmonics should be considered in three phase three wire inverter systems during the conventional fault...... ride through control. In order to solve this problem, a novel control strategy is proposed to enhance the output current quality while mitigating the active and reactive output power oscillations. Moreover, a simple current-limited control strategy can be achieved without the necessity of the voltage....../current positive/negative sequence extraction. Finally, the simulation tests of the conventional and proposed control solutions are carried out. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy....
Voltage Harmonic Compensation of a Microgrid Operating in Islanded and Grid-Connected Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Savaghebi, Mehdi; Jalilian, Alireza; Vasquez, Juan C.
2011-01-01
In this paper, a method for voltage harmonic compensation in a microgrid operating in islanded and gridconnected modes is presented. Harmonic compensation is done through proper control of distributed generators (DGs) interface converters. In order to achieve proper sharing of the compensation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamid, Muhammad Imran; Jusoh, Awang
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A reduction scheme for harmonics from utility interactive PV-inverter is proposed. • Single-phase conditioner with 3-phase expandability structure is used. • The single-phase conditioner in 3-phase structure work independently. • The scheme works effectively within overall operation range of the PV-inverter. • Conditioner in the scheme also improves the PV-inverter and plant’s utility factor. - Abstract: As the natural behavior of energy source and design characteristic, the current generated by a grid-interactive PV-inverter may contain harmonics. This distortion component will be carried on from the PV-inverter during injection power into the grid. Excessive harmonics in a grid will lead to a variety of power quality problems. This paper presents a distortion reduction scheme, utilizing a fed forward single-phase, generation-side power conditioner with a structure that can be expanded for use in a three-phase system and can work independently under imbalanced condition. Conditioner is placed in parallel with the photovoltaic plant and it functions to compensate the plant’s output current distortion, so that the total current flow to the grid is sinusoidal. This method also includes the implementation of a simpler control system for the conditioner, which consists of a combination of distortion current extraction, synchronization and a current control system, and realized through a TMS320F28335: a 150 MHz floating point DSP controller. Testing of the conditioner prototype, which was conducted on a real operation of a PV plant, showed that the scheme worked effectively within the overall operation range of the PV plant. This paper also discusses the potential of utility factor improvement of the PV-inverter and plant due to implementation of conditioner in the scheme
Influence of load type on power factor and harmonic composition of three-phase rectifier current
Nikolayzin, N. V.; Vstavskaya, E. V.; Konstantinov, V. I.; Konstantinova, O. V.
2018-05-01
This article is devoted to research of the harmonic composition of the three-phase rectifier current consumed when it operates with different types of load. The results are compared with Standard requirements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kol'tsov, A.V.; Serov, A.V.
1992-01-01
Setting the acceleration regime in a microtron with the resonator in which the third accelerating field harmonic is excited by accelerated clusters is considered. It is shown that excitation of the accelerating field third harmonic in the microtron resonator (E 011 mode) causes a 1.5 time increase of the range of field intensity values under which resonance particle acceleration is possible. Under moderate energies and accelerated currents (10-15 MeV, 50-80 mA) this leads to a reduction of requirements to the stability of power coming to the resonator and cathode temperature. Under accelerated currents of > 100 mA the third harmonic complicates the microtron transition to acceleration regime. The microtron transfers to stable autooscillation regime, but the current achieved in a single short pulse is increased. By varying the value of the resonator quality factor on the third harmonic one can change the current pulse duration and autooscillation period
Grid-Current-Feedback Control for LCL-Filtered Grid Converters With Enhanced Stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a Second-Order-Generalized- Integrator (SOGI)-based time delay compensation method for extending the stable region of dual-loop Grid-Current-Feedback (GCF) control system. According to the analysis, stable region of the dual-loop system should be designed below a certain...... critical frequency, before time delay compensation method can be applied. To always meet the requirement, relationship between single-loop converter-current-feedback and dual-loop GCF control is clarified, before a robust inner-loop gain for the dualloop GCF scheme is determined. Enforcing this gain allows...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pochelon, A. . E-mail : Antoine.Pochelon@epfl.ch; Arnoux, G.; Camenen, Y.
2003-01-01
This paper summarises the present effort aimed at developing high elongation heated discharges and testing their confinement properties at normalised currents for which the highest ideal MHD β-limits are predicted. 2nd harmonic (X2) far off-axis ECH/CD is used to stabilise the plasma vertically at high elongation by broadening the current profile in stationary conditions (during the current flat top and over several current diffusion times). Current broadening is maximal for a power deposition in a narrow region (∼a/5), for a finite toroidal injection angle and for high plasma density using upper lateral launchers to minimise refraction. In these discharges which are twice X2 overdense in the centre, 3rd harmonic (X3) is injected from a top launcher to deposit power in the centre and increase the central pressure, simultaneously with far off-axis X2. Using modulated X3, full absorption is measured by the diamagnetic probe. Absorption higher than calculated by thermal ray tracing is occasionally found, indicating absorption on the electron bulk as well as in the suprathermal electron population sometimes with a hollow deposition profile. The high sensitivity of the power coupling to the beam angle stresses the need for developing a mirror feedback scheme to increase the coupling efficiency in transient heating scenarios. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Afshari, Ehsan; Moradi, Gholam Reza; Yang, Yongheng
2017-01-01
Unbalanced grid voltage dips may lead to unbalanced non-sinusoidal current injections, dc-link voltage oscillations, and active and/or reactive power oscillations with twice the grid fundamental frequency in three-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems. Double grid frequency oscillations...... of the most important issues that should be coped with for a reliable operation of grid-connected converters under unbalanced grid faults. Accordingly, this paper reviews the existing CRC methods and presents a current reference generation method, which can have 16 unique modes. Issues are also investigated...... at the dc-link of the conventional two-stage PV inverters can further deteriorate the dc-link capacitor, which is one of the most life-limiting components in the system. Proper controls of these converters may efficiently address this problem. In those solutions, Current Reference Calculation (CRC) is one...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henan Dong
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Among the issues of accurate power distribution, stability improvement, and harmonic suppression in micro-grid, each has been well studied as an individual, and most of the strategies about these issues aim at one inverter-based micro-grid, hence there is a need to establish a model to achieve these functions as a whole, aiming at a multi-inverter-based micro-grid. This paper proposes a comprehensive strategy which achieves this goal successfully; since the output voltage and frequency of micro-grid all consist of fundamental and harmonic components, the strategy contains two parts accordingly. On one hand, a fundamental control strategy is proposed upon the conventional droop control. The virtual impedance is introduced to solve the problem of accurate allocation of reactive power between inverters. Meanwhile, a secondary power balance controller is added to improve the stability of voltage and frequency while considering the aggravating problem of stability because of introducing virtual impedance. On the other hand, the fractional frequency harmonic control strategy is proposed. It can solve the influence of nonlinear loads, micro-grid inverters, and the distribution network on output voltage of inverters, which is focused on eliminating specific harmonics caused by the nonlinear loads, micro-grid converters, and the distribution network so that the power quality of micro-grid can be improved effectively. Finally, small signal analysis is used to analyze the stability of the multi-converter parallel system after introducing the whole control strategy. The simulation results show that the strategy proposed in this paper has a great performance on distributing reactive power, regulating and stabilizing output voltage of inverters and frequency, eliminating harmonic components, and improving the power quality of multi-inverter-based micro-grid.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhongyu; Zhao, Rende; Xin, Zhen
2016-01-01
The Inrush Transient Current (ITC) in the output of the photovoltaic grid-connected inverters is usually generated when grid voltage sag occurs, which can trigger the protection of the grid-connected inverters, and even destroy the semiconductor switches. Then, the grid-connected inverters...
CONCEPTS OF IMPROVING CURRENT PROTECTION OF POWER-GRID LINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. A. Romaniuk
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The 6–35 kV power-grid current protection serves to protect the transmission lines against phase-to-phase short-circuits. The major disadvantage of it lies in the relatively large time delays of the last stages especially in the main sections of the grid owing to the stepped relay characteristics as well as a large number of the steps. A full-fledged protection of the 6–35 kV lines against inter-phase short circuits can be provided by the two-stage current protection: the first stage being the current cutoff without any time delay and the second stage – the maximum current protection where the time delay is linear contingent on the distance between the protection placement and the fault-point location. The article introduces the rating formulae for the time delays of the second-stage and their exemplary graphic presentation. The authors offer a variant for solving the problem with computation of the second-stage time delays in those instances where several feeders diverge from the bus bars of the substation located in the end of the protected line.Improving current protections for the 6–35 kV transmission lines with one-end power supply against interphase short-circuits can be based on the collective application of the following principles: accounting for the type and location of the short-circuit which provides for the high-performance cutoff zone instantaneous expansion and its independence on the mode of failure and the grid operation mode. It also allows increase of the last stage sensitiveness towards asymmetrical short-circuits; detection of the short-circuit location only on the results of fault currents measurement which simplifies the protection implementation; realization of the last (second protection stage with linear-dependent time delay which ensures potentiality of its operation speed increase.
Analysis of harmonic current interaction in an industrial plant
Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.; Kling, W.L.; Timens, R.B.
2011-01-01
An analysis of current transients caused by the operation of a nearby device in an industrial plant is presented in the paper. The source of current transients in the factory lighting system was traced to the operation of the nearby six-pulse AC/DC converter. To determine the nature of the
Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rashid, H., E-mail: hawal@chalmers.se; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V. [Group for Advanced Receiver Development, Earth and Space Sciences Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, 412 96 (Sweden)
2016-04-15
In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.
Harmonic and reactive behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current in SIS junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, V.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we show theoretically and experimentally that the reactive quasiparticle tunnel current of the superconductor tunnel junction could be directly measured at specific bias voltages for the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current. We used the theory of quasiparticle tunneling to study the higher harmonics of the quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junction in the presence of rf irradiation. The impact of the reactive current on the harmonic behavior of the quasiparticle tunnel current was carefully studied by implementing a practical model with four parameters to model the dc I-V characteristics of the superconducting tunnel junction. The measured reactive current at the specific bias voltage is in good agreement with our theoretically calculated reactive current through the Kramers-Kronig transform. This study also shows that there is an excellent correspondence between the behavior of the predicted higher harmonics using the previously established theory of quasiparticle tunnel current in superconducting tunnel junctions by J.R. Tucker and M.J. Feldman and the measurements presented in this paper.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Changjin; Chen, Wenjie; Blaabjerg, Frede
2012-01-01
This paper presents an analytical method to optimize the parameters of resonant controller which is used in a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). In the DFIG control system, the fundamental current loop is controlled by PI-controllers, and the stator harmonic current loop is controlled...
A novel harmonic current sharing control strategy for parallel-connected inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Yajuan; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2017-01-01
A novel control strategy which enables proportional linear and nonlinear loads sharing among paralleled inverters and voltage harmonic suppression is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is based on the autonomous currents sharing controller (ACSC) instead of conventional power droop control...... to provide fast transient response, decoupling control and large stability margin. The current components at different sequences and orders are decomposed by a multi-second-order generalized integrator-based frequency locked loop (MSOGI-FLL). A harmonic-orthogonal-virtual-resistances controller (HOVR......) is used to proportionally share current components at different sequences and orders independently among the paralleled inverters. Proportional resonance controllers tuned at selected frequencies are used to suppress voltage harmonics. Simulations based on two 2.2 kW paralleled three-phase inverters...
Harmonic resonance assessment of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverters system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
This paper presents an eigenvalue-based impedance stability analytical method of multiple paralleled grid-connected inverter system. Different from the conventional impedance-based stability criterion, this work first built the state-space model of paralleled grid-connected inverters. On the basis...... of this, a bridge between the state-space-based modelling and impedance-based stability criterion is presented. The proposed method is able to perform stability assessment locally at the connection points of the component. Meanwhile, the eigenvalue-based sensitivity analysis is adopted to identify...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VAKHNINA, V. V.
2015-02-01
Full Text Available A model and an algorithm for the calculation of the functioning of an electric power grid of arbitrary configuration and complexity during geomagnetic storms were developed. The calculations were performed in the MATLAB mathematical package and the Simulink environment. The binding of objects to geographical coordinates is realized in the model, which enables to determine the matrix of potentials of geoelectric fields in nodal points. In order to define the instantaneous magnetizing currents, the power transformers are designed on the basis of the T-shaped equivalent circuit with a nonlinear mutual inductance of magnetization branch. Calculation of RMS values of active, reactive and total power values in all the elements is done with regard to the impact of harmonic components of the current and voltage. The results of modeling of the impact of geomagnetic storms of various intensity with the west-east direction of the geoelectric field vector for Samara region electric power grid are given.
Harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in sinusoidal and space ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
DC capacitor current in a three-level neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter, modu- lated with ... For control of the switches in two-level and three-level inverters, numerous pulse-width mod- ..... coincide with each other, and lie on the horizontal axis in figure 5b. The loci of the ... A MATLAB code is written for the purpose. 5.
Active power compensator of the current harmonics based on the instantaneous power theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian GAICEANU
2005-12-01
Full Text Available The quality of the electrical current becomes a major concern. The proliferation of the power electronic converters, which are used extensively to control electrical apparatus in industrial and commercial applications (dc and ac variable speed motor drives, induction furnaces, power line conditioners, and industrial power supplies, is at the origin of the AC current distribution network pollution and the reactive power demand. These power electronic converters typically draw non-sinusoidal currents from the utility, causing interference with adjacent sensitive loads and limit the utilization of the available electrical supply. The quality of the electrical current thus becomes a significant concern for the distributors of energy and their customers. Recent progress as regards technology of the power electronics brings a capacity of compensation and correction of the harmonic distortion generated by the nonlinear loads. In this paper a parallel active filter prototype capable of reducing the total harmonic distortion in the supply for most current source or adjustable speed drive type loads is presented. A 33 kVA active power filter was developed for harmonic and reactive power compensation based on the instantaneous power theory. The active filter configuration requires the measurement of both the load and filter currents. Experimental results from a prototype active power filter confirm the suitability of the proposed approach. The actual 33kVA prototype converter has been built and tested in the SIEI S.p.A. (Italy laboratory under the Marie Curie Post Doctoral research. The active power compensator is controlled by a high performance DSP platform, resulting in the following active filter features: source current reduction up to the 25th harmonic, 10% THD achievable for current source type loads, efficiency above 97%, does not cause resonance with other loads, operation in the presence of unbalanced loads, reactive power and harmonics
Estimation of plasma ion saturation current and reduced tip arcing using Langmuir probe harmonics.
Boedo, J A; Rudakov, D L
2017-03-01
We present a method to calculate the ion saturation current, I sat , for Langmuir probes at high frequency (>100 kHz) using the harmonics technique and we compare that to a direct measurement of I sat . It is noted that the I sat estimation can be made directly by the ratio of harmonic amplitudes, without explicitly calculating T e . We also demonstrate that since the probe tips using the harmonic method are oscillating near the floating potential, drawing little power, this method reduces tip heating and arcing and allows plasma density measurements at a plasma power flux that would cause continuously biased tips to arc. A multi-probe array is used, with two spatially separated tips employing the harmonics technique and measuring the amplitude of at least two harmonics per tip. A third tip, located between the other two, measures the ion saturation current directly. We compare the measured and calculated ion saturation currents for a variety of plasma conditions and demonstrate the validity of the technique and its use in reducing arcs.
Harmonizing electricity markets with physics : real time performance monitoring using grid-3PTM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budhraja, V.S.
2003-01-01
The Electric Power Group, LLC provides management and strategic consulting services for the electric power industry, with special emphasis on industry restructuring, competitive electricity markets, grid operations and reliability, power technologies, venture investments and start-ups. The Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions involves national laboratories, universities, and industry partners in researching, developing, and commercializing electric reliability technology solutions to protect and enhance the reliability of the American electric power system under the emerging competitive electricity market structure. Physics differentiate electric markets from other markets: there is real-time balancing, no storage, interconnected network, and power flows governed by physics. Some issues affecting both grid reliability and market issues are difficult to separate, such as security and congestion management, voltage management, reserves, frequency volatility, and others. The author examined the following investment challenges facing the electricity market: grid solutions, market solutions, and technology solutions. The real time performance monitoring and prediction platform, grid-3P was described and applications discussed, such as ACE-frequency monitoring, performance monitoring for automatic generation control (AGC) and frequency response, voltage/VAR monitoring, stability monitoring using phasor technology, and market monitoring. figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Loh, P.; Tang, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede
2011-01-01
In this study, repetitive current controllers operating in either the mixed or stationary frame are proposed for high-precision reference tracking and disturbance rejection of power converters. Both controllers use a proportional-resonant regulator in the stationary frame for regulating...... the positive- and negative-sequence fundamental currents, which are known to directly influence the flow of active and reactive power in most energy conversion systems. Moreover, for the tracking or compensation of harmonics, the controllers include a repetitive control path in either the synchronous...... or stationary frame, whose inherent feedback and feedforward structure is proven to resemble a bank of resonant filters in either reference frames. Unlike other existing controllers, the proposed repetitive controllers function by introducing multiple resonant peaks at only those harmonic frequencies typically...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the active damping of LCL-filter resonance within single-loop grid current control of grid-connected voltage source converters. First, the basic analysis in the continuous s-domain reveals that the grid-current-feedback active damping forms a virtual impedance across...... in a digital control system. The instability induced by the negative virtual resistance, which is commonly experienced in the feedback-type active damping, can thus be avoided. A systematic design method of the highpass filter is also proposed by the help of root locus analysis in the discrete z-domain. Lastly...
Grid-Current-Feedback Active Damping for LCL Resonance in Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
This paper investigates active damping of LCL-filter resonance in a grid-connected voltage-source converter with only grid-current feedback control. Basic analysis in the s-domain shows that the proposed damping technique with a negative high-pass filter along its damping path is equivalent...... of phase-lag, in turn, helps to shrink the region of nonminimum-phase behavior caused by negative virtual resistance inserted unintentionally by most digitally implemented active damping techniques. The presented high-pass-filtered active damping technique with a single grid-current feedback loop is thus...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Lu, Zhigang
2017-01-01
The grid-connected inverters may experience excessive current stress in case of unbalanced grid voltage Fault Ride Through (FRT), which significantly affects the reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanisms of the excessive current phenomenon...... with the conventional FRT solutions are discussed. The quantitative analysis of three phase current peak values are conducted and a novel current-limited control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible active and reactive power regulation and successful FRT in a safe current operation area with the aim...
High Order Voltage and Current Harmonic Mitigation Using the Modular Multilevel Converter STATCOM
Kontos, E.; Tsolaridis, Georgios; Teodorescu, Remus; Bauer, P.
2017-01-01
Due to the increase of power electronic-based loads, the maintenance of high power quality poses a challenge in modern power systems. To limit the total harmonic distortion in the line voltage and currents at the point of the common coupling (PCC), active power filters are commonly employed. This
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Demirdelen
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In recent years, shunt hybrid active power filters are being increasingly considered as a viable alternative to both passive filters and active power filters for compensating harmonics. In literature, their applications are restricted to balanced systems and low voltage applications and therefore not for industrial applications. This paper investigates the performance of a modular cascaded multilevel inverter based Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter (SHAPF for reactive power compensation and selective harmonics elimination under distorted/unbalanced grid voltage conditions in medium voltage levels. In the proposed control method, reactive power compensation is achieved successfully with a perceptible amount and the performance results of harmonic compensation are satisfactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are obtained from an actual industrial network model in PSCAD. The simulation results are presented for a proposed system in order to demonstrate that the harmonic compensation performance meets the IEEE-519 standard.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atkinson-Hope, Gary; Stemmet, W.C. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town Campus, Cape Town (South Africa)
2006-07-01
The purpose of this paper is to assess the DlgSILENT PowerFactory software power definitions (indices) in terms of phase and sequence components for balanced and unbalanced networks when harmonic distortion is present and to compare its results to hand calculations done, following recommendation made by the IEEE Working Group on this topic. This paper also includes the development of a flowchart for calculating power indices in balanced and unbalanced three-phase networks when non-sinusoidal voltages and currents are present. A further purpose is to determine how two industrial grade harmonic analysis software packages (DlgSILENT and ERACS) model three-phase harmonic sources used for current penetration studies and to compare their results when applied to a network. From the investigations, another objective was to develop a methodology for modelling harmonic current sources based on a spectrum obtained from measurements. Three case studies were conducted and the assessment and developed methodologies were shown to be effective. (Author)
Harmonic current layer method for the design of superconducting quadrupole magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zizek, F.
1977-01-01
The magnetic field of a superconducting quadrupole is investigated by the method of harmonic current layers of cylindrical shape. The superconducting winding is replaced by a system of thin current layers with a harmonically distributed density of the surface current along the circumference. The effect of the outer ferromagnetic circuit with an arbitrary constant permeability over the cross section is replaced analogically. The resultant magnetic field is then given by the superposition of the contributions from the individual current layers. The calculation method can be modified for the selection of the geometry of the winding for the latter to meet the demand for the high homogeneity of the gradient of magnetic induction in the working space of the superconducting quadrupole. (author)
Current Collecting Grids for ITO-Free Solar Cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Galagan, Yulia; Zimmermann, Birger; Coenen, Erica W. C.
2012-01-01
Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free polymer solar cells prepared by ink jet printing a composite front electrode comprising silver grid lines and a semitransparent PEDOT:PSS conductor are demonstrated. The effect of grid line density is explored for a large series of devices and a careful modeling study...
Current Electric Distribution Network Operation and Grid Tariffs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Qiuwei
2012-01-01
The aim of EcoGridEU task 1.4 is to extend the real‐time price approach with an integrated optimization of the distribution system operation. This will be achieved by extending the basic real‐time market concept with local location‐dependant prices that reflect the grid operation, especially...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghosh, A.K.; Sampson, W.B.; Wanderer, P.
1985-01-01
The very large energy ratio of machines such as the SSC dictates rather low injection field (for 6T, 20 TeV it is approximately 0.3T). Since the harmonic content at such low fields is largely determined by magnetization currents in the superconductor, the random errors depend on the uniformity of the superconducting wire. In principle the magnitude of the residual fields can be reduced indefinitely by using finer filaments, but in practice there is a lower limit of a few microns. We have compared the injection field harmonics for a number of accelerator dipoles with magnetization measurements made on samples of the conductor used to wind the coils. In addition both the magnetization and harmonics have been compared with short sample critical current measurements made at 5T. The results indicated that an accurate estimate of the variation in injection field harmonics can only be obtained from direct measurements of the magnetization of the cable. It appears feasible to use such measurements to ''shuffle'' magnets for a large accelerator by predicting the low field properties of a magnet before actually winding the coils. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
2012-01-01
Harmonic current filtering and resonance damping have become important concerns on the control of an islanded microgrids. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a control method of inverter-interfaced Distributed Generation (DG) units, which can autonomously share harmonic currents and ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boroujeni, Mojtaba Shirvani; Markadeh, Gholamreza Arab; Soltani, Jafar
2018-01-01
Brushless Harmonic current injection to the stator windings is one of the most effective methods for torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motors. Because of multi harmonic contents of the stator currents, the conventional methods based on rotational reference frame cannot be used to calculate...
Cancellation of neutral current harmonics by using a four-branch star hybrid filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blaabjerg, Frede; Rodriguez, Pedro; Candela, I.
2008-01-01
filtering topology to a three-phase four-wire system. An extensive evaluation using simulation and experimental results are conducted in this work to validate the good performance of the proposed solution for canceling current harmonics flowing through the neutral conductor.......This paper presents a new technique for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks based on the usage of a four-branch star (FBS) filter topology. Based on single-phase inductors and capacitors, the specific layout of the FBS filter topology allows achieving a power filter...... is improved by integrating a power converter into its structure. This paper analyzes the FBS topology and presents fundamental concepts regarding the control of a generic FBS hybrid power filter. A neutral current hybrid power filter and var compensator is presented as an illustrative example applying the FBS...
Plug-and-Play Design of Current Controllers for Grid-feeding Converters in DC Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Renke; Tucci, Michele; Soloperto, Raffaele
2017-01-01
In this paper, we address the problem of synthesizing decentralized current controllers for grid-feeding converters of current-controlled distributed generation units (CDGUs) in dc microgrids (MGs). Notably, a plug-and-play (PnP) design procedure is proposed to achieve grid-feeding current tracking...
High voltage direct current transmission converters, systems and DC grids
Jovcic, Dragan
2015-01-01
This comprehensive reference guides the reader through all HVDC technologies, including LCC (Line Commutated Converter), 2-level VSC and VSC HVDC based on modular multilevel converters (MMC) for an in-depth understanding of converters, system level design, operating principles and modeling. Written in a tutorial style, the book also describes the key principles of design, control, protection and operation of DC transmission grids, which will be substantially different from the practice with AC transmission grids. The first dedicated reference to the latest HVDC technologies and DC grid developments; this is an essential resource for graduate students and researchers as well as engineers and professionals working on the design, modeling and operation of DC grids and HVDC.
Third harmonic current injection into highly saturated multi-phase machines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klute Felix
2017-03-01
Full Text Available One advantage of multi-phase machines is the possibility to use the third harmonic of the rotor flux for additional torque generation. This effect can be maximised for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM with a high third harmonic content in the magnet flux. This paper discusses the effects of third harmonic current injection (THCI on a five-phase PMSM with a conventional magnet shape depending on saturation. The effects of THCI in five-phase machines are shown in a 2D FEM model in Ansys Maxwell verified by measurement results. The results of the FEM model are analytically analysed using the Park model. It is shown in simulation and measurement that the torque improvement by THCI increases significantly with the saturation level, as the amplitude of the third harmonic flux linkage increases with the saturation level but the phase shift of the rotor flux linkage has to be considered. This paper gives a detailed analysis of saturation mechanisms of PMSM, which can be used for optimizing the efficiency in operating points of high saturations, without using special magnet shapes.
Study of Security Attributes of Smart Grid Systems- Current Cyber Security Issues
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wayne F. Boyer; Scott A. McBride
2009-04-01
This document provides information for a report to congress on Smart Grid security as required by Section 1309 of Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The security of any future Smart Grid is dependent on successfully addressing the cyber security issues associated with the nation’s current power grid. Smart Grid will utilize numerous legacy systems and technologies that are currently installed. Therefore, known vulnerabilities in these legacy systems must be remediated and associated risks mitigated in order to increase the security and success of the Smart Grid. The implementation of Smart Grid will include the deployment of many new technologies and multiple communication infrastructures. This report describes the main technologies that support Smart Grid and summarizes the status of implementation into the existing U.S. electrical infrastructure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grekov, D.; Kasilov, S.; Kernbichler, W.
2016-01-01
A two dimensional numerical code for computation of the electromagnetic field of a fast magnetosonic wave in a tokamak at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency has been developed. The code computes the finite difference solution of Maxwell equations for separate toroidal harmonics making use of the toroidal symmetry of tokamak plasmas. The proper boundary conditions are prescribed at the realistic tokamak vessel. The currents in the RF antenna are specified externally and then used in Ampere law. The main poloidal tokamak magnetic field and the ''kinetic'' part of the dielectric permeability tensor are treated iteratively. The code has been verified against known analytical solutions and first calculations of current drive in the spherical torus are presented.
