Approximability of Robust Network Design
Olver, N.K.; Shepherd, F.B.
2014-01-01
We consider robust (undirected) network design (RND) problems where the set of feasible demands may be given by an arbitrary convex body. This model, introduced by Ben-Ameur and Kerivin [Ben-Ameur W, Kerivin H (2003) New economical virtual private networks. Comm. ACM 46(6):69-73], generalizes the
Approximate truncation robust computed tomography—ATRACT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dennerlein, Frank; Maier, Andreas
2013-01-01
We present an approximate truncation robust algorithm to compute tomographic images (ATRACT). This algorithm targets at reconstructing volumetric images from cone-beam projections in scenarios where these projections are highly truncated in each dimension. It thus facilitates reconstructions of small subvolumes of interest, without involving prior knowledge about the object. Our method is readily applicable to medical C-arm imaging, where it may contribute to new clinical workflows together with a considerable reduction of x-ray dose. We give a detailed derivation of ATRACT that starts from the conventional Feldkamp filtered-backprojection algorithm and that involves, as one component, a novel original formula for the inversion of the two-dimensional Radon transform. Discretization and numerical implementation are discussed and reconstruction results from both, simulated projections and first clinical data sets are presented. (paper)
Dedicated Filter for Robust Occupancy Grid Mapping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KS Nagla
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Sensor based perception of the environment is an emerging area of the mobile robot research where sensors play a pivotal role. For autonomous mobile robots, the fundamental requirement is the convergent of the range information in to high level internal representation. Internal representation in the form of occupancy grid is commonly used in autonomous mobile robots due to its various advantages. There are several sensors such as vision sensor, laser rage finder, and ultrasonic and infrared sensors etc. play roles in mapping. However the sensor information failure, sensor inaccuracies, noise, and slow response are the major causes of an error in the mapping. To improve the reliability of the mobile robot mapping multisensory data fusion is considered as an optimal solution. This paper presents a novel architecture of sensor fusion frame work in which a dedicated filter (DF is proposed to increase the robustness of the occupancy grid for indoor environment. The technique has been experimentally verified for different indoor test environments. The proposed configuration shows improvement in the occupancy grid with the implementation of dedicated filters.
APPROXIMATING INNOVATION POTENTIAL WITH NEUROFUZZY ROBUST MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kasa, Richard
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In a remarkably short time, economic globalisation has changed the world’s economic order, bringing new challenges and opportunities to SMEs. These processes pushed the need to measure innovation capability, which has become a crucial issue for today’s economic and political decision makers. Companies cannot compete in this new environment unless they become more innovative and respond more effectively to consumers’ needs and preferences – as mentioned in the EU’s innovation strategy. Decision makers cannot make accurate and efficient decisions without knowing the capability for innovation of companies in a sector or a region. This need is forcing economists to develop an integrated, unified and complete method of measuring, approximating and even forecasting the innovation performance not only on a macro but also a micro level. In this recent article a critical analysis of the literature on innovation potential approximation and prediction is given, showing their weaknesses and a possible alternative that eliminates the limitations and disadvantages of classical measuring and predictive methods.
LLCL-Filtered Grid Converter with Improved Stability and Robustness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Min, Huang; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
impedance variations, making its design more challenging. To address these concerns, a new parameter design method for LLCL-filter has been formulated in the paper, which when enforced, guarantees robust and stable grid current control regardless of how the grid conditions change. It is thus an enhanced...
Robust Droop Control of Grid-Connected Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elkayam, Moria; Kuperman, Alon; Guerrero, Josep M.
2016-01-01
The use of distributed generation in microgrid systems is becoming a popular way to provide a reliable source of electricity to critical loads. Droop control techniques are used in power systems for the synchronization of grid-connected inverters by local measurements of active and reactive powers....... Despite the benefits of distributed generation, the drawback is that large grid-side impedance steps can cause a system to become unstable. A robust control method based on disturbance observer is proposed in this paper. When the proposed robust controller is utilized, closed loop performance remains...
Intelligent and robust optimization frameworks for smart grids
Dhansri, Naren Reddy
A smart grid implies a cyberspace real-time distributed power control system to optimally deliver electricity based on varying consumer characteristics. Although smart grids solve many of the contemporary problems, they give rise to new control and optimization problems with the growing role of renewable energy sources such as wind or solar energy. Under highly dynamic nature of distributed power generation and the varying consumer demand and cost requirements, the total power output of the grid should be controlled such that the load demand is met by giving a higher priority to renewable energy sources. Hence, the power generated from renewable energy sources should be optimized while minimizing the generation from non renewable energy sources. This research develops a demand-based automatic generation control and optimization framework for real-time smart grid operations by integrating conventional and renewable energy sources under varying consumer demand and cost requirements. Focusing on the renewable energy sources, the intelligent and robust control frameworks optimize the power generation by tracking the consumer demand in a closed-loop control framework, yielding superior economic and ecological benefits and circumvent nonlinear model complexities and handles uncertainties for superior real-time operations. The proposed intelligent system framework optimizes the smart grid power generation for maximum economical and ecological benefits under an uncertain renewable wind energy source. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is a viable approach to integrate various energy sources for real-time smart grid implementations. The robust optimization framework results demonstrate the effectiveness of the robust controllers under bounded power plant model uncertainties and exogenous wind input excitation while maximizing economical and ecological performance objectives. Therefore, the proposed framework offers a new worst-case deterministic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Leming; Chen, Yandong
2018-01-01
In this paper, a robust grid-current-feedback reso-nance suppression (GCFRS) method for LCL-type grid-connected inverter is proposed to enhance the system damping without introducing the switching noise and eliminate the impact of control delay on system robustness against grid-impedance variation....... It is composed of GCFRS method, the full duty-ratio and zero-beat-lag PWM method, and the lead-grid-current-feedback-resonance-suppression (LGCFRS) method. Firstly, the GCFRS is used to suppress the LCL-resonant peak well and avoid introducing the switching noise. Secondly, the proposed full duty-ratio and zero......-beat-lag PWM method is used to elimi-nate the one-beat-lag computation delay without introducing duty cycle limitations. Moreover, it can also realize the smooth switching from positive to negative half-wave of the grid current and improve the waveform quality. Thirdly, the proposed LGCFRS is used to further...
Robust surface registration using N-points approximate congruent sets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Jian
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Scans acquired by 3D sensors are typically represented in a local coordinate system. When multiple scans, taken from different locations, represent the same scene these must be registered to a common reference frame. We propose a fast and robust registration approach to automatically align two scans by finding two sets of N-points, that are approximately congruent under rigid transformation and leading to a good estimate of the transformation between their corresponding point clouds. Given two scans, our algorithm randomly searches for the best sets of congruent groups of points using a RANSAC-based approach. To successfully and reliably align two scans when there is only a small overlap, we improve the basic RANSAC random selection step by employing a weight function that approximates the probability of each pair of points in one scan to match one pair in the other. The search time to find pairs of congruent sets of N-points is greatly reduced by employing a fast search codebook based on both binary and multi-dimensional lookup tables. Moreover, we introduce a novel indicator of the overlapping region quality which is used to verify the estimated rigid transformation and to improve the alignment robustness. Our framework is general enough to incorporate and efficiently combine different point descriptors derived from geometric and texture-based feature points or scene geometrical characteristics. We also present a method to improve the matching effectiveness of texture feature descriptors by extracting them from an atlas of rectified images recovered from the scan reflectance image. Our algorithm is robust with respect to different sampling densities and also resilient to noise and outliers. We demonstrate its robustness and efficiency on several challenging scan datasets with varying degree of noise, outliers, extent of overlap, acquired from indoor and outdoor scenarios.
Probabilistic Modelling of Robustness and Resilience of Power Grid Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qin, Jianjun; Sansavini, Giovanni; Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber
2017-01-01
The present paper proposes a framework for the modeling and analysis of resilience of networked power grid systems. A probabilistic systems model is proposed based on the JCSS Probabilistic Model Code (JCSS, 2001) and deterministic engineering systems modeling techniques such as the DC flow model...... cascading failure event scenarios (Nan and Sansavini, 2017). The concept of direct and indirect consequences proposed by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS, 2008) is utilized to model the associated consequences. To facilitate a holistic modeling of robustness and resilience, and to identify how...... these characteristics may be optimized these characteristics, the power grid system is finally interlinked with its fundamental interdependent systems, i.e. a societal model, a regulatory system and control feedback loops. The proposed framework is exemplified with reference to optimal decision support for resilience...
Robust approximate optimal guidance strategies for aeroassisted orbital transfer missions
Ilgen, Marc R.
This thesis presents the application of game theoretic and regular perturbation methods to the problem of determining robust approximate optimal guidance laws for aeroassisted orbital transfer missions with atmospheric density and navigated state uncertainties. The optimal guidance problem is reformulated as a differential game problem with the guidance law designer and Nature as opposing players. The resulting equations comprise the necessary conditions for the optimal closed loop guidance strategy in the presence of worst case parameter variations. While these equations are nonlinear and cannot be solved analytically, the presence of a small parameter in the equations of motion allows the method of regular perturbations to be used to solve the equations approximately. This thesis is divided into five parts. The first part introduces the class of problems to be considered and presents results of previous research. The second part then presents explicit semianalytical guidance law techniques for the aerodynamically dominated region of flight. These guidance techniques are applied to unconstrained and control constrained aeroassisted plane change missions and Mars aerocapture missions, all subject to significant atmospheric density variations. The third part presents a guidance technique for aeroassisted orbital transfer problems in the gravitationally dominated region of flight. Regular perturbations are used to design an implicit guidance technique similar to the second variation technique but that removes the need for numerically computing an optimal trajectory prior to flight. This methodology is then applied to a set of aeroassisted inclination change missions. In the fourth part, the explicit regular perturbation solution technique is extended to include the class of guidance laws with partial state information. This methodology is then applied to an aeroassisted plane change mission using inertial measurements and subject to uncertainties in the initial value
Attractive electron-electron interactions within robust local fitting approximations.
Merlot, Patrick; Kjærgaard, Thomas; Helgaker, Trygve; Lindh, Roland; Aquilante, Francesco; Reine, Simen; Pedersen, Thomas Bondo
2013-06-30
An analysis of Dunlap's robust fitting approach reveals that the resulting two-electron integral matrix is not manifestly positive semidefinite when local fitting domains or non-Coulomb fitting metrics are used. We present a highly local approximate method for evaluating four-center two-electron integrals based on the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation and apply it to the construction of the Coulomb and exchange contributions to the Fock matrix. In this pair-atomic resolution-of-the-identity (PARI) approach, atomic-orbital (AO) products are expanded in auxiliary functions centered on the two atoms associated with each product. Numerical tests indicate that in 1% or less of all Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham calculations, the indefinite integral matrix causes nonconvergence in the self-consistent-field iterations. In these cases, the two-electron contribution to the total energy becomes negative, meaning that the electronic interaction is effectively attractive, and the total energy is dramatically lower than that obtained with exact integrals. In the vast majority of our test cases, however, the indefiniteness does not interfere with convergence. The total energy accuracy is comparable to that of the standard Coulomb-metric RI method. The speed-up compared with conventional algorithms is similar to the RI method for Coulomb contributions; exchange contributions are accelerated by a factor of up to eight with a triple-zeta quality basis set. A positive semidefinite integral matrix is recovered within PARI by introducing local auxiliary basis functions spanning the full AO product space, as may be achieved by using Cholesky-decomposition techniques. Local completion, however, slows down the algorithm to a level comparable with or below conventional calculations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A robust adaptive load frequency control for micro-grids.
Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede; Davari, Pooya; Dragicevic, Tomislav
2016-11-01
The goal of this study is to introduce a novel robust load frequency control (LFC) strategy for micro-grid(s) (MG(s)) in islanded mode operation. Admittedly, power generators in MG(s) cannot supply steady electric power output and sometimes cause unbalance between supply and demand. Battery energy storage system (BESS) is one of the effective solutions to these problems. Due to the high cost of the BESS, a new idea of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is that a battery of Electric-Vehicle (EV) can be applied as a tantamount large-scale BESS in MG(s). As a result, a new robust control strategy for an islanded micro-grid (MG) is introduced that can consider electric vehicles׳ (EV(s)) effect. Moreover, in this paper, a new combination of the General Type II Fuzzy Logic Sets (GT2FLS) and the Modified Harmony Search Algorithm (MHSA) technique is applied for adaptive tuning of proportional-integral (PI) controller. Implementing General Type II Fuzzy Systems is computationally expensive. However, using a recently introduced α-plane representation, GT2FLS can be seen as a composition of several Interval Type II Fuzzy Logic Systems (IT2FLS) with a corresponding level of α for each. Real-data from an offshore wind farm in Sweden and solar radiation data in Aberdeen (United Kingdom) was used in order to examine the performance of the proposed novel controller. A comparison is made between the achieved results of Optimal Fuzzy-PI (OFPI) controller and those of Optimal Interval Type II Fuzzy-PI (IT2FPI) controller, which are of most recent advances in the area at hand. The Simulation results prove the successfulness and effectiveness of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Offshore grid transmission planning using approximated HVDC power flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torbaghan, Shahab Shariat; Rawn, Barry G.; Gibescu, Madeleine; Meijden, Mart van der [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Electrical Sustainable Energy
2012-07-01
In this paper we introduce an optimization framework which determines a socially optimum design of a HVDC offshore grid, under the assumption of a centralized network expansion planning scheme. This gives the optimum grid topology and interconnections capacity. In addition, the analytical solution to the optimization problem yields a market structure that expresses the relationship between the different regions' electricity prices and congestion charges associated with the interconnections. The optimization model sets the transmission capacities in a way that congestion shadow prices to be collected by the end of the economic lifetime of the project pay off the initial investment capital. We use this framework to study the impact of exercising different dispatching policies on the optimum design of the grid. The framework is applied to a multi-bus test system that functions under 8 different time periods. (orig.)
Adaptive ACMS: A robust localized Approximated Component Mode Synthesis Method
Madureira, Alexandre L.; Sarkis, Marcus
2017-01-01
We consider finite element methods of multiscale type to approximate solutions for two-dimensional symmetric elliptic partial differential equations with heterogeneous $L^\\infty$ coefficients. The methods are of Galerkin type and follows the Variational Multiscale and Localized Orthogonal Decomposition--LOD approaches in the sense that it decouples spaces into multiscale and fine subspaces. In a first method, the multiscale basis functions are obtained by mapping coarse basis functions, based...
Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki
2017-03-01
In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.
Inoue, Kentaro; Shimozono, Shinichi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Kurata, Hiroyuki
2012-01-01
For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor) algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kentaro Inoue
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.
H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming
2016-01-01
This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...... distortions considered include asymmetric voltage dips and grid background harmonics. An uncertain DFIG model is developed with uncertain factors originating from distorted stator voltage, and changed generator parameters due to the flux saturation effect, the skin effect, etc. Weighting functions...... are designed to efficiently track the unbalanced current components and the 5th and 7th background harmonics. The robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) of the proposed controller are verified by the structured singular value µ. The performance of the H∞ robust current controller was demonstrated...
A robust adaptive load frequency control for micro-grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khooban, Mohammad Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
micro-grid (MG) is introduced that can consider electric vehicles׳ (EV(s)) effect. Moreover, in this paper, a new combination of the General Type II Fuzzy Logic Sets (GT2FLS) and the Modified Harmony Search Algorithm (MHSA) technique is applied for adaptive tuning of proportional-integral (PI...
Robust Control of Wide Bandgap Power Electronics Device Enabled Smart Grid
Yao, Tong
In recent years, wide bandgap (WBG) devices enable power converters with higher power density and higher efficiency. On the other hand, smart grid technologies are getting mature due to new battery technology and computer technology. In the near future, the two technologies will form the next generation of smart grid enabled by WBG devices. This dissertation deals with two applications: silicon carbide (SiC) device used for medium voltage level interface (7.2 kV to 240 V) and gallium nitride (GaN) device used for low voltage level interface (240 V/120 V). A 20 kW solid state transformer (SST) is designed with 6 kHz switching frequency SiC rectifier. Then three robust control design methods are proposed for each of its smart grid operation modes. In grid connected mode, a new LCL filter design method is proposed considering grid voltage THD, grid current THD and current regulation loop robust stability with respect to the grid impedance change. In grid islanded mode, micro synthesis method combined with variable structure control is used to design a robust controller for grid voltage regulation. For grid emergency mode, multivariable controller designed using Hinfinity synthesis method is proposed for accurate power sharing. Controller-hardware-in-the-loop (CHIL) testbed considering 7-SST system is setup with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The real TMS320F28335 DSP and Spartan 6 FPGA control board is used to interface a switching model SST in RTDS. And the proposed control methods are tested. For low voltage level application, a 3.3 kW smart grid hardware is built with 3 GaN inverters. The inverters are designed with the GaN device characterized using the proposed multi-function double pulse tester. The inverter is controlled by onboard TMS320F28379D dual core DSP with 200 kHz sampling frequency. Each inverter is tested to process 2.2 kW power with overall efficiency of 96.5 % at room temperature. The smart grid monitor system and fault interrupt devices (FID
LCL-Filter Design for Robust Active Damping in Grid-Connected Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pena-Alzola, Rafael; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2014-01-01
in the grid inductance may compromise system stability, and this problem is more severe for parallel converters. This situation, typical of rural areas with solar and wind resources, calls for robust LCL-filter design. This paper proposes a design procedure with remarkable results under severe grid inductance......Grid-connected converters employ LCL-filters, instead of simple inductors, because they allow lower inductances while reducing cost and size. Active damping, without dissipative elements, is preferred to passive damping for solving the associated stability problems. However, large variations...
Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the physical discretization error and the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity of the sparse grid. Utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakeman, J.D.; Wildey, T.
2015-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the physical discretization error and the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity of the sparse grid. Utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation
Approximating the Pareto set of multiobjective linear programs via robust optimization
Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.
2012-01-01
We consider problems with multiple linear objectives and linear constraints and use adjustable robust optimization and polynomial optimization as tools to approximate the Pareto set with polynomials of arbitrarily large degree. The main difference with existing techniques is that we optimize a
Robust Design of LCL-Filters for Active Damping in Grid Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
Grid converters require a simple inductor or an LCL-filter to limit the current ripples. The LCL-filter is nowadays the preferred solution as it allows lower inductance values. In order to solve the stability concerns, active damping is preferred to passive damping since it does not use dissipative...... elements. However, large variations in the grid inductance and resonances arising from parallel converters may still compromise the system stability. This calls for a robust design of LCL-filters with active damping. This paper proposes a design flow with little iteration for two well-known methods, namely...... lead-lag network and current capacitor feedback. The proposed formulas for the resonance frequency, grid and converter inductance ratio, and capacitance of the LCL-filter allow calculating all the LCL-filter parameters. An estimation for the achieved Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the grid current...
Influence of Different Coupling Modes on the Robustness of Smart Grid under Targeted Attack
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WenJie Kang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Many previous works only focused on the cascading failure of global coupling of one-to-one structures in interdependent networks, but the local coupling of dual coupling structures has rarely been studied due to its complex structure. This will result in a serious consequence that many conclusions of the one-to-one structure may be incorrect in the dual coupling network and do not apply to the smart grid. Therefore, it is very necessary to subdivide the dual coupling link into a top-down coupling link and a bottom-up coupling link in order to study their influence on network robustness by combining with different coupling modes. Additionally, the power flow of the power grid can cause the load of a failed node to be allocated to its neighboring nodes and trigger a new round of load distribution when the load of these nodes exceeds their capacity. This means that the robustness of smart grids may be affected by four factors, i.e., load redistribution, local coupling, dual coupling link and coupling mode; however, the research on the influence of those factors on the network robustness is missing. In this paper, firstly, we construct the smart grid as a two-layer network with a dual coupling link and divide the power grid and communication network into many subnets based on the geographical location of their nodes. Secondly, we define node importance ( N I as an evaluation index to access the impact of nodes on the cyber or physical network and propose three types of coupling modes based on N I of nodes in the cyber and physical subnets, i.e., Assortative Coupling in Subnets (ACIS, Disassortative Coupling in Subnets (DCIS, and Random Coupling in Subnets (RCIS. Thirdly, a cascading failure model is proposed for studying the effect of local coupling of dual coupling link in combination with ACIS, DCIS, and RCIS on the robustness of the smart grid against a targeted attack, and the survival rate of functional nodes is used to assess the robustness of
Influence of Different Coupling Modes on the Robustness of Smart Grid under Targeted Attack.
Kang, WenJie; Hu, Gang; Zhu, PeiDong; Liu, Qiang; Hang, Zhi; Liu, Xin
2018-05-24
Many previous works only focused on the cascading failure of global coupling of one-to-one structures in interdependent networks, but the local coupling of dual coupling structures has rarely been studied due to its complex structure. This will result in a serious consequence that many conclusions of the one-to-one structure may be incorrect in the dual coupling network and do not apply to the smart grid. Therefore, it is very necessary to subdivide the dual coupling link into a top-down coupling link and a bottom-up coupling link in order to study their influence on network robustness by combining with different coupling modes. Additionally, the power flow of the power grid can cause the load of a failed node to be allocated to its neighboring nodes and trigger a new round of load distribution when the load of these nodes exceeds their capacity. This means that the robustness of smart grids may be affected by four factors, i.e., load redistribution, local coupling, dual coupling link and coupling mode; however, the research on the influence of those factors on the network robustness is missing. In this paper, firstly, we construct the smart grid as a two-layer network with a dual coupling link and divide the power grid and communication network into many subnets based on the geographical location of their nodes. Secondly, we define node importance ( N I ) as an evaluation index to access the impact of nodes on the cyber or physical network and propose three types of coupling modes based on N I of nodes in the cyber and physical subnets, i.e., Assortative Coupling in Subnets (ACIS), Disassortative Coupling in Subnets (DCIS), and Random Coupling in Subnets (RCIS). Thirdly, a cascading failure model is proposed for studying the effect of local coupling of dual coupling link in combination with ACIS, DCIS, and RCIS on the robustness of the smart grid against a targeted attack, and the survival rate of functional nodes is used to assess the robustness of the smart grid
Large Signal Stabilization of Hybrid AC/DC Micro-Grids Using Nonlinear Robust Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Pejmanfar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a robust nonlinear integrated controller to improve stability of hybrid AC/DC micro-grids under islanding mode. The proposed controller includes two independent controllers where each one is responsible to control one part of the system. First controller will improve the stability of input DC/DC converter. Using this controller, the voltage of DC bus is fully stabilized such that when a large disturbance occurs, its voltage will become constant without any significant dynamic. The necessity of DC bus regulation which has not been considered in previous studies, is imminent as it not only improves voltage stability of the micro-grid but also protects consumers which are directly connected to the DC bus, against voltage variations. Frequency stability of the micro-grid is provided by the second proposed controller which is applied to output DC/AC converter of the micro-grid. Adaptive method is used to make the controllers proposed in this paper, robust. Duty cycle of converters switches are adjusted such that voltage and frequency of the micro-grid are set on the desired value in minimum possible time under transient disturbances and uncertainty of the loads as well as micro-sources characteristics.