Komissinskij, F V; Ilichev, E V; Ivanov, Z G
2001-01-01
The results of the experimental study on the current phase dependence (CPD) of the heterotransitions, consisting of the niobium and the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub x (YBCO) film with an additional interlayer from gold (Nb/Au/YBCO) are presented. The CPD measurement is carried out through the radiofrequency superconducting quantum interferometer. The CPD second harmonic is determined in the Nb/Au/YBCO heterotransitions. Possible causes of its appearance are discussed within the frames of the d +- s combined symmetry of the YBCO order parameter. One of the causes of the CPD second harmonic appearance is the twinning of the YBCO films (001). The second cause of existing the anomalously high critical current consists in the availability of the Nb/Au boundary with the transparence of approx 10 sup - sup 1 in the Nb/Au/YBCO
2016-09-01
Khaligh, “Optimization of sizing and battery cycle life in battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems for electric vehicle applications...depth cycling operation in photovoltaic system ,” in 22nd International Conference “Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems ,” Toruń, Poland...CURRENT LINK HARMONIC RIPPLE IN SINGLE-PHASE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER SYSTEMS USING SUPERCAPACITORS by Gabriel D. Hernandez September 2016
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, D.P.; Kasturi, S.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.
1992-01-01
Most previous analysis on the effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) on electric utility systems has steady-state phenomena, with the main interest in the generator step-up transformer and the off-site power system. This paper begins to investigate the possible effects that a GIC event might have on the power plant itself, by examining the harmonic distortion that could exist at various voltage levels in the on-site distribution system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenge Christoph
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs can be utilized as mobile storages in a power system. The use of battery chargers can cause current harmonics in the supplied AC system. In order to analyze the impact of different EVs with regardto their number and their emission of current harmonics, a generic harmonic current model of EV types was built and implemented in the power system simulation tool PSS®NETOMAC. Based on the measurement data for different types of EVs three standardized harmonic EV models were developed and parametrized. Further, the identified harmonic models are used by the computation of load flow in a modeled, German power distribution system. As a benchmark, a case scenario was studied regarding a high market penetration of EVs in the year 2030 for Germany. The impact of the EV charging on the power distribution system was analyzed and evaluated with valid power quality standards.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soomro, M.A.; Helepoto, I.A.
2014-01-01
The recent development of semiconductor technology and wide spread use of power electronic devices in power system have open the era of the power system harmonics due to increasing penetration of non-linear loads. Harmonics are widely admitted as most important issues of power quality which must be eliminated to maintain power system reliability. The tolerable THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) values must be bounded in well-defined limits recognized by IEEE-519 standard. In this work, in order to eliminate the current harmonics produced by non-linear loads, six pulse multiplication converter technique in conjunction with STSSHPE (Single Tuned Shunt Harmonic Passive Filter) is proposed. The proposed model has the capacity of harmonic cancellation of the dominant 3rd order harmonics. Besides that, the 5th and 7th order harmonics are also reduced to a diminishing level. The hardware model has been experimentally tested by PQA (Power Quality Analyzer) and simulation model is designed using MATLAB software. The acquired results have been measured by considering THD values in terms of current and voltage. Furthermore, they have been compared against IEEE-519 performance standards. The prosed model, successfully bounds the total harmonic distortion under defined limits by IEEE-519 standard. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bollen, Math; Larsson, Anders; Lundmark, Martin [Universidade de Tecnologia de Lulea (LTU) (Sweden); Wahlberg, Mats; Roennberg, Sarah [Skelleftea Kraft (Sweden)
2010-05-15
This project made feeding measurements of large group of computers during games between 2002 and 2008, including the magnitude of current in each phase and in the neutral conductor, the energy consumption and the harmonic spectrum. The presented results show that the harmonic distortion has been diminishing significantly, while the energy consumption by computer do not register important increase.
Sikora, Roman; Markiewicz, Przemysław; Pabjańczyk, Wiesława
2018-04-01
The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sikora Roman
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The power systems usually include a number of nonlinear receivers. Nonlinear receivers are the source of disturbances generated to the power system in the form of higher harmonics. The level of these disturbances describes the total harmonic distortion coefficient THD. Its value depends on many factors. One of them are the deformation and change in RMS value of supply voltage. A modern LED luminaire is a nonlinear receiver as well. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the influence of change in RMS value of supply voltage and the level of dimming of the tested luminaire on the value of the current THD. The analysis was made using a mathematical model based on multivariable polynomial fitting.
Multipole lenses with implicit poles and with harmonic distribution of current density in a coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skachkov, V.S.
1984-01-01
General theory of the multipole lense with implicit poles is presented. The thickness of lense coil is finite. Current density distribution in the coil cross section is harmonic in the azimuth direction and arbitrary in the radial one. The calculation of yoke contribution in the lence field is given. Two particular lense variants differing from each other in the method of current density radial distribution are considered and necessary calculated relations for the lense with and without yoke ar presented. A comparative analysis of physical and technological peculiarities of these lenses is performed
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverters in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective harmonic load current feedforward loop...... at the dominant harmonic frequencies. Thus, the harmonic voltage drop on the grid-side inductance and the harmonic resonances throughout a distribution feeder with multiple shunt-connected capacitors can be effectively attenuated. Simulation and laboratory test results validate the performance of the proposed...
Control of Power and Voltage of Solar Grid Connected
Allah, Boucetta Abd; Djamel, Labed
2016-01-01
Renewable energy is high on International agendas. Currently, grid-connected photovoltaic systems are a popular technology to convert solar energy into electricity. Control of power injected into the grid, maximum power point, high efficiency, and low total harmonic distortion of the currents injected into the grid are the requirements for inverter connection into the grid. Consequently, the performance of the inverters connected to the grid depends largely on the control strategy applied. In...
Operating the worldwide LHC computing grid: current and future challenges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molina, J Flix; Forti, A; Girone, M; Sciaba, A
2014-01-01
The Wordwide LHC Computing Grid project (WLCG) provides the computing and storage resources required by the LHC collaborations to store, process and analyse their data. It includes almost 200,000 CPU cores, 200 PB of disk storage and 200 PB of tape storage distributed among more than 150 sites. The WLCG operations team is responsible for several essential tasks, such as the coordination of testing and deployment of Grid middleware and services, communication with the experiments and the sites, followup and resolution of operational issues and medium/long term planning. In 2012 WLCG critically reviewed all operational procedures and restructured the organisation of the operations team as a more coherent effort in order to improve its efficiency. In this paper we describe how the new organisation works, its recent successes and the changes to be implemented during the long LHC shutdown in preparation for the LHC Run 2.
Determination of nonlinear resistance voltage-current relationships by measuring harmonics
Stafford, J. M.
1971-01-01
Test configuration measures harmonic signal amplitudes generated in nonlinear resistance. Vacuum-type voltmeter measures low frequency sinusoidal input signal amplitude and wave-analyzer measures amplitude of harmonic signals generated in junction. Input signal harmonics amplitude must not exceed that of harmonics generated in nonlinear resistance.
Multi-terminal direct-current grids modeling, analysis, and control
Chaudhuri, Nilanjan; Majumder, Rajat; Yazdani, Amirnaser
2014-01-01
A comprehensive modeling, analysis, and control design framework for multi-terminal direct current (MTDC) grids is presented together with their interaction with the surrounding AC networks and the impact on overall stability. The first book of its kind on the topic of multi-terminal DC (MTDC) grids Presents a comprehensive modeling framework for MTDC grids which is compatible with the standard AC system modeling for stability studies Includes modal analysis and study of the interactions between the MTDC grid and the surrounding AC systems Addresses the problems of autonomous power sharing an
Method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on an alternating current power grid
McEachern, Alexander; Hofmann, Ronald
2017-04-11
A method and apparatus for detecting cyber attacks on remotely-operable elements of an alternating current distribution grid. Two state estimates of the distribution grid are prepared, one of which uses micro-synchrophasors. A difference between the two state estimates indicates a possible cyber attack.
Harmonic Analysis and Active Filtering in Offshore Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
Due to presence of long high voltage cable networks, and power transformers for the grid connection, the offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) are susceptible to harmonic distortion and resonances. The grid connection of OWPP should not cause the harmonic distortion beyond the permissible limits...... at the point of common coupling (PCC). The resonance conditions should be avoided in all cases. This paper describes the harmonic analysis techniques applied on an OWPP network model. A method is proposed to estimate the harmonic current compensation from a shunt-connected active power filter to mitigate...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2018-01-01
The output currents of high-power Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) are distorted by the switching harmonics and the background harmonics in the grid voltage. This paper presents an active harmonic filtering scheme for high-power, low-frequency switching VSIs with an additional auxiliary VSI. In th...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingzhang Li
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Two-stage single-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable energy applications. Due to the presence of a second harmonic ripple across the DC bus voltage, it is very challenging to design the DC bus voltage control scheme in single-phase grid-connected inverters. The DC bus voltage controller must filter the ripple and balance a tradeoff between low harmonic distortion and high bandwidth. This paper presents a fast DC bus voltage controller, which uses a second order digital finite impulse response (FIR notch filter in conjunction with input power feedforward scheme to ensure the steady-state and dynamic performance. To gain the input power without extra hardware, a Kalman filter is incorporated to estimate the DC bus input current. At the same time, a modulation compensation strategy is implemented to eliminate the nonlinearity of the grid current control loop, which is caused by the DC bus voltage ripple. Moreover, a novel synchronous frame current controller for single-phase systems is also introduced, and its equivalent model in stationary frame has been derived. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the effective of the proposed control scheme.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2016-01-01
Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL)-type line filters are widely used in grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs), since they can provide substantially improved attenuation of switching harmonics in currents injected into the grid with lower cost, weight and power losses than their L......-type counterparts. However, the inclusion of third order LCL network complicates the current control design regarding the system stability issues because of an inherent resonance peak which appears in the open-loop transfer function of the inverter control system near the control stability boundary. To avoid...... passive (resistive) resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD) techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF) AD has...
Disturbance estimator based predictive current control of grid-connected inverters
Al-Khafaji, Ahmed Samawi Ghthwan
2013-01-01
ABSTRACT: The work presented in my thesis considers one of the modern discrete-time control approaches based on digital signal processing methods, that have been developed to improve the performance control of grid-connected three-phase inverters. Disturbance estimator based predictive current control of grid-connected inverters is proposed. For inverter modeling with respect to the design of current controllers, we choose the d-q synchronous reference frame to make it easier to understand an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansoor Ahmed Soomro
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The automation of IPS (Industrial Power System has brought about several advantages of increased productivity and efficiency but it suffers from incompatible problems of overheating, noise, complexity etc, which disturb its smooth and fault tolerant implication. When the resonance condition is reached, these effects become detrimental and disturb the whole power system. The purpose of this research work is to include single tuned shunt type passive filter for harmonic elimination of the components used in industrial power system. For this purpose, MATLAB simulation using sim Power system tool has been used to analyze the effects of current harmonics. Third harmonic effects have been removed by the addition of six pulse converter technique. The simulation results show that implication of single tuned shunt (parallel connected passive filter removes effects of succeeding order current harmonics i.e. fifth, seventh and eleventh etc. which are causing substantial damage to industrial power system. The effects of current harmonics can be solved by installing without and with the application of proposed filter. Further, it is observed that these filters contribute in reduction of THD (Total Harmonic Current Distortion followed by improvement in power factor. These results are taken considering limits of IEEE 519-1992 standards.
A Unified Current Loop Tuning Approach for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiyi Zhang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available High level penetration of renewable energy sources has reshaped modern electrical grids. For the future grid, distributed renewable power generation plants can be integrated in a larger scale. Control of grid-connected converters is required to achieve fast power reference tracking and further to present grid-supporting and fault ride-through performance. Among all of the aspects for converter control, the inner current loop for grid-connected converters characterizes the system performance considerably. This paper proposes a unified current loop tuning approach for grid-connected converters that is generally applicable in different cases. A direct discrete-time domain tuning procedure is used, and particularly, the selection of the phase margin and crossover frequency is analyzed, which acts as the main difference compared with the existing studies. As a general method, the approximation in the modeling of the controller and grid filter is avoided. The effectiveness of the tuning approach is validated in both simulation and experimental results with respect to power reference tracking, frequency and voltage supporting.
RF heating and current drive on NSTX with high harmonic fast waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, P.M.; Swain, D.W.; Rosenberg, A.L.
2003-01-01
NSTX is a small aspect ratio tokamak (R = 0.85 m, a = 0.65 m). The High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) system is a 30 MHz, 12-element array capable of launching both symmetric and directional wave spectra for plasma heating and non-inductive current drive. It has delivered up to 6 MW for short pulses and has routinely operated at ∼3 MW for 100-400 ms pulses. Results include strong, centrally-peaked electron heating in both D and He plasmas for both high and low phase velocity spectra. H-modes were obtained with application of HHFW power alone, with stored energy doubling after the L-H transition. Beta poloidal as large as unity has been obtained with significant fractions (0.4) of bootstrap current. Differences in the loop voltage are observed depending on whether the array is phased to drive current in the co- or counter-current directions. A fast ion tail with energies extending up to 140 keV has been observed when HHFW interacts with 80 keV neutral beams; neutron rate and lost ion measurements, as well as modeling, indicate significant power absorption by the fast ions. Radial rf power deposition and driven current profiles have been calculated with ray tracing and kinetic full-wave codes and compared with measurements. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, a hierarchical control system based on a novel autonomous current sharing controller for grid-connected microgrids (MGs) is presented. A three-level hierarchical control system is implemented to guarantee the power sharing performance among voltage controlled parallel inverters......, while providing the required active and reactive power to the utility grid. A communication link is used to transmit the control signal from the tertiary and secondary control levels to the primary control. Simulation results from a MG based on two grid-connected parallel inverters are shown in order...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
, which need to be considered in order to be competitive in the market. Therefore, having a flexibility to meet various requirements imposed by the standard recommendations or costumer needs is at most desirable. This makes the generated harmonic current mitigation a challenging task especially with three......-phase diode bridge rectifier, which still is preferred in many power electronic systems. This paper addresses a novel current modulation strategy using a single-switch boost three-phase diode bridge rectifier. The proposed method can selectively mitigate current harmonics, which makes it suitable...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
, which need to be considered in order to be competitive in the market. Therefore, having a flexibility to meet various requirements imposed by the standard recommendations or costumer needs is at most desirable. This makes the generated harmonic current mitigation a challenging task especially with three......-phase diode bridge rectifier, which still is preferred in many power electronic systems. This paper addresses a novel current modulation strategy using a single-switch boost three-phase diode bridge rectifier. The proposed method can selectively mitigate current harmonics, which makes it suitable...
Method to predetermine current/power flow change in a dc grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2017-01-01
occurs at one of the AC/DC converters; establishing a generalized droop feedback gain matrix G; controlling current/power flow within DC grid towards predefined setpoints, by use of control law. The invention presents an analytical approach to derive the generalized feedback gain allowing......The invention relates to a method for controlling current/power flow within a power transmission system, comprising two or more interconnected converter stations. The method comprises the steps of: providing a DC admittance matrix given from the DC grid; providing a current distribution matrix...... for a number of, such as for all possible AC/DC converter outages; providing a DC bus voltage vector for the DC grid; the DC bus voltage vector being a vector containing the values of the voltage change at the AC/DC converters, measured at the AC/DC converters, before, during and after a forced current change...
Safe current injection strategies for a STATCOM under asymmetrical grid faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez, Pedro; Medeiros, Gustavo; Luna, Alvaro
2010-01-01
This paper explores different strategies to set the reference current of a STATCOM under unbalanced grid voltage conditions and determines the maximum deliverable reactive power in each case to guarantee the injected current is permanently within the STATCOM secure operation limits. The paper...... presents a comprehensive derivation of the proposed STATCOM control strategies to set the reactive current reference under unbalanced grid faults, together with an extensive evaluation using simulation and experimental results from a low-scale laboratory setup in order to verify and validate the dynamic...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.
2012-01-01
. In these codes, the injection of positive- and negative-sequence current components becomes necessary for fulfilling, among others, the low-voltage ride-through requirements during balanced and unbalanced grid faults. However, the performance of classical dq current controllers, applied to power converters......, under unbalanced grid-voltage conditions is highly deficient, due to the unavoidable appearance of current oscillations. This paper analyzes the performance of the double synchronous reference frame controller and improves its structure by adding a decoupling network for estimating and compensating...
Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonic Emission of Large Offshore Wind Farms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert
2011-01-01
In this article, a new probabilistic method of as-sessment of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms is presented. Based on measurements from the British wind farm Burbo Banks, probability density functions are estimated for the dominating low order harmonic currents injected by a single...... turbine. The degree and type of dependence between the harmonic emission and the operating point of a single turbine is established. A model of Burbo Banks, suitable for harmonic load flow studies, is created in DIgSILENT Power Factory along with a DPL-script that deals with the probabilistic issues...... of the harmonic emission. The simulated harmonic distortion at the PCC is compared to measurement. This reveals some diffi-culties regarding harmonic load flow studies. The harmonic background distortion in the grid to where the wind farm is connected must be included in the study. Furthermore, a very detailed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reyes, M.; Rodriguez, Pedro; Vazquez, S.
2012-01-01
-sequence current components is becoming necessary for achieving new capabilities like the reactive power injection during a grid fault. This paper deals with a fundamental issue in this topic, i.e., the performance of the current controller. Classical dq controllers, which are extensively used in industrial...
Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng
2011-01-01
Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeongsu Bak
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a balanced current control strategy for the current source rectifier (CSR stage of an indirect matrix converter (IMC under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. If the three-phase grid connected to the voltage source inverter (VSI of the IMC has unbalanced voltage conditions, it affects the currents of the CSR stage and VSI stage, and the currents are distorted. Above all, the distorted currents of the CSR stage cause instability in the overall system, which can affect the life span of the system. Therefore, in this paper, a control strategy for balanced currents in the CSR stage is proposed. To achieve balanced currents in the CSR stage, the VSI stage should receive DC power without ripple components from the CSR stage. This is implemented by controlling the currents in the VSI stage. Therefore, the proposed control strategy decouples the positive and negative phase-sequence components existing in the unbalanced voltages and currents of the VSI stage. Using the proposed control strategy under unbalanced grid voltage conditions, the stability and life span of the overall system can be improved. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and experimental results.
Short-circuit current improvement in thin cells with a gridded back contact
Giuliano, M.; Wohlgemuth, J.
1980-01-01
The use of gridded back contact on thin silicon solar cells 50 micrometers was investigated. An unexpected increase in short circuit current of almost 10 percent was experienced for 2 cm x 2 cm cells. Control cells with the standard continuous contact metallization were fabricated at the same time as the gridded back cells with all processes identical up to the formation of the back contact. The gridded back contact pattern was delineated by evaporation of Ti-Pd over a photo-resist mask applied to the back of the wafer; the Ti-Pd film on the controls was applied in the standard fashion in a continuous layer over the back of the cell. The Ti-Pd contacts were similarly applied to the front of the wafer, and the grid pattern on both sides of the cell was electroplated with 8-10 micrometers of silver.
Grid-Voltage-Feedforward Active Damping for Grid-Connected Inverter with LCL Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Minghui; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
For the grid-connected voltage source inverters, the feedforward scheme of grid voltage is commonly adopted to mitigate the current distortion caused by grid background voltages harmonics. This paper investigates the grid-voltage-feedforward active damping for grid connected inverter with LCL...... filter. It reveals that proportional feedforward control can not only fulfill the mitigation of grid disturbance, but also offer damping effects on the LCL filter resonance. Digital delays are intrinsic to digital controlled inverters; with these delays, the feedforward control can be equivalent...
RF heating and current drive on NSTX with high harmonic fast waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryan, P.M.
2002-01-01
NSTX is a small aspect ratio tokamak with a large dielectric constant (50-100); under these conditions high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) will readily damp on electrons via Landau damping and TTMP. The HHFW system is a 30 MHz, 12-element array capable of launching both symmetric and directional wave spectra for plasma heating and non-inductive current drive. It has delivered up to 6 MW for short pulses and has routinely operated at ∼3-4 MW for 100-200 ms pulses. Results include strong, centrally-peaked electron heating in both D and He plasmas, for both high and low phase velocity spectra. H-modes were obtained with application of HHFW power alone, with stored energy doubling after the L-H transition. Beta poloidal as large as unity has been obtained with large fractions (0.4) of bootstrap current. A fast ion tail with energies extending up to 140 keV has been observed when HHFW interacts with 80 keV neutral beams; neutron rate and lost ion measurements, as well as modeling, indicate significant power absorption by the fast ions. Radial power deposition profiles are being calculated with ray tracing and kinetic full-wave codes and benchmarked against measurements. (author)
RMS Current of a Photovoltaic Generator in Grid-Connected PV Systems: Definition and Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. J. Pérez
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper includes a definition of a new and original concept in the photovoltaic field, RMS current of a photovoltaic generator for grid-connected systems. The RMS current is very useful for calculating energy losses in cables used in a PV generator. As well, a current factor has been defined in order to simplify RMS current calculation. This factor provides an immediate (quick and easy calculation method for the RMS current that does not depend on the case particular conditions (orientation, location, etc.. RMS current and current factor values have been calculated for different locations and modules.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth
2014-01-01
In recent grid codes for wind power integration, wind turbines are required to stay connected during grid faults even when the grid voltage drops down to zero; and also to inject reactive current in proportion to the voltage drop. However, a physical fact, instability of grid-connected converters...... during current injection to very low (close to zero) voltage faults, has been omitted, i.e., failed to be noticed in the previous wind power studies and grid code revisions. In this paper, the instability of grid side converters of wind turbines defined as loss of synchronism (LOS), where the wind...... turbines lose synchronism with the grid fundamental frequency (e.g., 50 Hz) during very deep voltage sags, is explored with its theory, analyzed and a novel stability solution based on PLL frequency is proposed; and both are verified with power system simulations and by experiments on a grid...
Control Strategy for Microgrid Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Wenzhao; Zhang, X.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical analysis of the inherent reason of current harmonic and power oscillation phenomena in case of operating the microgrid inverter under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. In order to flexibly control the current harmonic and power oscillation, a new stationary...... inverter. Finally, the performance evaluation tests are carried out under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. Results verify the effectiveness of the propose method....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Fallah Ardashir
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new single phase transformerless Photovoltaic (PV inverter for grid connected systems. It consists of six power switches, two diodes, one capacitor and filter at the output stage. The neutral of the grid is directly connected to the negative terminal of the source. This results in constant common mode voltage and zero leakage current. Model Predictive Controller (MPC technique is used to modulate the converter to reduce the output current ripple and filter requirements. The main advantages of this inverter are compact size, low cost, flexible grounding configuration. Due to brevity, the operating principle and analysis of the proposed circuit are presented in brief. Simulation and experimental results of 200W prototype are shown at the end to validate the proposed topology and concept. The results obtained clearly verifies the performance of the proposed inverter and its practical application for grid connected PV systems.
Cóbreces Álvarez, Santiago
2009-01-01
Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado 2011 This thesis focuses on the design and analysis of the control of voltage source converters connected to the grid through LCL filters. Particularly it is centered on grids presenting uncertainty in their intrinsic dynamic parameters and their influence over the inner control loop of a grid converter: the current control. To that end, the thesis follows a three-fold discussion. Firstly, the thesis studies the grid model, its uncertain parameters and pr...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pan, Donghua; Ruan, Xinbo; Wang, Xiongfei
2018-01-01
Single-loop current control is an attractive scheme for the LCL-type grid-connected inverter due to its simplicity and low cost. However, conventional single-loop control schemes, which command either the inverter current or the grid current, are subject to the specific resonance frequency regions....... The weighted average current control, which splits the filter capacitor into two parts (in form of an LCCL filter) and commands the current flowing between these two parts, is independent of the resonance frequency, but on the other hand, it is limited by the poor sensitivity to the grid impedance variation...... and weak stability in the grid current. These limitations are comprehensively explained in this paper and then addressed by identifying that the single-loop weighted average current control is equivalent to the dual-loop grid current control with an inherent capacitor current active damping. By tuning...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mousazadeh, Seyyed Yousef; Jalilain, Alireza; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2018-01-01
In microgrids, Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) interfacing Distributed Generation (DG) units can be operated in Voltage or Current Controlled Modes (VCM/CCM). In this paper, a coordinated control of CCM and VCM units for reactive power sharing and voltage harmonics compensation is proposed....... This decentralized control scheme is based on the local measurement of signals. In this way, the need for communication links is removed which results in a simpler and more reliable structure compared to the communication based control structures. To be more exact, the VCM units contribute to harmonics compensation....... Experimental and simulation studies show that the harmonics compensation is achieved by using only local measurements in presence of virtual admittance/impedance schemes of CCM/VCM units. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the reactive power sharing among the CCM and VCM units is obtained based...
[The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].
Johansen, Rolf
2008-03-13
Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.
Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J
2002-04-01
Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.
Ouyang, Yong; He, Jinliang; Hu, Jun; Wang, Shan X
2012-11-09
Advanced sensing and measurement techniques are key technologies to realize a smart grid. The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect has revolutionized the fields of data storage and magnetic measurement. In this work, a design of a GMR current sensor based on a commercial analog GMR chip for applications in a smart grid is presented and discussed. Static, dynamic and thermal properties of the sensor were characterized. The characterizations showed that in the operation range from 0 to ±5 A, the sensor had a sensitivity of 28 mV·A(-1), linearity of 99.97%, maximum deviation of 2.717%, frequency response of −1.5 dB at 10 kHz current measurement, and maximum change of the amplitude response of 0.0335%·°C(-1) with thermal compensation. In the distributed real-time measurement and monitoring of a smart grid system, the GMR current sensor shows excellent performance and is cost effective, making it suitable for applications such as steady-state and transient-state monitoring. With the advantages of having a high sensitivity, high linearity, small volume, low cost, and simple structure, the GMR current sensor is promising for the measurement and monitoring of smart grids.
Sprangers, R.L.J.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Waarma, J.; Lomonova, E.A.
2014-01-01
Recently, strong improvements have been made in the applicability of harmonic modeling techniques for electrical machines with slotted structures. Various implementations for permanent magnet motors and actuators have been investigated and applied in design and optimization tools. For the slotted
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Yang; Li, Zipeng; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
typical current feedback control schemes in LCL grid-connected system are analyzed and compared systematically. Analysis in s-domain take the effect of the digital computation and modulation delay into account. The stability analysis is presented by root locus in the discrete domain, the optimal values......Proportional-resonant (PR) compensator and LCL filter becomes a better choice in grid-connected inverter system with high performance and low costs. However, the resonance phenomenon caused by LCL filter affect the system stability significantly. In this paper, the stability problem of three...
Guest Editorial: Flexible Operation and Control for Medium Voltage Direct-Current (MVDC) Grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Yong; Guerrero, Josep M.; Siano, Pierluigi
2017-01-01
We appreciate very much the support from the IET Power Electronics editorial board for this Special Issue on ‘Flexible Operation and Control for Medium Voltage Direct-Current (MVDC) Grid’. In this final version for publication, 15 papers have been selected for this Special Issue. Three papers...... relate to the topology of MVDC converter, four papers relate to the control of MVDC converter, four papers relate to the introduction of application fields of MVDC grid, and four papers relate to the semiconductor power device and drives towards the application in the medium- and high-voltage DC grid....
New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iman Lorzadeh
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type line filters are widely used in grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs, since they can provide substantially improved attenuation of switching harmonics in currents injected into the grid with lower cost, weight and power losses than their L-type counterparts. However, the inclusion of third order LCL network complicates the current control design regarding the system stability issues because of an inherent resonance peak which appears in the open-loop transfer function of the inverter control system near the control stability boundary. To avoid passive (resistive resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF AD has attracted considerable attention due to its effective damping performance and simple implementation. This paper thus presents a state-of-the-art review of resonance and stability characteristics of CCF-based AD approaches for a digitally-controlled LCL filter-based grid-connected inverter taking into account the effect of computation and pulse width modulation (PWM delays along with a detailed analysis on proper design and implementation.
Analysis of Three-Phase Rectifier Systems with Controlled DC-Link Current Under Unbalanced Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kumar, Dinesh; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz
2017-01-01
Voltage unbalance is the most common disturbance in distribution networks, which give undesirable effects on many grid connected power electronics systems including Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD). Severe voltage unbalance can force three-phase rectifiers into almost single-phase operation, which...... degrades the grid power quality and also imposes a significant negative impact on the ASD system. This major power quality issue affecting the conventional rectifiers can be attenuated by controlling the DC-link current based on an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique. The purpose of this digest...... is to analyze and compare the performance of an EI with a conventional three-phase rectifier under unbalanced grid conditions. Experimental and simulation results validate the proposed mathematical modelling. Further analysis and benchmarking will be provided in the final paper....
Teruya, Daisuke; Masukawa, Shigeo; Iida, Shoji
We propose a novel inverter that can be operated either as a Current Source Inverter (CSI) or as a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) by changing only the control signals. It is proper to apply it to the interconnecting system with renewal energy, such as photovoltaic cells or wind generation systems, to a grid. This inverter is usually operated as the CSI connected to the grid. Even if the energy source has a lower voltage than the grid, the energy can be supplied to the grid through the proposed inverter. The power factor can be briefly maintained at almost unity. When power supply from the grid is interrupted, the proposed circuit should be operated as the VSI in the stand-alone operation mode. In this way, the circuit can maintain a constant output voltage to the loads. In this paper, the proposed circuit configuration and the control schemes for both the CSI and the VSI are described. Further, the circuit characteristics for both are discussed experimentally.
SHAF for Mitigation of Current Harmonics Using p-q Method with PI and Fuzzy Controllers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Panda
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Commencing with incandescent light bulb, every load today creates harmonics. Unfortunately, these loads vary with respect to their amount of harmonic content and response to problems caused by harmonics. Issue of Harmonics are of a greater concern to engineers, building designers and in industrial applications because they do more than distort voltage waveforms, they can overheat the building wiring, cause nuisance tripping, overheat transformer units, and cause random end-user equipment failures. Thus power quality has become more and more serious with each passing day. As a result active power filter (APF gains much more attention due to excellent harmonic compensation. But still the performance of the active filter seems to be in contradictions with different control techniques. The main objective of this paper is to analyse shunt active filter with fuzzy and pi controllers. To carry out the analysis, we consider active and reactive power method (p-q. Extensive simulations were carried out; simulations were performed with balance, unbalanced and non sinusoidal conditions. Simulation results validate the dynamic behaviour of fuzzy logic controller over pi controller.
Smart grids in the colombian electric system: Current situation and potential opportunities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Mauricio Giral Ramírez
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Context: This paper focuses on providing a functional analysis of smart grids, with the purpose of establishing a framework to identify the main characteristics of the current electric interconnection system in Colombia. It also names the positive incentives proposed by the Colombian government to support both research and development projects that implement non-conventional energy sources and promoting energy management based on efficiency. Method: An architecture model that describes the components interoperability of a smart grid is presented using a descriptive methodology. Results: The results include a list of the objectives established by the Colombian public and private entities related to energy development, specially focusing on the opportunities to provide some kind of artificial intelligence to the current electrical system. Conclusions: It is necessary for the Colombian energy system to supply the energy demand considering electrical safety, social equity, and the minimum environmental impact. These restrictions impose new challenges for the energy system itself: From a technical point of view, the traditional electrical grid must be outfitted with the characteristics of a smart grid, and from a legal perspective, it is essential to generate a clear regulatory framework that promotes the development of this type of technology.
CURRENT TRENDS IN TAX HARMONIZATION AND COMPETITION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gherman Adela-Teodora
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This article treats on the fiscal harmonization process within the European Union being indispensable for assuring loyalty in the competition on its single market, given the fact that different system of taxation had direct and powerful impact on the prices level and on chosing the location for production and distribution activities. Both direct and indirect taxation distort the four fundamental freedoms of the single market. Most of the European Unions regulations regarding fiscal harmonization resemble to the Directive regarding especially the indirect taxes: VAT, Excises. The fiscal reforms from the member states have to be conceived in such a manner that they take into account the necessity of fiscal harmonization on EU level, creating a reasonable compromise between each country's sovereignty and the desideratum of removing fiscal barriers from the normal functioning of the single market.
Evaluation of ink-jet printed current collecting grids and bushbars for ITO-free organic solar cells
Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E,W.C.; Sabik, S.; Gorter, H.H.; Barink, M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Blom, P.W.M.
2012-01-01
ITO-free organic solar cells with ink-jet printed current collecting grids and high conducting PEDOT:PSS as composite anode are demonstrated. Inkjet printed current collecting grids with different cross-sectional are as have been investigated. The effect of the width and height of the gridlines and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Leming; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An
2016-01-01
-of-freedom single-current control (RTDOF-SCC) strategy is proposed, which mainly includes the synchronous reference frame quasi-proportional-integral (SRFQPI) control and robust grid-current-feedback active damping (RGCFAD) control. The proposed SRFQPI control can compensate the local-loads reactive power......, and regulate the instantaneous grid current without steady-state error regardless of the fundamental frequency fluctuation. Simultaneously, the proposed RGCFAD control effectively damps the LCL-resonance peak regardless of the grid-impedance variation, and further improves both transient and steady...
Xu, Jian-Long; Liu, Yan-Hua; Gao, Xu; Sun, Yilin; Shen, Su; Cai, Xinlei; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Sui-Dong
2017-08-23
Flexible transparent solid-state supercapacitors have attracted immerse attention for the power supply of next-generation flexible "see-through" or "invisible" electronics. For fabrication of such devices, high-performance flexible transparent current collectors are highly desired. In this paper, the utilization of embedded Ag grid transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs) fabricated by a facile soft ultraviolet imprinting lithography method combined with scrap techniques, as the current collector for flexible transparent solid-state supercapacitors, is demonstrated. The embedded Ag grid TCEs exhibit not only excellent optoelectronic properties (R S ∼ 2.0 Ω sq -1 and T ∼ 89.74%) but also robust mechanical properties, which could meet the conductivity, transparency, and flexibility needs of current collectors for flexible transparent supercapacitors. The obtained supercapacitor exhibits large specific capacitance, long cycling life, high optical transparency (T ∼ 80.58% at 550 nm), high flexibility, and high stability. Owing to the embedded Ag grid TCE structure, the device shows a slight capacitance loss of 2.6% even after 1000 cycles of repetitive bending for a bending radius of up to 2.0 mm. This paves the way for developing high-performance current collectors and thus flexible transparent energy storage devices, and their general applicability opens up opportunities for flexible transparent electronics.
Improved control strategy for the three-phase grid-connected inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Zhilei; Xiao, Lan; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
An improved control strategy for the three-phase grid-connected inverter with space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is proposed. When the grid current contains harmonics, the d- and q-axis grid currents will be interacted, and then the waveform quality of the grid current will be poorer....... As the reference output voltage cannot directly reflect the change of the reference grid current, the dynamic response of the grid-connected inverter is slow. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, the d- and q-axis grid currents in the decoupled components of the grid current controller can be substituted...... by the d- and q-axis reference grid currents, respectively. The operating principles of the traditional and proposed control methods are illustrated. Experimental results for a 15-kVA three-phase grid-connected inverter with SVPWM verify the theoretical analysis. Compared with the traditional control...
Harmonic Analyzing of the Double PWM Converter in DFIG Based on Mathematical Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Liu
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Harmonic pollution of double fed induction generators (DFIGs has become a vital concern for its undesirable effects on power quality issues of wind generation systems and grid-connected system, and the double pulse width modulation (PWMconverter is one of the main harmonic sources in DFIGs. Thus the harmonic analysis of the converter in DFIGs is a necessary step to evaluate their harmonic pollution of DFIGs. This paper proposes a detailed harmonic modeling method to discuss the main harmonic components in a converter. In general the harmonic modeling could be divided into the low-order harmonic part (up to 30th order and the high-order harmonic part (greater than order 30 parts in general. The low-order harmonics are produced by the circuit topology and control algorithm, and the harmonic component will be different if the control strategy changes. The high-order harmonics are produced by the modulation of the switching function to the dc variable. In this paper, the low-order harmonic modeling is established according to the directions of power flow under the vector control (VC, and the high-order harmonic modeling is established by the switching function of space vector PWM and dc currents. Meanwhile, the simulations of harmonic a components in a converter are accomplished in a real time digital simulation system. The results indicate that the proposed modeling could effectively show the harmonics distribution of the converter in DFIGs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
Grid-connected renewables are increasingly developed in recent years, e.g. wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems. Synchronization of the injected current with the grid is mandatory. However, grid disturbances like voltage sags, harmonics, and frequency deviations may occur during operatio...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr FOLĘGA
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Li, Lijuan
2011-01-01
Adaptive hysteresis band current control(AHB CC) is used to control the three-phase grid currents by means of grid side converter in wind power generation system in this paper. AHB has reached the good purpose with PLL (Lock phase loop). First the mathematical models of each part are given......, transformer and grid, and control parts, etc. The simulation results have verified that the control strategy is feasible to fit for control of gird currents, active power, reactive power and DC-link voltage in wind power generation system....
Direct-current vector control of three-phase grid-connected rectifier-inverter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Shuhui; Haskew, Timothy A.; Hong, Yang-Ki; Xu, Ling [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35475 (United States)
2011-02-15
The three-phase grid-connected converter is widely used in renewable and electric power system applications. Traditionally, control of the three-phase grid-connected converter is based on the standard decoupled d-q vector control mechanism. Nevertheless, the study of this paper shows that there is a limitation in the conventional standard vector control method. Some of the limitations have also been found recently by other researchers. To overcome the shortage of the conventional vector control technique, this paper proposes a new direct-current d-q vector control mechanism in a nested-loop control structure, based on which an optimal control strategy is developed in a nonlinear programming formulation. The behaviors of both the conventional and proposed control methods are compared and evaluated in simulation and laboratory hardware experiment environments, both of which demonstrates that the proposed approach is effective for grid-connected power converter control in a wide system conditions while the conventional standard vector control approach may behave improperly especially when the converter operates beyond its PWM saturation limit. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Afshari, Ehsan; Moradi, Gholam Reza; Rahimi, Ramin
2017-01-01
Power quality and voltage control are among the most important aspects of the grid-connected power converter operation under faults. Non-sinusoidal current is injected during unbalanced voltage sag and active or/and reactive power includes double frequency content. This paper introduces a novel...... control strategy to mitigate the double grid frequency oscillations in the active power and dc-link voltage of the two-stage three-phase grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) inverters during unbalanced faults. With the proposed control method, PV inverter injects sinusoidal currents under unbalanced grid...... faults. In addition, an efficient and easy-to-implement current limitation method is introduced, which can effectively limit the injected currents to the rated value during faults. In this case, the fault-ride-through operation is ensured and it will not trigger the overcurrent protection. A non...
Jin, N.; Yang, F.; Shang, S. Y.; Tao, T.; Liu, J. S.
2016-08-01
According to the limitations of the LVRT technology of traditional photovoltaic inverter existed, this paper proposes a low voltage ride through (LVRT) control method based on model current predictive control (MCPC). This method can effectively improve the photovoltaic inverter output characteristics and response speed. The MCPC method of photovoltaic grid-connected inverter designed, the sum of the absolute value of the predictive current and the given current error is adopted as the cost function with the model predictive control method. According to the MCPC, the optimal space voltage vector is selected. Photovoltaic inverter has achieved automatically switches of priority active or reactive power control of two control modes according to the different operating states, which effectively improve the inverter capability of LVRT. The simulation and experimental results proves that the proposed method is correct and effective.
Flexible Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverter under Unbalanced Grid Faults without PLL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guo, Xiaoqiang; Liu, W.; Zhang, X.
2015-01-01
Power oscillation and current quality are the important performance targets for the grid-connected inverter under unbalanced grid faults. Firstly, the inherent reason for the current harmonic and power oscillation of the inverter is discussed with a quantitative analysis. Secondly, a new control...... strategy is proposed to achieve the coordinate control of power and current quality without the need for a phase-locked loop or voltage/current positive/negative sequence extraction calculation. Finally, the experimental tests are conducted under unbalanced grid faults, and the results verify...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Lei, E-mail: stclchen1982@163.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zheng, Feng; Deng, Changhong; Li, Shichun; Li, Miao; Liu, Hui [School of Electrical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhu, Lin [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996 (United States); Guo, Fang [Department of Substation, Guang Dong Electric Power Design Institute, Guangzhou 510663 (China)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • A modified flux-coupling type SFCL is suggested to enhance the transient performance of a micro-grid. • The SFCL’s main contribution is to improve the micro-grid’s fault ride-through capability. • The SFCL also can make the micro-grid carry out a smooth transition between its grid-connected and islanded modes. • The simulations show that the SFCL can availably strengthen the micro-grid’s voltage and frequency stability. - Abstract: Concerning the application and development of a micro-grid system which is designed to accommodate high penetration of intermittent renewable resources, one of the main issues is related to an increase in the fault-current level. It is crucial to ensure the micro-grid’s operational stability and service reliability when a fault occurs in the main network. In this paper, our research group suggests a modified flux-coupling type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to enhance the transient performance of a typical micro-grid system. The SFCL is installed at the point of common coupling (PCC) between the main network and the micro-grid, and it is expected to actively improve the micro-grid’s fault ride-through capability. And for some specific faults, the micro-grid should disconnect from the main network, and the SFCL’s contribution is to make the micro-grid carry out a smooth transition between its grid-connected and islanded modes. Related theory derivation, technical discussion and simulation analysis are performed. From the demonstrated results, applying the SFCL can effectively limit the fault current, maintain the power balance, and enhance the voltage and frequency stability of the micro-grid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Lei; Zheng, Feng; Deng, Changhong; Li, Shichun; Li, Miao; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Guo, Fang
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A modified flux-coupling type SFCL is suggested to enhance the transient performance of a micro-grid. • The SFCL’s main contribution is to improve the micro-grid’s fault ride-through capability. • The SFCL also can make the micro-grid carry out a smooth transition between its grid-connected and islanded modes. • The simulations show that the SFCL can availably strengthen the micro-grid’s voltage and frequency stability. - Abstract: Concerning the application and development of a micro-grid system which is designed to accommodate high penetration of intermittent renewable resources, one of the main issues is related to an increase in the fault-current level. It is crucial to ensure the micro-grid’s operational stability and service reliability when a fault occurs in the main network. In this paper, our research group suggests a modified flux-coupling type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to enhance the transient performance of a typical micro-grid system. The SFCL is installed at the point of common coupling (PCC) between the main network and the micro-grid, and it is expected to actively improve the micro-grid’s fault ride-through capability. And for some specific faults, the micro-grid should disconnect from the main network, and the SFCL’s contribution is to make the micro-grid carry out a smooth transition between its grid-connected and islanded modes. Related theory derivation, technical discussion and simulation analysis are performed. From the demonstrated results, applying the SFCL can effectively limit the fault current, maintain the power balance, and enhance the voltage and frequency stability of the micro-grid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arpinar, V E; Muftuler, L T; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E
2012-01-01
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique, electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently, the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100 µA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10–400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200 µA total injected current and tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul (1998 Elektrik 6 215–25) with Tikhonov regularization and the harmonic B Z proposed by Oh et al (2003 Magn. Reason. Med. 50 875–8). The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200 µA and 5 mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200 µA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7 µA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5 mA total injected current results in 367 µA in imaging slice. Total acquisition
Application of over-current relay in offshore wind power plant grid with VSC-HVDC connection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Teodorescu, Remus [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Rodriguez, Pedro [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Terrassa (Spain). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kjaer, Philip C. [Vestas Technology R and D, Aarhus (Denmark)
2011-07-01
This paper presents the setting and coordination of over-current relays in an offshore wind power plant (WPP) grid connected only to the power electronic converters with limited fault current capability. The limited fault current injection capability of the converters has been considered as a hindrance for the relay setting. This characteristic can be utilized to develop a deterministic picture of the radial grid network and then the relays settings could be applied. The relay coordination has been demonstrated through an implementation in the Real Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) platform. The setting of relay parameters based upon maximum nominal currents is explained and the consequences are investigated. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tang, Yi; Yoon, Changwoo; Zhu, Rongwu
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the stability regions of current control for LCL-filtered grid-connected converters, where no active or passive damping is required to stabilize the closed-loop control system. It is already identified in the literature that if the LCL resonance frequency is placed within 1....../6 to 1/2 of the system sampling frequency, the grid current control can be directly used without damping. If the resonance frequency is smaller than 1/6 of the sampling frequency, the converter current control should then be adopted. This paper further extends the analysis to the cases where...... the resonance frequency could be larger than 1/2 of the sampling frequency, and derives the complete stability regions for both grid and converter current control. Interestingly, it is found that for any given LCL-filter design, there will always be one stable current control design without any damping, which...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SINGH Alka
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Use of distributed resources is growing in developing countries like India and in developed nations too. The increased acceptance of suchresources is mainly due to their modularity, increased reliability, good power quality and environment friendly operation. These are currently being interfaced to the existing systems using voltage source inverters (VSC’s. The control of such distributed resources is significantly different than the conventional power systems mainly because the VSC’s have no inertia unlike the synchronous generators.This paper deals with the Matlab modeling and design of control aspects of one such distributed source feeding a common load. A grid connected supply is also available. The control algorithm is developed for real and reactive power sharing of the load between thedistributed source and the grid. The developed control scheme is tested for linear (R-L load as well as nonlinear loads. With suitable modifications, the control algorithm can be extended for several distributed resources connected in parallel.
"DCC+G : Direct Current Components and Grid" : project poster presentation
Rykov, K.
2014-01-01
380 V DC power grids are the most energy-efficient electricity distribution method in buildings. Furthermore, building-integrated solar power systems with DC grid connection are lower cost and have a faster return on investment (ROI) than classical 230V/400V AC power distribution grids. Thus DC
Milood Almelian, Mohamad; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Asghaiyer Omran, Mohamed; Ullah Sheikh, Usman
2018-04-01
Power quality-related issues such as current and voltage distortions can adversely affect home and industrial appliances. Although several conventional techniques such as the use of passive and active filters have been developed to increase power quality standards, these methods have challenges and are inadequate due to the increasing number of applications. The Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is a modern strategy towards correcting the imperfections of voltage and load current supply. A UPQC is a combination of both series and shunt active power filters in a back-to-back manner with a common DC link capacitor. The control of the voltage of the DC link capacitor is important in achieving a desired UPQC performance. In this paper, the UPQC with a Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) was used to precisely eliminate the imperfections of voltage and current harmonics. The results of the simulation studies using MATLAB/Simulink and Simpower system programming for R-L load associated through an uncontrolled bridge rectifier was used to assess the execution process. The UPQC with FLC was simulated for a system with distorted load current and a system with distorted source voltage and load current. The outcome of the comparison of %THD in the load current and source voltage before and after using UPQC for the two cases was presented.
Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.
2013-01-01
voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lar, Ionut Andrei; Radulescu, Mircea; Ritchie, Ewen
2012-01-01
A comparison between two current control methods of grid side inverter, PI current control and Robust Forward control is made. PI control is implemented in d-q synchronous frame while Forward is implemented in abc stationary frames.The report contains both simulations and experimental test wich...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez, Pedro; Candela, J. I.; Luna, A.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a new solution for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks. The original four-branch star (FBS) filter topology presented in this paper is characterized by a particular layout of single-phase inductances and capacitors, without using any transformer......, a specific implementation of a three-phase four-wire hybrid power filter is presented as an illustrative application of the filtering topology. An extensive evaluation using simulation and experimental results from a DSP-based laboratory prototype is conducted in order to verify and validate the good...... only passive components are employed, or as a hybrid filter, when its behavior is improved by integrating a power converter into the filter structure. The paper analyzes the proposed topology, and derives fundamental concepts about the control of the resulting hybrid power filter. From this analysis...
Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demirok, Erhan
Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators...... of these inverters may depend on grid connection rules which are forced by DSOs. Minimum requirement expected from PV inverters is to transfer maximum power by taking direct current (DC) form from PV modules and release it into AC grid and also continuously keep the inverters synchronized to the grid even under...... for this problem but PV inverters connected to highly capacitive networks are able to employ extra current and voltage harmonics compensation to avoid triggering network resonances at low order frequencies. The barriers such as harmonics interaction, flicker, fault current contribution and dc current injections...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chunjiang; Chai, Xiuhui
2018-01-01
In three-phase four-wire systems, unbalanced loads can cause grid currents to be unbalanced, and this may cause the neutral point potential on the grid side to shift. The neutral point potential shift will worsen the control precision as well as the performance of the threephase four-wire unified...... fluctuations, and elaborates the interaction between unbalanced grid currents and DC bus voltage fluctuations; two control strategies of UPQC under three-phase stationary coordinate based on the MCA are given, and finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy are verified...... power quality conditioner (UPQC), and it also leads to unbalanced three-phase output voltage, even causing damage to electric equipment. To deal with unbalanced loads, this paper proposes a matching-ratio compensation algorithm (MCA) for the fundamental active component of load currents...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Mirabedini, H.
2001-01-01
One method for on-line fault diagnosis in synchronous generator is stator current harmonics analysis. Then artificial neural network is considered in this paper in order to evaluate stator current harmonics in different loads. Training set of artificial neural network is made ready by generator modeling, finite element method and state space model. Many points from generator capability curve are used in order to complete this set. Artificial neural network which is used in this paper is a percept ron network with a single hidden layer, Eight hidden neurons and back propagation algorithm. Results are indicated that the trained artificial neural network can identify stator current harmonics for arbitrary load from the capability curve. The error is less than 10% in comparison with values obtained directly from the CFE-SS algorithm. The rating parameters of modeled generator are 43950 (kV A), 11(KV), 3000 (rpm), 50 (H Z), (P F=0.8)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Renke; Tucci, Michele; Martinelli, Andrea
2018-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new decentralized control scheme for Microgrid (MG) clusters, given by the interconnection of atomic dc MGs, each composed by grid-forming and grid-feeding converters. In particular, we develop a new Plug-and-Play (PnP) voltage/current controller for each MG in order...... to achieve simultaneous voltage support and current feeding function with local references. The coefficients of each stabilizing controller are characterized by explicit inequalities, which are related only to local electrical parameters of the MG. With the proposed controller, each MG can plug...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guido Ala
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a first investigation on the effects of lightning stroke on medium voltage installations’ grounding systems, interconnected with the metal shields of the Medium Voltage (MV distribution grid cables or with bare buried copper ropes. The study enables us to evaluate the distribution of the lightning current among interconnected ground electrodes in order to estimate if the interconnection, usually created to reduce ground potential rise during a single-line-to-ground fault, can give place to dangerous situations far from the installation hit by the lightning stroke. Four different case studies of direct lightning stroke are presented and discussed: (1 two secondary substations interconnected by the cables’ shields; (2 two secondary substations interconnected by a bare buried conductor; (3 a high voltage/medium voltage station connected with a secondary substation by the medium voltage cables’ shields; (4 a high voltage/medium voltage station connected with a secondary substation by a bare buried conductor. The results of the simulations show that a higher peak-lowering action on the lighting-stroke current occurs due to the use of bare conductors as interconnection elements in comparison to the cables’ shields.
Zero-Axis Virtual Synchronous Coordinate Based Current Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Longyue Yang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Unbalanced power has a great influence on the safe and stable operation of the distribution network system. The static power compensator, which is essentially a grid-connected inverter, is an effective solution to the three-phase power imbalance problem. In order to solve the tracking error problem of zero-sequence AC current signals, a novel control strategy based on zero-axis virtual synchronous coordinates is proposed in this paper. By configuring the operation of filter transmission matrices, a specific orthogonal signal is obtained for zero-axis reconstruction. In addition, a controller design scheme based on this method is proposed. Compared with the traditional zero-axis direct control, this control strategy is equivalent to adding a frequency tuning module by the orthogonal signal generator. The control gain of an open loop system can be equivalently promoted through linear transformation. With its clear mathematical meaning, zero- sequence current control can be controlled with only a first-order linear controller. Through reasonable parameter design, zero steady-state error, fast response and strong stability can be achieved. Finally, the performance of the proposed control strategy is verified by both simulations and experiments.
Simulation of Fuzzy Adaptive PI Controlled Grid Interactive Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Necmi ALTIN
2009-03-01
Full Text Available In this study, a voltage source grid interactive inverter is modeled and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink. Inverter is designed as current controlled and a fuzzy-PI current controller used for the generation of switching pattern to shape the inverter output current. The grid interactive inverter consists of a line frequency transformer and a LC type filter. Galvanic isolation between the grid and renewable energy source is obtained by the line frequency transformer and LC filter is employed to filter the high frequency harmonic components in current waveform due to PWM switching and to reduce the output current THD. Results of the MATLAB/Simulink simulation show that inverter output current is in sinusoidal waveform and in phase with line voltage, and current harmonics are in the limits of international standards (
Impact of wind power plant reactive current injection during asymmetrical grid faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak, Claus Leth
2013-01-01
As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines (WTs) are installed in the power system; grid codes for wind power integration are being generated to sustain stable power system operation with non-synchronous generation. Common to most of the grid codes, wind power plants (WPPs...... faults, is investigated, which was not considered in the wind power impact studies before....
A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Senad Apelfröjd
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes a back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology for a marine current energy converter. A prototype marine current energy converter has been deployed by a research group at Uppsala University. The concept behind the prototype revolves around a fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The proposed grid connection system utilizes a well known and proven two level voltage source converter generator-side combined with a three-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB multilevel converter grid-side. The multilevel converter brings benefits in terms of efficiency, power quality and DC-link utilization. The system is here presented for a single marine current energy converter but can easily be scaled up for clusters of marine current energy converters. Control schemes for both grid-side and generator-side voltage source converters are presented. The start-up, steady state and dynamic performance of the marine current energy converter are investigated and simulation results are presented in this paper.
Implementation and Test of an Online Embedded Grid Impedance Estimation Technique for PV Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asiminoaei, Lucian; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede
2005-01-01
New and stronger power quality requirements are issued due to the increased amount of photovoltaic (PV) installations. In this paper different methods are used for continuous grid monitoring in PV inverters. By injecting a noncharacteristic harmonic current and measuring the grid voltage response...
Design of Current-Controller with PR-regulator for LCL-Filter Based Grid-Connected Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeng, Guohong; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg
2010-01-01
In the application of LCL-filter based converters, the structure and parameters of current-controller is very important for the system stability and output current quality. This paper presents a filter-capacitor current feedback control scheme for grid-connected converter. The controller...... is consisted of a proportional-resonance regulator and a proportional regulator. Unlike the existing control strategy with unit capacitor current feedback, the proposed method applies the proportional regulator to the feedback path, which can decouple these two regulators, and simplify the tuning process...... of the control strategy and the proposed current controller design method are verified by the simulation results of a 50kVA grid-connected inverter....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Yang; Shen, Pan; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
Grid-connected inverters (GCIs) with LCL output filter have the ability of attenuating high-frequency (HF) switching ripples. However, by using only grid-current control, the system is prone to resonances if it is not properly damped, and the current distortion would be amplified significantly...... method is adopted. Furthermore, the grid voltage feed-forward and multiple PR controllers are integrated in the current loop to mitigate the current distortion introduced by the grid background distortion. Besides, the parameters design guidelines are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness...
Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.
2005-01-01
A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...
M. Pavlovsky; A. Shimansky; Z. Fialkovsky
2004-01-01
The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pavlovsky
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The paper considers a power system model of a plant with one capacitor bank and with one current source of higher harmonics for higher power factor. The laboratory research results of this system and practical application of the proposed model are given in the paper.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ashabani, Mahdi; Gooi, Hoay Beng; Guerrero, Josep M.
2018-01-01
This paper deals with development of a versatile and compact control strategy for voltage source converters in grid-connected and islanded microgrids using synchronous current converters technology. The key feature is its new integrated high-order controller/synchronizer with applicability to both...... and automated current-based grid synchronization. Moreover, the controller realizes a power-source current-controlled microgrid with minimum control loops, as compared to widely adopted voltage controlled microgrids in the literature, with advantages such as fault-ride-through and inherent droop-less power...... sharing capabilities. Adaptive current-based synchronization and smooth switching to islanding mode provides high flexibility, reliability and only-plug operation capability. Extensive simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate performance of the proposed control and management...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duarte, Carlos Henrique
2010-04-15
To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics systems (PES) may be employed. However, this introduce nonlinear loads into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PES (power electronics systems) are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil) of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PES considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This dissertation investigates this problem by exploring a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PES on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)
Altered Actions of Memantine and NMDA-Induced Currents in a New Grid2-Deleted Mouse Line
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayako Kumagai
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Memantine is a non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, and is an approved drug for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. We identified a mouse strain with a naturally occurring mutation and an ataxic phenotype that presents with severe leg cramps. To investigate the phenotypes of these mutant mice, we screened several phenotype-modulating drugs and found that memantine (10 mg/kg disrupted the sense of balance in the mutants. Moreover, the mutant mice showed an attenuated optokinetic response (OKR and impaired OKR learning, which was also observed in wild-type mice treated with memantine. Microsatellite analyses indicated that the Grid2 gene-deletion is responsible for these phenotypes. Patch-clamp analysis showed a relatively small change in NMDA-dependent current in cultured granule cells from Grid2 gene-deleted mice, suggesting that GRID2 is important for correct NMDA receptor function. In general, NMDA receptors are activated after the activation of non-NMDA receptors, such as AMPA receptors, and AMPA receptor dysregulation also occurs in Grid2 mutant mice. Indeed, the AMPA treatment enhanced memantine susceptibility in wild-type mice, which was indicated by balance sense and OKR impairments. The present study explores a new role for GRID2 and highlights the adverse effects of memantine in different genetic backgrounds.
Altered Actions of Memantine and NMDA-Induced Currents in a New Grid2-Deleted Mouse Line
Kumagai, Ayako; Fujita, Akira; Yokoyama, Tomoki; Nonobe, Yuki; Hasaba, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Itoh, Yumi; Koura, Minako; Suzuki, Osamu; Adachi, Shigeki; Ryo, Haruko; Kohara, Arihiro; Tripathi, Lokesh P.; Sanosaka, Masato; Fukushima, Toshiki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Nagaoka, Yasuo; Kawahara, Hidehisa; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Nomura, Taisei; Matsuda, Junichiro; Tabata, Toshihide; Takemori, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
Memantine is a non-competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and is an approved drug for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease. We identified a mouse strain with a naturally occurring mutation and an ataxic phenotype that presents with severe leg cramps. To investigate the phenotypes of these mutant mice, we screened several phenotype-modulating drugs and found that memantine (10 mg/kg) disrupted the sense of balance in the mutants. Moreover, the mutant mice showed an attenuated optokinetic response (OKR) and impaired OKR learning, which was also observed in wild-type mice treated with memantine. Microsatellite analyses indicated that the Grid2 gene-deletion is responsible for these phenotypes. Patch-clamp analysis showed a relatively small change in NMDA-dependent current in cultured granule cells from Grid2 gene-deleted mice, suggesting that GRID2 is important for correct NMDA receptor function. In general, NMDA receptors are activated after the activation of non-NMDA receptors, such as AMPA receptors, and AMPA receptor dysregulation also occurs in Grid2 mutant mice. Indeed, the AMPA treatment enhanced memantine susceptibility in wild-type mice, which was indicated by balance sense and OKR impairments. The present study explores a new role for GRID2 and highlights the adverse effects of memantine in different genetic backgrounds. PMID:25513882
Steen, M.; Knibbe, F.; Quak, C.W.; Janssen, P.; Stap, R.; Daniele, L.
2015-01-01
Version 1.0 - Final The CERISE-SG project (Combining Energy and Geo information standards as enabler for Smart Grids) focuses on interoperability with a special interest in the information exchanges between smart grids and their surroundings. We hereby focus on the exchange of information to and
Harmonics and energy management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andresen, M.
1993-01-01
To summarize what this paper has presented: Voltage and current non-sinusoidal wave shapes exist in our power system. These harmonics result from the prolific use of non-linear loads. The use of these types of loads is increasing dramatically, partly due to the push to implement energy management techniques involving harmonic generating equipment. Harmonic analysis can identify specific harmonics, their frequency, magnitude, and phase shift referenced to the fundamental. Harmonic distortion forces the use of true RMS multimeters for measurement accuracy. High levels of neutral current and N-G voltages are now possible. Transformers may overheat and fail even though they are below rated capacity. Low power factors due to harmonics cannot be corrected by the installation of capacitors, and knowledge of the fundamental VARs or the displacement power factor is needed to use capacitors alone for power factor correction. The harmonic related problems presented are by no means an exhaustive list. Many other concerns arise when harmonics are involved in the power system. The critical issue behind these problems is that many of the devices being recommended from an energy management point of view are contributing to the harmonic levels, and thus to the potential for harmonic problems. We can no longer live in the sinusoidal mentality if we are to be effective in saving energy and reducing costs
RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock
Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.
2017-08-01
ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma
Probabilistic aspects of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jensen, Christian F. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark); Bak, Claus L. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Kocewiak, Lukasz; Hjerrild, Jesper [DONG Energy, Skaerbaek (Denmark); Berthelsen, Kasper K. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences
2011-07-01
In this article, a new probabilistic method of assessment of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms is presented. Based on measurements from the British wind farm Burbo Banks, probability density functions are estimated for the dominating low order harmonic currents injected by a single turbine. The degree and type of dependence between the harmonic emission and the operating point of a single turbine is established. A model of Burbo Banks, suitable for harmonic load flow studies, is created in DIgSILENT Power Factory along with a DPL-script that deals with the probabilistic issues of the harmonic emission. The simulated harmonic distortion at the PCC is compared to measurement. This reveals some difficulties regarding harmonic load flow studies. The harmonic background distortion in the grid to where the wind farms is connected must be included in the study. Furthermore, a very detailed representation of the frequency dependent short circuit impedance must be used before sufficiently accurate results can be obtained from the model. (orig.)
de Rooij, Michael Andrew; Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Delgado, Eladio Clemente
2008-12-16
Photovoltaic power converter system including a controller configured to reduce load harmonics is provided. The system comprises a photovoltaic array and an inverter electrically coupled to the array to generate an output current for energizing a load connected to the inverter and to a mains grid supply voltage. The system further comprises a controller including a first circuit coupled to receive a load current to measure a harmonic current in the load current. The controller includes a second circuit to generate a fundamental reference drawn by the load. The controller further includes a third circuit for combining the measured harmonic current and the fundamental reference to generate a command output signal for generating the output current for energizing the load connected to the inverter. The photovoltaic system may be configured to compensate harmonic currents that may be drawn by the load.
Analysis of the current use, benefit, and value of the Open Science Grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pordes, R; Weichel, J
2010-01-01
The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by non-physics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.
Analysis of the Current Use, Benefit, and Value of the Open Science Grid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pordes, R.; /Fermilab
2009-04-01
The Open Science Grid usage has ramped up more than 25% in the past twelve months due to both the increase in throughput of the core stakeholders - US LHC, LIGO and Run II - and increase in usage by nonphysics communities. It is important to understand the value collaborative projects, such as the OSG, contribute to the scientific community. This needs to be cognizant of the environment of commercial cloud offerings, the evolving and maturing middleware for grid based distributed computing, and the evolution in science and research dependence on computation. We present a first categorization of OSG value and analysis across several different aspects of the Consortium's goals and activities. And lastly, we presents some of the upcoming challenges of LHC data analysis ramp up and our ongoing contributions to the World Wide LHC Computing Grid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsuno, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional current collapse imaging of a Schottky gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor device was achieved by optical electric field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurements. EFISHG measurements can detect the electric field produced by carriers trapped in the on-state of the device, which leads to current collapse. Immediately after (e.g., 1, 100, or 800 μs) the completion of drain-stress voltage (200 V) in the off-state, the second-harmonic (SH) signals appeared within 2 μm from the gate edge on the drain electrode. The SH signal intensity became weak with time, which suggests that the trapped carriers are emitted from the trap sites. The SH signal location supports the well-known virtual gate model for current collapse.
Control strategy based on SPWM switching patterns for grid connected photovoltaic inverter
Hassaine, L.; Mraoui, A.
2017-02-01
Generally, for lower installation of photovoltaic systems connected to the grid, pulse width modulation (PWM) is a widely used technique for controlling the voltage source inverters injects currents into the grid. The current injected must be sinusoidal with reduced harmonic distortion. In this paper, a digital implementation of a control strategy based on PWM switching patterns for an inverter for photovoltaic system connected to the grid is presented. This strategy synchronize a sinusoidal inverter output current with a grid voltage The digital implementation of the proposed PWM switching pattern when is compared with the conventional one exhibit the advantage: Simplicity, reduction of the memory requirements and power calculation for the control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodriguez, Pedro; Luna, Alvaro; Hermoso, Juan Ramon
2011-01-01
The operation of distributed power generation systems under grid fault conditions is a key issue for the massive integration of renewable energy systems. Several studies have been conducted to improve the response of such distributed generation systems under voltage dips. In spite of being less s...
Almeida, de P.M.; Barbosa, P.G.; Oliveira, J.G.; Duarte, J.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.
2015-01-01
This paper presents the modelling and design steps of a digital proportional multi-resonant controller used in a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. It is shown that the use of only one Proportional-Resonant (PR) compensator, tuned to the system fundamental frequency, may have its effectiveness
Grid-connected inverter for wind power generation system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Yong; RUAN Yi; SHEN Huan-qing; TANG Yan-yan; YANG Ying
2009-01-01
In wind power generation system the grid-connected inverter is an important section for energy conversion and transmission, of which the performance has a direct influence on the entire wind power generation system. The mathematical model of the grid-connected inverter is deduced firstly. Then, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is analyzed. The power factor can be controlled close to unity, leading or lagging, which is realized based on PI-type current controller and grid voltage vector-oriented control. The control strategy is verified by the simulation and experimental results with a good sinusoidal current, a small harmonic component and a fast dynamic response.
Citro, Costantino; Gavriluta, Catalin; Nizak Md, H. K.; Beltran, H.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a design procedure for linear current controllers of three-phase grid-connected inverters. The proposed method consists in deriving a numerical model of the converter by using software simulations and applying the pole placement technique to design the controller with the desired performances. A clear example on how to apply the technique is provided. The effectiveness of the proposed design procedure has been verified through the experimental results obtained with ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol
2011-01-01
This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Wen-Huan
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that the distribution network voltage will fluctuate because of the inter-harmonic currents injected into the network by double PWM speed control system when regulating the speed of the asynchronous motor, we established the inter-harmonic current math model of double PWM speed control system according to switching function based on a real bridge crane. The distribution law of the inter-harmonic is got by calculating the grid-side currents and their spectrum while letting the motor run at different quadrants and frequencies. The result which is verified by simulation and experiment shows that the content of the inter harmonic currents is more than that of harmonic currents in double PWM speed control system, the frequency of the inter harmonics of the grid-side current mainly focus on the scope lower than the fundamental frequency, and when the motor runs at low frequencies, the THD of the grid-side current is high. The result has verified the reason why the voltage of a bridge crane distribution system of a deepwater port in Shanghai flickers.
Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg
2017-01-01
A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...... with deterministic phase and those with probabilistic phase. A case study performed on a string of ten 3MW, Type-IV wind turbines implemented in PSCAD was used to verify the probabilistic SD harmonic model. The probabilistic SD harmonic model can be employed in the planning phase of WPP projects to assess harmonic...
A Unified Voltage Harmonic Control Strategy for Coordinated Compensation with VCM and CCM Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Xin; Meng, Lexuan; Xie, Chuan
2018-01-01
-controlled mode (VCM) and current-controlled mode (CCM), need to cooperatively provide the compensation function. Aiming at this objective, this paper proposes a unified voltage harmonic mitigation strategy for VCM and CCM converters with high harmonic current sharing accuracy. Another advantage of the proposal......Harmonics have been considered as one of the major issues in modern power grids. Considering the high penetration level of power electronic converter interfaced distributed generators (DGs), it is of interest to provide ancillary services through DG interfacing converters, such as harmonic...... compensation. In case of that, multiple DG interfacing converters are utilized to compensate harmonics, and the compensation effort should be properly shared among these converters. However, it is rarely considered in existing literatures that converters operating in different modes, such as voltage...
Borni, A.; Abdelkrim, T.; Zaghba, L.; Bouchakour, A.; Lakhdari, A.; Zarour, L.
2017-02-01
In this paper the model of a grid connected hybrid system is presented. The hybrid system includes a variable speed wind turbine controlled by aFuzzy MPPT control, and a photovoltaic generator controlled with PSO Fuzzy MPPT control to compensate the power fluctuations caused by the wind in a short and long term, the inverter currents injected to the grid is controlled by a decoupled PI current control. In the first phase, we start by modeling of the conversion system components; the wind system is consisted of a turbine coupled to a gearless permanent magnet generator (PMG), the AC/DC and DC-DC (Boost) converter are responsible to feed the electric energy produced by the PMG to the DC-link. The solar system consists of a photovoltaic generator (GPV) connected to a DC/DC boost converter controlled by a PSO fuzzy MPPT control to extract at any moment the maximum available power at the GPV terminals, the system is based on maximum utilization of both of sources because of their complementary. At the end. The active power reached to the DC-link is injected to the grid through a DC/AC inverter, this function is achieved by controlling the DC bus voltage to keep it constant and close to its reference value, The simulation studies have been performed using Matlab/Simulink. It can be concluded that a good control system performance can be achieved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suarez, J.A.; Mauro, G.F. di; Dimenna, C.; Anaut, D.; Aguero, C. [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria. Grupo LAT], e-mail: lat@mdp.edu.ar
2009-07-01
This paper analyzes potential variables that affect the neutral current when connected receivers presents nonlinear characteristics. Were simulated scenarios in the Alternative Transients Program combining the type and number of units loads, fed on sinusoidal voltages, symmetrical, balanced, asymmetrical and unbalanced. Also has been studied the effect of voltage harmonics. As a result of simulations with asymmetric and unbalanced sources was found variations in the neutral current up to 5%. Analysis of diversity effects and attenuation reported significant variances: 10% and 20% respectively. The results achieved show that asymmetries and imbalances in power have a slight impact on the neutral current, while the more prominent were the diversity and attenuation effects.
Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai
2015-09-01
The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we
Research on LLCL Filtering Grid - Connected inverter under the Control of PFI
Li, Ren-qing; Zong, Ke-yong; Wang, Yan-ping; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jing
2018-03-01
This passage puts forward a kind of LLCL inverter which is based on the proportional feedback integral(PFI) control so as so satisfy the request of the grid-current outputed by the renewable energy generation system. The passage builds the topological graph of grid-connected inverter and makes an analysis of principle of linear superposition aims to reveal the essence of the problem of steady-state error that exists in proportional integral control. We use LLCL filter and the method of passive damping to solve the problem of resonant peak. We make simulation of the grid system with the software named MATLAB/Simulink. The result shows that the grid current enters steady state quickly and in the same time, which has the identical phase and frequency of grid-voltage. The harmonic content in grid current satisfies the request of grid standard.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jong-Soo; Choe, Gyu-Yeong; Lee, Byoung-Kuk [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Soo [R and D Center, Advanced Drive Technology (ADT) Company, 689-26 Geumjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-862 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-05-15
The low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems is generated from dc-ac inverter operation, which generates 60 Hz fundamental component, and gives harmful effects on fuel cell stack itself, such as making cathode surface responses slower, causing an increase of more than 10% in the fuel consumption, creating oxygen starvation, causing a reduction in the operating lifetime, and incurring a nuisance tripping such as overload situation. With these reasons, low frequency current ripple makes fuel cell system unstable and lifetime of fuel cell stack itself short. This paper presents a fast and robust control algorithm to eliminate low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems. Compared with the conventional methods, in the proposed control algorithm, dc link voltage controller is shifted from dc-dc converter to dc-ac inverter, resulting that dc-ac inverter handles dc link voltage control and output current control simultaneously with help of power balancing technique. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only completely eliminate current ripple but also significantly reduce the overshoot or undershoot during transient states without any extra hardware. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations and also by experiments with a 1 kW laboratory prototype. (author)
Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System with Active Power Filtering Functionality
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joaquín Vaquero
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Solar panels are an attractive and growing source of renewable energy in commercial and residential applications. Its use connected to the grid by means of a power converter results in a grid-connected photovoltaic system. In order to optimize this system, it is interesting to integrate several functionalities into the power converter, such as active power filtering and power factor correction. Nonlinear loads connected to the grid generate current harmonics, which deteriorates the mains power quality. Active power filters can compensate these current harmonics. A photovoltaic system with added harmonic compensation and power factor correction capabilities is proposed in this paper. A sliding mode controller is employed to control the power converter, implemented on the CompactRIO digital platform from National Instruments Corporation, allowing user friendly operation and easy tuning. The power system consists of two stages, a DC/DC boost converter and a single-phase inverter, and it is able to inject active power into the grid while compensating the current harmonics generated by nonlinear loads at the point of common coupling. The operation, design, simulation, and experimental results for the proposed system are discussed.
Active Power Quality Improvement Strategy for Grid-connected Microgrid Based on Hierarchical Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Feng; Sun, Kai; Guan, Yajuan
2018-01-01
proposes an active, unbalanced, and harmonic GCC suppression strategy based on hierarchical theory. The voltage error between the bus of the DCGC-MG and the grid’s PCC was transformed to the dq frame. On the basis of the grid, an additional compensator, which consists of multiple resonant voltage......When connected to a distorted grid utility, droop-controlled grid-connected microgrids (DCGC-MG) exhibit low equivalent impedance. The harmonic and unbalanced voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) deteriorates the power quality of the grid-connected current (GCC) of DCGC-MG. This work...... regulators, was then added to the original secondary control to generate the negative fundamental and unbalanced harmonic voltage reference. Proportional integral and multiple resonant controllers were adopted as voltage controller at the original primary level to improve the voltage tracking performance...
Leakage current analysis of a single-phase transformer-less PV inverter connected to the grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Lin; Tang, F.; Zhou, F.
2009-01-01
Due to the large surface of the PV generator, its stray capacity with respect to the ground reaches values that can be quite high. When no transformer is used in a grid-connected PV system, common-mode current, which caused by the common mode voltage, can flow through the stray capacitance between...... the PV array and the ground. It is quite harmful to the body safety and PV system. In order to avoid leakage current, different inverter topologies that generate no varying common-mode voltages, such as bipolar pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge topology, NPC topology have been proposed. From...... the safety and energy saving viewpoint, it is necessary to develop a higher efficiency topology. In this paper, the generation mechanism of common mode current is discussed. Then different methods used to eliminate the leakage current are compared. Finally, the full-bridge which generates no varying common...
Li, Weiwei; Lu, Yalin; He, Zhigang; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin
2016-06-01
We propose to generate high-power terahertz (THz) radiation from a cylindrical dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) excited by a direct-current electron beam with the harmonics generation method. The DLW supports a discrete set of modes that can be excited by an electron beam passing through the structure. The interaction of these modes with the co-propagating electron beam results in micro-bunching and the coherent enhancement of the wakefield radiation, which is dominated by the fundamental mode. By properly choosing the parameters of DLW and beam energy, the high order modes can be the harmonics of the fundamental one; thus, high frequency radiation corresponding to the high order modes will benefit from the dominating bunching process at the fundamental eigenfrequency and can also be coherently excited. With the proposed method, high power THz radiation can be obtained with an easily achievable electron beam and a large DLW structure.
Green, David L.; Berry, Lee A.; Simpson, Adam B.; Younkin, Timothy R.
2018-04-01
We present the KINETIC-J code, a computational kernel for evaluating the linearized Vlasov equation with application to calculating the kinetic plasma response (current) to an applied time harmonic wave electric field. This code addresses the need for a configuration space evaluation of the plasma current to enable kinetic full-wave solvers for waves in hot plasmas to move beyond the limitations of the traditional Fourier spectral methods. We benchmark the kernel via comparison with the standard k →-space forms of the hot plasma conductivity tensor.
Modified SOGI based shunt active power filter to tackle various grid voltage abnormalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalpeshkumar Patil
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Shunt Active Power Filters (SAPF have been effectively used to compensate the harmonics generated by the non-linear loads. The SAPF’s performance depends on the accurate generation of reference current, which is dependent greatly on the template of supply voltage. When the grid voltage (or its template is characterized by different abnormalities like presence of harmonics, imbalance, dc-offset etc., some of the conventional techniques of frequency estimation may fail to correctly estimate the frequency. This ultimately affects the reference current generation and hence, the SAPF operation, ultimately leading to high distortion of the grid currents. The paper presents modified dual second-order generalized integrator (MDSOGI based SAPF to ensure effective compensation of harmonics, even when the grid voltage is characterized by all the abnormalities mentioned above. It is highlighted with one case that when the sensed voltage is having dc-offset, DSOGI-SAPF results into the source current with THD, dc-offset and harmonic with values 5.82%, 0.8% and 4.5%, respectively. For the same case, the proposed technique yields grid current which is free of dc-offset and 2nd harmonic and has THD = 3.57%. The dynamic performance of the MDSOGI-SAPF is validated and its superior performance over DSOGI-SAPF is illustrated even with experimental results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Lars Ege
of existing knowledge and seeing new possibilities for social scientific research where knowledge gaps appear. Different user representations and user roles are found through a content analysis of project related documents from a selection of European and North American smart grid projects. It is argued......Many resources have been put into preparing our energy provision systems for a future with more distributed and intermittent energy production. Especially in Europe and the US a large amount of public research funds has gone to the research field of smart grids. Within policy communities and smart...... grid research communities there is a consensus that a changed user-system relation where users become sensitive to system level constraints is a key element of smart grids. However, the way this sensitivity is conceptualized and the nature of claims differs from one project to the other and sometimes...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Chen
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Concerning the development of a micro-grid integrated with multiple intermittent renewable energy resources, one of the main issues is related to the improvement of its robustness against short-circuit faults. In a sense, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL can be regarded as a feasible approach to enhance the transient performance of a micro-grid under fault conditions. In this paper, the fault transient analysis of a micro-grid, including distributed generation, energy storage and power loads, is conducted, and regarding the application of one or more flux-coupling-type SFCLs in the micro-grid, an integrated technical evaluation method considering current-limiting performance, bus voltage stability and device cost is proposed. In order to assess the performance of the SFCLs and verify the effectiveness of the evaluation method, different fault cases of a 10-kV micro-grid with photovoltaic (PV, wind generator and energy storage are simulated in the MATLAB software. The results show that, the efficient use of the SFCLs for the micro-grid can contribute to reducing the fault current, improving the voltage sags and suppressing the frequency fluctuations. Moreover, there will be a compromise design to fully take advantage of the SFCL parameters, and thus, the transient performance of the micro-grid can be guaranteed.
Leakage current analysis of single-phase transformer-less grid-connected PV inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Lin; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus
2016-01-01
Transformer-less string PV inverter is getting more and more widely utilized due to its higher efficiency, smaller volume and weight. However, without the galvanic isolation, the leakage current limitation and operation safety became the key issues of transformer-less inverters. This paper...... simplifies the leakage current generation circuit model and presents a leakage current estimation method both in real time and frequency domain. It shows that the leakage current is related to the circuit stray parameters, output filter and common mode voltage. Furthermore, with the proposed analysis method......, the leakage current generation of H-bridge with different modulation methods and HERIC inverter are discussed individually. At last, the presented method has been verified via simulation....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il
2017-05-15
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-01-01
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.
Arpinar, V E; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E; Muftuler, L T
2012-07-07
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique, electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently, the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100 µA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10-400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200 µA total injected current and tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul (1998 Elektrik 6 215-25) with Tikhonov regularization and the harmonic B(Z) proposed by Oh et al (2003 Magn. Reason. Med. 50 875-8). The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200 µA and 5 mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200 µA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7 µA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5 mA total injected current results in 367 µA in imaging slice. Total
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shvydanenko Oleg A.
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The key problems of development of participants of global competitive relationships, approaches to harmonization of their interests have been considered. The article defines essence of the global system of regulation of competitive relationships, the technology of its formation, improvement and development, taking into account the reasonable assemblage of relevant principles. The main tasks and processes of formation of the competitive culture in the context of globalization changes have been highlighted. The strategic directions of improvement of the system of regulation of competitive relationships in accordance with transformation of external conditions of development of globalizing space and strengthening of international character of competition have been specified. The organizational-economic mechanism of the system of regulation of competitive relationships has been provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullrahman A. Al-Shamma’a
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The hexagram multilevel converter (HMC is composed of six conventional two-level voltage source converters (VSCs, where each VSC module is connected to a string of PV arrays. The VSC modules are connected through inductors, which are essential to minimize the circulating current. Selecting inductors with suitable inductance is no simple process, where the inductance value should be large to minimize the circulating current as well as small to reduce an extra voltage drop. This paper analyzes the utilization of a multiwinding (e.g., two, three, and six windings coupled inductor to interconnect the six VSC modules instead of six single inductors, to minimize the circulating current inside the HMC. Then, a theoretical relationship between the total impedance to the circulating current, the number of coupled inductor windings, and the magnetizing inductance is derived. Owing to the coupled inductors, the impedance on the circulating current path is a multiple of six times the magnetizing inductance, whereas the terminal voltage is slightly affected by the leakage inductance. The HMC is controlled to work under variable solar radiation, providing active power to the grid. Additional functions such as DSTATCOM, during daytime, are also demonstrated. The controller performance is found to be satisfactory for both active and reactive power supplies.
Research on Harmonic Characteristics Influence for Distribution Network with Renewable Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Wei
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In order to study the influence on harmonic characteristics of distribution network with renewable energy, a simplified model of distribution network is established to analyse theory while considering the influence of cable on the system capacitive current. Establishing an actual distribution network model by Digsilent to research the harmonic characteristics impact when photovoltaic power with PV incorporated the distribution network in a variety of different access , while using constant current source model as harmonic source model which often been used in engineering practices. The simulation results show that: optimizing the access location and dispersion of PV can decrease the waveform distortion levels in distribution network and a certain number of high-order harmonic will magnify by a specific grid structure, deteriorating the distribution network power quality.
Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ciobotaru, Mihai
standards addressed to the grid-connected systems will harmonize the combination of the DPGS and the classical power plants. Consequently, the major tasks of this thesis were to develop new grid condition detection techniques and intelligent control in order to allow the DPGS not only to deliver power...... to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... techniques. Additionally, a new technique for detecting the islanding mode has been developed and successfully tested. In the second part, the main reported research was concentrated around adaptive current controllers based on the information provided by the grid condition detection techniques. To guarantee...