An intrinsic robust rank-one-approximation approach for currencyportfolio optimization
Hongxuan Huang; Zhengjun Zhang
2018-01-01
A currency portfolio is a special kind of wealth whose value fluctuates with foreignexchange rates over time, which possesses 3Vs (volume, variety and velocity) properties of big datain the currency market. In this paper, an intrinsic robust rank one approximation (ROA) approachis proposed to maximize the value of currency portfolios over time. The main results of the paperinclude four parts: Firstly, under the assumptions about the currency market, the currency portfoliooptimization problem ...
Robust approximation-free prescribed performance control for nonlinear systems and its application
Sun, Ruisheng; Na, Jing; Zhu, Bin
2018-02-01
This paper presents a robust prescribed performance control approach and its application to nonlinear tail-controlled missile systems with unknown dynamics and uncertainties. The idea of prescribed performance function (PPF) is incorporated into the control design, such that both the steady-state and transient control performance can be strictly guaranteed. Unlike conventional PPF-based control methods, we further tailor a recently proposed systematic control design procedure (i.e. approximation-free control) using the transformed tracking error dynamics, which provides a proportional-like control action. Hence, the function approximators (e.g. neural networks, fuzzy systems) that are widely used to address the unknown nonlinearities in the nonlinear control designs are not needed. The proposed control design leads to a robust yet simplified function approximation-free control for nonlinear systems. The closed-loop system stability and the control error convergence are all rigorously proved. Finally, comparative simulations are conducted based on nonlinear missile systems to validate the improved response and the robustness of the proposed control method.
Wind turbine inverter robust loop-shaping control subject to grid interaction effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff; Wu, Qiuwei; Blanke, Mogens
2015-01-01
the grid and the number of wind turbines connected. Power converter based turbines inject harmonic currents, which are attenuated by passive filters. A robust high order active filter controller is proposed to complement the passive filtering. The H∞ design of the control loop enables desired tracking......An H∞ robust control of wind turbine inverters employing an LCL filter is proposed in this paper. The controller dynamics are designed for selective harmonic filtering in an offshore transmission network subject to parameter perturbations. Parameter uncertainty in the network originates from...
Robust Multi-Objective PQ Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in Flexible Unbalanced Distribution Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knezovic, Katarina; Soroudi, Alireza; Marinelli, Mattia
2017-01-01
With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV management strategies can be used for mitigating adverse effects and supporting the distribution grid. This paper proposes a robust multi-objective methodology for determining the optimal day...... demand response programs. The method is tested on a real Danish unbalanced distribution grid with 35% EV penetration to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is shown that the proposed formulation guarantees an optimal EV cost as long as the price uncertainties are lower than....... The robust formulation effectively considers the errors in the electricity price forecast and its influence on the EV schedule. Moreover, the impact of EV reactive power support on objective values and technical parameters is analysed both when EVs are the only flexible resources and when linked with other...
An intrinsic robust rank-one-approximation approach for currencyportfolio optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongxuan Huang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available A currency portfolio is a special kind of wealth whose value fluctuates with foreignexchange rates over time, which possesses 3Vs (volume, variety and velocity properties of big datain the currency market. In this paper, an intrinsic robust rank one approximation (ROA approachis proposed to maximize the value of currency portfolios over time. The main results of the paperinclude four parts: Firstly, under the assumptions about the currency market, the currency portfoliooptimization problem is formulated as the basic model, in which there are two types of variablesdescribing currency amounts in portfolios and the amount of each currency exchanged into another,respectively. Secondly, the rank one approximation problem and its variants are also formulated toapproximate a foreign exchange rate matrix, whose performance is measured by the Frobenius normor the 2-norm of a residual matrix. The intrinsic robustness of the rank one approximation is provedtogether with summarizing properties of the basic ROA problem and designing a modified powermethod to search for the virtual exchange rates hidden in a foreign exchange rate matrix. Thirdly,a technique for decision variables reduction is presented to attack the currency portfolio optimization.The reduced formulation is referred to as the ROA model, which keeps only variables describingcurrency amounts in portfolios. The optimal solution to the ROA model also induces a feasible solutionto the basic model of the currency portfolio problem by integrating forex operations from the ROAmodel with practical forex rates. Finally, numerical examples are presented to verify the feasibility ande ciency of the intrinsic robust rank one approximation approach. They also indicate that there existsan objective measure for evaluating and optimizing currency portfolios over time, which is related tothe virtual standard currency and independent of any real currency selected specially for measurement.
Bilinear Approximate Model-Based Robust Lyapunov Control for Parabolic Distributed Collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed
2016-11-09
This brief addresses the control problem of distributed parabolic solar collectors in order to maintain the field outlet temperature around a desired level. The objective is to design an efficient controller to force the outlet fluid temperature to track a set reference despite the unpredictable varying working conditions. In this brief, a bilinear model-based robust Lyapunov control is proposed to achieve the control objectives with robustness to the environmental changes. The bilinear model is a reduced order approximate representation of the solar collector, which is derived from the hyperbolic distributed equation describing the heat transport dynamics by means of a dynamical Gaussian interpolation. Using the bilinear approximate model, a robust control strategy is designed applying Lyapunov stability theory combined with a phenomenological representation of the system in order to stabilize the tracking error. On the basis of the error analysis, simulation results show good performance of the proposed controller, in terms of tracking accuracy and convergence time, with limited measurement even under unfavorable working conditions. Furthermore, the presented work is of interest for a large category of dynamical systems knowing that the solar collector is representative of physical systems involving transport phenomena constrained by unknown external disturbances.
Xiao, Jingjie
A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of consumers' responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way communication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. In addition, the intelligent energy controller on the consumer-side can help increase the utilization rate of the intermittent renewable resource, as the demand can be managed to match the output profile of renewables, thus making the intermittent resource such as wind and solar more economically competitive in the long run. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to present how real-time retail pricing, aided by control automation devices, can be integrated into the wholesale electricity market under various uncertainties through approximate dynamic programming. What distinguishes this study from the existing work in the literature is that whole- sale electricity prices are endogenously determined as we solve a system operator's economic dispatch problem on an hourly basis over the entire optimization horizon. This modeling and algorithm framework will allow a feedback loop between electricity prices and electricity consumption to be fully captured. While we are interested in a near-optimal solution using approximate dynamic programming; deterministic linear programming benchmarks are use to demonstrate the quality of our solutions. The other goal of the dissertation is to use this framework to provide numerical evidence to the debate on whether real-time pricing is superior than the current flat rate structure in terms of both economic and environmental impacts. For this purpose, the modeling and algorithm framework is tested on a large-scale test case
Khoromskaia, Venera; Khoromskij, Boris N.
2014-12-01
Our recent method for low-rank tensor representation of sums of the arbitrarily positioned electrostatic potentials discretized on a 3D Cartesian grid reduces the 3D tensor summation to operations involving only 1D vectors however retaining the linear complexity scaling in the number of potentials. Here, we introduce and study a novel tensor approach for fast and accurate assembled summation of a large number of lattice-allocated potentials represented on 3D N × N × N grid with the computational requirements only weakly dependent on the number of summed potentials. It is based on the assembled low-rank canonical tensor representations of the collected potentials using pointwise sums of shifted canonical vectors representing the single generating function, say the Newton kernel. For a sum of electrostatic potentials over L × L × L lattice embedded in a box the required storage scales linearly in the 1D grid-size, O(N) , while the numerical cost is estimated by O(NL) . For periodic boundary conditions, the storage demand remains proportional to the 1D grid-size of a unit cell, n = N / L, while the numerical cost reduces to O(N) , that outperforms the FFT-based Ewald-type summation algorithms of complexity O(N3 log N) . The complexity in the grid parameter N can be reduced even to the logarithmic scale O(log N) by using data-sparse representation of canonical N-vectors via the quantics tensor approximation. For justification, we prove an upper bound on the quantics ranks for the canonical vectors in the overall lattice sum. The presented approach is beneficial in applications which require further functional calculus with the lattice potential, say, scalar product with a function, integration or differentiation, which can be performed easily in tensor arithmetics on large 3D grids with 1D cost. Numerical tests illustrate the performance of the tensor summation method and confirm the estimated bounds on the tensor ranks.
Ahmed, Hafiz; Salgado, Ivan; Ríos, Héctor
2018-02-01
Robust synchronization of master slave chaotic systems are considered in this work. First an approximate model of the error system is obtained using the ultra-local model concept. Then a Continuous Singular Terminal Sliding-Mode (CSTSM) Controller is designed for the purpose of synchronization. The proposed approach is output feedback-based and uses fixed-time higher order sliding-mode (HOSM) differentiator for state estimation. Numerical simulation and experimental results are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reduced-rank approximations to the far-field transform in the gridded fast multipole method
Hesford, Andrew J.; Waag, Robert C.
2011-05-01
The fast multipole method (FMM) has been shown to have a reduced computational dependence on the size of finest-level groups of elements when the elements are positioned on a regular grid and FFT convolution is used to represent neighboring interactions. However, transformations between plane-wave expansions used for FMM interactions and pressure distributions used for neighboring interactions remain significant contributors to the cost of FMM computations when finest-level groups are large. The transformation operators, which are forward and inverse Fourier transforms with the wave space confined to the unit sphere, are smooth and well approximated using reduced-rank decompositions that further reduce the computational dependence of the FMM on finest-level group size. The adaptive cross approximation (ACA) is selected to represent the forward and adjoint far-field transformation operators required by the FMM. However, the actual error of the ACA is found to be greater than that predicted using traditional estimates, and the ACA generally performs worse than the approximation resulting from a truncated singular-value decomposition (SVD). To overcome these issues while avoiding the cost of a full-scale SVD, the ACA is employed with more stringent accuracy demands and recompressed using a reduced, truncated SVD. The results show a greatly reduced approximation error that performs comparably to the full-scale truncated SVD without degrading the asymptotic computational efficiency associated with ACA matrix assembly.
Nobile, F.
2015-10-30
In this work we provide a convergence analysis for the quasi-optimal version of the sparse-grids stochastic collocation method we presented in a previous work: “On the optimal polynomial approximation of stochastic PDEs by Galerkin and collocation methods” (Beck et al., Math Models Methods Appl Sci 22(09), 2012). The construction of a sparse grid is recast into a knapsack problem: a profit is assigned to each hierarchical surplus and only the most profitable ones are added to the sparse grid. The convergence rate of the sparse grid approximation error with respect to the number of points in the grid is then shown to depend on weighted summability properties of the sequence of profits. This is a very general argument that can be applied to sparse grids built with any uni-variate family of points, both nested and non-nested. As an example, we apply such quasi-optimal sparse grids to the solution of a particular elliptic PDE with stochastic diffusion coefficients, namely the “inclusions problem”: we detail the convergence estimates obtained in this case using polynomial interpolation on either nested (Clenshaw–Curtis) or non-nested (Gauss–Legendre) abscissas, verify their sharpness numerically, and compare the performance of the resulting quasi-optimal grids with a few alternative sparse-grid construction schemes recently proposed in the literature.
Nobile, F.; Tamellini, L.; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
In this work we provide a convergence analysis for the quasi-optimal version of the sparse-grids stochastic collocation method we presented in a previous work: “On the optimal polynomial approximation of stochastic PDEs by Galerkin and collocation methods” (Beck et al., Math Models Methods Appl Sci 22(09), 2012). The construction of a sparse grid is recast into a knapsack problem: a profit is assigned to each hierarchical surplus and only the most profitable ones are added to the sparse grid. The convergence rate of the sparse grid approximation error with respect to the number of points in the grid is then shown to depend on weighted summability properties of the sequence of profits. This is a very general argument that can be applied to sparse grids built with any uni-variate family of points, both nested and non-nested. As an example, we apply such quasi-optimal sparse grids to the solution of a particular elliptic PDE with stochastic diffusion coefficients, namely the “inclusions problem”: we detail the convergence estimates obtained in this case using polynomial interpolation on either nested (Clenshaw–Curtis) or non-nested (Gauss–Legendre) abscissas, verify their sharpness numerically, and compare the performance of the resulting quasi-optimal grids with a few alternative sparse-grid construction schemes recently proposed in the literature.
A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter
Omran, Hesham
2014-09-01
In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.
A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter
Omran, Hesham; Arsalan, Muhammad; Salama, Khaled N.
2014-01-01
In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.
Mayvan, Ali D.; Aghaeinia, Hassan; Kazemi, Mohammad
2017-12-01
This paper focuses on robust transceiver design for throughput enhancement on the interference channel (IC), under imperfect channel state information (CSI). In this paper, two algorithms are proposed to improve the throughput of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) IC. Each transmitter and receiver has, respectively, M and N antennas and IC operates in a time division duplex mode. In the first proposed algorithm, each transceiver adjusts its filter to maximize the expected value of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR). On the other hand, the second algorithm tries to minimize the variances of the SINRs to hedge against the variability due to CSI error. Taylor expansion is exploited to approximate the effect of CSI imperfection on mean and variance. The proposed robust algorithms utilize the reciprocity of wireless networks to optimize the estimated statistical properties in two different working modes. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to investigate sum rate performance of the proposed algorithms and the advantage of incorporating variation minimization into the transceiver design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2016-01-01
Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) operating in very weak grids with low Short Circuit Ratio (SCR) are known to meet stability challenges. This article investigates instability of a grid connected current-controlled converter under weak grid conditions, which is often attributed to the dynamic...
Xiao, Jingjie
2013-01-01
A key hurdle for implementing real-time pricing of electricity is a lack of con-sumers’ responses. Solutions to overcome the hurdle include the energy management system that automatically optimizes household appliance usage such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging (and discharging with vehicle-to-grid) via a two-way com-munication with the grid. Real-time pricing, combined with household automation devices, has a potential to accommodate an increasing penetration of plug-in hybrid ele...
Numerical comparison of robustness of some reduction methods in rough grids
Hou, Jiangyong
2014-04-09
In this article, we present three nonsymmetric mixed hybrid RT 1 2 methods and compare with some recently developed reduction methods which are suitable for the single-phase Darcy flow problem with full anisotropic and highly heterogeneous permeability on general quadrilateral grids. The methods reviewed are multipoint flux approximation (MPFA), multipoint flux mixed finite element method, mixed-finite element with broken RT 1 2 method, MPFA-type mimetic finite difference method, and symmetric mixed-hybrid finite element method. The numerical experiments of these methods on different distorted meshes are compared, as well as their differences in performance of fluxes are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fast and robust estimation of spectro-temporal receptive fields using stochastic approximations.
Meyer, Arne F; Diepenbrock, Jan-Philipp; Ohl, Frank W; Anemüller, Jörn
2015-05-15
The receptive field (RF) represents the signal preferences of sensory neurons and is the primary analysis method for understanding sensory coding. While it is essential to estimate a neuron's RF, finding numerical solutions to increasingly complex RF models can become computationally intensive, in particular for high-dimensional stimuli or when many neurons are involved. Here we propose an optimization scheme based on stochastic approximations that facilitate this task. The basic idea is to derive solutions on a random subset rather than computing the full solution on the available data set. To test this, we applied different optimization schemes based on stochastic gradient descent (SGD) to both the generalized linear model (GLM) and a recently developed classification-based RF estimation approach. Using simulated and recorded responses, we demonstrate that RF parameter optimization based on state-of-the-art SGD algorithms produces robust estimates of the spectro-temporal receptive field (STRF). Results on recordings from the auditory midbrain demonstrate that stochastic approximations preserve both predictive power and tuning properties of STRFs. A correlation of 0.93 with the STRF derived from the full solution may be obtained in less than 10% of the full solution's estimation time. We also present an on-line algorithm that allows simultaneous monitoring of STRF properties of more than 30 neurons on a single computer. The proposed approach may not only prove helpful for large-scale recordings but also provides a more comprehensive characterization of neural tuning in experiments than standard tuning curves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A robust nonlinear stabilizer as a controller for improving transient stability in micro-grids.
Azimi, Seyed Mohammad; Afsharnia, Saeed
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a parametric-Lyapunov approach to the design of a stabilizer aimed at improving the transient stability of micro-grids (MGs). This strategy is applied to electronically-interfaced distributed resources (EI-DRs) operating with a unified control configuration applicable to all operational modes (i.e. grid-connected mode, islanded mode, and mode transitions). The proposed approach employs a simple structure compared with other nonlinear controllers, allowing ready implementation of the stabilizer. A new parametric-Lyapunov function is proposed rendering the proposed stabilizer more effective in damping system transition transients. The robustness of the proposed stabilizer is also verified based on both time-domain simulations and mathematical proofs, and an ultimate bound has been derived for the frequency transition transients. The proposed stabilizer operates by deploying solely local information and there are no needs for communication links. The deteriorating effects of the primary resource delays on the transient stability are also treated analytically. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed stabilizer is evaluated through time-domain simulations and compared with the recently-developed stabilizers performed on a multi-resource MG. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, L.; Niu, D.X.; Huang, G.H.
2014-01-01
In this paper a stochastic robust optimization problem of residential micro-grid energy management is presented. Combined cooling, heating and electricity technology (CCHP) is introduced to satisfy various energy demands. Two-stage programming is utilized to find the optimal installed capacity investment and operation control of CCHP (combined cooling heating and power). Moreover, interval programming and robust stochastic optimization methods are exploited to gain interval robust solutions under different robustness levels which are feasible for uncertain data. The obtained results can help micro-grid managers minimizing the investment and operation cost with lower system failure risk when facing fluctuant energy market and uncertain technology parameters. The different robustness levels reflect the risk preference of micro-grid manager. The proposed approach is applied to residential area energy management in North China. Detailed computational results under different robustness level are presented and analyzed for providing investment decision and operation strategies. - Highlights: • An inexact two-stage stochastic robust programming model for CCHP management. • The energy market and technical parameters uncertainties were considered. • Investment decision, operation cost, and system safety were analyzed. • Uncertainties expressed as discrete intervals and probability distributions
Nobile, Fabio; Tamellini, Lorenzo; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
In this work we compare different families of nested quadrature points, i.e. the classic Clenshaw–Curtis and various kinds of Leja points, in the context of the quasi-optimal sparse grid approximation of random elliptic PDEs. Numerical evidence
Nobile, Fabio
2015-11-26
In this work we compare different families of nested quadrature points, i.e. the classic Clenshaw–Curtis and various kinds of Leja points, in the context of the quasi-optimal sparse grid approximation of random elliptic PDEs. Numerical evidence suggests that both families perform comparably within such framework.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Leming; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An
2016-01-01
-of-freedom single-current control (RTDOF-SCC) strategy is proposed, which mainly includes the synchronous reference frame quasi-proportional-integral (SRFQPI) control and robust grid-current-feedback active damping (RGCFAD) control. The proposed SRFQPI control can compensate the local-loads reactive power......, and regulate the instantaneous grid current without steady-state error regardless of the fundamental frequency fluctuation. Simultaneously, the proposed RGCFAD control effectively damps the LCL-resonance peak regardless of the grid-impedance variation, and further improves both transient and steady...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lu, Minghui; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Muyeen, S. M.
2018-01-01
This paper comprehensively analyzes the stability of a grid-interfacing inverter with LCL filter in the discrete domain, where the LCL filter, along with the controller, are modeled in a polar coordinate. System open-loop and closed-loop poles are analytically studied and expressed in the z-domai...
Approximating the Pareto Set of Multiobjective Linear Programs via Robust Optimization
Gorissen, B.L.; den Hertog, D.
2012-01-01
Abstract: The Pareto set of a multiobjective optimization problem consists of the solutions for which one or more objectives can not be improved without deteriorating one or more other objectives. We consider problems with linear objectives and linear constraints and use Adjustable Robust
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ricchiuto, D.; Liserre, M.; Kerekes, Tamas
2011-01-01
Grid-connected converters usually employ an LCL-filter to reduce PWM harmonics. To avoid the wellknown stability problems it is requested to use either passive or active damping methods. Active damping methods avoid losses and preserve the filter effectiveness but they are more sensitive...... to parameters variation. In this paper the robustness of active damping methods is investigated considering those using only the same state variable (grid-side or converter-side current) normally used for current control (filter-based) or those methods using more state-variables (multiloop). Simulation...
Design of LLCL-filter for grid-connected converter to improve stability and robustness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
of the switching frequency range. The resonance frequencies of the LLCL-filters based grid-connected converters are sensitive to the grid impedance as well as cable capacitance, which may influence the stability of the overall system. This paper proposes a new parameter design method for LLCL-filter from the point...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maliassov, S.Y. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1996-12-31
An approach to the construction of an iterative method for solving systems of linear algebraic equations arising from nonconforming finite element discretizations with nonmatching grids for second order elliptic boundary value problems with anisotropic coefficients is considered. The technique suggested is based on decomposition of the original domain into nonoverlapping subdomains. The elliptic problem is presented in the macro-hybrid form with Lagrange multipliers at the interfaces between subdomains. A block diagonal preconditioner is proposed which is spectrally equivalent to the original saddle point matrix and has the optimal order of arithmetical complexity. The preconditioner includes blocks for preconditioning subdomain and interface problems. It is shown that constants of spectral equivalence axe independent of values of coefficients and mesh step size.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pin, F.G.
1993-11-01
Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ``minimal model`` for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pin, F.G.
1993-01-01
Outdoor sensor-based operation of autonomous robots has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. Two basic principles, or philosophies, and their associated methodologies are proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. The first principle is based on the concept of ''minimal model'' for accomplishing given tasks and proposes to utilize only the minimum level of information and precision necessary to accomplish elemental functions of complex tasks. This approach diverges completely from the direction taken by most artificial vision studies which conventionally call for crisp and detailed analysis of every available component in the perception data. The paper will first review the basic concepts of this approach and will discuss its pragmatic feasibility when embodied in a behaviorist framework. The second principle which is proposed deals with implicit representation of uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and approximate reasoning, rather than explicit (crisp) representation through calculation and conventional propagation techniques. A framework which merges these principles and approaches is presented, and its application to the problem of sensor-based outdoor navigation of a mobile robot is discussed. Results of navigation experiments with a real car in actual outdoor environments are also discussed to illustrate the feasibility of the overall concept
Gorban, A N; Mirkes, E M; Zinovyev, A
2016-12-01
Most of machine learning approaches have stemmed from the application of minimizing the mean squared distance principle, based on the computationally efficient quadratic optimization methods. However, when faced with high-dimensional and noisy data, the quadratic error functionals demonstrated many weaknesses including high sensitivity to contaminating factors and dimensionality curse. Therefore, a lot of recent applications in machine learning exploited properties of non-quadratic error functionals based on L 1 norm or even sub-linear potentials corresponding to quasinorms L p (0application of min-plus algebra. The approach can be applied in most of existing machine learning methods, including methods of data approximation and regularized and sparse regression, leading to the improvement in the computational cost/accuracy trade-off. We demonstrate that on synthetic and real-life datasets PQSQ-based machine learning methods achieve orders of magnitude faster computational performance than the corresponding state-of-the-art methods, having similar or better approximation accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Active Distribution Grid Management based on Robust AC Optimal Power Flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soares, Tiago; Bessa, Richard J.; Pinson, Pierre
2017-01-01
Further integration of distributed renewable energy sources in distribution systems requires a paradigm change in grid management by the distribution system operators (DSO). DSOs are currently moving to an operational planning approach based on activating flexibility from distributed energy resou...