Leakage Current Suppression with A Novel Six-Switch Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
In order to solve the problem of the leakage current in non-isolated photovoltaic (PV) systems, a novel six-switch topology and control strategy are proposed in this paper. The inductor-bypass strategy solves the common-mode voltage limitation of the conventional six-switch topology in case...... of unmatched inductances. And the stray capacitor voltage of the non-isolated photovoltaic system is free of high frequency ripples. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out to verify the proposed topology and its control strategy. Results indicate that the leakage current suppression can...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bijan Rahmani
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The integration of renewable power sources with power grids presents many challenges, such as synchronization with the grid, power quality problems and so on. The shunt active power filter (SAPF can be a solution to address the issue while suppressing the grid-end current harmonics and distortions. Nonetheless, available SAPFs work somewhat unpredictably in practice. This is attributed to the dependency of the SAPF controller on nonlinear complicated equations and two distorted variables, such as load current and voltage, to produce the current reference. This condition will worsen when the plant includes wind turbines which inherently produce 3rd, 5th, 7th and 11th voltage harmonics. Moreover, the inability of the typical phase locked loop (PLL used to synchronize the SAPF reference with the power grid also disrupts SAPF operation. This paper proposes an improved synchronous reference frame (SRF which is equipped with a wavelet-based PLL to control the SAPF, using one variable such as load current. Firstly the fundamental positive sequence of the source voltage, obtained using a wavelet, is used as the input signal of the PLL through an orthogonal signal generator process. Then, the generated orthogonal signals are applied through the SRF-based compensation algorithm to synchronize the SAPF’s reference with power grid. To further force the remained uncompensated grid current harmonics to pass through the SAPF, an improved series filter (SF equipped with a current harmonic suppression loop is proposed. Concurrent operation of the improved SAPF and SF is coordinated through a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The DC-link capacitor of the proposed UPQC, used to interconnect a photovoltaic (PV system to the power grid, is regulated by an adaptive controller. Matlab/Simulink results confirm that the proposed wavelet-based UPQC results in purely sinusoidal grid-end currents with total harmonic distortion (THD = 1.29%, which leads to high
Enhanced Stability of Capacitor-Current Feedback Active Damping for LCL-Filtered Grid Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
The proportional capacitor-current feedback active damping method has been widely used to suppress the LCL-filter resonance. However, the time delay in the damping control loop may lead to non-minimum phase or even unstable responses when the resonance frequency varies in a wide range. To improve...
Fault current contribution from VSC-based wind turbines to the grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valentini, Massimo; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Iov, Florin
2008-01-01
current injections during the fault. In this paper an equivalent VSC-based wind turbine model for short-circuit calculations at steady-state conditions is developed and presented. The model is implemented in DigSILENT PowerFactory using the DPL-Programming Language. The developed wind turbine model...
Mapping from rectangular to harmonic representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, W.; Bateman, G.
1986-08-01
An algorithm is developed to determine the Fourier harmonics representing the level contours of a scalar function given on a rectangular grid. This method is applied to the problem of computing the flux coordinates and flux surface average needed for 1-1/2-D transport codes and MHD stability codes from an equilibrium flux function given on a rectangular grid
Leakage Current Suppression with A Novel Six-Switch Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter
Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2015-01-01
In order to solve the problem of the leakage current in non-isolated photovoltaic (PV) systems, a novel six-switch topology and control strategy are proposed in this paper. The inductor-bypass strategy solves the common-mode voltage limitation of the conventional six-switch topology in case of unmatched inductances. And the stray capacitor voltage of the non-isolated photovoltaic system is free of high frequency ripples. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out to verify the propos...
A New Method of On-line Grid Impedance Estimation for PV Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede
2004-01-01
for on-line measuring the grid impedance is presented. The presented method requires no extra hardware being accommodated by typical PV inverters, sensors and CPU, to provide a fast and low cost approach of on-line impedance measurement. By injecting a non-characteristic harmonic current and measuring...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics, Espoo (Finland)
1997-12-31
Voltage- and current-sourced dc-ac converters operating in quasi-square area are compared. Their characteristics are calculated with switching vector, which is space-vector of switching functions. When the load is an asynchronous motor various analytical equations, including torque, are calculated efficiently. Motor current and torque approximations are compared with the simulated ones. (orig.) 6 refs.
Analysis of Harmonics Suppression by Active Damping Control on Multi Slim DC-link Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Feng; Máthé, Lászlo; Lu, Kaiyuan
2016-01-01
Compared with conventional dc-link drive, slim dc-link drive is expected to achieve lower cost and longer life time. However, harmonics distortion problem may occur in such drive systems. This paper proposes to use an active damping control method to suppress the harmonic distortion...... with the benefit of low cost and also low loss. A new analysis method, based on the frequency domain impedance model, is presented to explore the mechanism of harmonics suppression. Also, a general method is presented to build the impedance model of a PMSM drive system using Field Oriented Control (FOC) method....... Some design issues, including power levels, current control bandwidth and harmonic interaction, are discussed when the drive system is fed by a weak grid. Case studies on a two-drive system composed by two slim dc-link drive units are provided to verify the proposed analysis method....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Panda
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Control strategies for extracting the three-phase reference currents for shunt active power filters are compared, evaluating their performance under different source conditions in MATLAB/Simulink environment and also with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS Hardware. When the supply voltages are balanced and sinusoidal, the two control strategies are converging to the same compensation characteristics but when the supply voltages are distorted and/or un-balanced sinusoidal, these control strategies result in different degrees of compensation in harmonics. The p-q control strategy is unable to yield an adequate solution when source voltages are not ideal. Extensive Simulations are carried out with PI controller for both p-q and Id-Iq control strategies for different voltage conditions and adequate results were presented. The 3-ph 4-wire SHAF system is also implemented on RTDS Hardware to further verify its effectiveness. The detailed simulation and RTDS Hardware results are included.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1985-01-01
This paper completes a descrption of the quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach. The Feynman rules for N=2 matter and Yang-Mills theories are derived and the various examples of harmonic supergraph calculations are given. Calculations appear to be not more difficult than those in the N=1 case. The integration over harmonic variables does not lead to any troubles, a non-locality in these disappears on-shell. The important property is that the quantum corrections are always writen as integrals over the full harmonic superspace even though the initial action is an integral over the analytic subspace. As a by-product our results imply a very simple proof of finiteness of a wide class of the N=4, d=2 non-linear Σ-models. The most general self-couplings of hypermultiplets including those with broken SU(2) are considered.The duality relations among the N=2 linear multiplet and both kinds of hypermultiplet are established
A current detection based on an extension of the Prony's method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, C.; Xia, X.; Gong, F. [Changsha Univ. of Science and Technology, Changsha (China). College of Electrical Engineering
2009-07-01
The Prony method for spectrum estimation was combined with an adaptive frequency tracking and current frequency demultiplication method as a harmonic detection system. An injective active power filter was used for effective harmonic wave management. The automated system includes a digital signal processor and a high-speed interfacing device. An algorithm was developed to consider the slow voltage changes in the power grid as well as potential mutations in current harmonics. Widrow-Hoff's LMS algorithm was used to develop rolling steps for the filter. The method was used to detect harmonic waves with a sampling frequency of 400 Hz. Results of the study showed that the detection method can be used in real time to detect fundamental and first harmonics in electric power grids. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averous, Nurhan Rizqy; Berthold, Anica; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz
2016-01-01
A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids. (paper)
Rizqy Averous, Nurhan; Berthold, Anica; Schneider, Alexander; Schwimmbeck, Franz; Monti, Antonello; De Doncker, Rik W.
2016-09-01
A vast increase of wind turbines (WT) contribution in the modern electrical grids have led to the development of grid connection requirements. In contrast to the conventional test method, testing power-electronics converters for WT using a grid emulator at Center for Wind Power Drives (CWD) RWTH Aachen University offers more flexibility for conducting test scenarios. Further analysis on the performance of the device under test (DUT) is however required when testing with grid emulator since the characteristic of the grid emulator might influence the performance of the DUT. This paper focuses on the performance analysis of the DUT when tested using grid emulator. Beside the issue regarding the current harmonics, the performance during Fault Ride-Through (FRT) is discussed in detail. A power hardware in the loop setup is an attractive solution to conduct a comprehensive study on the interaction between the power-electronics converters and the electrical grids.
Second harmonic generation imaging
2013-01-01
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Anjana
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a Modified Gravitational Search Algorithm (MGSA to improve the performance of PI controller in varying load condition. The proposed approach is capable of mitigating reactive power, neutral current, source current THD and significant improvement in power factor nearly unity (0.997. The DC link voltage across the capacitor is controlled by PI controller which is deciding the performance of shunt APF. Hence, the robust optimization technique based integral time square error (ITSE with consideration of weight factor (α & β, maximum overshoot ((|(∆_Ve ̅〖(n〗_max | and setling time t_s-t_0, is providing the optimum solution of Kp & Ki. The robustness of proposed objective function and algorithm compared with GSA based three other error criterion techniques. The efficiency of the proposed controller has been tested over nonlinear and unbalance loading condition. The performance of ITSE based MGSA-PI controller is batter then other three error criterion techniques. The values of THD are below the mark of 5% specified in IEEE-519 standard.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emre Durna
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a design methodology for an active power filter (APF system to suppress the second harmonic subgroup injected by an AC electric arc furnace (EAF to the utility grid. The APF system is composed of identical parallel units connected to the utility grid via a specially-designed coupling transformer. Each APF converter is a three-phase three-wire two-level voltage source converter (VSC. The number of parallel APF units, coupling transformer MVA rating, and turns ratio are optimized in the view of the ratings of commercially-available high voltage (HV IGBTs. In this research work, line current waveforms sampled at 25.6-kS/s on the medium voltage (MV side of a 65-MVA EAF transformer are then used to extract the second harmonic subgroup, 95-, 100-, and 105-Hz current components, by multiple synchronous reference frame (MSRF analysis, which was previously proposed to decompose EAF current interharmonics and harmonics in real-time. By summing up this digital data of the second harmonic subgroup, the reference current signal for the APF system is produced in real-time. A detailed model of the APF system is then run on EMTDC/PSCAD to follow the produced reference current signal according to hysteresis band control philosophy. The simulation results show that the proposed APF system can successfully suppress the second harmonic subgroup of an AC EAF.
Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA
2009-10-20
A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.
Control Aspects of a LCL Grid-Connected Green Power Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Klumpner, Christian
2002-01-01
A full-bridge inverter for interfacing the utility grid is developed for using in a Green Power Inverter application. The inverter is feed from an arbitrary green power source (fuel cell, photovoltaic, small wind turbine etc.) through a rectifier into the dc-link. In order to maintain a sinusoidal...... grid current with low harmonic distortion and a high power factor, the inverter is controlled to emulate a negative resistance towards the grid. The size of the emulated resistor is determined by the dc-link voltage controller, which tries to maintain a constant dc-link voltage. This is however...
WAVEMOTH-FAST SPHERICAL HARMONIC TRANSFORMS BY BUTTERFLY MATRIX COMPRESSION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seljebotn, D. S.
2012-01-01
We present Wavemoth, an experimental open source code for computing scalar spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs). Such transforms are ubiquitous in astronomical data analysis. Our code performs substantially better than existing publicly available codes owing to improvements on two fronts. First, the computational core is made more efficient by using small amounts of pre-computed data, as well as paying attention to CPU instruction pipelining and cache usage. Second, Wavemoth makes use of a fast and numerically stable algorithm based on compressing a set of linear operators in a pre-computation step. The resulting SHT scales as O(L 2 log 2 L) for the resolution range of practical interest, where L denotes the spherical harmonic truncation degree. For low- and medium-range resolutions, Wavemoth tends to be twice as fast as libpsht, which is the current state-of-the-art implementation for the HEALPix grid. At the resolution of the Planck experiment, L ∼ 4000, Wavemoth is between three and six times faster than libpsht, depending on the computer architecture and the required precision. Because of the experimental nature of the project, only spherical harmonic synthesis is currently supported, although adding support for spherical harmonic analysis should be trivial.
Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed
2014-01-01
/current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...
High Quality Model Predictive Control for Single Phase Grid Connected Photovoltaic Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil
2018-01-01
Single phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect the photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the presented control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but are more complex to implement. Recently, the model-predictive control...... algorithm for single-phase inverter has been presented, where the algorithm implementation is straightforward. In the proposed approach, all switching states are tested in each switching period to achieve the control objectives. However, since the number of the switching states in single-phase inverter...... is low, the inverter output current has a high total harmonic distortions. In order to reduce the total harmonic distortions of the injected current, this paper presents a high-quality model-predictive control for one of the newest structure of the grid connected photovoltaic inverter, i.e., HERIC...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Yongheng; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede
2018-01-01
Adjustable speed drives (ASD) are widely used in industry for energy savings, where low-cost diode rectifiers are still employed as the front-ends, also for simplicity in control and reliability in operation. However, significant harmonics appear at the grid, which should be tackled according...... a harmonic mitigation strategy for multiple ASD systems, where silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR) with boost converters in the dc-link have been adopted to increase the harmonic-current controllability. More specific, the SCR firing angles are deliberately dispatched among the drive units, which results...
Harmonic Mitigation Methods in Large Offshore Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Hesselbæk, Bo
2013-01-01
Various sources of harmonic problems in large wind power plants (WPPs) and optimized harmonic mitigation methods are presented in this paper. The harmonic problems such as sources of harmonic emission and amplification as well as harmonic stability are identified. Also modern preventive...... and remedial harmonic mitigation methods in terms of passive and active filtering are described. It is shown that WPP components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency resonances which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall WPP stability...... as well as amplification of harmonic distortion. It is underlined that there is a potential in terms of active filtering in modern grid-side converters in e.g. wind turbines, STATCOMs or HVDC stations utilized in modern large WPPs. It is also emphasized that the grid-side converter controller should...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wickramasinghe Abeywardana, Damith Buddika; Acuna, Pablo; Hredzak, Branislav
2018-01-01
Vehicle to grid (V2G) reactive power compensation using electric vehicle (EV) onboard chargers helps to ensure grid power quality by achieving unity power factor operation. However, the use of EVs for V2G reactive power compensation increases the second-order harmonic ripple current component...... from the grid, exposes the EV battery to these undesirable ripple current components for a longer period and discharges the battery due to power conversion losses. This paper presents a way to provide V2G reactive power compensation through a boost inverter-based single stage EV charger and a DC...
Harmonics in transmission power systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz
. The comparison shows that results obtained used both types of the cores are the same, so it is concluded that both cores can be used for harmonic measurements. Low-inductance resistors are introduced in the secondary circuits, in series with the metering and protective relaying. On those resistors, the harmonic......Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... end only so the ground is not used as a return path. A way to reduce the capacitive coupling is to provide shielding. Harmonic currents are measured using the conventional inductive voltage transformers. Both protective and metering cores were compared if they could be used for harmonic measurements...
Effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable-speed drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Hamid; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zare, Firuz
2016-01-01
Current and voltage source Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) exert distortion current into the grid, which may produce some interharmonic components other than the characteristic harmonic components. This paper studies the effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable...
Improved Droop Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abusara, Mohammad; Sharkh, Suleiman; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
An improved control strategy for grid-connected inverters within microgrids is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the classical P-ω and Q-V droop method. The improvement in the proposed control strategy is twofold: Firstly, the transient response of the droop controller is improved...... by replacing the traditional method of measuring average power, which is based on using a first order low pass filter, by a real time integration filter. This is shown to reduce the imported transient energy when connecting to the grid. Secondly, the steady state output current quality is improved by utilising...... a virtual inductance, which is shown to reject grid voltage harmonics disturbance and thus improve the output current THD. A small signal model of the inverter based on the transfer function approach is developed to analyse is stability and determine droop gains. Simulation and experimental results...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Chunyan; Lei Yinzhao
2005-01-01
A model of a multilayered spherical volume conductor with four electrodes is built. In this model, a time-harmonic electric current is injected into the sphere through a pair of drive electrodes, and electric potential is measured by the other pair of measurement electrodes. By solving the boundary value problem of the electromagnetic field, the analytical solutions of electric potential and impedance in the whole conduction region are derived. The theoretical values of electric potential on the surface of the sphere are in good accordance with the experimental results. The analytical solutions are then applied to the simulation of the forward problem of brain electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The results show that, for a real human head, the imaginary part of the electric potential is not small enough to be ignored at above 20 kHz, and there exists an approximate linear relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the electric potential when the electromagnetic parameters of the innermost layer keep unchanged. Increase in the conductivity of the innermost layer leads to a decrease of the magnitude of both real and imaginary parts of the electric potential on the scalp. However, the increase of permittivity makes the magnitude of the imaginary part of the electric potential increase while that of the real part decreases, and vice versa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 S3-33, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)
2015-06-28
By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, Shohei; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa
2015-01-01
By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation measurement coupled with the conventional current-voltage (I-V) measurement, we studied the carrier transport of organic double-layer diodes with a Au/pentacene/fluorine polymer (FP)/indium zinc oxide (IZO) structure. The rectifying I-V characteristics were converted into the I-E characteristics of the FP and pentacene layers. Results suggest a model in which Schottky-type electron injection from the IZO electrode to the FP layer governs the forward electrical conduction (V > 0), where the space charge electric field produced in the FP layer by accumulated holes at the pentacene/FP interface makes a significant contribution. On the other hand, Schottky-type injection by accumulated interface electrons from the pentacene layer to the FP layer governs the backward electrical conduction (V < 0). The electroluminescence generated from the pentacene layer in the region V > 0 verifies the electron transport across the FP layer, and supports the above suggested model
Oscillating plasma bubbles. IV. Grids, geometry, and gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stenzel, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Urrutia, J. M. [Urrutia Scientific, Van Nuys, California 91406 (United States)
2012-08-15
Plasma bubbles are created in an ambient plasma. The bubble is formed inside a cavity bounded by a negatively biased grid. Ions are injected through the grid and neutralized by electrons from either the background plasma or an internal electron emitter. The external electron supply is controlled by the grid bias relative to the external plasma potential. When the electron flux is restricted to the ion flux, the sheath of the bubble becomes unstable and causes the plasma potential to oscillate near the ion plasma frequency. The exact frequency depends on the net space charge density in the bubble sheath. The frequency increases with density and grid voltage, provided the grid forms a parallel equipotential surface. The present investigation shows that when the Debye length becomes smaller than the grid openings the electron flux cannot be controlled by the grid voltage. The frequency dependence on grid voltage and density is modified creating frequency and amplitude jumps. Low frequency sheath oscillations modulate the high frequency normal oscillations. Harmonics and subharmonics are excited by electrons in an ion-rich sheath. When the plasma parameters vary over the bubble surface, the sheath may oscillate at different frequencies. A cavity with two isolated grids has been used to investigate anisotropies of the energetic electron flux in a discharge plasma. The frequency dependence on grid voltage is entirely different when the grid controls the energetic electrons or the bulk electrons. These observations are important to several fields of basic plasma physics, such as sheaths, sheath instabilities, diagnostic probes, current, and space charge neutralization of ion beams.
Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.
2017-08-01
This paper presents design of a sustainable solar Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of solar energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow control of proposed system.
One dimension harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.
1977-01-01
The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiao Jiao
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Explored in this paper is the grid impedance effect on the stability of a single-phase grid connected inverter with an LC filter based on an analysis of the inverter output impedance. For a single-phase grid connected inverter, a PI controller is often used to regulate the current injected into the grid. However, the control performance can be influenced when the inverter is connected to a weak grid. Also, the utility grid has background harmonic noise, which can make the injected current distorted. Therefore, analysis of the output impedance of a single-phase grid connected inverter is important for the robustness and stability of the system. By modeling the output impedance of inverter, it can be determined that the proportional gain and integral gain of the controller have an effect on the output impedance. Analytical results show that by adjusting the PI controller parameters, the ability for harmonic reduction and stability of the system can be improved. Simulation and experiments using a 1 kW single-phase grid connected inverter verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.
Robust Design of LCL-Filters for Active Damping in Grid Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
Grid converters require a simple inductor or an LCL-filter to limit the current ripples. The LCL-filter is nowadays the preferred solution as it allows lower inductance values. In order to solve the stability concerns, active damping is preferred to passive damping since it does not use dissipative...... elements. However, large variations in the grid inductance and resonances arising from parallel converters may still compromise the system stability. This calls for a robust design of LCL-filters with active damping. This paper proposes a design flow with little iteration for two well-known methods, namely...... lead-lag network and current capacitor feedback. The proposed formulas for the resonance frequency, grid and converter inductance ratio, and capacitance of the LCL-filter allow calculating all the LCL-filter parameters. An estimation for the achieved Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the grid current...
A decision modeling for phasor measurement unit location selection in smart grid systems
Lee, Seung Yup
As a key technology for enhancing the smart grid system, Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) provides synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents of wide-area electric power grid. With various benefits from its application, one of the critical issues in utilizing PMUs is the optimal site selection of units. The main aim of this research is to develop a decision support system, which can be used in resource allocation task for smart grid system analysis. As an effort to suggest a robust decision model and standardize the decision modeling process, a harmonized modeling framework, which considers operational circumstances of component, is proposed in connection with a deterministic approach utilizing integer programming. With the results obtained from the optimal PMU placement problem, the advantages and potential that the harmonized modeling process possesses are assessed and discussed.
Helson, Henry
2010-01-01
This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.
1990-01-01
This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs
Harmonic Damping in DG-Penetrated Distribution Network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
Grid background harmonics may be amplified, propagate through a long distribution feeder and even lead to power system instability. In this paper, harmonic propagation issue is investigated and mitigation of the harmonics is analyzed by using transmission line theory which has already been applied...... in power systems. It is demonstrated that a specific harmonic will not be amplified if the feeder’s length is less than one quarter of the harmonic wavelength meanwhile the terminal impedance is less than characteristic impedance. Besides, three scenarios will be considered in accordance...... with the relationship between the feeder’s length and harmonic wavelength. Harmonic suppression control strategies will be respectively designed considering 5th and 7th harmonics coexisting in the distribution line. Finally, a simulation study has been performed to verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate...
Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa
2014-01-01
Most power electronic equipment these days generate harmonic disturbances, these devices hold nonlinear voltage/current characteristic. The harmonics generated can potentially be harmful to the consumer supply. Typically, filters are integrated at the power source or utility location to filter out...... the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized...
Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system
Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil
2018-04-01
The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Dong Bae
2001-11-01
This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.
Online Variable Topology-Type Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Fengjiang; Sun, Bo; Duan, Jiandong
2015-01-01
In photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected generation system, the key focus is how to expand the generation range of the PV array and enhance the total efficiency of the system. This paper originally derived expressions of the total loss and grid current total harmonics distortions of cascaded inverter...... and H-bridge inverter under the conditions of variable output voltage and power of the PV array. It is proved that, compared with the H-bridge inverter, the operation range of the cascaded inverter is wider, whereas the total loss is larger. Furthermore, a novel online variable topology-type grid......-connected inverter is proposed. A bidirectional power switch is introduced into the conventional cascaded inverter to connect the negative terminals of the PV arrays. When the output voltages of the PV arrays are lower, the proposed inverter works under cascaded inverter mode to obtain wider generation range. When...
Wind turbine inverter robust loop-shaping control subject to grid interaction effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff; Wu, Qiuwei; Blanke, Mogens
2015-01-01
the grid and the number of wind turbines connected. Power converter based turbines inject harmonic currents, which are attenuated by passive filters. A robust high order active filter controller is proposed to complement the passive filtering. The H∞ design of the control loop enables desired tracking......An H∞ robust control of wind turbine inverters employing an LCL filter is proposed in this paper. The controller dynamics are designed for selective harmonic filtering in an offshore transmission network subject to parameter perturbations. Parameter uncertainty in the network originates from...
[Harmonization of TSH Measurements.
Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato
2016-05-01
The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena-Alzola, Rafael; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
LCL-filters are a cost-effective solution to mitigate harmonic current content in grid-tie converters. In order to avoid stability problems, the resonance frequency of LCL-filters can be damped with active techniques that remove dissipative elements but increase control complexity. A notch filter...
Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.
2015-04-02
Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.
Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei
2017-01-01
The harmonic performance of the slim dc-link adjustable speed drives has shown good performance in some studies but poor in some others. The contradiction indicates that a feasible theoretical analysis is still lacking to characterize the harmonic distortion for the slim dc-link drive. Considerin...... results of the slim dc-link drive, loaded up to 2.0 kW, are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....... variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental...
Harmonic mitigation in islanded microgrids by inverter-interfaced distributed energy resource
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiongfei Wang
2012-10-15
primary droop controllers integrated with virtual output impedance loops and the secondary controllers enabled by the low-bandwidth communication. With the chosen control options of DER inverters, the circulating current characteristics in the droop-controlled parallel three-phase DER inverters are analysed. It is found that the circulating current not only consists of the Positive-Sequence Circulating Current (PSCC) but also contains the Negative-Sequence Circulating Current (NSCC) even when feeding linear balanced loads. It is shown that the presence of the NSCC deteriorates the current quality of inverters and results in unbalanced voltage distortion at certain buses of an islanded microgrid. In order to reduce the NSCC, an improved virtual output impedance loop is proposed, where a negative-sequence virtual resistance is introduced based on the detection of the negative-sequence output current. Moreover, to adapt to the variation of unbalanced loads, a dynamically-tuned negative-sequence resistance is developed. Thus, an autonomous NSCC control that is more suitable for the scattered DER units is achieved and validated via a series of laboratory tests. Under the built islanded microgrid, the control methods of DER inverters for active harmonic conditioning are investigated. Two autonomous harmonic current filtering and resonance damping approaches, i.e. the Resistive-Active Power Filter (R-APF)-based method and the virtual output resistance scheme, are evaluated. It has been found that the large grid-side inductances of DER inverters may lead to either underdamped or aggravated harmonic voltages in the islanded microgrid. To address such a challenge, a Variable Harmonic Impedance (VHI) concept is proposed, where positive resistances and negative inductances are synthesized at the dominant harmonic frequencies. Two case studies, including the single grid-interactive DER inverter and the parallel DER inverters, are carried out. Simulation and laboratory test results are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.
2005-08-14
Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.
Yuan, Chengxun; Tian, Ruihuan; Eliseev, S. I.; Bekasov, V. S.; Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Zhou, Zhongxiang
2018-03-01
In this paper, we present investigation of a direct-current discharge with a gridded anode from the point of view of using it as a means of creating plasma coating that could efficiently absorb incident electromagnetic (EM) waves. A single discharge cell consists of two parallel plates, one of which (anode) is gridded. Electrons emitted from the cathode surface are accelerated in the short interelectrode gap and are injected into the post-anode space, where they lose acquired energy on ionization and create plasma. Numerical simulations were used to investigate the discharge structure and obtain spatial distributions of plasma density in the post-anode space. The numerical model of the discharge was based on a simple hybrid approach which takes into account non-local ionization by fast electrons streaming from the cathode sheath. Specially formulated transparency boundary conditions allowed performing simulations in 1D. Simulations were carried out in air at pressures of 10 Torr and higher. Analysis of the discharge structure and discharge formation is presented. It is shown that using cathode materials with lower secondary emission coefficients can allow increasing the thickness of plasma slabs for the same discharge current, which can potentially enhance EM wave absorption. Spatial distributions of electron density obtained during simulations were used to calculate attenuation of an incident EM wave propagating perpendicularly to the plasma slab boundary. It is shown that plasma created by means of a DC discharge with a gridded anode can efficiently absorb EM waves in the low frequency range (6-40 GHz). Increasing gas pressure results in a broader range of wave frequencies (up to 500 GHz) where a considerable attenuation is observed.
Three-Phase Harmonic Analysis Method for Unbalanced Distribution Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jen-Hao Teng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Due to the unbalanced features of distribution systems, a three-phase harmonic analysis method is essential to accurately analyze the harmonic impact on distribution systems. Moreover, harmonic analysis is the basic tool for harmonic filter design and harmonic resonance mitigation; therefore, the computational performance should also be efficient. An accurate and efficient three-phase harmonic analysis method for unbalanced distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The variations of bus voltages, bus current injections and branch currents affected by harmonic current injections can be analyzed by two relationship matrices developed from the topological characteristics of distribution systems. Some useful formulas are then derived to solve the three-phase harmonic propagation problem. After the harmonic propagation for each harmonic order is calculated, the total harmonic distortion (THD for bus voltages can be calculated accordingly. The proposed method has better computational performance, since the time-consuming full admittance matrix inverse employed by the commonly-used harmonic analysis methods is not necessary in the solution procedure. In addition, the proposed method can provide novel viewpoints in calculating the branch currents and bus voltages under harmonic pollution which are vital for harmonic filter design. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Lei; Huang, Shoudao; Lu, Kaiyuan
2013-01-01
Unbalanced grid voltage will cause large dc-bus voltage ripple and introduce high harmonic current components on the grid side. This will severely threaten the safety of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and consequently, affect the healthy operation condition of the load. In this......Unbalanced grid voltage will cause large dc-bus voltage ripple and introduce high harmonic current components on the grid side. This will severely threaten the safety of the grid-connected voltage source converter (VSC) and consequently, affect the healthy operation condition of the load....... In this study, a new proportional-integral-resonant (PI-RES) controller-based, space vector modulated direct power control topology is proposed to suppress the dc-bus voltage ripple and in the same time, controlling effectively the instantaneous power of the VSC. A special ac reactive power reference component...... is introduced in the controller, which is necessary in order to reduce the dc-bus voltage ripple and active power harmonics at the same time. The proposed control topology is implemented in the lab. Simulation and experimental results are provided to validate its performance and the analysis presented...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Wenzhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Savaghebi, Mehdi
2016-01-01
The photovoltaic (PV) inverter installed on board experiences the excessive current stress in case of the offshore unbalanced voltage fault ride through (FRT), which significantly affects the operation reliability of the power supply system. In order to solve the problem, the inherent mechanism...... of the excessive current phenomenon with the conventional fault ride through control is discussed. The quantitative analysis of the current peak value is conducted and a new current-limiting control strategy is proposed to achieve the flexible power control and successful fault ride through in a safe current...
Klumpar, D. M. (Principal Investigator)
1982-01-01
The feasibility of modeling magnetic fields due to certain electrical currents flowing in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere was investigated. A method was devised to carry out forward modeling of the magnetic perturbations that arise from space currents. The procedure utilizes a linear current element representation of the distributed electrical currents. The finite thickness elements are combined into loops which are in turn combined into cells having their base in the ionosphere. In addition to the extensive field modeling, additional software was developed for the reduction and analysis of the MAGSAT data in terms of the external current effects. Direct comparisons between the models and the MAGSAT data are possible.
Control of Grid Interactive PV Inverters for High Penetration in Low Voltage Distribution Networks
Demirok, Erhan
2012-01-01
Regarding of high density deployment of PV installations in electricity grids, new technical challenges such as voltage rise, thermal loading of network components, voltage unbalance, harmonic interaction and fault current contributions are being added to tasks list of distribution system operators (DSOs) in order to maintain at least the same power quality as before PVs were not revealed. Potential problems caused by high amount of PV installations can be avoided with technical study of both...
dSPACE based adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller of grid interactive inverter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altin, Necmi; Sefa, İbrahim
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► We propose a dSPACE based neuro-fuzzy controlled grid interactive inverter. ► The membership functions and rule base of fuzzy logic controller by using ANFIS. ► A LCL output filter is designed. ► A high performance controller is designed. - Abstract: In this study, design, simulation and implementation of a dSPACE based grid interactive voltage source inverter are proposed. This inverter has adaptive neuro-fuzzy controller and capable of importing electrical energy, generated from renewable energy sources such as the wind, the solar and the fuel cells to the grid. A line frequency transformer and a LCL filter are used at the output of the grid interactive inverter which is designed as current controlled to decrease the susceptibility to phase errors. Membership functions and rule base of the fuzzy logic controller, which control the inverter output current, are determined by using artificial neural networks. Both simulation and experimental results show that, the grid interactive inverter operates synchronously with the grid. The inverter output current which is imported to the grid is in sinusoidal waveform and the harmonic level of it meets the international standards (4.3 < 5.0%). In addition, simulation and experimental results of the neuro-fuzzy and the PI controlled inverter are given together and compared in detail. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed inverter has faster response to the reference variations and lower steady state error than PI controller.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weiss, Roland [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Boeke, Ulrich [Philips Group Innovation-Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maurer, Wilhelm [Infineon Technologies AG, Neubiberg (Germany); Zeltner, Stefan [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie (IISB), Erlangen (Germany)
2012-07-01
The joint undertaking ''Direct Current Components and Grid'' (DCC+G) takes on the strategic challenge to reduce energy consumption and thus the reduction of CO{sub 2} emission caused by commercially used buildings through research in the fields of Direct Current distribution at a voltage level of {+-} 380 V. The major energy consumers in commercially used buildings, ready for the ''net-zero-energy'' goal of the European Union, are heat pumps for heating, ventilation systems, air conditioning units, cooling units (HVAC), lighting systems and information technology. All these components and subsystems have in common, that the most efficient versions would benefit from a direct current supply. Additionally the local producers of electric energy like photovoltaic systems usually generate DC-current. A Direct Current distribution grid within buildings would avoid the repeating conversion from DC and AC an vice versa and therefore reduce conversion losses. Important components of a direct current distribution grid are central, smart, high efficient, bidirectional rectifiers replacing the large number of small, less efficient rectifiers used today. Such large central rectifiers units could additionally be used to actively improve the power quality of the smart local AC distribution grid. One major part of the described activities is to show energy savings of about 5 % of electrical energy with a 2-phase direct current distribution grid using a voltage level of {+-} 380 V. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerrero-Rodríguez, N.F.; Rey-Boué, Alexis B.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A MSOGI-FLL is used to detect the frequency. • A PR harmonic-compensator is used. • Grid-connected PV system insensitive to harmonic pollution. • RTDS reinforced the final validation of the control algorithms. • Several algorithms are combined in this paper. - Abstract: The large number of Photovoltaic plants and its utilization as agents of a Distributed Generation Systems justified the increasing efforts towards the optimal design of the overall grid-connected System. In a Distributed Generation environment the low voltage 3-phase utility grid could be affected by some disturbances such as voltage unbalanced, variations of frequency and harmonics distortion and it is mandatory that the control algorithms used in the inverter can be able to maintain the power flow between the renewable agent and the low voltage 3-phase utility grid; in addition a unitary power factor must be attained. A Proportional-Resonant regulator is used to performance a current control with the output current of the inverter and a Multiple Second Order Generalized Integrator Frequency-Locked Loop (MSOGI-FLL) is used to detect the frequency of the low voltage 3-phase utility grid. Some low order harmonics are introduced in the low voltage 3-phase utility grid in order to see the effect of the harmonic compensator. In order to validate the model of the Photovoltaic Renewable agent, the synchronization algorithm and the inverter control algorithm, some simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK from The MathWorks, Inc. are shown firstly, and secondly, some Real-Time Digital Simulation tests using a Real-Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) Platform are carried out
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo
2015-01-01
Rigorous analysis and design of the current control loop in voltage source converters (VSCs) requires an accurate modeling. The loop behavior can be significantly influenced by the VSC working conditions. To consider such effect, converter losses should be included in the model, which can be done...... by means of an equivalent series resistance. This paper proposes a method to identify the VSC equivalent loss resistance for the proper tuning of the current control loop. It is based on analysis of the closed-loop transient response provided by a synchronous proportional-integral current controller......, according to the internal model principle. The method gives a set of loss resistance values linked to working conditions, which can be used to improve the tuning of the current controllers, either by online adaptation of the controller gains or by open-loop adaptive adjustment of them according to prestored...
Klotz, Wolf-Dieter
2005-01-01
Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ricchiuto, D.; Liserre, M.; Kerekes, Tamas
2011-01-01
Grid-connected converters usually employ an LCL-filter to reduce PWM harmonics. To avoid the wellknown stability problems it is requested to use either passive or active damping methods. Active damping methods avoid losses and preserve the filter effectiveness but they are more sensitive...... to parameters variation. In this paper the robustness of active damping methods is investigated considering those using only the same state variable (grid-side or converter-side current) normally used for current control (filter-based) or those methods using more state-variables (multiloop). Simulation...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede
2004-01-01
This paper is describing the recently introduced proportional-resonant (PR) controllers and their suitability for grid-connected converters current control. It is shown that the known shortcomings associated with PI controllers like steady - state error for single-phase converters and the need...... of decoupling for three-phase converters can be alleviated. Additionally, selective harmonic compensation is also possible with PR controllers. Suggested control-diagrams for three-phase grid converters and active filters are also presented. A practical application of PR current control for a photovoltaic (PV...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast...... and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel...... renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults....
Communication technologies in smart grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miladinović Nikola
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lakshman Naik Popavath
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The traditional configurations of power systems are changing due to the greater penetration of renewable energy sources (solar and wind, resulting in reliability issues. At present, the most severe power quality problems in distribution systems are current harmonics, reactive power demands, and the islanding of renewables caused by severe voltage variations (voltage sag and swell. Current harmonics and voltage sag strongly affect the performance of renewable-based power systems. Various conventional methods (passive filters, capacitor bank, and UPS are not able to mitigate harmonics and voltage sag completely. Based on several studies, custom power devices can mitigate harmonics completely and slightly mitigate voltage sags with reactive power supplies. To ensure the generating units remain grid-connected during voltage sags and to improve system operation during abnormal conditions, efficient and reliable utilization of PV solar farm inverter as STATCOMs is needed. This paper elaborates the dynamic performance of a VSC-based PV-STATCOM for power quality enhancement in a grid integrated system and low voltage ride through (LVRT capability. LVRT requirements suggest that the injection of real and reactive power supports grid voltage during abnormal grid conditions. The proposed strategy was demonstrated with MATLAB simulations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Sina Sebtahmadi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available A rotational d-q current control scheme based on a Particle Swarm Optimization- Proportional-Integral (PSO-PI controller, is used to drive an induction motor (IM through an Ultra Sparse Z-source Matrix Converter (USZSMC. To minimize the overall size of the system, the lowest feasible values of Z-source elements are calculated by considering the both timing and aspects of the circuit. A meta-heuristic method is integrated to the control system in order to find optimal coefficient values in a single multimodal problem. Henceforth, the effect of all coefficients in minimizing the total harmonic distortion (THD and balancing the stator current are considered simultaneously. Through changing the reference point of magnitude or frequency, the modulation index can be automatically adjusted and respond to changes without heavy computational cost. The focus of this research is on a reliable and lightweight system with low computational resources. The proposed scheme is validated through both simulation and experimental results.
Liseikin, Vladimir D
2017-01-01
This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tranekjaer Jensen, M.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hjorth Mikkelsen, M.; Winther, M.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Viuf OErby, P.; Boll Illerup, J.
2008-03-15
This report explains methods for reporting emissions on EMEP grid with a resolution of 50km x 50km for the reporting years 1990, 1995, 2000 an 2005. The applied and geographical distributed emission data on grid represents the latest delivery (per March 2007) to UNECE LRTAP (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution). Thus data represents the latest recalculation of historical values. The reporting of emissions on EMEP grid with a resolution of 50km x 50km is a part of the Danish submission under the above mentioned convention (UNECE LRTAP). Emission inventories on grid are reported every fifth year and involves all sectors under UNECE LRTAP. The reporting of emissions on grid includes 14 mandatory emission components, which are: SO{sub 2}, NOx NH{sub 3}, NMVOC, CO, TSP, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, Pb, Cd, Hg, Dioxin, PAH and HCB. It is furthermore possible to make additional reporting for a range of components. The report summarizes the most crucial principles and considerations according to work with distributing air emissions on grid within predefined categories for gridding defined by the United Nations (UN 2003). For each of the reported categories, the report gives a detailed explanation of the specific level for distributing emissions spatially. For most reporting categories the process of distributing emissions has been carried out at the highly detailed SNAP level, whereas for others it has been a necessity to make aggregates of several SNAP categories for spatial distribution. The report present final maps for selected air pollutants (SOx, NOx and NH{sub 3}) and discuss shortly possible reasons for variations within time and space. Based on current experience, the report finally gives some recommendations for improving future reporting of gridded emission data. The recommendations pin point, that the EMEP program should provide harmonized and well-documented basic spatial data sets for gridding, to encourage each
Henderson, M. G.; Bent, R.; Chen, Y.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jeffery, C. A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Morley, S.; Rivera, M. K.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Engel, M.
2017-12-01
Large geomagnetic storms can have devastating effects on power grids. The largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded - called the Carrington Event - occurred in 1859 and produced Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) strong enough to set fires in telegraph offices. It has been estimated that if such a storm occurred today, it would have devastating, long-lasting effects on the North American power transmission infrastructure. Acutely aware of this imminent threat, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) was recently instructed to establish requirements for transmission system performance during geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) events and, although the benchmarks adopted were based on the best available data at the time, they suffer from a severely limited physical understanding of the behavior of GMDs and the resulting GICs for strong events. To rectify these deficiencies, we are developing a first-of-its-kind data-informed modelling capability that will provide transformational understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the most harmful intense localized GMDs and their impacts on real power transmission networks. This work is being conducted in two separate modes of operation: (1) using historical, well-observed large storm intervals for which robust data-assimilation can be performed, and (2) extending the modelling into a predictive realm in order to assess impacts of poorly and/or never-before observed Carrington-class events. Results of this work are expected to include a potential replacement for the current NERC benchmarking methodology and the development of mitigation strategies in real power grid networks. We report on progress to date and show some preliminary results of modeling large (but not yet extreme) events.
Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianxue Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.
Improving Power Quality in AC Supply Grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Fabijański
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a digital and actual model of the UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated system for power quality improvement. The UPQC’s design and its connection to an AC supply grid, 1-phase and 3-phase alike, provide effective compensation of unwanted interferences in the waveforms of load supply voltages and non-linear load currents. This article presents an overview of topologies and control strategies. The study of the UPQC confirmed its positive impact on the power quality. The electricity parameters were significantly improved. Total harmonic distortion in supply voltage THDu decreased six-fold to 1.89%, and total harmonic distortion in load current THDi decreased more than ten-fold to 2.38% for a non-linear load (uncontrolled bridge rectifier with load L. Additionally, symmetrisation of supply voltages and reactive power compensation Q of linear load was obtained. The UPQC integrated system for power quality improvement can be used wherever high-quality and PN-EN 50160 standard – compliant electricity is required.
Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch
2008-07-01
Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.
Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, L; Schulz, M
2008-01-01
Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards
A single phase photovoltaic inverter control for grid connected system
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This paper presents a control scheme for single phase grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system operating under both grid connected and isolated grid mode. The control techniques include voltage and current control of grid-tie PV inverter. During grid connected mode, grid controls the amplitude and frequency of the PV ...
Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk
2015-01-01
Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk
2015-01-01
Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)
Single stage three level grid interactive MPPT inverter for PV systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozdemir, Saban; Altin, Necmi; Sefa, Ibrahim
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A three phase three-level NPC inverter for grid interactive PV systems is proposed. • A novel MPPT algorithm is introduced for single stage systems. • The proposed algorithm is robust with respect to parameter variations of PV system. • THD level is measured as 3.45% and it meets the international standards (<5%). • Total system efficiency is measured as 93.08%. - Abstract: In this study, three-phase, single stage neutral point clamped grid interactive inverter is designed and implemented. The reference current of the voltage source inverter is determined by maximum power point tracking sub-program in order to obtain maximum power from photovoltaic modules instantaneously. Proposed control is realized via TMS320F28335 32-bit floating point processor. The modified incremental conductance method is applied for maximum power point tracking; the PI regulator is used to control the inverter output current shape and level. Galvanic isolation is provided by a line frequency transformer that matches inverter output voltage to the grid voltage level and prevents DC current injection into the grid. Experimental results show that the designed inverter imports energy to the grid with unity power factor, total harmonic distortion level is 3.45% and this value is in the limits of the international standards. In addition, the total efficiency of the system is measured as 93.08%. The proposed system gets the maximum power from photovoltaic module and dispatches into the grid without using additional DC/DC converter
Application of Fuzzy Control in a Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaohong Zheng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available To realize the maximum power output of a grid-connected inverter, the MPPT (maximum power point tracking control method is needed. The perturbation and observation (P&O method can cause the inverter operating point to oscillate near the maximum power. In this paper, the fuzzy control P&O method is proposed, and the fuzzy control algorithm is applied to the disturbance observation method. The simulation results of the P&O method with fuzzy control and the traditional P&O method prove that not only can the new method reduce the power loss caused by inverter oscillation during maximum power point tracking, but also it has the advantage of speed. Inductive loads in the post-grid-connected stage cause grid-connected current distortion. A fuzzy control algorithm is added to the traditional deadbeat grid-connected control method to improve the quality of the system’s grid-connected operation. The fuzzy deadbeat control method is verified by experiments, and the harmonic current of the grid-connected current is less than 3%.
Cerin, Christophe
2012-01-01
Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Miguel Astorga Gómez
2015-04-01
Full Text Available En este artículo se evalúan las armónicas individuales de tensión como función de las armónicas individuales de corriente usando los análisis estadísticos de regresión lineal simple, regresión polinomial y regresión lineal múltiple. Para la selección del modelo, se usan el coeficiente de determinación R2 y el criterio de información de Akaike (AIC. Se utiliza como caso de estudio un sistema eléctrico de un proceso minero ubicado en la región de Atacama Copiapó Chile, que ocupa la técnica de electro obtención de cobre como parte principal de su proceso productivo. Se muestran y comparan los resultados para los distintos modelos estadísticos y se discute la información de éstos para el estudio de calidad de energía. Finalmente, usando el modelo que mejor se ajusta a las mediciones de armónicas de tensión y corriente, se muestran algunas predicciones para la componente armónica dominante de tensión. This paper assesses the individual voltage harmonics as a function of the individual current harmonics using the statistical analyses of simple linear regression, polynomial regression and multiple linear regression. For model choice, the coefficient of determination R2 and Akaike information criterion (AIC are used. A mining process electrical system located in the Atacama Copiapó Chile, is used as a case study. This uses the technique copper electrowining as the main part of its production process. The results for different statistical models are shown and their information discussed for the power quality study. Finally, using the model that better fits to the measurements of voltage and current harmonics, some predictions for the dominant voltage harmonic are shown.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niancheng Zhou
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverter in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective load harmonic current feedforward loop bas...
Wang, Qianggang; Zhou, Niancheng; Lou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Xu
2014-01-01
Unbalanced grid faults will lead to several drawbacks in the output power quality of photovoltaic generation (PV) converters, such as power fluctuation, current amplitude swell, and a large quantity of harmonics. The aim of this paper is to propose a flexible AC current generation method by selecting coefficients to overcome these problems in an optimal way. Three coefficients are brought in to tune the output current reference within the required limits of the power quality (the current harmonic distortion, the AC current peak, the power fluctuation, and the DC voltage fluctuation). Through the optimization algorithm, the coefficients can be determined aiming to generate the minimum integrated amplitudes of the active and reactive power references with the constraints of the inverter current and DC voltage fluctuation. Dead-beat controller is utilized to track the optimal current reference in a short period. The method has been verified in PSCAD/EMTDC software. PMID:25243215
Wang, Qianggang; Zhou, Niancheng; Lou, Xiaoxuan; Chen, Xu
2014-01-01
Unbalanced grid faults will lead to several drawbacks in the output power quality of photovoltaic generation (PV) converters, such as power fluctuation, current amplitude swell, and a large quantity of harmonics. The aim of this paper is to propose a flexible AC current generation method by selecting coefficients to overcome these problems in an optimal way. Three coefficients are brought in to tune the output current reference within the required limits of the power quality (the current harmonic distortion, the AC current peak, the power fluctuation, and the DC voltage fluctuation). Through the optimization algorithm, the coefficients can be determined aiming to generate the minimum integrated amplitudes of the active and reactive power references with the constraints of the inverter current and DC voltage fluctuation. Dead-beat controller is utilized to track the optimal current reference in a short period. The method has been verified in PSCAD/EMTDC software.
GENIUS: a web portal for the grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andronico, A.; Barbera, R.; Falzone, A.; Lo Re, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Rodolico, A.
2003-01-01
The architecture and the current implementation of the grid portal GENIUS (Grid Enabled web environment for site Independent User job Submission), jointly developed by INFN and NICE within the context of the INFN Grid and DataGrid Project, is presented and discussed
Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells
Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.
1986-01-01
CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.
Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin-Hyuk Park
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.
Schultz, A.; Bonner, L. R., IV
2016-12-01
Existing methods to predict Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) in power grids, such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation standard adopted by the power industry, require explicit knowledge of the electrical resistivity structure of the crust and mantle to solve for ground level electric fields along transmission lines. The current standard is to apply regional 1-D resistivity models to this problem, which facilitates rapid solution of the governing equations. The systematic mapping of continental resistivity structure from projects such as EarthScope reveals several orders of magnitude of lateral variations in resistivity on local, regional and continental scales, resulting in electric field intensifications relative to existing 1-D solutions that can impact GICs to first order. The computational burden on the ground resistivity/GIC problem of coupled 3-D solutions inhibits the prediction of GICs in a timeframe useful to protecting power grids. In this work we reduce the problem to applying a set of filters, recognizing that the magnetotelluric impedance tensors implicitly contain all known information about the resistivity structure beneath a given site, and thus provides the required relationship between electric and magnetic fields at each site. We project real-time magnetic field data from distant magnetic observatories through a robustly calculated multivariate transfer function to locations where magnetotelluric impedance tensors had previously been obtained. This provides a real-time prediction of the magnetic field at each of those points. We then project the predicted magnetic fields through the impedance tensors to obtain predictions of electric fields induced at ground level. Thus, electric field predictions can be generated in real-time for an entire array from real-time observatory data, then interpolated onto points representing a power transmission line contained within the array to produce a combined electric field prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmoud Salem
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Achieving high reliable grid-connected photovoltaic (PV systems with high power quality and high operation efficiency is highly required for distributed generation units. A double grid-frequency voltage ripple is found on the dc-link voltage in single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected systems due to the unbalance of the instantaneous dc input and ac output powers. This voltage ripple has undesirable effects on the power quality and operational efficiency of the whole system. Harmonic distortion in the injected current to the grid is one of the problems caused by this double grid-frequency voltage ripple. The double grid frequency ripple propagates to the PV voltage and current which disturb the extracted maximum power from the PV array. This paper introduces intelligent solutions towards mitigate the side effects of the double grid-frequency voltage ripple on the transferred power quality and the operational efficiency of single-phase two-stage grid-connected PV system. The proposed system has three control loops: MPPT control loop, dc-link voltage control loop and inverter current control loop. Solutions are introduced for all the three control loops in the system. The current controller cancels the dc-link voltage effect on the total harmonic distortion of the output current. The dc-link voltage controller is designed to generate a ripple free reference current signal that leads to enhance the quality of the output power. Also a modified MPPT controller is proposed to optimize the extracted power from the PV array. Simulation results show that higher injected power quality is achieved and higher efficiency of the overall system is realized.
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ouchen, Sabir; Betka, Achour; Abdeddaim, Sabrina; Menadi, Abdelkrim
2016-01-01
Highlights: • An implementation on dSPACE 1104 of a double stage grid connected photovoltaic system, associated with an active power filter. • A fuzzy logic controller for maximum power point tracking of photovoltaic generator using a boost converter. • Predictive direct power control almost eliminates the effect of harmonics under a unite power factor. • The robustness of control strategies was examined in different irradiance level conditions. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a real time implementation of an optimal operation of a double stage grid connected photovoltaic system, associated with a shunt active power filter. On the photovoltaic side, a fuzzy logic based maximum power point taking control is proposed to track permanently the optimum point through an adequate tuning of a boost converter regardless the solar irradiance variations; whereas, on the grid side, a model predictive direct power control is applied, to ensure both supplying a part of the load demand with the extracted photovoltaic power, and a compensation of undesirable harmonic contents of the grid current, under a unity power factor operation. The implementation of the control strategies is conducted on a small scale photovoltaic system, controlled via a dSPACE 1104 single card. The obtained experimental results show on one hand, that the proposed Fuzzy logic based maximum power taking point technique provides fast and high performances under different irradiance levels while compared with a sliding mode control, and ensures 1.57% more in efficiency. On the other hand, the predictive power control ensures a flexible settlement of active power amounts exchanges with the grid, under a unity power functioning. Furthermore, the grid current presents a sinusoidal shape with a tolerable total harmonic distortion coefficient 4.71%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pordes, R.
2004-01-01
The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus
Control Strategies for Trap Filter Interfaced Three-Phase Grid Connected Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Min, Huang
In order to utilize renewable energy systems power electronics are needed to convert the energy to grid. The AC-DC and DC-AC power conversion are dominant in wind power system and photovoltaic system. However, the use of PWM scheme introduces undesirable harmonics. In order to enhance the grid...... damping in order to stabilize the whole system with resonance issue. LC trap filter application for current source converters to reduce the size of the filter and get a higher power factor....... integration of the renewable energy systems, the filter plays an important role. Even though this topic has already been widely studied, there are many optimizations and problems should be solved. How to design a filter for grid-connected converters in distributed generation system to get a lower loss...
Grid Filter Design for a Multi-Megawatt Medium-Voltage Voltage Source Inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rockhill, A.A.; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus
2011-01-01
This paper describes the design procedure and performance of an LCL grid filter for a medium-voltage neutral point clamped (NPC) converter to be adopted for a multimegawatt wind turbine. The unique filter design challenges in this application are driven by a combination of the medium voltage...... converter, a limited allowable switching frequency, component physical size and weight concerns, and the stringent limits for allowable injected current harmonics. Traditional design procedures of grid filters for lower power and higher switching frequency converters are not valid for a multi......-megawatt filter connecting a medium-voltage converter switching at low frequency to the electric grid. This paper demonstrates a frequency domain model based approach to determine the optimum filter parameters that provide the necessary performance under all operating conditions given the necessary design...
A Novel Model Predictive Control for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil
2017-01-01
Single-phase grid-connected inverters with LCL filter are widely used to connect photovoltaic systems to the utility grid. Among the existing control schemes, predictive control methods are faster and more accurate but also more complicated to implement. Recently, the Model Predictive Control (MPC......) algorithm for single-phase inverter has been presented, where the algorithm implementation is straightforward. In the MPC approach, all switching states are considered in each switching period to achieve the control objectives. However, since the number of switching states in single-phase inverters is small......, the inverter output current has a high Total Harmonic Distortions (THD). In order to reduce this, this paper presents an improved MPC for single-phase grid-connected inverters. In the proposed approach, the switching algorithm is changed and the number of the switching states is increased by means of virtual...