Tibi, R.; Young, C. J.; Gonzales, A.; Ballard, S.; Encarnacao, A. V.
2016-12-01
The matched filtering technique involving the cross-correlation of a waveform of interest with archived signals from a template library has proven to be a powerful tool for detecting events in regions with repeating seismicity. However, waveform correlation is computationally expensive, and therefore impractical for large template sets unless dedicated distributed computing hardware and software are used. In this study, we introduce an Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) approach that enables the use of very large template libraries for waveform correlation without requiring a complex distributed computing system. Our method begins with a projection into a reduced dimensionality space based on correlation with a randomized subset of the full template archive. Searching for a specified number of nearest neighbors is accomplished by using randomized K-dimensional trees. We used the approach to search for matches to each of 2700 analyst-reviewed signal detections reported for May 2010 for the IMS station MKAR. The template library in this case consists of a dataset of more than 200,000 analyst-reviewed signal detections for the same station from 2002-2014 (excluding May 2010). Of these signal detections, 60% are teleseismic first P, and 15% regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg). The analyses performed on a standard desktop computer shows that the proposed approach performs the search of the large template libraries about 20 times faster than the standard full linear search, while achieving recall rates greater than 80%, with the recall rate increasing for higher correlation values. To decide whether to confirm a match, we use a hybrid method involving a cluster approach for queries with two or more matches, and correlation score for single matches. Of the signal detections that passed our confirmation process, 52% were teleseismic first P, and 30% were regional phases.
A Novel Robust Communication Algorithm for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded MicroGrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shafiee, Qobad; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos
2013-01-01
Distributed secondary control (DSC) is a new approach for MicroGrids (MGs) such that frequency, voltage and power regulation is made in each unit locally to avoid using a central controller. Due to the constrained traffic pattern required by the secondary control, it is viable to implement...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdeldjabar, Benrabah; Xu, Dianguo; Wang, Xiongfei
2016-01-01
This paper deals with the problem of LCL filter resonance in grid connected inverter control. The system equations are reformulated to allow the application of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). The resonance, assumed unknown, is treated as a disturbance, then estimated and mitigated...
Robust aggregator design for industrial thermal energy storages in smart grid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rahnama, Samira; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob
2017-01-01
Exploitation of flexible consumption in the future smart grid requires new actors and infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical setup in which a central controller, a so-called “aggregator,” is responsible for managing the flexibilities of industrial thermal loads via a contract...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Il-Song [LG Chem. Ltd./Research park, Mobile Energy R and D, 104-1 Moonji-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea)
2007-03-15
A robust maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using sliding mode controller for the three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic system has been proposed in this paper. Contrary to the previous controller, the proposed system consists of MPPT controller and current controller for tight regulation of the current. The proposed MPPT controller generates current reference directly from the solar array power information and the current controller uses the integral sliding mode for the tight control of current. The proposed system can prevent the current overshoot and provide optimal design for the system components. The structure of the proposed system is simple, and it shows robust tracking property against modeling uncertainties and parameter variations. Mathematical modeling is developed and the experimental results verify the validity of the proposed controller. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2017-01-01
‘Robust – Reflections on Resilient Architecture’, is a scientific publication following the conference of the same name in November of 2017. Researches and PhD-Fellows, associated with the Masters programme: Cultural Heritage, Transformation and Restoration (Transformation), at The Royal Danish...
Secure and robust authentication for DC MicroGrids based on power talk communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Angjelichinoski, Marko; Danzi, Pietro; Stefanovic, Cedomir
2017-01-01
We propose a novel framework for secure and reliable authentication of Distributed Energy Resources to the centralized secondary/tertiary control system of a DC MicroGrid (MG), networked using the IEEE 802.11 wireless interface. The key idea is to perform the authentication using power talk...... - a powerline communication technique executed by the primary control loops of the power electronic converters. In addition, the scheme also promotes direct and active participation of the control system in the authentication process, a feature not commonly encountered in current networked control systems...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jong-Soo; Choe, Gyu-Yeong; Lee, Byoung-Kuk [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Soo [R and D Center, Advanced Drive Technology (ADT) Company, 689-26 Geumjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-862 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-05-15
The low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems is generated from dc-ac inverter operation, which generates 60 Hz fundamental component, and gives harmful effects on fuel cell stack itself, such as making cathode surface responses slower, causing an increase of more than 10% in the fuel consumption, creating oxygen starvation, causing a reduction in the operating lifetime, and incurring a nuisance tripping such as overload situation. With these reasons, low frequency current ripple makes fuel cell system unstable and lifetime of fuel cell stack itself short. This paper presents a fast and robust control algorithm to eliminate low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems. Compared with the conventional methods, in the proposed control algorithm, dc link voltage controller is shifted from dc-dc converter to dc-ac inverter, resulting that dc-ac inverter handles dc link voltage control and output current control simultaneously with help of power balancing technique. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only completely eliminate current ripple but also significantly reduce the overshoot or undershoot during transient states without any extra hardware. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations and also by experiments with a 1 kW laboratory prototype. (author)
Robust Networked Control Scheme for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded MicroGrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shafiee, Qobad; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Dragicevic, Tomislav
2014-01-01
Distributed secondary control (DSC) is a new approach for microgrids (MGs) by which the frequency, voltage and power can be regulated by using only local unit controllers. Such a solution is necessary for anticipated scenarios that have an increased number of distributed generators (DGs) within...... the MG. Due to the constrained traffic pattern required by the secondary control, it is viable to implement a dedicated local area communication functionality among the local controllers. This paper presents a new, wireless-based robust communication algorithm for the DSC of MGs. The algorithm tightly...... couples the communication and the control functionality, such that the transmission errors are absorbed through an averaging operation performed in each local controller, resulting in a very high reliability. Furthermore, transmissions from each DG are periodic and prescheduled broadcasts, and in this way...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alavi, Seyed Arash; Ahmadian, Ali; Aliakbar-Golkar, Masoud
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Energy management is necessary in the active distribution network to reduce operation costs. • Uncertainty modeling is essential in energy management studies in active distribution networks. • Point estimate method is a suitable method for uncertainty modeling due to its lower computation time and acceptable accuracy. • In the absence of Probability Distribution Function (PDF) robust optimization has a good ability for uncertainty modeling. - Abstract: Uncertainty can be defined as the probability of difference between the forecasted value and the real value. As this probability is small, the operation cost of the power system will be less. This purpose necessitates modeling of system random variables (such as the output power of renewable resources and the load demand) with appropriate and practicable methods. In this paper, an adequate procedure is proposed in order to do an optimal energy management on a typical micro-grid with regard to the relevant uncertainties. The point estimate method is applied for modeling the wind power and solar power uncertainties, and robust optimization technique is utilized to model load demand uncertainty. Finally, a comparison is done between deterministic and probabilistic management in different scenarios and their results are analyzed and evaluated
Wholesale energy market in a smart grid. Dynamic modeling, stability, and robustness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiani Bejestani, Arman
2013-01-24
The recent paradigm shift in the architecture of the smart grid is driven by the need to integrate Renewable Energy Resources (RER), the availability of information through communication networks, and an emerging policy of demand that is intertwined with pricing. A major component of this architecture is the design of electricity markets, which pertains to the optimal scheduling of power generation and reserve requirements. The challenge is to carry out this scheduling with a high level of integration of renewable generation sources, a formidable task due to intermittency and uncertainty. Introducing huge intermittency and uncertainty in the smart grid will demand a dynamic framework for addressing the operation, scheduling and financial settlements in the uncertain environment. The temporal components in scheduling generation are necessary due to increasing penetration of renewable sources, and increasing potential of adjustable demand via Demand Response (DR). The former brings issues of strong intermittency and uncertainty, and the latter brings a feedback structure, where demand can be modulated over a range of time-scales. Both of these components are dictating a new look at market mechanisms, with a controls viewpoint enabling a novel framework for analysis and synthesis. This dissertation provides static and dynamic models that capture the various aspects of electrical power systems, including the dynamics of market participants, the physical and technical constraints of power systems, and the uncertainty of RER. The proposed models shed new light on wholesale electricity market design, allowing an understanding to be gained of how to create markets, which enhance the stability of price profiles, and efficiency of the power systems, in the presence of uncertain demand and intermittent resources. The notion of market equilibrium in the presence of RER and DR is presented. The effects of uncertainties due to forecast errors in RER and variations due to DR on
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin
2016-01-01
to resist the effect of the BHV, a feedforward voltage compensator and a proportional resonant regulator with harmonic compensation are often adopted. However, they still have their own limitations, particularly when there are higher order BHVs at the point of common coupling and when the equivalent grid......A high-order (LCL or LLCL) power filter with a small grid-side inductor is becoming more preferred for a grid-tied inverter due to less total inductance and reduced costs. In a microgrid, the background harmonic voltage (BHV) may distort the injected currents of the grid-tied inverters. In order...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ansanay-Alex, G.
2009-01-01
The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pertl, Michael; Douglass, Philip James; Heussen, Kai
2018-01-01
network approach for voltage estimation in active distribution grids by means of measured data from two feeders of a real low voltage distribution grid. The approach enables a real-time voltage estimation at locations in the distribution grid, where otherwise only non-real-time measurements are available......The installation of measurements in distribution grids enables the development of data driven methods for the power system. However, these methods have to be validated in order to understand the limitations and capabilities for their use. This paper presents a systematic validation of a neural...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Bo; Ai, Xiaomeng; Fang, Jiakun
2017-01-01
With the rapid development and deployment of voltage source converter (VSC) based HVDC, the traditional power system is evolving to the hybrid AC-DC grid. New optimization methods are urgently needed for these hybrid AC-DC power systems. In this paper, mixed-integer second order cone programming...... (MISOCP) for the hybrid AC-DC power systems is proposed. The second order cone (SOC) relaxation is adopted to transform the AC and DC power flow constraints to MISOCP. Several IEEE test systems are used to validate the proposed MISCOP formulation of the optimal power flow (OPF) and unit commitment (UC...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pan, Donghua; Ruan, Xinbo; Wang, Xiongfei
2018-01-01
Single-loop current control is an attractive scheme for the LCL-type grid-connected inverter due to its simplicity and low cost. However, conventional single-loop control schemes, which command either the inverter current or the grid current, are subject to the specific resonance frequency regions....... The weighted average current control, which splits the filter capacitor into two parts (in form of an LCCL filter) and commands the current flowing between these two parts, is independent of the resonance frequency, but on the other hand, it is limited by the poor sensitivity to the grid impedance variation...... and weak stability in the grid current. These limitations are comprehensively explained in this paper and then addressed by identifying that the single-loop weighted average current control is equivalent to the dual-loop grid current control with an inherent capacitor current active damping. By tuning...
Bureick, Johannes; Alkhatib, Hamza; Neumann, Ingo
2016-03-01
In many geodetic engineering applications it is necessary to solve the problem of describing a measured data point cloud, measured, e. g. by laser scanner, by means of free-form curves or surfaces, e. g., with B-Splines as basis functions. The state of the art approaches to determine B-Splines yields results which are seriously manipulated by the occurrence of data gaps and outliers. Optimal and robust B-Spline fitting depend, however, on optimal selection of the knot vector. Hence we combine in our approach Monte-Carlo methods and the location and curvature of the measured data in order to determine the knot vector of the B-Spline in such a way that no oscillating effects at the edges of data gaps occur. We introduce an optimized approach based on computed weights by means of resampling techniques. In order to minimize the effect of outliers, we apply robust M-estimators for the estimation of control points. The above mentioned approach will be applied to a multi-sensor system based on kinematic terrestrial laserscanning in the field of rail track inspection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Madsen Per
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract In a stochastic simulation study of a dairy cattle population three multitrait models for estimation of genetic parameters and prediction of breeding values were compared. The first model was an approximate multitrait model using a two-step procedure. The first step was a single trait model for all traits. The solutions for fixed effects from these analyses were subtracted from the phenotypes. A multitrait model only containing an overall mean, an additive genetic and a residual term was applied on these preadjusted data. The second model was similar to the first model, but the multitrait model also contained a year effect. The third model was a full multitrait model. Genetic trends for total merit and for the individual traits in the breeding goal were compared for the three scenarios to rank the models. The full multitrait model gave the highest genetic response, but was not significantly better than the approximate multitrait model including a year effect. The inclusion of a year effect into the second step of the approximate multitrait model significantly improved the genetic trend for total merit. In this study, estimation of genetic parameters for breeding value estimation using models corresponding to the ones used for prediction of breeding values increased the accuracy on the breeding values and thereby the genetic progress.
Klotz, Wolf-Dieter
2005-01-01
Grid technology is widely emerging. Grid computing, most simply stated, is distributed computing taken to the next evolutionary level. The goal is to create the illusion of a simple, robust yet large and powerful self managing virtual computer out of a large collection of connected heterogeneous systems sharing various combinations of resources. This talk will give a short history how, out of lessons learned from the Internet, the vision of Grids was born. Then the extensible anatomy of a Grid architecture will be discussed. The talk will end by presenting a selection of major Grid projects in Europe and US and if time permits a short on-line demonstration.
Cohen Stuart, D.C.; Kleijn, C.R.; Kenjeres, S.
2010-01-01
In this paper we report on a newly developed particle tracking scheme for fluid flow simulations on 3D unstructured grids, aiming to provide detailed insights in the particle behaviour in complex geometries. A possible field of applications is the Magnetic Drug Targeting (MDT) technique, on which
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shayeghi, H.; Hashemi, Y.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Design based on a set of performance and robustness criteria can increase profit. • Time delay as uncertainty in smart grid decrease profit. • Design method applied in this paper deal with large structure of controllers. • INSGA-II optimization and FDM method is applied to specify the best solution. - Abstract: Expansion of power systems is accompanied by innovations in smart grid solutions to power system operation and control. Profit enhancement by power oscillation damping controllers (PODC) and acceleration based power system stabilizer (PSS), model PSS2B, designed by the idea of pseudo-spectra based on multi-objective optimization is presented. The contribution of multi-objective functions in respect of performance and robustness criteria in stability enhancement is evaluated by considering the control actions of PODC and PSS2B as an ancillary service (AS). The robustness requirement is achieved by using the idea of pseudo-spectra to handle the changes of power system parameters and time delay introduced by processing of remote signals in the wide-area supplementary damping controller (WASDC). The weighted sum of six objective functions as performance and robustness criteria is selected as low-frequency oscillation damping index (LFODI). Two scenarios for the evaluation of small signal stability as an AS provided by PODC and PSS2B are considered. A multi-objective optimization approach based on LFODI, generation costs is formulated and improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (INSGA-II) is employed to solve this problem. Fuzzy decision making (FDM) is used to find the best compromise solution from the set of Pareto-solution obtained by INSGA-II. Comparative analysis of the results of the conventional method and the proposed design method is presented by case study on a modified 2-area 4-machine power system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
2016-02-01
Today, increasing numbers of intermittent generation sources (e.g., wind and photovoltaic) and new mobile intermittent loads (e.g., electric vehicles) can significantly affect traditional utility business practices and operations. At the same time, a growing number of technologies and devices, from appliances to lighting systems, are being deployed at consumer premises that have more sophisticated controls and information that remain underused for anything beyond basic building equipment operations. The intersection of these two drivers is an untapped opportunity and underused resource that, if appropriately configured and realized in open standards, can provide significant energy efficiency and commensurate savings on utility bills, enhanced and lower cost reliability to utilities, and national economic benefits in the creation of new markets, sectors, and businesses being fueled by the seamless coordination of energy and information through device and technology interoperability. Or, as the Quadrennial Energy Review puts it, “A plethora of both consumer-level and grid-level devices are either in the market, under development, or at the conceptual stage. When tied together through the information technology that is increasingly being deployed on electric utilities’ distribution grids, they can be an important enabling part of the emerging grid of the future. However, what is missing is the ability for all of these devices to coordinate and communicate their operations with the grid, and among themselves, in a common language — an open standard.” In this paper, we define interoperability as the ability to exchange actionable information between two or more systems within a home or building, or across and within organizational boundaries. Interoperability relies on the shared meaning of the exchanged information, with agreed-upon expectations and consequences, for the response to the information exchange.
Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman
2017-02-15
diagonal of the Jacobian further improves the performance by 42 - 74% compared to the full Jacobian. The NKM with an analytical Jacobian showed better performance than the fixed point Runge-Kutta because it converged with higher time steps and in approximately 30% less iterations even when the grid was stretched and the Reynold number was increased. In fact, stretching the grid decreased the performance of all methods, but the fixed-point Runge-Kutta performance decreased 4.57 and 2.26 times more than NKM with a diagonal Jacobian when the stretching factor was increased, respectively. The NKM with a diagonal analytical Jacobian and matrix-free method with an analytical preconditioner are the fastest methods and the superiority of one to another depends on the flow problem. Furthermore, the implemented methods are fully parallelized with parallel efficiency of 80-90% on the problems tested. The NKM with the analytical Jacobian can guide building preconditioners for other techniques to improve their performance in the future.
Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman
2016-01-01
diagonal of the Jacobian further improves the performance by 42 – 74% compared to the full Jacobian. The NKM with an analytical Jacobian showed better performance than the fixed point Runge-Kutta because it converged with higher time steps and in approximately 30% less iterations even when the grid was stretched and the Reynold number was increased. In fact, stretching the grid decreased the performance of all methods, but the fixed-point Runge-Kutta performance decreased 4.57 and 2.26 times more than NKM with a diagonal Jacobian when the stretching factor was increased, respectively. The NKM with a diagonal analytical Jacobian and matrix-free method with an analytical preconditioner are the fastest methods and the superiority of one to another depends on the flow problem. Furthermore, the implemented methods are fully parallelized with parallel efficiency of 80–90% on the problems tested. The NKM with the analytical Jacobian can guide building preconditioners for other techniques to improve their performance in the future. PMID:28042172
Efficient and Robust Signal Approximations
2009-05-01
gains of MrICA over the non- adaptive wavelet method for these images are: 2.43 bpp , 0.62 bpp , 2.91 bpp , 2.78 bpp , 3.39 bpp , and 2.69 bpp . Figure 3.6...shows six examples of 64 × 64 images encoded at 20dB. The coding gain values of the adaptive method are in this case 1.5 bpp , 1.48 bpp , 0.33 bpp , 0.23... bpp , 0.45 bpp , and 1.23 bpp . (For both figures, the colormaps are maximally stretched to enhance visibility.) As a general conclusion, MrICA obtains a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howlander, Abdul Motin [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Yona, Atsushi [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Senjyu, Tomonobu [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Saber, Ahmed Yousuf [Operation Technology, Irvine, CA (United States)
2013-04-15
A digital H{sub {infinity}}controller for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind energy conversion system (WECS) is presented. Wind energy is an uncertain fluctuating resource which requires a tight control management. So, it is still an exigent task for the control design engineers. The conventional proportional-integral (PI) control is not ideal during high turbulence wind velocities, and the nonlinear behavior of the power converters. These are raising interest towards the robust control concepts. The robust design is to find a controller, for a given system, such that the closed-loop system becomes robust that assurance high-integrity and fault tolerant control system, robust H{sub {infinity}}control theory has befallen a standard design method of choice over the past two decades in industrial control applications. The robust H{sub {infinity}}control theory is also gaining eminence in the WECS. Due to the implementation complexity for the continuous H{sub {infinity}}controller, and availability of the high speedy micro-controllers, the design of a sample-data or a digital H{sub {infinity}}controller is very important for the realistic implementation. But there isn’t a single research to evaluate the performance of the digital H{sub {infinity}}controller for the WECS. In this paper, the proposed digital H{sub {infinity}}controller schemes comprise for the both generator and grid interactive power converters, and the control performances are compared with the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy controller. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method Energies 2013, 6 2085 which are ensured the WECS stabilities, mitigate shaft stress, and improving the DC-link voltage and output power qualities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomonobu Senjyu
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A digital H∞ controller for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG based wind energy conversion system (WECS is presented. Wind energy is an uncertain fluctuating resource which requires a tight control management. So, it is still an exigent task for the control design engineers. The conventional proportional-integral (PI control is not ideal during high turbulence wind velocities, and the nonlinear behavior of the power converters. These are raising interest towards the robust control concepts. The robust design is to find a controller, for a given system, such that the closed-loop system becomes robust that assurance high-integrity and fault tolerant control system, robust H∞ control theory has befallen a standard design method of choice over the past two decades in industrial control applications. The robust H∞ control theory is also gaining eminence in the WECS. Due to the implementation complexity for the continuous H∞ controller, and availability of the high speedy micro-controllers, the design of a sample-data or a digital H∞ controller is very important for the realistic implementation. But there isn’t a single research to evaluate the performance of the digital H∞ controller for the WECS. In this paper, the proposed digital H∞ controller schemes comprise for the both generator and grid interactive power converters, and the control performances are compared with the conventional PI controller and the fuzzy controller. Simulation results confirm the efficacy of the proposed method Energies 2013, 6 2085 which are ensured the WECS stabilities, mitigate shaft stress, and improving the DC-link voltage and output power qualities.
Yang, Lei; Yan, Hongyong; Liu, Hong
2017-03-01
Implicit staggered-grid finite-difference (ISFD) scheme is competitive for its great accuracy and stability, whereas its coefficients are conventionally determined by the Taylor-series expansion (TE) method, leading to a loss in numerical precision. In this paper, we modify the TE method using the minimax approximation (MA), and propose a new optimal ISFD scheme based on the modified TE (MTE) with MA method. The new ISFD scheme takes the advantage of the TE method that guarantees great accuracy at small wavenumbers, and keeps the property of the MA method that keeps the numerical errors within a limited bound at the same time. Thus, it leads to great accuracy for numerical solution of the wave equations. We derive the optimal ISFD coefficients by applying the new method to the construction of the objective function, and using a Remez algorithm to minimize its maximum. Numerical analysis is made in comparison with the conventional TE-based ISFD scheme, indicating that the MTE-based ISFD scheme with appropriate parameters can widen the wavenumber range with high accuracy, and achieve greater precision than the conventional ISFD scheme. The numerical modeling results also demonstrate that the MTE-based ISFD scheme performs well in elastic wave simulation, and is more efficient than the conventional ISFD scheme for elastic modeling.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ansanay-Alex, G.