The performance of Dutch photovoltaic inverters in areas with low grid voltage. A preliminary study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Twisk, J.; Van der Borg, N.J.C.M.; Groeman, J.F.
2000-08-01
An important component of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems is the inverter. The inverter must be suitable for the expected characteristics of the input of the photovoltaic panels and for the expected characteristics of the output of the electricity network. The characteristics of the electric grid in potential markets for Dutch inverter manufacturers can differ from the characteristics of Dutch electric grids. A preliminary study has been carried out to determine the characteristics of relevant power distribution systems and the expected effects of those networks on PV-inverters. It is concluded that the following characteristics need further study: voltage level (nominal voltage and long-lasting deviations of that level); transient overvoltages, harmonic components in the voltage, and direct current component. 5 refs
Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelin, G
1974-07-01
The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.
Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelin, G.
1974-01-01
The phonon dispersion relations of the Δ-, Λ-, and Σ-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.
The Virasoro algebra from harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saidi, E.H.; Zakkari, M.
1990-08-01
Using harmonic superspace techniques, we construct a new field realization of the Virasoro algebra. The main conformal objects are U(1) Cartan tensors instead of the U(1) Lorentz ones. The new conformal model, which admits moreover a d=2 (4,0) global supersymmetry is constructed out of the infinitely relaxed HST and FS hypermultiplets. The conformal current T 4+ together with the harmonic superspace OPE rules are given. The Virasoro algebra and the harmonic superspace Schwarzian derivative S 4+ are also derived. (author). 14 refs
Smart grids - French Expertise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-11-01
The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in
Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.
1981-09-01
Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)
Reduction of Harmonics by 18-Pulse Rectifier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislav Kocman
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Operation of such electrical devices as data processing and electronics devices, adjustable speed drives or uninterruptible power supply can cause problems by generating harmonic currents into the network, from which they are supplied. Effects of these harmonic currents are various, they can get worse the quality of supply voltage in the network or to have negative influences on devices connected to this network. There are various technical solutions for reduction of harmonics. One of them is using of multi-pulse rectifiers, whereas the 18-pulse rectifier in the structure of adjustable speed drive is briefly presented in this paper including some results of its behaviour. The examined experimental measurements confirmed its very good efficiency in the harmonic mitigation.
caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.
Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel
2007-10-11
caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5.
Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg
2017-01-01
-sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....
Harmonic Distortion of Rectifier Topologies for Adjustable Speed Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Steffan
This thesis deals with the harmonic distortion of the diode rectifier and a number of alternative rectifier topologies for adjustable speed drives. The main intention of this thesis is to provide models and tools that allow easy prediction of the harmonic distortion of ASD’s in a given system...... rectifier are presented. The first level is an ideal model where the diode rectifier basically is treated as an independent (harmonic) current source. The second level is an empirical model, where simulated (or measured) values of the harmonic currents of the diode rectifier for different parameters......-angle of the individual harmonic currents of different diode rectifier types is analyzed. Four selected rectifier topologies with a high input power factor are presented. It is shown that using ac- or dc-coils is a very simple and efficient method to reduce the harmonic currents compared to the basic diode rectifier...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moner-Girona, M.; Solano-Peralta, M.; Lazopoulou, M.
2018-01-01
involvement. Regarding policy considerations, stronger political will coupled with proactive rural electrification strategies and targeted renewable energy regulatory framework would be essential in order to establish viable dynamic domestic market for off grid renewables. In the presented benchmarking...... be mitigated through studying the issues that influence mini-grid costs (both hardware and software). In addition to understanding other factors that can influence project costs such as the market maturity and remoteness of the site, organisation capability, development approach, and level of community...
Frequency scanning-based stability analysis method for grid-connected inverter system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a frequency scanning-based impedance analysis for stability assessment of grid-connected inverter system, which is able to perform stability assessment without using system mathematical models and inherit the superior feature of impedance-based stability criterion with conside......This paper proposes a frequency scanning-based impedance analysis for stability assessment of grid-connected inverter system, which is able to perform stability assessment without using system mathematical models and inherit the superior feature of impedance-based stability criterion...... with consideration of the inverter nonlinearities. Small current disturbance is injected into grid-connected inverter system in a particular frequency range, and the impedance is computed according to the harmonic-frequency response using Fourier analysis, and then the stability is predicted on the basis...... of the impedance stability criterion. The stability issues of grid-connected inverters with grid-current feedback and the converter-current feedback are addressed using the proposed method. The results obtained from simulation and experiments validate the effectiveness of the method. The frequency scanning...
Effect of Frequency and Spatial-Harmonics on Rotary and Linear Induction Motor Characteristics
1972-03-01
A computer analysis is made of the effect of current and MMF airgap harmonics on the output characteristics of rotary and linear induction motors. The current harmonics accompanying thyristor-control operation are evaluated by Fourier analyzing the p...
The GridSite Web/Grid security system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao
2010-01-01
We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.
Data harmonization and model performance
The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.
Grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters
Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel
2013-01-01
This paper compares two methods for controlling the on-line transference from connected to stand-alone mode and vice versa in converters for micro-grids. The first proposes a method where the converter changes from CSI (Current Source Inverter) in grid-connected mode to VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) in off-grid. In the second method, the inverter always works as a non-ideal voltage source, acting as VSI, using AC droop control strategy.
Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring ... The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional ... Sadhana. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 6.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Qui-xun; Van Wechel, T.D.
1987-01-01
A single gap harmonic buncher has been constructed as a pretandem buncher. Over 85% of a proton dc beam has been bunched into pulses. The width (fwhm) of the pulses is 0.7 ns. The buncher is based on that built at Argonne. Changes were made to the buncher's configuration so that the buncher could be tuned to the desired four harmonic frequencies. A method of calibrating and setting the relative phases and amplitudes of the four harmonic frequencies has been used to obtain an optimum sawtooth-like bunching waveform
Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.
1985-01-01
The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed
A study of authorization architectures for grid security
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pang Yanguang; Sun Gongxing; Pei Erming; Ma Nan
2006-01-01
Grid security is one of key issues in grid computing, while current research focus is put on the grid authorization. There is a brief discussion about the drawback of the common GSI (Grid Security Infrastructure) authorization firstly, then analysis is made on the latest several grid authorization architectures, such as structures, policy descriptions, engines, applications, and finally their features are summarized. (authors)
Evaluation of Harmonics Impact on Digital Relays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kinan Wannous
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of the impact of harmonic distortion on a digital protection relay. The aim is to verify and determine the reasons of a mal-trip or failure to trip the protection relays; the suggested solution of the harmonic distortion is explained by a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment. The digital relays have been tested under harmonic distortions in order to verify the function of the relays algorithm under abnormal conditions. The comparison between the protection relay algorithm under abnormal conditions and a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment based on injected harmonics of high values is provided. The test is separated into different levels; the first level is based on the harmonic effect of an individual harmonic and mixed harmonics. The test includes the effect of the harmonics in the location of the fault point into distance protection zones. This paper is a new proposal in the signal processing of power quality disturbances using Matlab Simulink and the power quality impact on the measurements of the power system quantities; the test simulates the function of protection in power systems in terms of calculating the current and voltage values of short circuits and their faults. The paper includes several tests: frequency variations and decomposition of voltage waveforms with Fourier transforms (model and commercial relay, the effect of the power factor on the location of fault points, the relation between the tripping time and the total harmonic distortion (THD levels in a commercial relay, and a comparison of the THD capture between the commercial relay and the model.
Recent trends in grid computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Kenichi
2004-01-01
Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)
Superstrings and harmonic superspace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallosh, R.E.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)
1987-01-01
The paper on superstrings and harmonic superspace is a contribution to the book dedicated to E.S. Fradkin on his sixtieth birthday. The purpose of the paper is to propose a description of N = 2,3 superspace which could be used for the investigation of the effective d = 10 harmonic superspace corresponding to the heterotic superstring. A description is given of the structure of semi-simple Lie algebras in the Cartan-Weyl basis, as well as the general properties of the even, compact part of harmonic superspace. The main properties of the four-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory are discussed, along with the N = 3, d = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. Finally the relation between the harmonic superspace and the heterotic E 8 x E 8 superstring is examined. (U.K.)
Harmonic excitations in quasicrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luck, J.M.
1986-03-01
The harmonic excitations (phonons) of quasicrystals are studied in a simple one-dimensional model. The spectrum is a Cantor set, which exhibits selfsimilarity properties. The eigenstates are generically ''critical'', i.e. neither extended nor localized
Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga
2015-01-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes Trujillo, Eleazar
2005-08-15
In this work it is presented the pattern of an active filter of current and their implementation in the program Simulink of MatLab to reduce the content of harmonics generated for different non lineal load. For the active filter of current they were developed each one of the stages that integrate it, from the obtaining of references, the control block and the stage of power. For the obtaining of references, the reactivates instantaneous power theory was used. For the control of the shots of the IGBT's a control knot was used based on a hysteresis band and for the stage of power, an inversor complete bridge was used with a capacitor like source of direct voltage. To analyze the behavior of the active filter, a real industrial electric system was modeled with a lineal load RL and two non lineal load, a using a converter to diodes of 6 pulses and other a working of a machine of dc with a converter to tiristores of 6 pulses. These configurations were used because their content of harmonicas is high. To this system was integrated the active filter modeled in the exit of the non lineal load to avoid that the harmonic components generated by the loads non lineal distortions the current signals. The current signals, voltage signals, power flow, power factor and the harmonic components that circulate in the industrial electric system were analyzed. [Spanish] Actualmente, la presencia de equipos basados en electronica de potencia cuya operacion es no lineal, instalados en los sistemas electricos industriales, ha incrementado la presencia de distorsion en la senal de corriente y/o tension electrica por armonicos, originando problemas en la calidad de la energia electrica. Como una solucion a este problema, en este trabajo, se presenta el modelo de un filtro activo de corriente y su implementacion en el programa Simulink de MatLab para reducir el contenido de armonicos generados por diferentes cargas no lineales. Para el filtro activo de corriente se desarrollaron cada
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hohmann, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tartu (Estonia)
2016-07-01
Tensor harmonics are a useful mathematical tool for finding solutions to differential equations which transform under a particular representation of the rotation group SO(3). In order to make use of this tool also in the setting of Finsler geometry, where the objects of relevance are d-tensors instead of tensors, we construct a set of d-tensor harmonics for both SO(3) and SO(4) symmetries and show how these can be used for calculations in Finsler geometry and gravity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viterbo, J.
2012-01-01
The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)
Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha
2011-01-01
Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586
Power angle control of grid-connected voltage source converter in a wind energy application
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svensson, Jan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering
1996-12-31
In this thesis, the connection of a voltage source converter to the grid in a wind energy application is examined. The possibility of using a cheap control system without grid current measurements, is investigated. The control method is based on controlling the voltage angle of the inverter, which governs the active power flow. The highest frequency of the power variation, coming from wind turbine, is approx. 5 Hz. Since the proposed control method easily can handle such power variations it is very well suited for wind turbine applications. The characteristics of the system depend on the DC-link capacitor, the grid filter inductance and resistance. Large values of the resistance damp the system well but increase the energy losses. A high inductance leads to a reduced harmonic level on the grid but makes the system slower. By using feed-forward of the generator/rectifier current signal, the performance is increased compared to an ordinary PI-control. Combining the Linear Quadratic (LQ) control method with Kalman filtered input signals, a robust control method with a good performance is obtained. The LQ controller controls both the phase displacement angle and the modulation index, resulting in higher bandwidth, and the typical power angle resonance at the grid frequency disappears. 22 refs, 109 figs, 14 tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford
2014-01-01
The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...
Implementation of grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters
Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel
2013-01-01
This paper presents the transfer of a microgrid converter from/to on-grid to/from off-grid when the converter is working in two different modes. In the first transfer presented method, the converter operates as a Current Source Inverter (CSI) when on-grid and as a Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) when off-grid. In the second transfer method, the converter is operated as a VSI both, when operated on-grid and off-grid. The two methods are implemented successfully in a real pla...
Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration
Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.
2014-04-01
A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.
Voltage Feedback based Harmonic Compensation for an Offshore Wind Power Plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Lascu, Cristian; Teodorescu, Remus
2016-01-01
When an offshore wind power plant is connected to the grid, there is a risk of amplification of certain harmonics and appearance resonances at the point of connection due to the interaction between the grid network and the wind power plant network. Hence, the plant developer is obliged to maintain...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Oloumi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed comparative study concerning the performance of min-projection strategy (MPS and model predictive control (MPC systems to control the three-phase grid connected converters. To do so, first, the converter is modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and its stability criterion is derived as a lower limit on the DC link voltage. Next, the fundamental equations of the MPS to control a VSC are obtained in the stationary reference frame. The mathematical analysis reveals that the MPS is independent of the load, grid, filter and converter parameters. This feature is a great advantage of MPS over the MPC approach. However, the latter is a well-known model-based control technique, has already developed for controlling the VSC in the stationary reference frame. To control the grid connected VSC, both MPS and MPC approaches are simulated in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment. Simulation results illustrate that the MPS is functioning well and is less sensitive to grid and filter inductances as well as the DC link voltage level. However, the MPC approach renders slightly a better performance in the steady state conditions.
Communication and Networking in Smart Grids
Xiao, Yang
2012-01-01
Appropriate for researchers, practitioners, and students alike, Communication and Networking in Smart Grids presents state-of-the-art approaches and novel technologies for communication networks in smart grids. It explains how contemporary grid networks are developed and deployed and presents a collection of cutting-edge advances to help improve current practice. Prominent researchers working on smart grids and in related fields around the world explain the fundamental aspects and applications of smart grids. Describing the role that communication and networking will play in future smart grids
Planning and designing smart grids: philosophical considerations
Ribeiro, P.F.; Polinder, H.; Verkerk, M.J.
2012-01-01
The electric power grid is a crucial part of societal infrastructure and needs constant attention to maintain its performance and reliability. European grid project investments are currently valued at over 5 billion Euros and are estimated to reach 56 billion by 2020 [2]. Successful smart grid
Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.
1994-01-01
The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed
Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian
2018-01-01
Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...
Evaluation of Current Controllers for Distributed Power Generation Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Timbus, Adrian; Liserre, Marco; Teodorescu, Remus
2009-01-01
This paper discusses the evaluation of different current controllers employed for grid-connected distributed power generation systems having variable input power, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The focus is mainly set on linear controllers such as proportional-integral, proportio......This paper discusses the evaluation of different current controllers employed for grid-connected distributed power generation systems having variable input power, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The focus is mainly set on linear controllers such as proportional......-integral, proportional-resonant, and deadbeat (DB) controllers. Additionally, an improved DB controller robust against grid impedance variation is also presented. Since the paper discusses the implementation of these controllers for grid-connected applications, their evaluation is made in three operating conditions....... First, in steady-state conditions, the contribution of controllers to the total harmonic distortion of the grid current is pursued. Further on, the behavior of controllers in the case of transient conditions like input power variations and grid voltage faults is also examined. Experimental results...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Wang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing penetration level of wind energy into power systems has brought new issues and challenges. One of the main concerns is the issue of dynamic response capability during outer disturbance conditions, especially the fault-tolerance capability during asymmetrical faults. In order to improve the fault-tolerance and dynamic response capability under asymmetrical grid fault conditions, an optimal integrated control scheme for the grid-side voltage-source converter (VSC of direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG-based wind turbine systems is proposed in this paper. The optimal control strategy includes a main controller and an additional controller. In the main controller, a double-loop controller based on differential flatness-based theory is designed for grid-side VSC. Two parts are involved in the design process of the flatness-based controller: the reference trajectories generation of flatness output and the implementation of the controller. In the additional control aspect, an auxiliary second harmonic compensation control loop based on an improved calculation method for grid-side instantaneous transmission power is designed by the quasi proportional resonant (Quasi-PR control principle, which is able to simultaneously restrain the second harmonic components in active power and reactive power injected into the grid without the respective calculation for current control references. Moreover, to reduce the DC-link overvoltage during grid faults, the mathematical model of DC-link voltage is analyzed and a feedforward modified control factor is added to the traditional DC voltage control loop in grid-side VSC. The effectiveness of the optimal control scheme is verified in PSCAD/EMTDC simulation software.
Application of transfer function based harmonic study method to an offshore wind farm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yu; Bollen, Math [STRI AB, Gothenburg (Sweden); Martins, Marcia [Alstom Wind, Barcelona (Spain)
2012-07-01
This paper presents the results from a harmonic study for a planned offshore wind farm with 252 MW installed capacity. Both the collection grid and the public grid are modelled in detail using Powerfactory. Both primary emission from wind turbines and secondary emission due to the distortion in the public grid are studied. Besides, due to the presence of HVDC platform and another two wind farms, details of which are not known at the moment, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the potential influence on the harmonic emission. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houston, J.M.
1977-01-01
An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure
Harmonic Active Filtering and Impedance-based Stability Analysis in Offshore Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dhua, Debasish; Yang, Guangya; Zhang, Zhe
2017-01-01
installation and provides effectively similar functionality as passive filters. This work is focused on harmonic propagation studies in wind power plants, power quality evaluation at the point of connection and harmonic mitigation by active filtering. Finally, an impedance-based stability analysis......Nowadays, to eliminate harmonics injected by the wind turbines in offshore wind power plants there is a need to install passive filters. Moreover, the passive filters are not adaptive to harmonic profile changes due to topology changes, grid loading etc. Therefore, active filters in wind turbines...... are proposed as a flexible harmonic mitigation measure. The motivation of this study is to explore the possibility of embedding active filtering in wind turbine grid-side converters without having to change the system electrical infrastructure. The active filtering method can prevent additional equipment...
A grid-voltage-sensorless resistive active power filter with series LC-filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
Voltage-sensorless control has been investigated for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) for many years due to the reduced system cost and potentially improved system reliability. The VSI based Resistive Active Power Filters (R-APFs) are now widely used to prevent the harmonic resonance in power...... distribution network, for which the voltage sensors are needed in order to obtain the current reference. In this paper a grid-voltage-sensorless control strategy is proposed for the R-APF with series LC-filter. Unlike the traditional resistance emulation method, this proposed control method re...
A Grid-Voltage-Sensorless Resistive Active Power Filter with Series LC-Filter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2018-01-01
Voltage-sensorless control has been investigated for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs) for many years due to the reduced system cost and potentially improved system reliability. The VSI based Resistive Active Power Filters (R-APFs) are now widely used to prevent the harmonic resonance in power...... distribution network, for which the voltage sensors are needed in order to obtain the current reference. In this paper a grid-voltage-sensorless control strategy is proposed for the R-APF with series LC-filter. Unlike the traditional resistance emulation method, this proposed control method re...
Improved Direct Power Control for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gui, Yonghao; Kim, Chunghun; Chung, Chung Choo
2018-01-01
easily. The GVM-DPC guarantees not only the convergence rate but also the steady-state performance of the system. Moreover, it is ensured that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable. Finally, simulation and experimental results using a 2.2-kVA VSC are provided to validate the tracking performance...... and robustness of the proposed control architecture. In addition, the total harmonic distortion of the current is 1.9% which is much less than the requirement for grid operation....
Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote
Short-term solar irradiation forecasting based on Dynamic Harmonic Regression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trapero, Juan R.; Kourentzes, Nikolaos; Martin, A.
2015-01-01
Solar power generation is a crucial research area for countries that have high dependency on fossil energy sources and is gaining prominence with the current shift to renewable sources of energy. In order to integrate the electricity generated by solar energy into the grid, solar irradiation must be reasonably well forecasted, where deviations of the forecasted value from the actual measured value involve significant costs. The present paper proposes a univariate Dynamic Harmonic Regression model set up in a State Space framework for short-term (1–24 h) solar irradiation forecasting. Time series hourly aggregated as the Global Horizontal Irradiation and the Direct Normal Irradiation will be used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method provides a fast automatic identification and estimation procedure based on the frequency domain. Furthermore, the recursive algorithms applied offer adaptive predictions. The good forecasting performance is illustrated with solar irradiance measurements collected from ground-based weather stations located in Spain. The results show that the Dynamic Harmonic Regression achieves the lowest relative Root Mean Squared Error; about 30% and 47% for the Global and Direct irradiation components, respectively, for a forecast horizon of 24 h ahead. - Highlights: • Solar irradiation forecasts at short-term are required to operate solar power plants. • This paper assesses the Dynamic Harmonic Regression to forecast solar irradiation. • Models are evaluated using hourly GHI and DNI data collected in Spain. • The results show that forecasting accuracy is improved by using the model proposed
Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flechl, M; Field, L
2008-01-01
A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization
Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp
The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....
Bennett, Charles L.
2016-03-22
A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Au, R.; Fowler, M.; Hanawa, H.; Riedel, J.; Qua, Z.G.
1984-01-01
In early 1983 it was decided to mount coils on arms separated by 120 degrees and buck them out so that the third harmonic dphi/dt component would be cancelled and thus the first and second field harmonics could be very accurately measured. The original intention was to do as others had done, namely, use fast ADC's to read the voltages, and computer process the result to get the Fourier components. However, because of the 100 to 1 dynamic range of the fast ADC's and the likelihood that noise would be a problem, the authors decided to do things differently. Using a fast Fourier transform analyzer was considered, but this instrument is very expensive, so they decided to use a completely electronic analog approach: The authors decided to use active bandpass filters to render the harmonic components
Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator
Roberts, Brock Franklin
2017-11-28
High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.
General Criterion for Harmonicity
Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian
2017-10-01
Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez
2017-01-01
In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...... objectives are selected to eliminate the negative sequence components of currents. The modified GVM method is designed to obtain two separate second-order systems for not only the fast convergence rate of the instantaneous active and reactive powers but also the robust performance. In addition, this method...
Analysis of Even Harmonics Generation in an Isolated Electric Power System
Kanao, Norikazu; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya
Harmonics bred from loads are mainly odd order because the current waveform has half-wave symmetry. Since the even harmonics are negligibly small, those are not generally measured in electric power systems. However, even harmonics were measured at a 500/275/154kV substation in Hokuriku Electric Power Company after removal of a transmission line fault. The even harmonics caused malfunctions of protective digital relays because the relays used 4th harmonics at the input filter as automatic supervisory signal. This paper describes the mechanism of generation of the even harmonics by comparing measured waveforms with ATP-EMTP simulation results. As a result of analysis, it is cleared that even harmonics are generated by three causes. The first cause is a magnetizing current of transformers due to flux deviation by DC component of a fault current. The second one is due to harmonic conversion of a synchronous machine which generates even harmonics when direct current component or even harmonic current flow into the machine. The third one is that increase of harmonic impedance due to an isolated power system produces harmonic voltages. The design of the input filter of protective digital relays should consider even harmonics generation in an isolated power system.
Modelling and Simulation of Grid Connected SPV System with Active Power Filtering Features
Saroha, Jaipal; Pandove, Gitanjali; Singh, Mukhtiar
2017-09-01
In this paper, the detailed simulation studies for a grid connected solar photovoltaic system (SPV) have been presented. The power electronics devices like DC-DC boost converter and grid interfacing inverter are most important components of proposed system. Here, the DC-DC boost converter is controlled to extract maximum power out of SPV under different irradiation levels, while the grid interfacing inverter is utilized to evacuate the active power and feed it into grid at synchronized voltage and frequency. Moreover, the grid interfacing inverter is also controlled to sort out the issues related to power quality by compensating the reactive power and harmonics current component of nearby load at point of common coupling. Besides, detailed modeling of various component utilized in proposed system is also presented. Finally, extensive simulations have been performed under different irradiation levels with various kinds of load to validate the aforementioned claims. The overall system design and simulation have been performed by using Sim Power System toolbox available in the library of MATLAB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bijan Rahmani
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Available photovoltaic (PV systems show a prolonged transient response, when integrated into the power grid via active filters. On one hand, the conventional low-pass filter, employed within the integrated PV system, works with a large delay, particularly in the presence of system’s low-order harmonics. On the other hand, the switching of the DC (direct current–DC converters within PV units also prolongs the transient response of an integrated system, injecting harmonics and distortion through the PV-end current. This paper initially develops a wavelet-based low-pass filter to improve the transient response of the interconnected PV systems to grid lines. Further, a damped input filter is proposed within the PV system to address the raised converter’s switching issue. Finally, Matlab/Simulink simulations validate the effectiveness of the proposed wavelet-based low-pass filter and damped input filter within an integrated PV system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva
2016-01-01
how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...
Grid Integration of Wind Farms
Giæver Tande, John Olav
2003-07-01
This article gives an overview of grid integration of wind farms with respect to impact on voltage quality and power system stability. The recommended procedure for assessing the impact of wind turbines on voltage quality in distribution grids is presented. The procedure uses the power quality characteristic data of wind turbines to determine the impact on slow voltage variations, flicker, voltage dips and harmonics. The detailed assessment allows for substantially more wind power in distribution grids compared with previously used rule-of-thumb guidelines. Power system stability is a concern in conjunction with large wind farms or very weak grids. Assessment requires the use of power system simulation tools, and wind farm models for inclusion in such tools are presently being developed. A fixed-speed wind turbine model is described. The model may be considered a good starting point for development of more advanced models, hereunder the concept of variable-speed wind turbines with a doubly fed induction generator is briefly explained. The use of dynamic wind farm models as part of power system simulation tools allows for detailed studies and development of innovative grid integration techniques. It is demonstrated that the use of reactive compensation may relax the short-term voltage stability limit and allow integration of significantly more wind power, and that application of automatic generation control technology may be an efficient means to circumvent thermal transmission capacity constraints. The continuous development of analysis tools and technology for cost-effective and secure grid integration is an important aid to ensure the increasing use of wind energy. A key factor for success, however, is the communication of results and gained experience, and in this regard it is hoped that this article may contribute.
Regulations for marine microalgal toxins: Towards harmonization of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The World Trade Organization and the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade encourage the harmonization of regulations on food safety requirements. The current policy on trade liberalization of seafood is presented, together with a review of the regulations for marine microalgal toxins. Activities on harmonization of ...
Harmonics mitigation on industrial loads using series and parallel ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Most industrial loads are inductive in nature and therefore absorb Volts Ampere Reactance (VARs) leading to lagging power factor. Some inductive loads also produce current and voltage signals with frequencies in integer multiples of the 50 or 60 Hz fundamental frequencies called harmonics. Harmonics in power system ...
Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures
de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.
2010-01-01
We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom
2017-01-01
-robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...
Harmonically excited orbital variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgan, T.
1985-01-01
Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs
Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler
2012-01-01
This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…
Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev
2010-01-01
We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Runze Zhang
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Pulse width modulation (PWM technology is widely used in traction converters for high-speed railways. The harmonic distribution caused by PWM is quite extensive, and increases the possibility of grid–train coupling resonance in the traction power supply system (TPSS. This paper first analyzes the mechanism of resonance, when the characteristic harmonic frequency of a four-quadrant converter (4QC current that injects into the traction grid matches the resonant frequency of the traction grid, which may result in resonance in the system. To suppress resonance, this paper adopts specific harmonic elimination–pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM technology combined with a transient direct current control strategy to eliminate the harmonics in the resonant frequency, which may suppress the grid–train coupling resonance. Due to the fact that the SHE-PWM process with multiple switching angles contains complex transcendental equations, the initial value is difficult to provide, and is difficult to solve using ordinary iterative algorithms. In this paper, an active-set secondary optimization method is used to solve the equation. The algorithm has the benefits of low dependence on initial values, fast convergence and high solution accuracy. Finally, the feasibility of the resonant suppression algorithm is verified by means of Matlab simulation.
Harmonic Analysis on Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor Based on Advanced Commutation Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanpeng Ji
2018-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between current, back electromotive force (back-EMF, and torque for permanent-magnet brushless DC (PM BLDC motors under advanced commutation control from the perspective of harmonics. Considering that the phase current is the influencing factor of both torque and torque ripple, this paper firstly analyzes the effects of advanced commutation on phase current and current harmonics. And then, based on the harmonics of the phase current and back-EMF, the torque harmonic expressions are deduced. The expressions reveal the relationship of harmonic order between the torque, phase current, and back-EMF and highlight the different contribution of individual torque harmonic to the total torque ripple. Finally, the proposed harmonic analysis method is verified by the experiments with different speed and load conditions.
Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-10-04
With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.
Reconsidering solar grid parity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.-J.
2010-01-01
Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.
Young children's harmonic perception.
Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
2003-11-01
Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.
Symmetries in physics and harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolk, D.
2006-01-01
In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)
A Theorem on Grid Access Control
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU ZhiWei(徐志伟); BU GuanYing(卜冠英)
2003-01-01
The current grid security research is mainly focused on the authentication of grid systems. A problem to be solved by grid systems is to ensure consistent access control. This problem is complicated because the hosts in a grid computing environment usually span multiple autonomous administrative domains. This paper presents a grid access control model, based on asynchronous automata theory and the classic Bell-LaPadula model. This model is useful to formally study the confidentiality and integrity problems in a grid computing environment. A theorem is proved, which gives the necessary and sufficient conditions to a grid to maintain confidentiality.These conditions are the formalized descriptions of local (node) relations or relationship between grid subjects and node subjects.
Grid planning in a competitive environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quinto, J. de
2007-01-01
One principle that the electricity sector must fulfil is to simultaneously guarantee generation free entrance, new and old demand supply and a harmonic network development. This development is contained in the grid planning, a process assumed by a neutral institution apart from the grid or the interests of the market agents: In the case of Spain the ministry. The development of such planning, the investment to be built, are limited by the physical network and formal structure and by how the retribution is designed. In this article there is an evaluation of the problems related to develop the network planning in a competitive environment and also some proposals are suggested. (Author)
Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading
Nemček, Sebastian
2013-01-01
This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...
Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm
Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E
2005-01-01
The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.
Performance of a grid connected PV system used as active filter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calleja, Hugo; Jimenez, Humberto
2004-01-01
In this paper, the performance of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) system used as an active filter is presented. Its main feature is the capability to compensate the reactive and harmonic currents drawn by nonlinear loads while simultaneously injecting into the grid the maximum power available from the cells. The system can also operate as a stand alone active filter. The system was connected to a 1 kW PV array and tested with the loads typically found in households: small motors, personal computers and electronic ballasts. The results show that the system can correct the power factor to values close to unity for all the cases tested, thereby improving the efficiency of the electric energy supply
Atto second high harmonic sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Chang Hee
2008-01-01
High harmonic generation is a powerful method to produce attosecond pulses. The high harmonics, emitted from atoms driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses, can from an attosecond pulse train with equally spaced harmonic spectrum or an isolated single attosecond pulse with broad continuum spectrum. Using high power femtosecond laser technology developed at CXRC, we have investigated the spectral and temporal characteristics of high harmonics obtained from gaseous atoms. The spectral structure of harmonics could be manipulated by controlling laser chirp, and continuous tuning of harmonic wavelengths was achieved. For rigorous temporal characterization of attosecond harmonic pulses a cross correlation technique was applied to the photoionization process by harmonic and IR femtosecond pulses and achieved the complete temporal reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains, revealing the detailed temporal structure of the attosecond chirp by material dispersion. The duration of attosecond high harmonic pulses is usually much longer than that of transform limited pulses due to the inherent chirp originating from the harmonic generation process. The attosecond chirp compensation in the harmonic generation medium itself was demonstrated, thereby realizing the generation of near transform limited attosecond pulses. The interference of attosecond electron wave packets, generated from an atom by attosecond harmonic pulses, will be also presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morch, Stein
2000-01-01
Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe
Smart Grid Security. White Paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2011-09-15
One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Illing, Bjoern
2014-01-01
Dominated by the energy policy the decentralized German energy market is changing. One mature target of the government is to increase the contribution of renewable generation to the gross electricity consumption. In order to achieve this target disadvantages like an increased need for capacity management occurs. Load reduction and variable grid fees offer the grid operator solutions to realize capacity management by influencing the load profile. The evolution of the current grid fees towards more causality is required to adapt these approaches. Two calculation approaches are developed in this assignment. On the one hand multivariable grid fees keeping the current components demand and energy charge. Additional to the grid costs grid load dependent parameters like the amount of decentralized feed-ins, time and local circumstances as well as grid capacities are considered. On the other hand the grid fee flat-rate which represents a demand based model on a monthly level. Both approaches are designed to meet the criteria for future grid fees. By means of a case study the effects of the grid fees on the load profile at the low voltage grid is simulated. Thereby the consumption is represented by different behaviour models and the results are scaled at the benchmark grid area. The resulting load curve is analyzed concerning the effects of peak load reduction as well as the integration of renewable energy sources. Additionally the combined effect of grid fees and electricity tariffs is evaluated. Finally the work discusses the launching of grid fees in the tense atmosphere of politics, legislation and grid operation. Results of this work are two calculation approaches designed for grid operators to define the grid fees. Multivariable grid fees are based on the current calculation scheme. Hereby demand and energy charges are weighted by time, locational and load related dependencies. The grid fee flat-rate defines a limitation in demand extraction. Different demand levels
Harmonics in large offshore wind farms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert
and nature of various harmonic components. A comprehensive comparison of harmonic voltages and currents based on probability distribution estimation and appropriate statistics calculation (mean, variance, probability density function, etc.) is applied. Such approach gives a better overview and comparison...... and analysis, and ϐinally ending up on modelling and models application. Different aspects of validation in time domain, frequency domain, and by application of statistical methods are mentioned in relation to respective problems. Measurements constitute a core part in industry-oriented research. Due...... that it is of great importance to know the nature of generated harmonics in large offshore wind farms in order to apply the most suitable data processing technique. Time-frequency analysis based on multiresolution wavelet transform is used in order to perform time-frequency domain analysis helpful to distinguish...
Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico [THORAXCENTER, Department of Biomedical Engineering Ee2302, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier, E-mail: mirza.pasovic@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [CREATIS-LRMN, Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Inserm U630, CNRS UMR 5220 (France)
2011-06-07
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f{sub 0} and the same amplitude P{sub 0} to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.
Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico; Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier
2011-01-01
Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f 0 and the same amplitude P 0 to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.
Microgrid Reactive and Harmonic Power Sharing Using Enhanced Virtual Impedance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
He, Jinwei; Wei Li, Yun; Guerrero, Josep M.
2013-01-01
To address the load sharing problem in islanding microgrids, this paper proposes an improved approach which regulates the distributed generation (DG) unit interfacing virtual impedance at fundamental and selected harmonic frequencies. In contrast to the conventional virtual impedance control where...... only a line current feed-forward term is added to the DG voltage reference, the proposed virtual impedances at fundamental and harmonic frequencies are realized using DG line current and point of common coupling (PCC) voltage feed-forward terms, respectively. With this modification, the mismatched DG...... feeder impedances can be properly compensated, resulting in accurate reactive and harmonic power sharing at the same time. In addition, this paper shows that the microgrid PCC harmonic voltages can be mitigated by reducing the magnitude of DG unit equivalent harmonic impedance. Finally, an improved...
Grid code requirements for wind power generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.
2011-01-01
In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made
Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris
2014-07-01
Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to
Parametric Variation for Detailed Model of External Grid in Offshore Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Myagkov, Vladimir; Petersen, Lennart; Laza, Burutxaga
2014-01-01
The representation of the external grid impedance is a key element in harmonic studies for offshore wind farms. The external grid impedance is here represented by two different approaches: by a simplified impedance model, based on values for short-circuit power and XR-ratio and by locus diagrams...... for defining a procedure for conducting harmonic studies in wind farms that can be used in commercial project developments....
Wolff, Thomas H; Shubin, Carol
2003-01-01
This book demonstrates how harmonic analysis can provide penetrating insights into deep aspects of modern analysis. It is both an introduction to the subject as a whole and an overview of those branches of harmonic analysis that are relevant to the Kakeya conjecture. The usual background material is covered in the first few chapters: the Fourier transform, convolution, the inversion theorem, the uncertainty principle and the method of stationary phase. However, the choice of topics is highly selective, with emphasis on those frequently used in research inspired by the problems discussed in the later chapters. These include questions related to the restriction conjecture and the Kakeya conjecture, distance sets, and Fourier transforms of singular measures. These problems are diverse, but often interconnected; they all combine sophisticated Fourier analysis with intriguing links to other areas of mathematics and they continue to stimulate first-rate work. The book focuses on laying out a solid foundation for fu...
The Harmonization of Accounting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajnal Noémi
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The development and configuration of the regulatory framework of the accounting systems in Romania and Hungary took place in different ways. Among the reasons for the diversities in these countries’ accounting systems, the following can be certainly mentioned: different purposes of taxation, legal structure, the accountancy’s connection with the corporate law and family law, diversification on corporate financing policy, and cultural heterogeneity. Both countries quickly caught up with the international accounting harmonization standards. The adaptation of the international accounting standards has many advantages and disadvantages; these have been discussed in several previous researches. This paper aims at comparing the Romanian and Hungarian states’ accounting regulations from the early 1990s, which were implemented in order to harmonize the states’ accountancy regulations with the international standards, and their impact on the economy, based on secondary analysis.
Grid requirements applicable to future NPPs in the new European Electricity Framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beato Castro, D.; Padill, C. M.
2000-01-01
With a view to keeping nuclear energy as an option for future power generation in a competitive market and taking advantage of the current operating experience, a group of European electric utilities have come together to define common requirements for the design and supply of future Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants connected to the electrical system. These requirements, defined with the aim of standardizing and adapting design to the conditions of the new electricity framework, are being included in the European Utility Requirements (EUR) document. Although there are different types of power plants operating appropriately in large electrical systems, the idea is to find the minimum requirements that will allow growth of this type of energy in the European electricity industry without reducing quality, safety and reliability of interconnected electrical systems. It is therefore necessary to take into account the features of the existing power systems and the operating characteristics and design of nuclear power plants so as to harmonize their respective technical peculiarities in the framework of the deregulated electricity sector. The definition of these grid requirements is based primarily on the operating conditions of the Union pour la Coordination de la Production et le Transport de L'Electricite (UCPTE) grid and takes into account the current Grid Code of the main European countries, for the forthcoming Issue C. This paper sets outs the most relevant aspects of the grid requirements, included in Chapter 2.3 of the EUR document Grid Requirements, Issue B, for the connection of future nuclear power plants in the European electricity system, and others that are being considered in the preparation of the new issue of the document that will take into account the deregulated electricity market situation and deal with the following aspects: General characteristics. Operation of a plant under normal grid conditions. Operation of a plant under disturbed grid
Harmonic and geometric analysis
Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao
2015-01-01
This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights. The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...
Dynamic federation of grid and cloud storage
Furano, Fabrizio; Keeble, Oliver; Field, Laurence
2016-09-01
The Dynamic Federations project ("Dynafed") enables the deployment of scalable, distributed storage systems composed of independent storage endpoints. While the Uniform Generic Redirector at the heart of the project is protocol-agnostic, we have focused our effort on HTTP-based protocols, including S3 and WebDAV. The system has been deployed on testbeds covering the majority of the ATLAS and LHCb data, and supports geography-aware replica selection. The work done exploits the federation potential of HTTP to build systems that offer uniform, scalable, catalogue-less access to the storage and metadata ensemble and the possibility of seamless integration of other compatible resources such as those from cloud providers. Dynafed can exploit the potential of the S3 delegation scheme, effectively federating on the fly any number of S3 buckets from different providers and applying a uniform authorization to them. This feature has been used to deploy in production the BOINC Data Bridge, which uses the Uniform Generic Redirector with S3 buckets to harmonize the BOINC authorization scheme with the Grid/X509. The Data Bridge has been deployed in production with good results. We believe that the features of a loosely coupled federation of open-protocolbased storage elements open many possibilities of smoothly evolving the current computing models and of supporting new scientific computing projects that rely on massive distribution of data and that would appreciate systems that can more easily be interfaced with commercial providers and can work natively with Web browsers and clients.
A Grid Voltage Measurement Method for Wind Power Systems during Grid Fault Conditions
Yoo, Cheol-Hee; Chung, Il-Yop; Yoo, Hyun-Jae; Hong, Sung-Soo
2014-01-01
Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid to support the recovery from fault voltages. This paper presents a new fault detection method and inverter control scheme to improve the LVRT capability for full-scale permanent magnet synchronous generator (P...
Monitoring the EGEE/WLCG grid services
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duarte, A; Nyczyk, P; Retico, A; Vicinanza, D
2008-01-01
Grids have the potential to revolutionise computing by providing ubiquitous, on demand access to computational services and resources. They promise to allow for on demand access and composition of computational services provided by multiple independent sources. Grids can also provide unprecedented levels of parallelism for high-performance applications. On the other hand, grid characteristics, such as high heterogeneity, complexity and distribution create many new technical challenges. Among these technical challenges, failure management is a key area that demands much progress. A recent survey revealed that fault diagnosis is still a major problem for grid users. When a failure appears at the user screen, it becomes very difficult for the user to identify whether the problem is in the application, somewhere in the grid middleware, or even lower in the fabric that comprises the grid. In this paper we present a tool able to check if a given grid service works as expected for a given set of users (Virtual Organisation) on the different resources available on a grid. Our solution deals with grid services as single components that should produce an expected output to a pre-defined input, what is quite similar to unit testing. The tool, called Service Availability Monitoring or SAM, is being currently used by several different Virtual Organizations to monitor more than 300 grid sites belonging to the largest grids available today. We also discuss how this tool is being used by some of those VOs and how it is helping in the operation of the EGEE/WLCG grid
Transfer functions of US transducers for harmonic imaging and bubble respons
van Neer, Paul L.M.J.; Matte, Guillaume; Sijl, J.; Borsboom, Jerome M.G.; de Jong, N.
2007-01-01
Current medical diagnostic echo systems are mostly using harmonic imaging. This means that a fundamental frequency (e.g., 2 MHz) is transmitted and the reflected and scattered higher harmonics (e.g., 4 and 6 MHz), produced by nonlinear propagation, are recorded. The signal level of these harmonics
Probabilistic Learning by Rodent Grid Cells.
Cheung, Allen
2016-10-01
Mounting evidence shows mammalian brains are probabilistic computers, but the specific cells involved remain elusive. Parallel research suggests that grid cells of the mammalian hippocampal formation are fundamental to spatial cognition but their diverse response properties still defy explanation. No plausible model exists which explains stable grids in darkness for twenty minutes or longer, despite being one of the first results ever published on grid cells. Similarly, no current explanation can tie together grid fragmentation and grid rescaling, which show very different forms of flexibility in grid responses when the environment is varied. Other properties such as attractor dynamics and grid anisotropy seem to be at odds with one another unless additional properties are assumed such as a varying velocity gain. Modelling efforts have largely ignored the breadth of response patterns, while also failing to account for the disastrous effects of sensory noise during spatial learning and recall, especially in darkness. Here, published electrophysiological evidence from a range of experiments are reinterpreted using a novel probabilistic learning model, which shows that grid cell responses are accurately predicted by a probabilistic learning process. Diverse response properties of probabilistic grid cells are statistically indistinguishable from rat grid cells across key manipulations. A simple coherent set of probabilistic computations explains stable grid fields in darkness, partial grid rescaling in resized arenas, low-dimensional attractor grid cell dynamics, and grid fragmentation in hairpin mazes. The same computations also reconcile oscillatory dynamics at the single cell level with attractor dynamics at the cell ensemble level. Additionally, a clear functional role for boundary cells is proposed for spatial learning. These findings provide a parsimonious and unified explanation of grid cell function, and implicate grid cells as an accessible neuronal population
The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture
McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri
2003-01-01
The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...
Predicting Harmonic Distortion of Multiple Converters in a Power System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. M. Ivry
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Various uncertainties arise in the operation and management of power systems containing Renewable Energy Sources (RES that affect the systems power quality. These uncertainties may arise due to system parameter changes or design parameter choice. In this work, the impact of uncertainties on the prediction of harmonics in a power system containing multiple Voltage Source Converters (VSCs is investigated. The study focuses on the prediction of harmonic distortion level in multiple VSCs when some system or design parameters are only known within certain constraints. The Univariate Dimension Reduction (UDR method was utilized in this study as an efficient predictive tool for the level of harmonic distortion of the VSCs measured at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC to the grid. Two case studies were considered and the UDR technique was also experimentally validated. The obtained results were compared with that of the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS results.
Voltage harmonics mitigation through hybrid active power filer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahito, A.A.; Tunio, S.M.; Khizer, A.N.
2016-01-01
Fast dynamic response, high efficiency, low cost and small size of power electronic converters have exponentially increased their use in modern power system which resulted in harmonically distorted voltage and currents. Voltage harmonics mainly caused by current harmonics are more dangerous as performance and expected operating life of other power system equipment are affected by harmonically distorted supply voltage. Electronic filter circuits are used to improve system power quality by mitigating adverse effects of harmonics. Hybrid filters having advantages of both passive and active filters are preferred to resolve the problem of harmonics efficiently and avoiding any chance of resonance. In this paper, a three phase three wire network is considered to supply an adjustable speed drive represented by a resistive load connected across a three phase bridge rectifier. Simulation of the considered system shows THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) of 18.91 and 7.61 percentage in supply current and voltage respectively. A HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter) is proposed to reduce these THD values below 5 percentage as recommended by IEEE Standard-519. P-Q theorem is used to calculate required parameters for proposed filter, which is implemented through hysteresis control. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the designed filter as THD for both current and voltage have reduced below allowable limit of 5 percentage. (author)
Voltage Harmonics Mitigation through Hybrid Active Power Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anwer Ali Sahito
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fast dynamic response, high efficiency, low cost and small size of power electronic converters have exponentially increased their use in modern power system which resulted in harmonically distorted voltage and currents. Voltage harmonics mainly caused by current harmonics are more dangerous as performance and expected operating life of other power system equipment are affected by harmonically distorted supply voltage. Electronic filter circuits are used to improve system power quality by mitigating adverse effects of harmonics. Hybrid filters having advantages of both passive and active filters are preferred to resolve the problem of harmonics efficiently and avoiding any chance of resonance. In this paper, a three phase three wire network is considered to supply an adjustable speed drive represented by a resistive load connected across a three phase bridge rectifier. Simulation of the considered system shows THD (Total Harmonic Distortion of 18.91 and 7.61% in supply current and voltage respectively. A HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter is proposed to reduce these THD values below 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard-519. P-Q theorem is used to calculate required parameters for proposed filter, which is implemented through hysteresis control. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the designed filter as THD for both current and voltage have reduced below allowable limit of 5%.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on double-stage conversion systems may inject interharmonics distortion into the grid, other than the well-known characteristic harmonic components. The problems created by interharmonics make it necessary to find their precise sources, and, to adopt an approp......Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on double-stage conversion systems may inject interharmonics distortion into the grid, other than the well-known characteristic harmonic components. The problems created by interharmonics make it necessary to find their precise sources, and, to adopt...... an appropriate strategy for minimizing their effects. This paper investigates the ASD's input current interharmonic sources caused by applying symmetrical regularly sampled fixed-frequency modulation techniques on the inverter. The interharmonics generation process is precisely formulated and comparative results...
Jin, Tao; Chen, Yiyang; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.
2017-11-01
Harmonics pose a great threat to safe and economical operation of power grids. Therefore, it is critical to detect harmonic parameters accurately to design harmonic compensation equipment. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) is widely used for electrical popular power harmonics analysis. However, the barrier effect produced by the algorithm itself and spectrum leakage caused by asynchronous sampling often affects the harmonic analysis accuracy. This paper examines a new approach for harmonic analysis based on deducing the modifier formulas of frequency, phase angle, and amplitude, utilizing the Nuttall-Kaiser window double spectrum line interpolation method, which overcomes the shortcomings in traditional FFT harmonic calculations. The proposed approach is verified numerically and experimentally to be accurate and reliable.
Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems. Technical and potential problems. A review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Zhao, Zhengming
2010-01-01
Traditional electric power systems are designed in large part to utilize large baseload power plants, with limited ability to rapidly ramp output or reduce output below a certain level. The increase in demand variability created by intermittent sources such as photovoltaic (PV) presents new challenges to increase system flexibility. This paper aims to investigate and emphasize the importance of the grid-connected PV system regarding the intermittent nature of renewable generation, and the characterization of PV generation with regard to grid code compliance. The investigation was conducted to critically review the literature on expected potential problems associated with high penetration levels and islanding prevention methods of grid tied PV. According to the survey, PV grid connection inverters have fairly good performance. They have high conversion efficiency and power factor exceeding 90% for wide operating range, while maintaining current harmonics THD less than 5%. Numerous large-scale projects are currently being commissioned, with more planned for the near future. Prices of both PV and balance of system components (BOS) are decreasing which will lead to further increase in use. The technical requirements from the utility power system side need to be satisfied to ensure the safety of the PV installer and the reliability of the utility grid. Identifying the technical requirements for grid interconnection and solving the interconnect problems such as islanding detection, harmonic distortion requirements and electromagnetic interference are therefore very important issues for widespread application of PV systems. The control circuit also provides sufficient control and protection functions like maximum power tracking, inverter current control and power factor control. Reliability, life span and maintenance needs should be certified through the long-term operation of PV system. Further reduction of cost, size and weight is required for more utilization of PV
A modular spherical harmonics approach to the neutron transport equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inanc, F.; Rohach, A.F.
1989-01-01
A modular nodal method was developed for solving the neutron transport equation in 2-D xy coordinates. The spherical harmonic expansion was used for approximating the second-order even-parity form of the neutron transport equation. The boundary conditions of the spherical harmonics approximation were derived in a form to have forms analogous to the partial currents in the neutron diffusion equation. Relations were developed for generating both the second-order spherical harmonic equations and the boundary conditions in an automated computational algorithm. Nodes using different orders of the spherical harmonics approximation to the transport equation were interfaced through mixed-type boundary conditions. The determination of spherical harmonic orders implemented in the nodes were determined by the scheme in an automated manner. Results of the method compared favorably to benchmark problems. (author)
Laser waveform control of extreme ultraviolet high harmonics from solids.
You, Yong Sing; Wu, Mengxi; Yin, Yanchun; Chew, Andrew; Ren, Xiaoming; Gholam-Mirzaei, Shima; Browne, Dana A; Chini, Michael; Chang, Zenghu; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B; Ghimire, Shambhu
2017-05-01
Solid-state high-harmonic sources offer the possibility of compact, high-repetition-rate attosecond light emitters. However, the time structure of high harmonics must be characterized at the sub-cycle level. We use strong two-cycle laser pulses to directly control the time-dependent nonlinear current in single-crystal MgO, leading to the generation of extreme ultraviolet harmonics. We find that harmonics are delayed with respect to each other, yielding an atto-chirp, the value of which depends on the laser field strength. Our results provide the foundation for attosecond pulse metrology based on solid-state harmonics and a new approach to studying sub-cycle dynamics in solids.
Amir Nagizadeh Ghoogdareh; Aref Doroudi; Mohammad Poormonfared Azimi
2013-01-01
One of the most important power quality aspects in wind farms is voltage fluctuation or flicker which should be investigated due to the nature of wind speed variations. These variations result in power and voltage fluctuations at the load bus. Moreover, the wind generation systems may be assumed as a harmonics source because of their power electronic converters. There are numerous factors that affect flicker and harmonic emission of grid-connected wind turbines during continuous operation, su...
Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization
Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni
This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.
Next generation data harmonization
Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg
2015-05-01
Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Y.S.; Chang, T.H.; Wu, T.S.
2004-01-01
A comparative analysis between the fundamental and second cyclotron harmonics of gyrotron backward-wave oscillators (gyro-BWOs) is presented. The simulation results reveal that nonlinear field contraction is a common feature for both harmonic interactions. Besides, the electron transit angle, used to characterize the axial modes of the fundamental harmonic TE 11 mode at the start-oscillation conditions, is found to be applicable even for the second harmonic TE 21 mode. Each axial mode of either the fundamental harmonic TE 11 or the second harmonic TE 21 modes is maintained at a constant value of the electron transit angle while changing the operating parameters, such as magnetic field and beam voltage. Extensive numerical calculations are conducted for the start-oscillation currents and tuning properties. Moreover, single-mode operating regimes are suggested where the second harmonic TE 21 gyro-BWO could generate a considerable output power, comparing with the fundamental harmonic TE 11 gyro-BWO
Three-dimensional analysis of harmonic generation in high-gain free-electron lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwang-Je
2000-01-01
In a high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) employing a planar undulator, strong bunching at the fundamental wavelength can drive substantial bunching and power levels at the harmonic frequencies. In this paper we investigate the three-dimensional evolution of harmonic radiation based on the coupled Maxwell-Klimontovich equations that take into account nonlinear harmonic interactions. Each harmonic field is a sum of a linear amplification term and a term driven by nonlinear harmonic interactions. After a certain stage of exponential growth, the dominant nonlinear term is determined by interactions of the lower nonlinear harmonics and the fundamental radiation. As a result, the gain length, transverse profile, and temporal structure of the first few harmonics are eventually governed by those of the fundamental. Transversely coherent third-harmonic radiation power is found to approach 1% of the fundamental power level for current high-gain FEL projects
Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Joachim
The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...
Enhanced Local Grid Voltage Support Method for High Penetration of Distributed Generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Rodriguez, Pedro
2011-01-01
Grid voltage rise and thermal loading of network components are the most remarkable barriers to allow high number of distributed generator (DG) connections on the medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) electricity networks. The other barriers such as grid power quality (harmonics, voltage...
Passivity Enhancement in RES Based Power Plant with Paralleled Grid-Connected Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
Harmonic instability is threatening the operation of power plants with multiple grid connected converters in parallel. To analyze and improve the stability of the grid connected converters, the passivity of the output admittance converters is first analyzed in this paper. It is shown that the non-passivity...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seung-Jin Yoon
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type filters are currently preferred as a replacement for L-type filters in distributed generation (DG power systems, due to their superior harmonic attenuation capability. However, the third-order dynamics introduced by LCL filters pose a challenge to design a satisfactory controller for such a system. Conventionally, an LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter can be effectively controlled by using a full-state feedback control. However, this control approach requires the measurement of all system state variables, which brings about more complexity for the inverter system. To address this issue, this paper presents a systematic procedure to design an observer-based integral state feedback control for a LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter in the discrete-time domain. The proposed control scheme consists of an integral state feedback controller and a full-state observer which uses the control input, grid-side currents, and grid voltages to predict all the system state variables. Therefore, only the grid-side current sensors and grid voltage sensors are required to implement the proposed control scheme. Due to the discrete-time integrator incorporated in the state feedback controller, the proposed control scheme ensures both the reference tracking and disturbance rejection performance of the inverter system in a practical and simple way. As a result, superior control performance can be achieved by using the reduced number of sensors, which significantly reduces the cost and complexity of the LCL-filtered grid-connected inverter system in DG applications. To verify the practical usefulness of the proposed control scheme, a 2 kW three-phase prototype grid-connected inverter has been constructed, and the proposed control system has been implemented based on 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated through the comprehensive simulation