2009-06-17
The development of simulation codes aimed at a precise simulation of fires requires a precise approach of flame front phenomena by using very fine grids. The need to take different spatial scale into consideration leads to a local grid refinement and to a discretization with homogeneous grid for computing time and memory purposes. The author reports the approximation of the non-linear convection term, the scalar advection-diffusion in finite volumes, numerical simulations of a flow in a bent tube, of a three-dimensional laminar flame and of a low Mach number an-isotherm flow. Non conformal finite elements are also presented (Rannacher-Turek and Crouzeix-Raviart elements)
Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman
2014-11-01
Time step-size restrictions and low convergence rates are major bottle necks for implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes in simulations involving complex geometries with moving boundaries. Newton-Krylov method (NKM) is a combination of a Newton-type method for super-linearly convergent solution of nonlinear equations and Krylov subspace methods for solving the Newton correction equations, which can theoretically address both bottle necks. The efficiency of this method vastly depends on the Jacobian forming scheme e.g. automatic differentiation is very expensive and Jacobian-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. A novel, computationally efficient analytical Jacobian for NKM was developed to solve unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes momentum equations on staggered curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries. The NKM was validated and verified against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend and efficiently handles complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, pulsatile inlet flow and immersed boundaries. The NKM method is shown to be more efficient than the semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods and Jabobian-free Newton-Krylov methods. We believe NKM can be applied to many CFD techniques to decrease the computational cost. This work was supported partly by the NIH Grant R03EB014860, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.
Eastern Seaboard Electric Grid Fragility Maps Supporting Persistent Availability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, Kimberly A [ORNL; Weigand, Gilbert G [ORNL; Fernandez, Steven J [ORNL
2012-11-01
Persistently available power transmission can be disrupted by weather causing power outages with economic and social consequences. This research investigated the effects on the national power grid from a specific weather event, Hurricane Irene, that caused approximately 5.7 million customer power outages along the Eastern Seaboard in August of 2011. The objective was to describe the geographic differences in the grid s vulnerability to these events. Individual factors, such as wind speed or precipitation, were correlated with the number of outages to determine the greatest mechanism of power failure in hopes of strengthening the future power grid. The resulting fragility maps not only depicted 18 counties that were less robust than the design-standard robustness model and three counties that were more robust, but also drew new damage contours with correlated wind speeds and county features.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N V Phanendra babu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The current state estimators need to estimate the power system by means of the state variables i.e. voltage and current phasors accurately. Phasor measurement unit (PMU is becoming a most prominent tool for monitoring, control and protection of electric networks, and hence it is required to employ them for the present and future power system networks. An optimal PMU placement (OPP is quite important during planning studies for both existing and future power networks. So, when a new state estimator commissioned, or an existing estimator is up-graded, the problems of minimizing the number of PMUs and their optimal location for system complete observability will come into picture. The approach, in this paper, a Binary Cuckoo Search(BCS method for system complete Observability based optimal PMU placement problem subjected to all possible contingencies and PMU communication channel limitations is suggested. The suggested method is tested with some of standard IEEE test systems and have been practiced for different State Level Regional power Grids (SLRGs of the Indian power system. The results from the suggested method are also compared with the methods that have been already applied for standard IEEE test systems and SLRGs, and were proved to be best and effective.
Lee, M.; Leiter, K.; Eisner, C.; Breuer, A.; Wang, X.
2017-09-01
In this work, we investigate a block Jacobi-Davidson (J-D) variant suitable for sparse symmetric eigenproblems where a substantial number of extremal eigenvalues are desired (e.g., ground-state real-space quantum chemistry). Most J-D algorithm variations tend to slow down as the number of desired eigenpairs increases due to frequent orthogonalization against a growing list of solved eigenvectors. In our specification of block J-D, all of the steps of the algorithm are performed in clusters, including the linear solves, which allows us to greatly reduce computational effort with blocked matrix-vector multiplies. In addition, we move orthogonalization against locked eigenvectors and working eigenvectors outside of the inner loop but retain the single Ritz vector projection corresponding to the index of the correction vector. Furthermore, we minimize the computational effort by constraining the working subspace to the current vectors being updated and the latest set of corresponding correction vectors. Finally, we incorporate accuracy thresholds based on the precision required by the Fermi-Dirac distribution. The net result is a significant reduction in the computational effort against most previous block J-D implementations, especially as the number of wanted eigenpairs grows. We compare our approach with another robust implementation of block J-D (JDQMR) and the state-of-the-art Chebyshev filter subspace (CheFSI) method for various real-space density functional theory systems. Versus CheFSI, for first-row elements, our method yields competitive timings for valence-only systems and 4-6× speedups for all-electron systems with up to 10× reduced matrix-vector multiplies. For all-electron calculations on larger elements (e.g., gold) where the wanted spectrum is quite narrow compared to the full spectrum, we observe 60× speedup with 200× fewer matrix-vector multiples vs. CheFSI.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Dong Bae
2001-11-01
This book describes press smart grid from basics to recent trend. It is divided into ten chapters, which deals with smart grid as green revolution in energy with introduction, history, the fields, application and needed technique for smart grid, Trend of smart grid in foreign such as a model business of smart grid in foreign, policy for smart grid in U.S.A, Trend of smart grid in domestic with international standard of smart grid and strategy and rood map, smart power grid as infrastructure of smart business with EMS development, SAS, SCADA, DAS and PQMS, smart grid for smart consumer, smart renewable like Desertec project, convergence IT with network and PLC, application of an electric car, smart electro service for realtime of electrical pricing system, arrangement of smart grid.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Søren Nygaard
The research presented in this PhD thesis has focused on a perceptual approach to robust design. The results of the research and the original contribution to knowledge is a preliminary framework for understanding, positioning, and applying perceptual robust design. Product quality is a topic...... been presented. Therefore, this study set out to contribute to the understanding and application of perceptual robust design. To achieve this, a state-of-the-art and current practice review was performed. From the review two main research problems were identified. Firstly, a lack of tools...... for perceptual robustness was found to overlap with the optimum for functional robustness and at most approximately 2.2% out of the 14.74% could be ascribed solely to the perceptual robustness optimisation. In conclusion, the thesis have offered a new perspective on robust design by merging robust design...
Ahmed, Raheel; Edwards, Michael G.; Lamine, Sadok; Huisman, Bastiaan A. H.; Pal, Mayur
2017-11-01
Two novel control-volume methods are presented for flow in fractured media, and involve coupling the control-volume distributed multi-point flux approximation (CVD-MPFA) constructed with full pressure support (FPS), to two types of discrete fracture-matrix approximation for simulation on unstructured grids; (i) involving hybrid grids and (ii) a lower dimensional fracture model. Flow is governed by Darcy's law together with mass conservation both in the matrix and the fractures, where large discontinuities in permeability tensors can occur. Finite-volume FPS schemes are more robust than the earlier CVD-MPFA triangular pressure support (TPS) schemes for problems involving highly anisotropic homogeneous and heterogeneous full-tensor permeability fields. We use a cell-centred hybrid-grid method, where fractures are modelled by lower-dimensional interfaces between matrix cells in the physical mesh but expanded to equi-dimensional cells in the computational domain. We present a simple procedure to form a consistent hybrid-grid locally for a dual-cell. We also propose a novel hybrid-grid for intersecting fractures, for the FPS method, which reduces the condition number of the global linear system and leads to larger time steps for tracer transport. The transport equation for tracer flow is coupled with the pressure equation and provides flow parameter assessment of the fracture models. Transport results obtained via TPS and FPS hybrid-grid formulations are compared with the corresponding results of fine-scale explicit equi-dimensional formulations. The results show that the hybrid-grid FPS method applies to general full-tensor fields and provides improved robust approximations compared to the hybrid-grid TPS method for fractured domains, for both weakly anisotropic permeability fields and very strong anisotropic full-tensor permeability fields where the TPS scheme exhibits spurious oscillations. The hybrid-grid FPS formulation is extended to compressible flow and the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pordes, R.
2004-01-01
The U.S. LHC Tier-1 and Tier-2 laboratories and universities are developing production Grids to support LHC applications running across a worldwide Grid computing system. Together with partners in computer science, physics grid projects and active experiments, we will build a common national production grid infrastructure which is open in its architecture, implementation and use. The Open Science Grid (OSG) model builds upon the successful approach of last year's joint Grid2003 project. The Grid3 shared infrastructure has for over eight months provided significant computational resources and throughput to a range of applications, including ATLAS and CMS data challenges, SDSS, LIGO, and biology analyses, and computer science demonstrators and experiments. To move towards LHC-scale data management, access and analysis capabilities, we must increase the scale, services, and sustainability of the current infrastructure by an order of magnitude or more. Thus, we must achieve a significant upgrade in its functionalities and technologies. The initial OSG partners will build upon a fully usable, sustainable and robust grid. Initial partners include the US LHC collaborations, DOE and NSF Laboratories and Universities and Trillium Grid projects. The approach is to federate with other application communities in the U.S. to build a shared infrastructure open to other sciences and capable of being modified and improved to respond to needs of other applications, including CDF, D0, BaBar, and RHIC experiments. We describe the application-driven, engineered services of the OSG, short term plans and status, and the roadmap for a consortium, its partnerships and national focus
Geometric approximation algorithms
Har-Peled, Sariel
2011-01-01
Exact algorithms for dealing with geometric objects are complicated, hard to implement in practice, and slow. Over the last 20 years a theory of geometric approximation algorithms has emerged. These algorithms tend to be simple, fast, and more robust than their exact counterparts. This book is the first to cover geometric approximation algorithms in detail. In addition, more traditional computational geometry techniques that are widely used in developing such algorithms, like sampling, linear programming, etc., are also surveyed. Other topics covered include approximate nearest-neighbor search, shape approximation, coresets, dimension reduction, and embeddings. The topics covered are relatively independent and are supplemented by exercises. Close to 200 color figures are included in the text to illustrate proofs and ideas.
Grid technologies and applications: architecture and achievements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ian Foster
2001-01-01
The 18 months since CHEP'2000 have seen significant advances in Grid computing, both within and outside high energy physics. While in early 2000, Grid computing was a novel concept that most CHEP attendees were being exposed to for the first time, now considerable consensus is seen on Grid architecture, a solid and widely adopted technology base, major funding initiatives, a wide variety of projects developing applications and technologies, and major deployment projects aimed at creating robust Grid infrastructures. The author provides a summary of major developments and trends, focusing on the Globus open source Grid software project and the GriPhyN data grid project
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...
Schmidt, Wolfgang M
1980-01-01
"In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)
Approximate kernel competitive learning.
Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang
2015-03-01
Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
The aim of Grid computing is to enable the easy and open sharing of resources between large and highly distributed communities of scientists and institutes across many independent administrative domains. Convincing site security officers and computer centre managers to allow this to happen in view of today's ever-increasing Internet security problems is a major challenge. Convincing users and application developers to take security seriously is equally difficult. This paper will describe the main Grid security issues, both in terms of technology and policy, that have been tackled over recent years in LCG and related Grid projects. Achievements to date will be described and opportunities for future improvements will be addressed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez
2017-01-01
In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...... objectives are selected to eliminate the negative sequence components of currents. The modified GVM method is designed to obtain two separate second-order systems for not only the fast convergence rate of the instantaneous active and reactive powers but also the robust performance. In addition, this method...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A computing grid interconnects resources such as high performancecomputers, scientific databases, and computercontrolledscientific instruments of cooperating organizationseach of which is autonomous. It precedes and is quitedifferent from cloud computing, which provides computingresources by vendors to customers ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
emergence of supercomputers led to the use of computer simula- tion as an .... Scientific and engineering applications (e.g., Tera grid secure gate way). Collaborative ... Encryption, privacy, protection from malicious software. Physical Layer.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gorm Hansen, Birgitte
their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viterbo, J.
2012-01-01
The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jansweijer, P.P.M.; Es, J.T. van.
1990-01-01
This report describes a fast pulse generator. This generator delivers a high-voltage pulse of at most 6000 V with a rise time being smaller than 50 nS. this results in a slew rate of more than 120.000 volts per μS. The pulse generator is used to control the grid of the injector of the electron accelerator MEA. The capacity of this grid is about 60 pF. In order to charge this capacity up to 6000 volts in 50 nS a current of 8 ampere is needed. The maximal pulse length is 50 μS with a repeat frequency of 500 Hz. During this 50 μS the stability of the pulse amplitude is better than 0.1%. (author). 20 figs
Morrad, Annie; McArthur, Ian
2018-01-01
Project Anywhere Project title: The Grid Artists: Annie Morrad: Artist/Senior Lecturer, University of Lincoln, School of Film and Media, Lincoln, UK Dr Ian McArthur: Hybrid Practitioner/Senior Lecturer, UNSW Art & Design, UNSW Australia, Sydney, Australia Annie Morrad is a London-based artist and musician and senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln, UK. Dr Ian McArthur is a Sydney-based hybrid practitione...
Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.
2006-01-01
. The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...
Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote
Grid interoperability: joining grid information systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flechl, M; Field, L
2008-01-01
A grid is defined as being 'coordinated resource sharing and problem solving in dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations'. Over recent years a number of grid projects, many of which have a strong regional presence, have emerged to help coordinate institutions and enable grids. Today, we face a situation where a number of grid projects exist, most of which are using slightly different middleware. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable Virtual Organizations to access resources at the institutions independent of their grid project affiliation. Grid interoperation is usually a bilateral activity between two grid infrastructures. Recently within the Open Grid Forum, the Grid Interoperability Now (GIN) Community Group is trying to build upon these bilateral activities. The GIN group is a focal point where all the infrastructures can come together to share ideas and experiences on grid interoperation. It is hoped that each bilateral activity will bring us one step closer to the overall goal of a uniform grid landscape. A fundamental aspect of a grid is the information system, which is used to find available grid services. As different grids use different information systems, interoperation between these systems is crucial for grid interoperability. This paper describes the work carried out to overcome these differences between a number of grid projects and the experiences gained. It focuses on the different techniques used and highlights the important areas for future standardization
Robust power system frequency control
Bevrani, Hassan
2014-01-01
This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi
The Impact of the Topology on Cascading Failures in a Power Grid Model
Koç, Y.; Warnier, M.; Mieghem, P. van; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.M.T.
2014-01-01
Cascading failures are one of the main reasons for large scale blackouts in power transmission grids. Secure electrical power supply requires, together with careful operation, a robust design of the electrical power grid topology. Currently, the impact of the topology on grid robustness is mainly
84-KILOMETER RADIOLOGICAL MONITORING GRID
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L. Roe
2000-01-01
The purpose of this calculation is to document the development of a radial grid that is suitable for evaluating the pathways and potential impacts of a release of radioactive materials to the environment within a distance of 84 kilometers (km). The center of the grid represents an approximate location from which a potential release of radioactive materials could originate. The center is located on Nevada State Plane coordinates Northing 765621.5, and Easting 570433.6, which is on the eastern side of Exile Hill at the Yucca Mountain site. The North Portal Pad is located over this point. The grid resulting from this calculation is intended for use primarily in the Radiological Monitoring Program (RadMP). This grid also is suitable for use in Biosphere Modeling and other Yucca Mountain Site Characteristic Project (YMP) activities that require the evaluation of data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates
Robust Approximate Inverse Preconditioning for the Conjugate Gradient Method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Benzi, M.; Cullum, J. K.; Tůma, Miroslav
2000-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 4 (2000), s. 1318-1332 ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030706; GA AV ČR IAA2030801 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.421, year: 2000
Nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio using a single image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasciak, A. S.; Jones, A. Kyle
2009-01-01
The antiscatter grid is an essential part of modern radiographic systems. Since the introduction of the antiscatter grid, however, there have been few methods proposed for acceptance testing and verification of manufacturer-supplied grid specifications. The grid ratio (r) is an important parameter describing the antiscatter grid because it affects many other grid quality metrics, such as the contrast improvement ratio (K), primary transmission (T p ), and scatter transmission (T s ). Also, the grid ratio in large part determines the primary clinical use of the grid. To this end, the authors present a technique for the nondestructive measurement of the grid ratio of antiscatter grids. They derived an equation that can be used to calculate the grid ratio from a single off-focus flat field image by exploiting the relationship between grid cutoff and off-focus distance. The calculation can be performed by hand or with included analysis software. They calculated the grid ratios of several different grids throughout the institution, and afterward they destructively measured the grid ratio of a nominal r8 grid previously evaluated with the method. They also studied the sensitivity of the method to technical factors and choice of parameters. With one exception, the results for the grids found in the institution were in agreement with the manufacturer's specifications and international standards. The nondestructive evaluation of the r8 grid indicated a ratio of 7.3, while the destructive measurement indicated a ratio of 7.53±0.28. Repeated evaluations of the same grid yielded consistent results. The technique provides the medical physicist with a new tool for quantitative evaluation of the grid ratio, an important grid performance criterion. The method is robust and repeatable when appropriate choices of technical factors and other parameters are made.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab; Kramer, Bill; Olson, Doug; / /LBL, Berkeley; Livny, Miron; Roy, Alain; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Avery, Paul; /Florida U.; Blackburn, Kent; /Caltech; Wenaus, Torre; /Brookhaven; Wurthwein, Frank; /UC, San Diego; Gardner, Rob; Wilde, Mike; /Chicago U. /Indiana U.
2007-06-01
The Open Science Grid (OSG) provides a distributed facility where the Consortium members provide guaranteed and opportunistic access to shared computing and storage resources. OSG provides support for and evolution of the infrastructure through activities that cover operations, security, software, troubleshooting, addition of new capabilities, and support for existing and engagement with new communities. The OSG SciDAC-2 project provides specific activities to manage and evolve the distributed infrastructure and support its use. The innovative aspects of the project are the maintenance and performance of a collaborative (shared & common) petascale national facility over tens of autonomous computing sites, for many hundreds of users, transferring terabytes of data a day, executing tens of thousands of jobs a day, and providing robust and usable resources for scientific groups of all types and sizes. More information can be found at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.
Wireless communications networks for the smart grid
Ho, Quang-Dung; Rajalingham, Gowdemy; Le-Ngoc, Tho
2014-01-01
This brief presents a comprehensive review of the network architecture and communication technologies of the smart grid communication network (SGCN). It then studies the strengths, weaknesses and applications of two promising wireless mesh routing protocols that could be used to implement the SGCN. Packet transmission reliability, latency and robustness of these two protocols are evaluated and compared by simulations in various practical SGCN scenarios. Finally, technical challenges and open research opportunities of the SGCN are addressed. Wireless Communications Networks for Smart Grid provi
Scattered data approximation by regular grid weighted smoothing
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bibin Francis
2018-02-07
Feb 7, 2018 ... proposed method earlier, is one of the recent advancements in developing ... Department of Science and Technology, Government of. India, under Grant .... Springer Science & Business Media, New York, USA. [35] Harten A ...
The MammoGrid Project Grids Architecture
McClatchey, Richard; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri; Buncic, Predrag; Clatchey, Richard Mc; Buncic, Predrag; Manset, David; Hauer, Tamas; Estrella, Florida; Saiz, Pablo; Rogulin, Dmitri
2003-01-01
The aim of the recently EU-funded MammoGrid project is, in the light of emerging Grid technology, to develop a European-wide database of mammograms that will be used to develop a set of important healthcare applications and investigate the potential of this Grid to support effective co-working between healthcare professionals throughout the EU. The MammoGrid consortium intends to use a Grid model to enable distributed computing that spans national borders. This Grid infrastructure will be used for deploying novel algorithms as software directly developed or enhanced within the project. Using the MammoGrid clinicians will be able to harness the use of massive amounts of medical image data to perform epidemiological studies, advanced image processing, radiographic education and ultimately, tele-diagnosis over communities of medical "virtual organisations". This is achieved through the use of Grid-compliant services [1] for managing (versions of) massively distributed files of mammograms, for handling the distri...
Middleware for the next generation Grid infrastructure
Laure, E; Prelz, F; Beco, S; Fisher, S; Livny, M; Guy, L; Barroso, M; Buncic, P; Kunszt, Peter Z; Di Meglio, A; Aimar, A; Edlund, A; Groep, D; Pacini, F; Sgaravatto, M; Mulmo, O
2005-01-01
The aim of the EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-Science in Europe) project is to create a reliable and dependable European Grid infrastructure for e-Science. The objective of the EGEE Middleware Re-engineering and Integration Research Activity is to provide robust middleware components, deployable on several platforms and operating systems, corresponding to the core Grid services for resource access, data management, information collection, authentication & authorization, resource matchmaking and brokering, and monitoring and accounting. For achieving this objective, we developed an architecture and design of the next generation Grid middleware leveraging experiences and existing components essentially from AliEn, EDG, and VDT. The architecture follows the service breakdown developed by the LCG ARDA group. Our strategy is to do as little original development as possible but rather re-engineer and harden existing Grid services. The evolution of these middleware components towards a Service Oriented Architecture ...
Abad Lopez, Carlos Adrian
, dynamic learning methods for scheduling the maintenance of direct load control switches whose operating state is not directly observable and can only be inferred from the metered electricity consumption, and machine learning methods for accurately forecasting the load of hundreds of thousands of residential, commercial and industrial customers. These algorithms have been implemented in the software system provided by AutoGrid, Inc., and this system has helped several utilities in the Pacific Northwest, Oklahoma, California and Texas, provide more reliable power to their customers at significantly reduced prices. Providing power to widely spread out communities in developing countries using the conventional power grid is not economically feasible. The most attractive alternative source of affordable energy for these communities is solar micro-grids. We discuss risk-aware robust methods to optimally size and operate solar micro-grids in the presence of uncertain demand and uncertain renewable generation. These algorithms help system operators to increase their revenue while making their systems more resilient to inclement weather conditions.
Optimal moving grids for time-dependent partial differential equations
Wathen, A. J.
1992-01-01
Various adaptive moving grid techniques for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations were proposed. The precise criterion for grid motion varies, but most techniques will attempt to give grids on which the solution of the partial differential equation can be well represented. Moving grids are investigated on which the solutions of the linear heat conduction and viscous Burgers' equation in one space dimension are optimally approximated. Precisely, the results of numerical calculations of optimal moving grids for piecewise linear finite element approximation of PDE solutions in the least-squares norm are reported.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qijun ZHAO
2018-02-01
Full Text Available A robust unsteady rotor flowfield solver CLORNS code is established to predict the complex unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of rotor flowfield. In order to handle the difficult problem about grid generation around rotor with complex aerodynamic shape in this CFD code, a parameterized grid generated method is established, and the moving-embedded grids are constructed by several proposed universal methods. In this work, the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations with Spalart-Allmaras are selected as the governing equations to predict the unsteady flowfield of helicopter rotor. The discretization of convective fluxes is accomplished by employing the second-order central difference scheme, third-order MUSCL-Roe scheme, and fifth-order WENO-Roe scheme. Aimed at simulating the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of helicopter rotor, the dual-time scheme with implicit LU-SGS scheme is employed to accomplish the temporal discretization. In order to improve the computational efficiency of hole-cells and donor elements searching of the moving-embedded grid technology, the “disturbance diffraction method” and “minimum distance scheme of donor elements method” are established in this work. To improve the computational efficiency, Message Passing Interface (MPI parallel method based on subdivision of grid, local preconditioning method and Full Approximation Storage (FAS multi-grid method are combined in this code. By comparison of the numerical results simulated by CLORNS code with test data, it is illustrated that the present code could simulate the aerodynamic loads and aerodynamic noise characteristics of helicopter rotor accurately. Keywords: Aerodynamic characteristics, Helicopter rotor, Moving-embedded grid, Navier-Stokes equations, Upwind schemes
Advances in Modal Analysis Using a Robust and Multiscale Method
Picard, Cécile; Frisson, Christian; Faure, François; Drettakis, George; Kry, Paul G.
2010-12-01
This paper presents a new approach to modal synthesis for rendering sounds of virtual objects. We propose a generic method that preserves sound variety across the surface of an object at different scales of resolution and for a variety of complex geometries. The technique performs automatic voxelization of a surface model and automatic tuning of the parameters of hexahedral finite elements, based on the distribution of material in each cell. The voxelization is performed using a sparse regular grid embedding of the object, which permits the construction of plausible lower resolution approximations of the modal model. We can compute the audible impulse response of a variety of objects. Our solution is robust and can handle nonmanifold geometries that include both volumetric and surface parts. We present a system which allows us to manipulate and tune sounding objects in an appropriate way for games, training simulations, and other interactive virtual environments.
Advances in Modal Analysis Using a Robust and Multiscale Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frisson Christian
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a new approach to modal synthesis for rendering sounds of virtual objects. We propose a generic method that preserves sound variety across the surface of an object at different scales of resolution and for a variety of complex geometries. The technique performs automatic voxelization of a surface model and automatic tuning of the parameters of hexahedral finite elements, based on the distribution of material in each cell. The voxelization is performed using a sparse regular grid embedding of the object, which permits the construction of plausible lower resolution approximations of the modal model. We can compute the audible impulse response of a variety of objects. Our solution is robust and can handle nonmanifold geometries that include both volumetric and surface parts. We present a system which allows us to manipulate and tune sounding objects in an appropriate way for games, training simulations, and other interactive virtual environments.
Angel, Jordan B.; Banks, Jeffrey W.; Henshaw, William D.
2018-01-01
High-order accurate upwind approximations for the wave equation in second-order form on overlapping grids are developed. Although upwind schemes are well established for first-order hyperbolic systems, it was only recently shown by Banks and Henshaw [1] how upwinding could be incorporated into the second-order form of the wave equation. This new upwind approach is extended here to solve the time-domain Maxwell's equations in second-order form; schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy are formulated for general curvilinear grids. Taylor time-stepping is used to develop single-step space-time schemes, and the upwind dissipation is incorporated by embedding the exact solution of a local Riemann problem into the discretization. Second-order and fourth-order accurate schemes are implemented for problems in two and three space dimensions, and overlapping grids are used to treat complex geometry and problems with multiple materials. Stability analysis of the upwind-scheme on overlapping grids is performed using normal mode theory. The stability analysis and computations confirm that the upwind scheme remains stable on overlapping grids, including the difficult case of thin boundary grids when the traditional non-dissipative scheme becomes unstable. The accuracy properties of the scheme are carefully evaluated on a series of classical scattering problems for both perfect conductors and dielectric materials in two and three space dimensions. The upwind scheme is shown to be robust and provide high-order accuracy.
Flexible Mode Control of Grid Connected Wind Energy Conversion System Using Wavelet
Jain, Bhavna; Singh, Sameer; Jain, Shailendra; Nema, R. K.
2015-01-01
Small wind turbine systems offer services to critical loads during grid faults and also connected back to grid in normal condition. The connection of a wind energy conversion system to the grid requires a robust phase locked loop (PLL) and continuous monitoring of the grid conditions such as overvoltage, undervoltage, overfrequency, underfrequency, and grid outages. This paper describes a flexible control operation to operate a small wind turbine in both stand-alone mode via planned islanding...
Robustness of raw quantum tomography
Asorey, M.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Pascazio, S.; Sudarshan, E. C. G.
2011-01-01
We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.
Robustness of raw quantum tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Asorey, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Man' ko, V.I., E-mail: manko@lebedev.r [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskii Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Marmo, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); MECENAS, Universita Federico II di Napoli and Universita di Bari (Italy); Sudarshan, E.C.G. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2011-01-31
We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the tomograms of quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of a finite window or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.
Distributionally Robust Joint Chance Constrained Problem under Moment Uncertainty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ke-wei Ding
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss and develop the convex approximation for robust joint chance constraints under uncertainty of first- and second-order moments. Robust chance constraints are approximated by Worst-Case CVaR constraints which can be reformulated by a semidefinite programming. Then the chance constrained problem can be presented as semidefinite programming. We also find that the approximation for robust joint chance constraints has an equivalent individual quadratic approximation form.
Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL
Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of
Measure of robustness for complex networks
Youssef, Mina Nabil
Critical infrastructures are repeatedly attacked by external triggers causing tremendous amount of damages. Any infrastructure can be studied using the powerful theory of complex networks. A complex network is composed of extremely large number of different elements that exchange commodities providing significant services. The main functions of complex networks can be damaged by different types of attacks and failures that degrade the network performance. These attacks and failures are considered as disturbing dynamics, such as the spread of viruses in computer networks, the spread of epidemics in social networks, and the cascading failures in power grids. Depending on the network structure and the attack strength, every network differently suffers damages and performance degradation. Hence, quantifying the robustness of complex networks becomes an essential task. In this dissertation, new metrics are introduced to measure the robustness of technological and social networks with respect to the spread of epidemics, and the robustness of power grids with respect to cascading failures. First, we introduce a new metric called the Viral Conductance (VCSIS ) to assess the robustness of networks with respect to the spread of epidemics that are modeled through the susceptible/infected/susceptible (SIS) epidemic approach. In contrast to assessing the robustness of networks based on a classical metric, the epidemic threshold, the new metric integrates the fraction of infected nodes at steady state for all possible effective infection strengths. Through examples, VCSIS provides more insights about the robustness of networks than the epidemic threshold. In addition, both the paradoxical robustness of Barabasi-Albert preferential attachment networks and the effect of the topology on the steady state infection are studied, to show the importance of quantifying the robustness of networks. Second, a new metric VCSIR is introduced to assess the robustness of networks with respect
Efficient Customer Selection for Sustainable Demand Response in Smart Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zois, Vasileios; Frincu, Marc; Chelmis, Charalambos; Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan; Prasanna, Viktor K.
2014-11-03
Regulating the power consumption to avoid peaks in demand is a common practice. Demand Response(DR) is being used by utility providers to minimize costs or ensure system reliability. Although it has been used extensively there is a shortage of solutions dealing with dynamic DR. Past attempts focus on minimizing the load demand without considering the sustainability of the reduced energy. In this paper an efficient algorithm is presented which solves the problem of dynamic DR scheduling. Data from the USC campus micro grid were used to evaluate the efficiency as well as the robustness of the proposed solution. The targeted energy reduction is achieved with a maximum average approximation error of ≈ 0.7%. Sustainability of the reduced energy is achieved with respect to the optimal available solution providing a maximum average error less than 0.6%. It is also shown that a solution is provided with a low computational cost fulfilling the requirements of dynamic DR.
Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick
2014-01-01
We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ko, Youngjong; Park, Kiwoo; Lee, Kyo-Beum
2011-01-01
In a grid connected power conversion system, the phase angle information of a grid voltage is very essential for supplying power to the grid since it is used for active and reactive power control. A Phase Locked Loop (PLL) system is used and should be robust because often the actual grid voltages...
Bounded-Degree Approximations of Stochastic Networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quinn, Christopher J.; Pinar, Ali; Kiyavash, Negar
2017-06-01
We propose algorithms to approximate directed information graphs. Directed information graphs are probabilistic graphical models that depict causal dependencies between stochastic processes in a network. The proposed algorithms identify optimal and near-optimal approximations in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence. The user-chosen sparsity trades off the quality of the approximation against visual conciseness and computational tractability. One class of approximations contains graphs with speci ed in-degrees. Another class additionally requires that the graph is connected. For both classes, we propose algorithms to identify the optimal approximations and also near-optimal approximations, using a novel relaxation of submodularity. We also propose algorithms to identify the r-best approximations among these classes, enabling robust decision making.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsburg, C.A.
1980-01-01
In many problems, a desired property A of a function f(x) is determined by the behaviour of f(x) approximately equal to g(x,A) as x→xsup(*). In this letter, a method for resuming the power series in x of f(x) and approximating A (modulated Pade approximant) is presented. This new approximant is an extension of a resumation method for f(x) in terms of rational functions. (author)
A pressure drop model for PWR grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Jung, Youn Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1999-12-31
A pressure drop model for the PWR grids with and without mixing device is proposed at single phase based on the fluid mechanistic approach. Total pressure loss is expressed in additive way for form and frictional losses. The general friction factor correlations and form drag coefficients available in the open literatures are used to the model. As the results, the model shows better predictions than the existing ones for the non-mixing grids, and reasonable agreements with the available experimental data for mixing grids. Therefore it is concluded that the proposed model for pressure drop can provide sufficiently good approximation for grid optimization and design calculation in advanced grid development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)
A pressure drop model for PWR grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Jung, Youn Ho; Chun, Tae Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-12-31
A pressure drop model for the PWR grids with and without mixing device is proposed at single phase based on the fluid mechanistic approach. Total pressure loss is expressed in additive way for form and frictional losses. The general friction factor correlations and form drag coefficients available in the open literatures are used to the model. As the results, the model shows better predictions than the existing ones for the non-mixing grids, and reasonable agreements with the available experimental data for mixing grids. Therefore it is concluded that the proposed model for pressure drop can provide sufficiently good approximation for grid optimization and design calculation in advanced grid development. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago
2015-07-28
Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.
Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro
power, operation within a wide range of voltage and frequency, voltage ride-through capability, reactive current injection during faults, grid services support. This book explains the topologies, modulation and control of grid converters for both photovoltaic and wind power applications. In addition...... to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...
Goel, Sanjay; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Kloza, Dariusz
2015-01-01
This book on smart grid security is meant for a broad audience from managers to technical experts. It highlights security challenges that are faced in the smart grid as we widely deploy it across the landscape. It starts with a brief overview of the smart grid and then discusses some of the reported attacks on the grid. It covers network threats, cyber physical threats, smart metering threats, as well as privacy issues in the smart grid. Along with the threats the book discusses the means to improve smart grid security and the standards that are emerging in the field. The second part of the b
Sparse approximation with bases
2015-01-01
This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications. The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...
High Order Sliding Mode Control of Doubly-fed Induction Generator under Unbalanced Grid Faults
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Rongwu; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Xiaojie
2013-01-01
This paper deals with a doubly-fed induction generator-based (DFIG) wind turbine system under grid fault conditions such as: unbalanced grid voltage, three-phase grid fault, using a high order sliding mode control (SMC). A second order sliding mode controller, which is robust with respect...
Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians
Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.
2017-08-01
We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.
Liseikin, Vladimir D
2010-01-01
This book is an introduction to structured and unstructured grid methods in scientific computing, addressing graduate students, scientists as well as practitioners. Basic local and integral grid quality measures are formulated and new approaches to mesh generation are reviewed. In addition to the content of the successful first edition, a more detailed and practice oriented description of monitor metrics in Beltrami and diffusion equations is given for generating adaptive numerical grids. Also, new techniques developed by the author are presented, in particular a technique based on the inverted form of Beltrami’s partial differential equations with respect to control metrics. This technique allows the generation of adaptive grids for a wide variety of computational physics problems, including grid clustering to given function values and gradients, grid alignment with given vector fields, and combinations thereof. Applications of geometric methods to the analysis of numerical grid behavior as well as grid ge...
Approximating distributions from moments
Pawula, R. F.
1987-11-01
A method based upon Pearson-type approximations from statistics is developed for approximating a symmetric probability density function from its moments. The extended Fokker-Planck equation for non-Markov processes is shown to be the underlying foundation for the approximations. The approximation is shown to be exact for the beta probability density function. The applicability of the general method is illustrated by numerous pithy examples from linear and nonlinear filtering of both Markov and non-Markov dichotomous noise. New approximations are given for the probability density function in two cases in which exact solutions are unavailable, those of (i) the filter-limiter-filter problem and (ii) second-order Butterworth filtering of the random telegraph signal. The approximate results are compared with previously published Monte Carlo simulations in these two cases.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO RATIONAL APPROXIMATION,
Some of the key results of linear Chebyshev approximation theory are extended to generalized rational functions. Prominent among these is Haar’s...linear theorem which yields necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness. Some new results in the classic field of rational function Chebyshev...Furthermore a Weierstrass type theorem is proven for rational Chebyshev approximation. A characterization theorem for rational trigonometric Chebyshev approximation in terms of sign alternation is developed. (Author)
Approximation techniques for engineers
Komzsik, Louis
2006-01-01
Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.
Chan, William M.; Rogers, Stuart E.; Nash, Steven M.; Buning, Pieter G.; Meakin, Robert
2005-01-01
Chimera Grid Tools (CGT) is a software package for performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis utilizing the Chimera-overset-grid method. For modeling flows with viscosity about geometrically complex bodies in relative motion, the Chimera-overset-grid method is among the most computationally cost-effective methods for obtaining accurate aerodynamic results. CGT contains a large collection of tools for generating overset grids, preparing inputs for computer programs that solve equations of flow on the grids, and post-processing of flow-solution data. The tools in CGT include grid editing tools, surface-grid-generation tools, volume-grid-generation tools, utility scripts, configuration scripts, and tools for post-processing (including generation of animated images of flows and calculating forces and moments exerted on affected bodies). One of the tools, denoted OVERGRID, is a graphical user interface (GUI) that serves to visualize the grids and flow solutions and provides central access to many other tools. The GUI facilitates the generation of grids for a new flow-field configuration. Scripts that follow the grid generation process can then be constructed to mostly automate grid generation for similar configurations. CGT is designed for use in conjunction with a computer-aided-design program that provides the geometry description of the bodies, and a flow-solver program.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael
2003-01-01
A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Simon; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard
2015-01-01
China is planning to transform its traditional power grid in favour of a smart grid, since it allows a more economically efficient and a more environmentally friendly transmission and distribution of electricity. Thus, a nationwide smart grid is likely to save tremendous amounts of resources...
Methods for robustness programming
Olieman, N.J.
2008-01-01
Robustness of an object is defined as the probability that an object will have properties as required. Robustness Programming (RP) is a mathematical approach for Robustness estimation and Robustness optimisation. An example in the context of designing a food product, is finding the best composition
Star, L.
2008-01-01
The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust
Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole
2005-01-01
We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...
Ordered cones and approximation
Keimel, Klaus
1992-01-01
This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2016-01-01
The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.
Smart grid technologies in local electric grids
Lezhniuk, Petro D.; Pijarski, Paweł; Buslavets, Olga A.
2017-08-01
The research is devoted to the creation of favorable conditions for the integration of renewable sources of energy into electric grids, which were designed to be supplied from centralized generation at large electric power stations. Development of distributed generation in electric grids influences the conditions of their operation - conflict of interests arises. The possibility of optimal functioning of electric grids and renewable sources of energy, when complex criterion of the optimality is balance reliability of electric energy in local electric system and minimum losses of electric energy in it. Multilevel automated system for power flows control in electric grids by means of change of distributed generation of power is developed. Optimization of power flows is performed by local systems of automatic control of small hydropower stations and, if possible, solar power plants.
Mapping of grid faults and grid codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iov, Florin; Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, P.
loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project "Grid fault and design basis for wind turbine" supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...
Mapping of grid faults and grid codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Iov, F.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar
loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need...... challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads......The present report is a part of the research project ''Grid fault and designbasis for wind turbine'' supported by Energinet.dk through the grant PSO F&U 6319. The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amini Afshar, Mostafa; Bingham, Harry B.
2017-01-01
. Frequency-domain results are then obtained from a Fourier transform of the force and motion signals. In order to make a robust Fourier transform, and capture the response around the critical frequency, the tail of the force signal is asymptotically extrapolated assuming a linear decay rate. Fourth......The linearized potential flow approximation for the forward speed radiation problem is solved in the time domain using a high-order finite difference method. The finite-difference discretization is developed on overlapping, curvilinear body-fitted grids. To ensure numerical stability...
A Framework for Testing Automated Detection, Diagnosis, and Remediation Systems on the Smart Grid
Lau, Shing-hon
2011-01-01
America's electrical grid is currently undergoing a multi-billion dollar modernization effort aimed at producing a highly reliable critical national infrastructure for power - a Smart Grid. While the goals for the Smart Grid include upgrades to accommodate large quantities of clean, but transient, renewable energy and upgrades to provide customers with real-time pricing information, perhaps the most important objective is to create an electrical grid with a greatly increased robustness.
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling
2009-07-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximate and renormgroup symmetries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.
2009-01-01
''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)
Approximations of Fuzzy Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinai K. Singh
2013-03-01
Full Text Available A fuzzy system can uniformly approximate any real continuous function on a compact domain to any degree of accuracy. Such results can be viewed as an existence of optimal fuzzy systems. Li-Xin Wang discussed a similar problem using Gaussian membership function and Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. He established that fuzzy systems, with product inference, centroid defuzzification and Gaussian functions are capable of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to arbitrary accuracy. In this paper we study a similar approximation problem by using exponential membership functions
Potvin, Guy
2015-10-01
We examine how the Rytov approximation describing log-amplitude and phase fluctuations of a wave propagating through weak uniform turbulence can be generalized to the case of turbulence with a large-scale nonuniform component. We show how the large-scale refractive index field creates Fermat rays using the path integral formulation for paraxial propagation. We then show how the second-order derivatives of the Fermat ray action affect the Rytov approximation, and we discuss how a numerical algorithm would model the general Rytov approximation.
Integration of Electric Vehicles in Low Voltage Danish Distribution Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Thøgersen, Paul; Møller, Jan
2012-01-01
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are considered as one of the important components of the future intelligent grids. Their role as energy storages in the electricity grid could provide local sustainable solutions to support more renewable energy. In order to estimate the extent of interaction of EVs...... in the electricity grid operation, a careful examination in the local electricity system is essential. This paper investigates the degree of EV penetration and its key influence on the low voltage distribution grids. Three detailed models of residential grids in Denmark are considered as test cases in this study...... it is shown that there is enough head-space on the transformer capacity which can be used to charge many EVs during a day. The overall transformer capability of handling EV loads varies between 6-40% for peak and minimum demand hours, which is dependent on the robustness of the grids. The voltage drops...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knobloch, A.F.
1980-01-01
A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de
Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M
2011-01-01
Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuellar, Jorge (ed.) [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology
2013-11-01
The engineering, deployment and security of the future smart grid will be an enormous project requiring the consensus of many stakeholders with different views on the security and privacy requirements, not to mention methods and solutions. The fragmentation of research agendas and proposed approaches or solutions for securing the future smart grid becomes apparent observing the results from different projects, standards, committees, etc, in different countries. The different approaches and views of the papers in this collection also witness this fragmentation. This book contains the following papers: 1. IT Security Architecture Approaches for Smart Metering and Smart Grid. 2. Smart Grid Information Exchange - Securing the Smart Grid from the Ground. 3. A Tool Set for the Evaluation of Security and Reliability in Smart Grids. 4. A Holistic View of Security and Privacy Issues in Smart Grids. 5. Hardware Security for Device Authentication in the Smart Grid. 6. Maintaining Privacy in Data Rich Demand Response Applications. 7. Data Protection in a Cloud-Enabled Smart Grid. 8. Formal Analysis of a Privacy-Preserving Billing Protocol. 9. Privacy in Smart Metering Ecosystems. 10. Energy rate at home Leveraging ZigBee to Enable Smart Grid in Residential Environment.
Synchronization method for grid integrated battery storage systems during asymmetrical grid faults
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Popadić Bane
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting a robust and reliable synchronization method for battery storage systems during asymmetrical grid faults. For this purpose, a Matlab/Simulink based model for testing of the power electronic interface between the grid and the battery storage systems has been developed. The synchronization method proposed in the paper is based on the proportional integral resonant controller with the delay signal cancellation. The validity of the synchronization method has been verified using the advanced laboratory station for the control of grid connected distributed energy sources. The proposed synchronization method has eliminated unfavourable components from the estimated grid angular frequency, leading to the more accurate and reliable tracking of the grid voltage vector positive sequence during both the normal operation and the operation during asymmetrical grid faults. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 042004: Integrated and Interdisciplinary Research entitled: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation
A GridFTP transport driver for Globus XIO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kettimuthu, R.; Wantao, L.; Link, J.; Bresnahan, J.
2008-01-01
GridFTP is a high-performance, reliable data transfer protocol optimized for high-bandwidth wide-area networks. Based on the Internet FTP protocol, it defines extensions for high-performance operation and security. The Globus implementation of GridFTP provides a modular and extensible data transfer system architecture suitable for wide area and high-performance environments. GridFTP is the de facto standard in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. For example, the high energy physics community is basing its entire tiered data movement infrastructure for the Large Hadron Collider computing Grid on GridFTP; the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory routinely uses GridFTP to move 1 TB a day during production runs; and GridFTP is the recommended data transfer mechanism to maximize data transfer rates on the TeraGrid. Commonly used GridFTP clients include globus-url-copy, uberftp, and the Globus Reliable File Transfer service. In this paper, we present a Globus XIO based client to GridFTP that provides a simple Open/Close/Read/Write (OCRW) interface to the users. Such a client greatly eases the addition of GridFTP support to third-party programs, such as SRB and MPICH-G2. Further, this client provides an easier and familiar interface for applications to efficiently access remote files. We compare the performance of this client with that of globus-url-copy on multiple endpoints in the TeraGrid infrastructure. We perform both memory-to-memory and disk-to-disk transfers and show that the performance of this OCRW client is comparable to that of globus-url-copy. We also show that our GridFTP client significantly outperforms the GPFS WAN on the TeraGrid.
Colgate one of first to build global computing grid
Magno, L
2003-01-01
"Colgate-Palmolive Co. has become one of the first organizations in the world to build an enterprise network based on the grid computing concept. Since mid-August, the consumer products firm has been working to connect approximately 50 geographically dispersed Unix servers and storage devices in an enterprise grid network" (1 page).
Including robustness in multi-criteria optimization for intensity-modulated proton therapy
Chen, Wei; Unkelbach, Jan; Trofimov, Alexei; Madden, Thomas; Kooy, Hanne; Bortfeld, Thomas; Craft, David
2012-02-01
We present a method to include robustness in a multi-criteria optimization (MCO) framework for intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The approach allows one to simultaneously explore the trade-off between different objectives as well as the trade-off between robustness and nominal plan quality. In MCO, a database of plans each emphasizing different treatment planning objectives, is pre-computed to approximate the Pareto surface. An IMPT treatment plan that strikes the best balance between the different objectives can be selected by navigating on the Pareto surface. In our approach, robustness is integrated into MCO by adding robustified objectives and constraints to the MCO problem. Uncertainties (or errors) of the robust problem are modeled by pre-calculated dose-influence matrices for a nominal scenario and a number of pre-defined error scenarios (shifted patient positions, proton beam undershoot and overshoot). Objectives and constraints can be defined for the nominal scenario, thus characterizing nominal plan quality. A robustified objective represents the worst objective function value that can be realized for any of the error scenarios and thus provides a measure of plan robustness. The optimization method is based on a linear projection solver and is capable of handling large problem sizes resulting from a fine dose grid resolution, many scenarios, and a large number of proton pencil beams. A base-of-skull case is used to demonstrate the robust optimization method. It is demonstrated that the robust optimization method reduces the sensitivity of the treatment plan to setup and range errors to a degree that is not achieved by a safety margin approach. A chordoma case is analyzed in more detail to demonstrate the involved trade-offs between target underdose and brainstem sparing as well as robustness and nominal plan quality. The latter illustrates the advantage of MCO in the context of robust planning. For all cases examined, the robust optimization for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novaes, Sergio
2011-01-01
Full text: We give an overview of the grid computing initiatives in the Americas. High-Energy Physics has played a very important role in the development of grid computing in the world and in Latin America it has not been different. Lately, the grid concept has expanded its reach across all branches of e-Science, and we have witnessed the birth of the first nationwide infrastructures and its use in the private sector. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faure, Maeva; Salmon, Martin; El Fadili, Safae; Payen, Luc; Kerlero, Guillaume; Banner, Arnaud; Ehinger, Andreas; Illouz, Sebastien; Picot, Roland; Jolivet, Veronique; Michon Savarit, Jeanne; Strang, Karl Axel
2017-02-01
ENEA Consulting published the results of a study on urban micro-grids conducted in partnership with the Group ADP, the Group Caisse des Depots, ENEDIS, Omexom, Total and the Tuck Foundation. This study offers a vision of the definition of an urban micro-grid, the value brought by a micro-grid in different contexts based on real case studies, and the upcoming challenges that micro-grid stakeholders will face (regulation, business models, technology). The electric production and distribution system, as the backbone of an increasingly urbanized and energy dependent society, is urged to shift towards a more resilient, efficient and environment-friendly infrastructure. Decentralisation of electricity production into densely populated areas is a promising opportunity to achieve this transition. A micro-grid enhances local production through clustering electricity producers and consumers within a delimited electricity network; it has the ability to disconnect from the main grid for a limited period of time, offering an energy security service to its customers during grid outages for example. However: The islanding capability is an inherent feature of the micro-grid concept that leads to a significant premium on electricity cost, especially in a system highly reliant on intermittent electricity production. In this case, a smart grid, with local energy production and no islanding capability, can be customized to meet relevant sustainability and cost savings goals at lower costs For industrials, urban micro-grids can be economically profitable in presence of high share of reliable energy production and thermal energy demand micro-grids face strong regulatory challenges that should be overcome for further development Whether islanding is or is not implemented into the system, end-user demand for a greener, more local, cheaper and more reliable energy, as well as additional services to the grid, are strong drivers for local production and consumption. In some specific cases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, Aina E.; Baxter, Elizabeth L.
2018-01-16
An X-ray data collection grid device is provided that includes a magnetic base that is compatible with robotic sample mounting systems used at synchrotron beamlines, a grid element fixedly attached to the magnetic base, where the grid element includes at least one sealable sample window disposed through a planar synchrotron-compatible material, where the planar synchrotron-compatible material includes at least one automated X-ray positioning and fluid handling robot fiducial mark.
Micro grids toward the smart grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerrero, J.
2011-01-01
Worldwide electrical grids are expecting to become smarter in the near future, with interest in Microgrids likely to grow. A microgrid can be defined as a part of the grid with elements of prime energy movers, power electronics converters, distributed energy storage systems and local loads, that can operate autonomously but also interacting with main grid. Thus, the ability of intelligent Microgrids to operate in island mode or connected to the grid will be a keypoint to cope with new functionalities and the integration of renewable energy resources. The functionalities expected for these small grids are: black start operation, frequency and voltage stability, active and reactive power flow control, active power filter capabilities, and storage energy management. In this presentation, a review of the main concepts related to flexible Microgrids will be introduced, with examples of real Microgrids. AC and DC Microgrids to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources will also be presented, as well as distributed energy storage systems, and standardization issues of these Microgrids. Finally, Microgrid hierarchical control will be analyzed looking at three different levels: i) a primary control based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) a secondary control, which enables restoring any deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) a tertiary control to manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system.
Challenges facing production grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab
2007-06-01
Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barragán, A. M.; Differding, S.; Lee, J. A.; Sterpin, E.; Janssens, G.
2015-01-01
Purpose: To prove the ability of protons to reproduce a dose gradient that matches a dose painting by numbers (DPBN) prescription in the presence of setup and range errors, by using contours and structure-based optimization in a commercial treatment planning system. Methods: For two patients with head and neck cancer, voxel-by-voxel prescription to the target volume (GTV PET ) was calculated from 18 FDG-PET images and approximated with several discrete prescription subcontours. Treatments were planned with proton pencil beam scanning. In order to determine the optimal plan parameters to approach the DPBN prescription, the effects of the scanning pattern, number of fields, number of subcontours, and use of range shifter were separately tested on each patient. Different constant scanning grids (i.e., spot spacing = Δx = Δy = 3.5, 4, and 5 mm) and uniform energy layer separation [4 and 5 mm WED (water equivalent distance)] were analyzed versus a dynamic and automatic selection of the spots grid. The number of subcontours was increased from 3 to 11 while the number of beams was set to 3, 5, or 7. Conventional PTV-based and robust clinical target volumes (CTV)-based optimization strategies were considered and their robustness against range and setup errors assessed. Because of the nonuniform prescription, ensuring robustness for coverage of GTV PET inevitably leads to overdosing, which was compared for both optimization schemes. Results: The optimal number of subcontours ranged from 5 to 7 for both patients. All considered scanning grids achieved accurate dose painting (1% average difference between the prescribed and planned doses). PTV-based plans led to nonrobust target coverage while robust-optimized plans improved it considerably (differences between worst-case CTV dose and the clinical constraint was up to 3 Gy for PTV-based plans and did not exceed 1 Gy for robust CTV-based plans). Also, only 15% of the points in the GTV PET (worst case) were above 5% of DPBN
On Covering Approximation Subspaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xun Ge
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.
On Convex Quadratic Approximation
den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.
2000-01-01
In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of
Prestack wavefield approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2013-01-01
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg
2005-01-01
The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM...
Approximation by Cylinder Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas
1997-01-01
We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...
Prestack wavefield approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2013-09-01
The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Quality Assurance Framework for Mini-Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burman, Kari [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, Mohit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mutiso, Rose [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); McGregor, Caroline [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
2016-11-01
Providing clean and affordable energy services to the more than 1 billion people globally who lack access to electricity is a critical driver for poverty reduction, economic development, improved health, and social outcomes. More than 84% of populations without electricity are located in rural areas where traditional grid extension may not be cost-effective; therefore, distributed energy solutions such as mini-grids are critical. To address some of the root challenges of providing safe, quality, and financially viable mini-grid power systems to remote customers, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) teamed with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) for isolated mini-grids. The QAF for mini-grids aims to address some root challenges of providing safe, quality, and affordable power to remote customers via financially viable mini-grids through two key components: (1) Levels of service: Defines a standard set of tiers of end-user service and links them to technical parameters of power quality, power availability, and power reliability. These levels of service span the entire energy ladder, from basic energy service to high-quality, high-reliability, and high-availability service (often considered 'grid parity'); (2) Accountability and performance reporting framework: Provides a clear process of validating power delivery by providing trusted information to customers, funders, and/or regulators. The performance reporting protocol can also serve as a robust monitoring and evaluation tool for mini-grid operators and funding organizations. The QAF will provide a flexible alternative to rigid top-down standards for mini-grids in energy access contexts, outlining tiers of end-user service and linking them to relevant technical parameters. In addition, data generated through implementation of the QAF will provide the foundation for comparisons across projects, assessment of impacts, and greater confidence that
Robustness of Structural Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.
2007-01-01
The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have...... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...
J Olive, David
2017-01-01
This text presents methods that are robust to the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution or methods that are robust to certain types of outliers. Instead of using exact theory based on the multivariate normal distribution, the simpler and more applicable large sample theory is given. The text develops among the first practical robust regression and robust multivariate location and dispersion estimators backed by theory. The robust techniques are illustrated for methods such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and factor analysis. A simple way to bootstrap confidence regions is also provided. Much of the research on robust multivariate analysis in this book is being published for the first time. The text is suitable for a first course in Multivariate Statistical Analysis or a first course in Robust Statistics. This graduate text is also useful for people who are familiar with the traditional multivariate topics, but want to know more about handling data sets with...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob
2010-01-01
We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fielhauer, Jochen; Wieserner, Gerhard [Siemens AG, Nuernberg (Germany). Business Unit Sensors and Communication
2013-06-01
A central role in the construction of power transmission and power distribution systems are solutions that withstand even the harsh environmental conditions and meet performance-critical applications reliably and without interference. This also applies to all ethernet networks in the power generation and power distribution. Secure and robust communication solutions for smart grids which enable a cost-effective remote monitoring and control of smart grids are decisive.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.
2005-08-14
Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.
Baranov, Alexander
2016-01-01
The LHCb Grid access if based on the LHCbDirac system. It provides access to data and computational resources to researchers with different geographical locations. The Grid has a hierarchical topology with multiple sites distributed over the world. The sites differ from each other by their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and connection bandwidth. These parameters are essential for the Grid work. Moreover, job scheduling and data distribution strategy have a great impact on the grid performance. However, it is hard to choose an appropriate algorithm and strategies as they need a lot of time to be tested on the real grid. In this study, we describe the LHCb Grid simulator. The simulator reproduces the LHCb Grid structure with its sites and their number of CPUs, amount of disk storage and bandwidth connection. We demonstrate how well the simulator reproduces the grid work, show its advantages and limitations. We show how well the simulator reproduces job scheduling and network anomalies, consider methods ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogh, Rune; Johansen, Asger
2013-01-01
In this paper we propose The Play Grid, a model for systemizing different play types. The approach is psychological by nature and the actual Play Grid is based, therefore, on two pairs of fundamental and widely acknowledged distinguishing characteristics of the ego, namely: extraversion vs. intro...
Bosman, M.G.C.
2012-01-01
The electricity supply chain is changing, due to increasing awareness for sustainability and an improved energy efficiency. The traditional infrastructure where demand is supplied by centralized generation is subject to a transition towards a Smart Grid. In this Smart Grid, sustainable generation
Constitutive equations for discrete electromagnetic problems over polyhedral grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Codecasa, Lorenzo; Trevisan, Francesco
2007-01-01
In this paper a novel approach is proposed for constructing discrete counterparts of constitutive equations over polyhedral grids which ensure both consistency and stability of the algebraic equations discretizing an electromagnetic field problem. The idea is to construct discrete constitutive equations preserving the thermodynamic relations for constitutive equations. In this way, consistency and stability of the discrete equations are ensured. At the base, a purely geometric condition between the primal and the dual grids has to be satisfied for a given primal polyhedral grid, by properly choosing the dual grid. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed discrete constitutive equations lead to accurate approximations of the electromagnetic field
Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1: Global Amphibians Presence Grids
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Amphibians Presence Grids of the Gridded Species Distribution, Version 1 is a reclassified version of the original grids of amphibian species distribution...
Grid Cell Relaxation Effects on the High Frequency Vibration Characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryu, Joo-Young; Eom, Kyong-Bo; Jeon, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jae-Ik
2015-01-01
The plate structure of the grid of fuel assembly is always exposed to serious vortex induced vibration. Also, High Frequency flow induced Vibration (HFV) is primarily generated by vortex-shedding effect. When it comes to grid design as a fuel assembly component, HFV should be considered in advance since it is one of the critical factors. Excessive HFV has a possibility of making degradation of the fuel reliability that is directly related to the fuel robustness and operating performance. KEPCO NF (KNF) has performed HFV tests with various grid designs. While studying the HFV characteristics through the HFV tests, it has been observed that HFV amplitudes show different levels according to grid cell relaxation. It means that the testing could give different interpretations due to the condition of grid cell. Since the amount of relaxation is different under operating conditions and environments in a reactor, test specimens should be modified as much as possible to the real state of the fuel. Therefore, in order to consider the grid cell relaxation effects on the HFV tests, it is important to use cell sized or non-cell sized grids. The main focus of this study is to find out how the HFV characteristics such as amplitude and frequency are affected by grid cell relaxation. Three cases of the grid cell sized specimen which is nickel alloy were prepared and tested. Through the comparison of the test results, it could be concluded that HFV amplitudes show decreasing trend according to the grid cell relaxation in the case of nickel alloy grid. It is also possible to expect the tendency of grid cell relaxation of a zirconium alloy grid based on test results
Liseikin, Vladimir D
2017-01-01
This new edition provides a description of current developments relating to grid methods, grid codes, and their applications to actual problems. Grid generation methods are indispensable for the numerical solution of differential equations. Adaptive grid-mapping techniques, in particular, are the main focus and represent a promising tool to deal with systems with singularities. This 3rd edition includes three new chapters on numerical implementations (10), control of grid properties (11), and applications to mechanical, fluid, and plasma related problems (13). Also the other chapters have been updated including new topics, such as curvatures of discrete surfaces (3). Concise descriptions of hybrid mesh generation, drag and sweeping methods, parallel algorithms for mesh generation have been included too. This new edition addresses a broad range of readers: students, researchers, and practitioners in applied mathematics, mechanics, engineering, physics and other areas of applications.
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
The Grid infrastructure is a key part of the computing environment for the simulation, processing and analysis of the data of the LHC experiments. These experiments depend on the availability of a worldwide Grid infrastructure in several aspects of their computing model. The Grid middleware will hide much of the complexity of this environment to the user, organizing all the resources in a coherent virtual computer center. The general description of the elements of the Grid, their interconnections and their use by the experiments will be exposed in this talk. The computational and storage capability of the Grid is attracting other research communities beyond the high energy physics. Examples of these applications will be also exposed during the presentation.
An improved saddlepoint approximation.
Gillespie, Colin S; Renshaw, Eric
2007-08-01
Given a set of third- or higher-order moments, not only is the saddlepoint approximation the only realistic 'family-free' technique available for constructing an associated probability distribution, but it is 'optimal' in the sense that it is based on the highly efficient numerical method of steepest descents. However, it suffers from the problem of not always yielding full support, and whilst [S. Wang, General saddlepoint approximations in the bootstrap, Prob. Stat. Lett. 27 (1992) 61.] neat scaling approach provides a solution to this hurdle, it leads to potentially inaccurate and aberrant results. We therefore propose several new ways of surmounting such difficulties, including: extending the inversion of the cumulant generating function to second-order; selecting an appropriate probability structure for higher-order cumulants (the standard moment closure procedure takes them to be zero); and, making subtle changes to the target cumulants and then optimising via the simplex algorithm.
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2011-01-01
Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Topology, calculus and approximation
Komornik, Vilmos
2017-01-01
Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...
Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kárný, Miroslav
2014-01-01
Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0425539.pdf
Approximating Preemptive Stochastic Scheduling
Megow Nicole; Vredeveld Tjark
2009-01-01
We present constant approximative policies for preemptive stochastic scheduling. We derive policies with a guaranteed performance ratio of 2 for scheduling jobs with release dates on identical parallel machines subject to minimizing the sum of weighted completion times. Our policies as well as their analysis apply also to the recently introduced more general model of stochastic online scheduling. The performance guarantee we give matches the best result known for the corresponding determinist...
Optimization and approximation
Pedregal, Pablo
2017-01-01
This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crooks, David; Mitchell, Mark; Roy, Gareth; Skipsey, Samuel Cadellin; Britton, David; Purdie, Stuart
2014-01-01
The monitoring of a grid cluster (or of any piece of reasonably scaled IT infrastructure) is a key element in the robust and consistent running of that site. There are several factors which are important to the selection of a useful monitoring framework, which include ease of use, reliability, data input and output. It is critical that data can be drawn from different instrumentation packages and collected in the framework to allow for a uniform view of the running of a site. It is also very useful to allow different views and transformations of this data to allow its manipulation for different purposes, perhaps unknown at the initial time of installation. In this context, we present the findings of an investigation of the Graphite monitoring framework and its use at the ScotGrid Glasgow site. In particular, we examine the messaging system used by the framework and means to extract data from different tools, including the existing framework Ganglia which is in use at many sites, in addition to adapting and parsing data streams from external monitoring frameworks and websites.
A robust interpretation of duration calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt
2005-01-01
We transfer the concept of robust interpretation from arithmetic first-order theories to metric-time temporal logics. The idea is that the interpretation of a formula is robust iff its truth value does not change under small variation of the constants in the formula. Exemplifying this on Duration...... Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...... the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...
Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinxin Fan
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.
Network Coding Opportunities for Wireless Grids Formed by Mobile Devices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Karsten Fyhn; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Fitzek, Frank
2008-01-01
Wireless grids have potential in sharing communication, computational and storage resources making these networks more powerful, more robust, and less cost intensive. However, to enjoy the benefits of cooperative resource sharing, a number of issues should be addressed and the cost of the wireless...... link should be taken into account. We focus on the question how nodes can efficiently communicate and distribute data in a wireless grid. We show the potential of a network coding approach when nodes have the possibility to combine packets thus increasing the amount of information per transmission. Our...... implementation demonstrates the feasibility of network coding for wireless grids formed by mobile devices....
Evolution of user analysis on the grid in ATLAS
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218990; The ATLAS collaboration; Dewhurst, Alastair
2017-01-01
More than one thousand physicists analyse data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN through 150 computing facilities around the world. Efficient distributed analysis requires optimal resource usage and the interplay of several factors: robust grid and software infrastructures, and system capability to adapt to different workloads. The continuous automatic validation of grid sites and the user support provided by a dedicated team of expert shifters have been proven to provide a solid distributed analysis system for ATLAS users. Typical user workflows on the grid, and their associated metrics, are discussed. Measurements of user job performance and typical requirements are also shown.
Doppelhofer, Gernot; Weeks, Melvyn
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsi- monious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model averaging to growth determinants, the paper finds that eight out of eighteen variables found to be significantly related to economic growth ...
Bishop , Matt; Elliott , Chip
2011-01-01
Part 2: WISE 7; International audience; Robust programming lies at the heart of the type of coding called “secure programming”. Yet it is rarely taught in academia. More commonly, the focus is on how to avoid creating well-known vulnerabilities. While important, that misses the point: a well-structured, robust program should anticipate where problems might arise and compensate for them. This paper discusses one view of robust programming and gives an example of how it may be taught.
Feature combination analysis in smart grid based using SOM for Sudan national grid
Bohari, Z. H.; Yusof, M. A. M.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Nasir, M. N. M.
2015-12-01
In the investigation of power grid security, the cascading failure in multicontingency situations has been a test because of its topological unpredictability and computational expense. Both system investigations and burden positioning routines have their limits. In this project, in view of sorting toward Self Organizing Maps (SOM), incorporated methodology consolidating spatial feature (distance)-based grouping with electrical attributes (load) to evaluate the vulnerability and cascading impact of various part sets in the force lattice. Utilizing the grouping result from SOM, sets of overwhelming stacked beginning victimized people to perform assault conspires and asses the consequent falling impact of their failures, and this SOM-based approach viably distinguishes the more powerless sets of substations than those from the conventional burden positioning and other bunching strategies. The robustness of power grids is a central topic in the design of the so called "smart grid". In this paper, to analyze the measures of importance of the nodes in a power grid under cascading failure. With these efforts, we can distinguish the most vulnerable nodes and protect them, improving the safety of the power grid. Also we can measure if a structure is proper for power grids.
Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk
2015-01-01
Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk
2015-01-01
Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)
Cyclic approximation to stasis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stewart D. Johnson
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Sawi, M.
1983-07-01
A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)
The relaxation time approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.
1991-01-01
A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs
Polynomial approximation on polytopes
Totik, Vilmos
2014-01-01
Polynomial approximation on convex polytopes in \\mathbf{R}^d is considered in uniform and L^p-norms. For an appropriate modulus of smoothness matching direct and converse estimates are proven. In the L^p-case so called strong direct and converse results are also verified. The equivalence of the moduli of smoothness with an appropriate K-functional follows as a consequence. The results solve a problem that was left open since the mid 1980s when some of the present findings were established for special, so-called simple polytopes.
Finite elements and approximation
Zienkiewicz, O C
2006-01-01
A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o
Cerin, Christophe
2012-01-01
Desktop Grid Computing presents common techniques used in numerous models, algorithms, and tools developed during the last decade to implement desktop grid computing. These techniques enable the solution of many important sub-problems for middleware design, including scheduling, data management, security, load balancing, result certification, and fault tolerance. The book's first part covers the initial ideas and basic concepts of desktop grid computing. The second part explores challenging current and future problems. Each chapter presents the sub-problems, discusses theoretical and practical
Haarla, Liisa; Hirvonen, Ritva; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne
2011-01-01
In response to the growing importance of power system security and reliability, ""Transmission Grid Security"" proposes a systematic and probabilistic approach for transmission grid security analysis. The analysis presented uses probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and takes into account the power system dynamics after severe faults. In the method shown in this book the power system states (stable, not stable, system breakdown, etc.) are connected with the substation reliability model. In this way it is possible to: estimate the system-wide consequences of grid faults; identify a chain of eve
Trends in life science grid: from computing grid to knowledge grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konagaya Akihiko
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Grid computing has great potential to become a standard cyberinfrastructure for life sciences which often require high-performance computing and large data handling which exceeds the computing capacity of a single institution. Results This survey reviews the latest grid technologies from the viewpoints of computing grid, data grid and knowledge grid. Computing grid technologies have been matured enough to solve high-throughput real-world life scientific problems. Data grid technologies are strong candidates for realizing "resourceome" for bioinformatics. Knowledge grids should be designed not only from sharing explicit knowledge on computers but also from community formulation for sharing tacit knowledge among a community. Conclusion Extending the concept of grid from computing grid to knowledge grid, it is possible to make use of a grid as not only sharable computing resources, but also as time and place in which people work together, create knowledge, and share knowledge and experiences in a community.
Approximate Bayesian computation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikael Sunnåker
Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quetchenbach, T G; Harper, M J; Jacobson, A E; Robinson IV, J; Hervin, K K; Chase, N A; Dorji, C
2013-01-01
This letter reports on the design and pilot installation of GridShares, devices intended to alleviate brownouts caused by peak power use on isolated, village-scale mini-grids. A team consisting of the authors and partner organizations designed, built and field-tested GridShares in the village of Rukubji, Bhutan. The GridShare takes an innovative approach to reducing brownouts by using a low cost device that communicates the state of the grid to its users and regulates usage before severe brownouts occur. This demand-side solution encourages users to distribute the use of large appliances more evenly throughout the day, allowing power-limited systems to provide reliable, long-term renewable electricity to these communities. In the summer of 2011, GridShares were installed in every household and business connected to the Rukubji micro-hydro mini-grid, which serves approximately 90 households with a 40 kW nominal capacity micro-hydro system. The installation was accompanied by an extensive education program. Following the installation of the GridShares, the occurrence and average length of severe brownouts, which had been caused primarily by the use of electric cooking appliances during meal preparation, decreased by over 92%. Additionally, the majority of residents surveyed stated that now they are more certain that their rice will cook well and that they would recommend installing GridShares in other villages facing similar problems. (letter)
Robust procedures in chemometrics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kotwa, Ewelina
properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results show...
Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Lincoln Laboratory Grid (LLGrid) is an interactive, on-demand parallel computing system that uses a large computing cluster to enable Laboratory researchers to...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guan Wen; Sun Gongxing
2007-01-01
CMS has adopted a distributed system of services which implement CMS application view on top of Grid services. An overview of CMS services will be covered. Emphasis is on CMS data management and workload Management. (authors)
Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2011-07-01
The development of Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids -- which the IEA defines as an electricity network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of electricity from all generation sources to meet the varying electricity demands of end users -- is essential if the global community is to achieve shared goals for energy security, economic development and climate change mitigation. Unfortunately, existing misunderstandings of exactly what smart grids are and the physical and institutional complexity of electricity systems make it difficult to implement smart grids on the scale that is needed. This roadmap sets out specific steps needed over the coming years to achieve milestones that will allow smart grids to deliver a clean energy future.
Yurkewicz, Katie
2005-01-01
Today's cutting-edge scientific projects are larger, more complex, and more expensive than ever. Grid computing provides the resources that allow researchers to share knowledge, data, and computer processing power across boundaries
Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp
2007-01-01
Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larson, J.G.
1984-01-01
There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge
Smart grids - French Expertise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-11-01
The adaptation of electrical systems is the focus of major work worldwide. Bringing electricity to new territories, modernizing existing electricity grids, implementing energy efficiency policies and deploying renewable energies, developing new uses for electricity, introducing electric vehicles - these are the challenges facing a multitude of regions and countries. Smart Grids are the result of the convergence of electrical systems technologies with information and communications technologies. They play a key role in addressing the above challenges. Smart Grid development is a major priority for both public and private-sector actors in France. The experience of French companies has grown with the current French electricity system, a system that already shows extensive levels of 'intelligence', efficiency and competitiveness. French expertise also leverages substantial competence in terms of 'systems engineering', and can provide a tailored response to meet all sorts of needs. French products and services span all the technical and commercial building blocks that make up the Smart Grid value chain. They address the following issues: Improving the use and valuation of renewable energies and decentralized means of production, by optimizing the balance between generation and consumption. Strengthening the intelligence of the transmission and distribution grids: developing 'Supergrid', digitizing substations in transmission networks, and automating the distribution grids are the focus of a great many projects designed to reinforce the 'self-healing' capacity of the grid. Improving the valuation of decentralized flexibilities: this involves, among others, deploying smart meters, reinforcing active energy efficiency measures, and boosting consumers' contribution to grid balancing, via practices such as demand response which implies the aggregation of flexibility among residential, business, and/or industrial sites. Addressing current technological challenges, in
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...
Controlling smart grid adaptivity
Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2012-01-01
Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption
Grid Computing Education Support
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steven Crumb
2008-01-15
The GGF Student Scholar program enabled GGF the opportunity to bring over sixty qualified graduate and under-graduate students with interests in grid technologies to its three annual events over the three-year program.
The random phase approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuck, P.
1985-01-01
RPA is the adequate theory to describe vibrations of the nucleus of very small amplitudes. These vibrations can either be forced by an external electromagnetic field or can be eigenmodes of the nucleus. In a one dimensional analogue the potential corresponding to such eigenmodes of very small amplitude should be rather stiff otherwise the motion risks to be a large amplitude one and to enter a region where the approximation is not valid. This means that nuclei which are supposedly well described by RPA must have a very stable groundstate configuration (must e.g. be very stiff against deformation). This is usually the case for doubly magic nuclei or close to magic nuclei which are in the middle of proton and neutron shells which develop a very stable groundstate deformation; we take the deformation as an example but there are many other possible degrees of freedom as, for example, compression modes, isovector degrees of freedom, spin degrees of freedom, and many more
The quasilocalized charge approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P
2005-01-01
The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two
Analysis and improvement of security of energy smart grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halimi, Halim
2014-01-01
The Smart grid is the next generation power grid, which is a new self-healing, self-activating form of electricity network, and integrates power-flow control, increased quality of electricity, and energy reliability, energy efficiency and energy security using information and communication technologies. Communication networks play a critical role in smart grid, as the intelligence of smart grid is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Its two-way communication and electricity flow enable to monitor, predict and manage the energy usage. To upgrade an existing power grid into a smart grid, it requires an intelligent and secure communication infrastructure. Because of that, the main goal of this dissertation is to propose new architecture and implementation of algorithms for analysis and improvement of the security and reliability in smart grid. In power transmission segments of smart grid, wired communications are usually adopted to ensure robustness of the backbone power network. In contrast, for a power distribution grid, wireless communications provide many benefits such as low cost high speed links, easy setup of connections among different devices/appliances, and so on. Wireless communications are usually more vulnerable to security attacks than wired ones. Developing appropriate wireless communication architecture and its security measures is extremely important for a smart grid system. This research addresses physical layer security in a Wireless Smart Grid. Hence a defense Quorum- based algorithm is proposed to ensure physical security in wireless communication. The new security architecture for smart grid that supports privacy-preserving, data aggregation and access control is defined. This architecture consists of two parts. In the first part we propose to use an efficient and privacy-preserving aggregation scheme (EPPA), which aggregates real-time data of consumers by Local Gateway. During aggregation the privacy of consumers is
Data Compression of Hydrocarbon Reservoir Simulation Grids
Chavez, Gustavo Ivan
2015-05-28
A dense volumetric grid coming from an oil/gas reservoir simulation output is translated into a compact representation that supports desired features such as interactive visualization, geometric continuity, color mapping and quad representation. A set of four control curves per layer results from processing the grid data, and a complete set of these 3-dimensional surfaces represents the complete volume data and can map reservoir properties of interest to analysts. The processing results yield a representation of reservoir simulation results which has reduced data storage requirements and permits quick performance interaction between reservoir analysts and the simulation data. The degree of reservoir grid compression can be selected according to the quality required, by adjusting for different thresholds, such as approximation error and level of detail. The processions results are of potential benefit in applications such as interactive rendering, data compression, and in-situ visualization of large-scale oil/gas reservoir simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoeft, B; Epting, U; Koenig, T
2008-01-01
While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls
Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids
Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.
MPFA algorithm for solving stokes-brinkman equations on quadrilateral grids
Iliev, Oleg; Kirsch, Ralf; Lakdawala, Zahra; Printsypar, Galina
2014-01-01
This work is concerned with the development of a robust and accurate numerical method for solving the Stokes-Brinkman system of equations, which describes a free fluid flow coupled with a flow in porous media. Quadrilateral boundary fitted grid
Microgrid Stability Controller Based on Adaptive Robust Total SMC
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Su, Xiaoling; Han, Minxiao; Guerrero, Josep M.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a microgrid stability controller (MSC) in order to provide existing DGs the additional functionality of working in islanding mode without changing their control strategies in grid-connected mode and to enhance the stability of the microgrid. Microgrid operating characteristics....... The MSC provides fast dynamic response and robustness to the microgrid. When the system is operating in grid-connected mode, it is able to improve the controllability of the exchanged power between the microgrid and the utility grid, while smoothing DG’s output power. When the microgrid is operating...... and mathematical models of the MSC indicate that the system is inherently nonlinear and time-variable. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive robust total sliding-mode control (ARTSMC) system for the MSC. It is proved that the ARTSMC system is insensitive to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances...
Denimal, Emmanuel; Marin, Ambroise; Guyot, Stéphane; Journaux, Ludovic; Molin, Paul
2015-08-01
In biology, hemocytometers such as Malassez slides are widely used and are effective tools for counting cells manually. In a previous work, a robust algorithm was developed for grid extraction in Malassez slide images. This algorithm was evaluated on a set of 135 images and grids were accurately detected in most cases, but there remained failures for the most difficult images. In this work, we present an optimization of this algorithm that allows for 100% grid detection and a 25% improvement in grid positioning accuracy. These improvements make the algorithm fully reliable for grid detection. This optimization also allows complete erasing of the grid without altering the cells, which eases their segmentation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, S.T.
2013-01-15
renewable electricity generation targets. In the near future, tendering of joint projects is a feasible solution. Case studies on the Kriegers Flak offshore hub in the Baltic Sea and on the question of offshore storage, applying the WILMAR Joint Market Model, complement these analyses. The study on Kriegers Flak shows that embedded wind generation approximately halves congestion rents. While building and operating an adiabatic cavern air energy storage appears technically feasible, several reasons are explained why this is inferior to an onshore solution from an electricity markets perspective. The measures addressed until now, transmission and storage, are complemented by an analysis of an alternative: curtailment of renewable generation. The acceptance of this measure will play an increasing role for a cost-efficient integration of renewables. An intuitive example is that it is not efficient to dimension offshore connections at the nameplate capacity of the wind park, but that accepting curtailment should be part of the optimisation. Combining results from the different papers leads to the conclusion that an integrated operation of meshed offshore grids and generation seems best. Strategic behaviour between actors is thus avoided, while stable investment conditions can be supported. A feed-in tariff or a combination of tendering and feed-in tariffs could be a suitable support mechanism, allowing a co-operation of generation and transmission. The regulatory and policy framework should be adapted to meet the characteristics of offshore grids. Doing so can foster the cost-efficient deployment of both transmission and generation. (Author)
Tennant, Roy
2005-01-01
In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.
Smart Grid Integration Laboratory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Troxell, Wade [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
2011-12-22
The initial federal funding for the Colorado State University Smart Grid Integration Laboratory is through a Congressionally Directed Project (CDP), DE-OE0000070 Smart Grid Integration Laboratory. The original program requested in three one-year increments for staff acquisition, curriculum development, and instrumentation all which will benefit the Laboratory. This report focuses on the initial phase of staff acquisition which was directed and administered by DOE NETL/ West Virginia under Project Officer Tom George. Using this CDP funding, we have developed the leadership and intellectual capacity for the SGIC. This was accomplished by investing (hiring) a core team of Smart Grid Systems engineering faculty focused on education, research, and innovation of a secure and smart grid infrastructure. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory will be housed with the separately funded Integrid Laboratory as part of CSU's overall Smart Grid Integration Center (SGIC). The period of performance of this grant was 10/1/2009 to 9/30/2011 which included one no cost extension due to time delays in faculty hiring. The Smart Grid Integration Laboratory's focus is to build foundations to help graduate and undergraduates acquire systems engineering knowledge; conduct innovative research; and team externally with grid smart organizations. Using the results of the separately funded Smart Grid Workforce Education Workshop (May 2009) sponsored by the City of Fort Collins, Northern Colorado Clean Energy Cluster, Colorado State University Continuing Education, Spirae, and Siemens has been used to guide the hiring of faculty, program curriculum and education plan. This project develops faculty leaders with the intellectual capacity to inspire its students to become leaders that substantially contribute to the development and maintenance of Smart Grid infrastructure through topics such as: (1) Distributed energy systems modeling and control; (2) Energy and power conversion; (3
Approximate quantum Markov chains
Sutter, David
2018-01-01
This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple ma...
Prestack traveltime approximations
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-05-01
Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
An irregular grid approach for pricing high-dimensional American options
Berridge, S.J.; Schumacher, J.M.
2008-01-01
We propose and test a new method for pricing American options in a high-dimensional setting. The method is centered around the approximation of the associated complementarity problem on an irregular grid. We approximate the partial differential operator on this grid by appealing to the SDE
An Irregular Grid Approach for Pricing High-Dimensional American Options
Berridge, S.J.; Schumacher, J.M.
2004-01-01
We propose and test a new method for pricing American options in a high-dimensional setting.The method is centred around the approximation of the associated complementarity problem on an irregular grid.We approximate the partial differential operator on this grid by appealing to the SDE
Pricing and hedging high-dimensional American options : an irregular grid approach
Berridge, S.; Schumacher, H.
2002-01-01
We propose and test a new method for pricing American options in a high dimensional setting. The method is centred around the approximation of the associated variational inequality on an irregular grid. We approximate the partial differential operator on this grid by appealing to the SDE
A sparse-grid isogeometric solver
Beck, Joakim
2018-02-28
Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) typically adopts tensor-product splines and NURBS as a basis for the approximation of the solution of PDEs. In this work, we investigate to which extent IGA solvers can benefit from the so-called sparse-grids construction in its combination technique form, which was first introduced in the early 90’s in the context of the approximation of high-dimensional PDEs.The tests that we report show that, in accordance to the literature, a sparse-grid construction can indeed be useful if the solution of the PDE at hand is sufficiently smooth. Sparse grids can also be useful in the case of non-smooth solutions when some a-priori knowledge on the location of the singularities of the solution can be exploited to devise suitable non-equispaced meshes. Finally, we remark that sparse grids can be seen as a simple way to parallelize pre-existing serial IGA solvers in a straightforward fashion, which can be beneficial in many practical situations.
A sparse-grid isogeometric solver
Beck, Joakim; Sangalli, Giancarlo; Tamellini, Lorenzo
2018-01-01
Isogeometric Analysis (IGA) typically adopts tensor-product splines and NURBS as a basis for the approximation of the solution of PDEs. In this work, we investigate to which extent IGA solvers can benefit from the so-called sparse-grids construction in its combination technique form, which was first introduced in the early 90’s in the context of the approximation of high-dimensional PDEs.The tests that we report show that, in accordance to the literature, a sparse-grid construction can indeed be useful if the solution of the PDE at hand is sufficiently smooth. Sparse grids can also be useful in the case of non-smooth solutions when some a-priori knowledge on the location of the singularities of the solution can be exploited to devise suitable non-equispaced meshes. Finally, we remark that sparse grids can be seen as a simple way to parallelize pre-existing serial IGA solvers in a straightforward fashion, which can be beneficial in many practical situations.
Robustness Beamforming Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajad Dehghani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Adaptive beamforming methods are known to degrade in the presence of steering vector and covariance matrix uncertinity. In this paper, a new approach is presented to robust adaptive minimum variance distortionless response beamforming make robust against both uncertainties in steering vector and covariance matrix. This method minimize a optimization problem that contains a quadratic objective function and a quadratic constraint. The optimization problem is nonconvex but is converted to a convex optimization problem in this paper. It is solved by the interior-point method and optimum weight vector to robust beamforming is achieved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horner, M. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2010-07-01
This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the changes and strategies that are currently being adopted by AltaLink to expand Alberta's electricity grid in relation to wind power development. The company is Alberta's largest transmission facility operator. Wind power currently accounts for approximately 5 percent of the province's generation mix. Applications for new wind farms will increase Alberta's 629 MW of wind power generation capacity to 5530 MW. Alberta's transmission regulation requires that 100 percent of in-merit generation can occur when transmission facilities are in service, and that 95 percent of in-merit generation can occur under abnormal operating conditions. A new transmission line is being constructed in the Pincher Creek and Lethbridge region as part of a southern Alberta transmission reinforcement project. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) and Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) are working together to ensure that adequate resources are available while system reliability is maintained. The Ardenville wind farm is the first wind power project to be energized under the new connection model launched by the AESO. The connection model was developed to identify, connect, and construct new energy projects. The project will also identify connection routes with the lowest overall impact on the province. Alberta will also continue to implement technologies that ensure the development of a smart grid. tabs., figs.
Importance of Grid Center Arrangement
Pasaogullari, O.; Usul, N.
2012-12-01
In Digital Elevation Modeling, grid size is accepted to be the most important parameter. Despite the point density and/or scale of the source data, it is freely decided by the user. Most of the time, arrangement of the grid centers are ignored, even most GIS packages omit the choice of grid center coordinate selection. In our study; importance of the arrangement of grid centers is investigated. Using the analogy between "Raster Grid DEM" and "Bitmap Image", importance of placement of grid centers in DEMs are measured. The study has been conducted on four different grid DEMs obtained from a half ellipsoid. These grid DEMs are obtained in such a way that they are half grid size apart from each other. Resulting grid DEMs are investigated through similarity measures. Image processing scientists use different measures to investigate the dis/similarity between the images and the amount of different information they carry. Grid DEMs are projected to a finer grid in order to co-center. Similarity measures are then applied to each grid DEM pairs. These similarity measures are adapted to DEM with band reduction and real number operation. One of the measures gives function graph and the others give measure matrices. Application of similarity measures to six grid DEM pairs shows interesting results. These four different grid DEMs are created with the same method for the same area, surprisingly; thirteen out of 14 measures state that, the half grid size apart grid DEMs are different from each other. The results indicated that although grid DEMs carry mutual information, they have also additional individual information. In other words, half grid size apart constructed grid DEMs have non-redundant information.; Joint Probability Distributions Function Graphs
Robustness Metrics: Consolidating the multiple approaches to quantify Robustness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Göhler, Simon Moritz; Eifler, Tobias; Howard, Thomas J.
2016-01-01
robustness metrics; 3) Functional expectancy and dispersion robustness metrics; and 4) Probability of conformance robustness metrics. The goal was to give a comprehensive overview of robustness metrics and guidance to scholars and practitioners to understand the different types of robustness metrics...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2008-01-01
This paper describes the background of the robustness requirements implemented in the Danish Code of Practice for Safety of Structures and in the Danish National Annex to the Eurocode 0, see (DS-INF 146, 2003), (DS 409, 2006), (EN 1990 DK NA, 2007) and (Sørensen and Christensen, 2006). More...... frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new structures essential....... According to Danish design rules robustness shall be documented for all structures in high consequence class. The design procedure to document sufficient robustness consists of: 1) Review of loads and possible failure modes / scenarios and determination of acceptable collapse extent; 2) Review...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
After the collapse of the World Trade Centre towers in 2001 and a number of collapses of structural systems in the beginning of the century, robustness of structural systems has gained renewed interest. Despite many significant theoretical, methodical and technological advances, structural...... of robustness for structural design such requirements are not substantiated in more detail, nor have the engineering profession been able to agree on an interpretation of robustness which facilitates for its uantification. A European COST action TU 601 on ‘Robustness of structures' has started in 2007...... by a group of members of the CSS. This paper describes the ongoing work in this action, with emphasis on the development of a theoretical and risk based quantification and optimization procedure on the one side and a practical pre-normative guideline on the other....
GridCom, Grid Commander: graphical interface for Grid jobs and data management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galaktionov, V.V.
2011-01-01
GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations
Robustness and modular structure in networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagrow, James P.; Lehmann, Sune; Ahn, Yong-Yeol
2015-01-01
-12]. Many complex systems, from power grids and the Internet to the brain and society [13-15], can be modeled using modular networks comprised of small, densely connected groups of nodes [16, 17]. These modules often overlap, with network elements belonging to multiple modules [18, 19]. Yet existing work...... on robustness has not considered the role of overlapping, modular structure. Here we study the robustness of these systems to the failure of elements. We show analytically and empirically that it is possible for the modules themselves to become uncoupled or non-overlapping well before the network disintegrates....... If overlapping modular organization plays a role in overall functionality, networks may be far more vulnerable than predicted by conventional percolation theory....
Robust photometric stereo using structural light sources
Han, Tian-Qi; Cheng, Yue; Shen, Hui-Liang; Du, Xin
2014-05-01
We propose a robust photometric stereo method by using structural arrangement of light sources. In the arrangement, light sources are positioned on a planar grid and form a set of collinear combinations. The shadow pixels are detected by adaptive thresholding. The specular highlight and diffuse pixels are distinguished according to their intensity deviations of the collinear combinations, thanks to the special arrangement of light sources. The highlight detection problem is cast as a pattern classification problem and is solved using support vector machine classifiers. Considering the possible misclassification of highlight pixels, the ℓ1 regularization is further employed in normal map estimation. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world scenes verify that the proposed method can robustly recover the surface normal maps in the case of heavy specular reflection and outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques.
Robust Approaches to Forecasting
Jennifer Castle; David Hendry; Michael P. Clements
2014-01-01
We investigate alternative robust approaches to forecasting, using a new class of robust devices, contrasted with equilibrium correction models. Their forecasting properties are derived facing a range of likely empirical problems at the forecast origin, including measurement errors, implulses, omitted variables, unanticipated location shifts and incorrectly included variables that experience a shift. We derive the resulting forecast biases and error variances, and indicate when the methods ar...
Robustness - theoretical framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.
2010-01-01
More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....
Recent Developments in Grid Generation and Force Integration Technology for Overset Grids
Chan, William M.; VanDalsem, William R. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
Recent developments in algorithms and software tools for generating overset grids for complex configurations are described. These include the overset surface grid generation code SURGRD and version 2.0 of the hyperbolic volume grid generation code HYPGEN. The SURGRD code is in beta test mode where the new features include the capability to march over a collection of panel networks, a variety of ways to control the side boundaries and the marching step sizes and distance, a more robust projection scheme and an interpolation option. New features in version 2.0 of HYPGEN include a wider range of boundary condition types. The code also allows the user to specify different marching step sizes and distance for each point on the surface grid. A scheme that takes into account of the overlapped zones on the body surface for the purpose of forces and moments computation is also briefly described, The process involves the following two software modules: MIXSUR - a composite grid generation module to produce a collection of quadrilaterals and triangles on which pressure and viscous stresses are to be integrated, and OVERINT - a forces and moments integration module.
Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop
2006-01-01
The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion
2012-01-01
The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector
Qualitative Robustness in Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Nasser
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Qualitative robustness, influence function, and breakdown point are three main concepts to judge an estimator from the viewpoint of robust estimation. It is important as well as interesting to study relation among them. This article attempts to present the concept of qualitative robustness as forwarded by first proponents and its later development. It illustrates intricacies of qualitative robustness and its relation with consistency, and also tries to remove commonly believed misunderstandings about relation between influence function and qualitative robustness citing some examples from literature and providing a new counter-example. At the end it places a useful finite and a simulated version of qualitative robustness index (QRI. In order to assess the performance of the proposed measures, we have compared fifteen estimators of correlation coefficient using simulated as well as real data sets.
Future electrical distribution grids: Smart Grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Angelier, J.P.
2010-01-01
The new energy paradigm faced by distribution network represents a real scientific challenge. Thus, national and EU objectives in terms of environment and energy efficiency with resulted regulatory incentives for renewable energies, the deployment of smart meters and the need to respond to changing needs including new uses related to electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles introduce more complexity and favour the evolution towards a smarter grid. The economic interest group in Grenoble IDEA in connection with the power laboratory G2ELab at Grenoble Institute of technology, EDF and Schneider Electric are conducting research on the electrical distribution of the future in presence of distributed generation for ten years.Thus, several innovations emerged in terms of flexibility and intelligence of the distribution network. One can notice the intelligence solutions for voltage control, the tools of network optimization, the self-healing techniques, the innovative strategies for connecting distributed and intermittent generation or load control possibilities for the distributor. All these innovations are firmly in the context of intelligent networks of tomorrow 'Smart Grids'. (authors)
Self-similar factor approximants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.
2003-01-01
The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, W.D.; Vaill, R.E.
1980-01-01
An improved grid sleeve bulge tool is designed for securing control rod guide tubes to sleeves brazed in a fuel assembly grid. The tool includes a cylinder having an outer diameter less than the internal diameter of the control rod guide tubes. The walls of the cylinder are cut in an axial direction along its length to provide several flexible tines or ligaments. These tines are similar to a fork except they are spaced in a circumferential direction. The end of each alternate tine is equipped with a semispherical projection which extends radially outwardly from the tine surface. A ram or plunger of generally cylindrical configuration and about the same length as the cylinder is designed to fit in and move axially of the cylinder and thereby force the tined projections outwardly when the ram is pulled into the cylinder. The ram surface includes axially extending grooves and plane surfaces which are complimentary to the inner surfaces formed on the tines on the cylinder. As the cylinder is inserted into a control rod guide tube, and the projections on the cylinder placed in a position just below or above a grid strap, the ram is pulled into the cylinder, thus moving the tines and the projections thereon outwardly into contact with the sleeve, to plastically deform both the sleeve and the control rod guide tube, and thereby form four bulges which extend outwardly from the sleeve surface and beyond the outer periphery of the grid peripheral strap. This process is then repeated at the points above the grid to also provide for outwardly projecting surfaces, the result being that the grid is accurately positioned on and mechanically secured to the control rod guide tubes which extend the length of a fuel assembly
Grids, Clouds and Virtualization
Cafaro, Massimo
2011-01-01
Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dondossola, Giovanna; Terruggia, Roberta; Bessler, Sandford
2014-01-01
The scope of this paper is to address the evolution of distribution grid architectures following the widespread introduction of renewable energy sources. The increasing connection of distributed resources has a strong impact on the topology and the control functionality of the current distribution...... grids requiring the development of new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions with various degrees of adaptation of the monitoring, communication and control technologies. The costs of ICT based solutions need however to be taken into account, hence it is desirable to work...
Manricks, Gabriel
2013-01-01
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A step-by-step, practical Starter book, Instant jqGrid embraces you while you take your first steps, and introduces you to the content in an easy-to-follow order.This book is aimed at people who have some knowledge of HTML and JavaScript. Knowledge of PHP and SQL would also prove to be beneficial. No prior knowledge of jqGrid is expected.
VITIELLO SILVIA; FULLI Gianluca; MENGOLINI Anna Maria
2013-01-01
Le smart grid, o reti elettriche intelligenti, aprono la strada a nuove applicazioni con conseguenze di vasta portata per l’intero sistema elettrico, tra le quali la principale è la capacità di integrare nella rete esistente più fonti di energia rinnovabili (FER), veicoli elettrici e fonti di generazione distribuita. Le smart grid inoltre garantiscono una più efficiente ed affidabile risposta alla domanda di energia, sia da un punto di vista tecnico, permettendo un monitoraggio e un controll...
Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers
Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan
2014-01-01
The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is
Decentralized planning of energy demand for the management of robustness and discomfort
Pournaras, E.; Vasirani, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Aberer, K.
2014-01-01
The robustness of smart grids is challenged by unpredictable power peaks or temporal demand oscillations that can cause blackouts and increase supply costs. Planning of demand can mitigate these effects and increase robustness. However, the impact on consumers in regards to the discomfort they
Performance Analyses of IDEAL Algorithm on Highly Skewed Grid System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongliang Sun
2014-03-01
Full Text Available IDEAL is an efficient segregated algorithm for the fluid flow and heat transfer problems. This algorithm has now been extended to the 3D nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates. Highly skewed grids in the nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates can decrease the convergence rate and deteriorate the calculating stability. In this study, the feasibility of the IDEAL algorithm on highly skewed grid system is analyzed by investigating the lid-driven flow in the inclined cavity. It can be concluded that the IDEAL algorithm is more robust and more efficient than the traditional SIMPLER algorithm, especially for the highly skewed and fine grid system. For example, at θ = 5° and grid number = 70 × 70 × 70, the convergence rate of the IDEAL algorithm is 6.3 times faster than that of the SIMPLER algorithm, and the IDEAL algorithm can converge almost at any time step multiple.
Robust Topology Optimization Based on Stochastic Collocation Methods under Loading Uncertainties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qinghai Zhao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A robust topology optimization (RTO approach with consideration of loading uncertainties is developed in this paper. The stochastic collocation method combined with full tensor product grid and Smolyak sparse grid transforms the robust formulation into a weighted multiple loading deterministic problem at the collocation points. The proposed approach is amenable to implementation in existing commercial topology optimization software package and thus feasible to practical engineering problems. Numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional topology optimization problems are provided to demonstrate the proposed RTO approach and its applications. The optimal topologies obtained from deterministic and robust topology optimization designs under tensor product grid and sparse grid with different levels are compared with one another to investigate the pros and cons of optimization algorithm on final topologies, and an extensive Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to verify the proposed approach.
International Conference Approximation Theory XV
Schumaker, Larry
2017-01-01
These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...
High Performance Parallel Multigrid Algorithms for Unstructured Grids
Frederickson, Paul O.
1996-01-01
We describe a high performance parallel multigrid algorithm for a rather general class of unstructured grid problems in two and three dimensions. The algorithm PUMG, for parallel unstructured multigrid, is related in structure to the parallel multigrid algorithm PSMG introduced by McBryan and Frederickson, for they both obtain a higher convergence rate through the use of multiple coarse grids. Another reason for the high convergence rate of PUMG is its smoother, an approximate inverse developed by Baumgardner and Frederickson.
Grid computing the European Data Grid Project
Segal, B; Gagliardi, F; Carminati, F
2000-01-01
The goal of this project is the development of a novel environment to support globally distributed scientific exploration involving multi- PetaByte datasets. The project will devise and develop middleware solutions and testbeds capable of scaling to handle many PetaBytes of distributed data, tens of thousands of resources (processors, disks, etc.), and thousands of simultaneous users. The scale of the problem and the distribution of the resources and user community preclude straightforward replication of the data at different sites, while the aim of providing a general purpose application environment precludes distributing the data using static policies. We will construct this environment by combining and extending newly emerging "Grid" technologies to manage large distributed datasets in addition to computational elements. A consequence of this project will be the emergence of fundamental new modes of scientific exploration, as access to fundamental scientific data is no longer constrained to the producer of...
Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David
2011-01-01
The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.
Enabling campus grids with open science grid technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weitzel, Derek [Nebraska U.; Bockelman, Brian [Nebraska U.; Swanson, David [Nebraska U.; Fraser, Dan [Argonne; Pordes, Ruth [Fermilab
2011-01-01
The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.
A Robust Synchronization to Enhance the Power Quality of Renewable Energy Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the power grid requires high-quality power injection under various grid conditions. The synchronization method, usually a phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithm, is directly affecting the response of the grid-side converter of the RES....... This paper proposes a new PLL algorithm that uses an advanced decoupling network implemented in the stationary reference frame with limited requirements for processing time to enable a fast and accurate synchronization even under harmonic distorted voltage and low-voltage grid faults. The robust response...... of the proposed PLL is validated, and the effect of the proposed synchronization on the performance of the grid-connected renewable energy system is investigated. This investigation proves that the robust, accurate, and dynamic response of the new PLL can enhance the quality of the injected power from the RES...
Grid-based electronic structure calculations: The tensor decomposition approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rakhuba, M.V., E-mail: rakhuba.m@gmail.com [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Oseledets, I.V., E-mail: i.oseledets@skoltech.ru [Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Novaya St. 100, 143025 Skolkovo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gubkina St. 8, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-05-01
We present a fully grid-based approach for solving Hartree–Fock and all-electron Kohn–Sham equations based on low-rank approximation of three-dimensional electron orbitals. Due to the low-rank structure the total complexity of the algorithm depends linearly with respect to the one-dimensional grid size. Linear complexity allows for the usage of fine grids, e.g. 8192{sup 3} and, thus, cheap extrapolation procedure. We test the proposed approach on closed-shell atoms up to the argon, several molecules and clusters of hydrogen atoms. All tests show systematical convergence with the required accuracy.
Böing, F.; Murmann, A.; Pellinger, C.; Bruckmeier, A.; Kern, T.; Mongin, T.
2018-02-01
The expansion of capacities in the German transmission grid is a necessity for further integration of renewable energy sources into the electricity sector. In this paper, the grid optimisation measures ‘Overhead Line Monitoring’, ‘Power-to-Heat’ and ‘Demand Response in the Industry’ are evaluated and compared against conventional grid expansion for the year 2030. Initially, the methodical approach of the simulation model is presented and detailed descriptions of the grid model and the used grid data, which partly originates from open-source platforms, are provided. Further, this paper explains how ‘Curtailment’ and ‘Redispatch’ can be reduced by implementing grid optimisation measures and how the depreciation of economic costs can be determined considering construction costs. The developed simulations show that the conventional grid expansion is more efficient and implies more grid relieving effects than the evaluated grid optimisation measures.
Vortex sheet approximation of boundary layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chorin, A.J.
1978-01-01
a grid free method for approximating incomprssible boundary layers is introduced. The computational elements are segments of vortex sheets. The method is related to the earlier vortex method; simplicity is achieved at the cost of replacing the Navier-Stokes equations by the Prandtl boundary layer equations. A new method for generating vorticity at boundaries is also presented; it can be used with the earlier voartex method. The applications presented include (i) flat plate problems, and (ii) a flow problem in a model cylinder- piston assembly, where the new method is used near walls and an improved version of the random choice method is used in the interior. One of the attractive features of the new method is the ease with which it can be incorporated into hybrid algorithms
Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam
2017-01-01
This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.
2013-01-01
This contributed volume collects research papers, presented at the CIRP Sponsored Conference Robust Manufacturing Control: Innovative and Interdisciplinary Approaches for Global Networks (RoMaC 2012, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany, June 18th-20th 2012). These research papers present the latest developments and new ideas focusing on robust manufacturing control for global networks. Today, Global Production Networks (i.e. the nexus of interconnected material and information flows through which products and services are manufactured, assembled and distributed) are confronted with and expected to adapt to: sudden and unpredictable large-scale changes of important parameters which are occurring more and more frequently, event propagation in networks with high degree of interconnectivity which leads to unforeseen fluctuations, and non-equilibrium states which increasingly characterize daily business. These multi-scale changes deeply influence logistic target achievement and call for robust planning and control ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Utah. Number of columns is 196 and number of rows is 245. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...
2006-01-01
During April, a collaboration of Asian and European laboratories analysed 300,000 possible drug components against the avian flu virus H5N1 using the EGEE Grid infrastructure. Schematic presentation of the avian flu virus.The distribution of the EGEE sites in the world on which the avian flu scan was performed. The goal was to find potential compounds that can inhibit the activities of an enzyme on the surface of the influenza virus, the so-called neuraminidase, subtype N1. Using the Grid to identify the most promising leads for biological tests could speed up the development process for drugs against the influenza virus. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for science. The challenge of the in silico drug discovery application is to identify those molecules which can dock on the active sites of the virus in order to inhibit its action. To study the impact of small scale mutations on drug r...
Clark, M. A.; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2018-03-01
We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD's 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clark M. A.
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We present a Lanczos algorithm utilizing multiple grids that reduces the memory requirements both on disk and in working memory by one order of magnitude for RBC/UKQCD’s 48I and 64I ensembles at the physical pion mass. The precision of the resulting eigenvectors is on par with exact deflation.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...
Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2010-01-01
Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of technologies and optimization methodologies were developed to increase the efficiency, maintain the grid stability and support large scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meulmeester, P.; De Laat, J.
2006-01-01
The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa), in which the Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) is included plan to decrease the capital cost compensation (or weighted average cost of capital or WACC) for grid operators. In this article it is explained how the compensation is calculated, why this measure will be taken and what the effects of this cutback are [nl
Autonomous Energy Grids: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroposki, Benjamin D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernstein, Andrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yingchen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-10-04
With much higher levels of distributed energy resources - variable generation, energy storage, and controllable loads just to mention a few - being deployed into power systems, the data deluge from pervasive metering of energy grids, and the shaping of multi-level ancillary-service markets, current frameworks to monitoring, controlling, and optimizing large-scale energy systems are becoming increasingly inadequate. This position paper outlines the concept of 'Autonomous Energy Grids' (AEGs) - systems that are supported by a scalable, reconfigurable, and self-organizing information and control infrastructure, can be extremely secure and resilient (self-healing), and self-optimize themselves in real-time for economic and reliable performance while systematically integrating energy in all forms. AEGs rely on scalable, self-configuring cellular building blocks that ensure that each 'cell' can self-optimize when isolated from a larger grid as well as partaking in the optimal operation of a larger grid when interconnected. To realize this vision, this paper describes the concepts and key research directions in the broad domains of optimization theory, control theory, big-data analytics, and complex system modeling that will be necessary to realize the AEG vision.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...
Zeiler, W.; Vissers, D.R.; Maaijen, H.N.; Kling, W.L.; Velden, van der J.A.J.; Larsen, J.P.
2012-01-01
Er vindt onderzoek plaats naar een nieuwe regelstrategie gebaseerd op de toepassing van een draadloos sensor netwerk dat is gekoppeld aan het smart grid. Doel van deze regelstrategie is om op gebruikersniveau energie te kunnen besparen met behoud of zelfs verbetering van het individueel comfort. Er
2007-01-01
I want to come back and work here when I'm older,' was the spontaneous reaction of one of the children invited to CERN by the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project for a 'Grids for Kids' day at the end of January. The EGEE project is led by CERN, and the EGEE gender action team organized the day to introduce children to grid technology at an early age. The school group included both boys and girls, aged 9 to 11. All of the presenters were women. 'In general, before this visit, the children thought that scientists always wore white coats and were usually male, with wild Einstein-like hair,' said Jackie Beaver, the class's teacher at the Institut International de Lancy, a school near Geneva. 'They were surprised and pleased to see that women became scientists, and that scientists were quite 'normal'.' The half-day event included presentations about why Grids are needed, a visit of the computer centre, some online games, and plenty of time for questions. In the end, everyone agreed that it was a big success a...
Reconsidering solar grid parity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, C.-J.
2010-01-01
Grid parity-reducing the cost of solar energy to be competitive with conventional grid-supplied electricity-has long been hailed as the tipping point for solar dominance in the energy mix. Such expectations are likely to be overly optimistic. A realistic examination of grid parity suggests that the cost-effectiveness of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems may be further away than many are hoping for. Furthermore, cost-effectiveness may not guarantee commercial competitiveness. Solar hot water technology is currently far more cost-effective than photovoltaic technology and has already reached grid parity in many places. Nevertheless, the market penetration of solar water heaters remains limited for reasons including unfamiliarity with the technologies and high upfront costs. These same barriers will likely hinder the adoption of distributed solar photovoltaic systems as well. The rapid growth in PV deployment in recent years is largely policy-driven and such rapid growth would not be sustainable unless governments continue to expand financial incentives and policy mandates, as well as address regulatory and market barriers.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Maine. Number of columns is 197 and number of rows is 292. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...
Minnesota Bouguer Anomaly Grid
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1.5 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the state of Minnesota. Number of columns is 404 and number of rows is 463. The order of the data is from the lower left to...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Michl, Josef; Magnera, Thomas
2008-01-01
...) porphyrin triply linked in the meso-meso, and both beta-beta positions four times by carbon-carbon bonds to each of its neighbors to form porphite sheets a grid-type material that would be an analog of graphene...
Lundquest, E
2003-01-01
At a customer panel discussion during OracleWorld in San Franciso, grid computing was being pushed as the next big thing - even if panellists couldsn't quite agree on what it is, what it will cost or when it will appear (1 page).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)
2014-03-31
NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.
Controlling smart grid adaptivity
Toersche, Hermen; Nykamp, Stefan; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2012-01-01
Methods are discussed for planning oriented smart grid control to cope with scenarios with limited predictability, supporting an increasing penetration of stochastic renewable resources. The performance of these methods is evaluated with simulations using measured wind generation and consumption data. Forecast errors are shown to affect worst case behavior in particular, the severity of which depends on the chosen adaptivity strategy and error model.
Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris
2014-07-01
Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to
Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation
Nouy, Anthony
2016-01-01
Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.
Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation
Nouy, Anthony
2016-01-07
Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Tamulevicius, Tomas
2014-01-01
Robustness is a key issue for the applications of plasmonic substrates such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced spectroscopies, enhanced optical biosensing, optical and optoelectronic plasmonic nanosensors and others. A novel approach for the fabrication of robust plasmonic...... substrates is presented, which relies on the coverage of gold nanostructures with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films of thicknesses 25, 55 and 105 nm. DLC thin films were grown by direct hydrocarbon ion beam deposition. In order to find the optimum balance between optical and mechanical properties...
Robust Self Tuning Controllers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad
1985-01-01
The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...... has several operation modes and a detector for controlling the mode. A special self tuning controller has been developed to regulate plant with changing time delay.......The present thesis concerns robustness properties of adaptive controllers. It is addressed to methods for robustifying self tuning controllers with respect to abrupt changes in the plant parameters. In the thesis an algorithm for estimating abruptly changing parameters is presented. The estimator...
Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport
Brunner, G
2002-01-01
Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.
Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, L; Schulz, M [CERN (Switzerland)], E-mail: Laurence.Field@cern.ch, E-mail: Markus.Schulz@cern.ch
2008-07-01
Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards.
Grid interoperability: the interoperations cookbook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, L; Schulz, M
2008-01-01
Over recent years a number of grid projects have emerged which have built grid infrastructures that are now the computing backbones for various user communities. A significant number of these communities are limited to one grid infrastructure due to the different middleware and procedures used in each grid. Grid interoperation is trying to bridge these differences and enable virtual organizations to access resources independent of the grid project affiliation. This paper gives an overview of grid interoperation and describes the current methods used to bridge the differences between grids. Actual use cases encountered during the last three years are discussed and the most important interfaces required for interoperability are highlighted. A summary of the standardisation efforts in these areas is given and we argue for moving more aggressively towards standards
Allegheny County Map Index Grid
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Map Index Sheets from Block and Lot Grid of Property Assessment and based on aerial photography, showing 1983 datum with solid line and NAD 27 with 5 second grid...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galaktionov, V V
2011-07-01
GridCom - the software package for maintenance of automation of access to means of distributed system Grid (jobs and data). The client part, executed in the form of Java-applets, realises the Web-interface access to Grid through standard browsers. The executive part Lexor (LCG Executor) is started by the user in UI (User Interface) machine providing performance of Grid operations
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid
Smirnova, O.
2012-12-01
Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place
Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smirnova, O
2012-01-01
Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place
Communication technologies in smart grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miladinović Nikola
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.
Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert
2008-01-01
We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This
Robustness Envelopes of Networks
Trajanovski, S.; Martín-Hernández, J.; Winterbach, W.; Van Mieghem, P.
2013-01-01
We study the robustness of networks under node removal, considering random node failure, as well as targeted node attacks based on network centrality measures. Whilst both of these have been studied in the literature, existing approaches tend to study random failure in terms of average-case
Grid3: An Application Grid Laboratory for Science
CERN. Geneva
2004-01-01
level services required by the participating experiments. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. The Grid3 infrastructure was deployed from grid level services provided by groups and applications within the collaboration. The services were organized into four distinct "grid level services" including: Grid3 Packaging, Monitoring and Information systems, User Authentication and the iGOC Grid Operatio...
Grid Integration | Water Power | NREL
Grid Integration Grid Integration For marine and hydrokinetic technologies to play a larger role in supplying the nation's energy needs, integration into the U.S. power grid is an important challenge to address. Efficient integration of variable power resources like water power is a critical part of the
Kumar, A.
2017-01-01
The Indian Smart Grid Forum defines a smart grid as "a power system capable of two-way communication between all the entities of the network-generation, transmission, distribution and the consumers". Like most work on smart grids, this view is also mainly technical. This paper aims to progress the
Huang, Bin-Juine; Hsu, Po-Chien; Wang, Yi-Hung; Tang, Tzu-Chiao; Wang, Jia-Wei; Dong, Xin-Hong; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Li, Kang; Lee, Kung-Yen
2018-03-01
A novel pyramid solar micro-grid is proposed in the present study. All the members within the micro-grid can mutually share excess solar PV power each other through a binary-connection hierarchy. The test results of a 2+2 pyramid solar micro-grid consisting of 4 individual solar PV systems for self-consumption are reported.
Exact constants in approximation theory
Korneichuk, N
1991-01-01
This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base
International Conference Approximation Theory XIV
Schumaker, Larry
2014-01-01
This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV, held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.
MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.G. Biju
2015-05-01
Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.
Parametric uncertainty modeling for robust control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, K.H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
1999-01-01
The dynamic behaviour of a non-linear process can often be approximated with a time-varying linear model. In the presented methodology the dynamics is modeled non-conservatively as parametric uncertainty in linear lime invariant models. The obtained uncertainty description makes it possible...... to perform robustness analysis on a control system using the structured singular value. The idea behind the proposed method is to fit a rational function to the parameter variation. The parameter variation can then be expressed as a linear fractional transformation (LFT), It is discussed how the proposed...... point changes. It is shown that a diagonal PI control structure provides robust performance towards variations in feed flow rate or feed concentrations. However including both liquid and vapor flow delays robust performance specifications cannot be satisfied with this simple diagonal control structure...
The more the merrier: grid based modelling of Kepler dwarfs with 5-dimensional stellar grids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serenelli Aldo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present preliminary results of our grid based modelling (GBM of the dwarf/subgiant sample of stars observed with Kepler including global asteroseismic parameters. GBM analysis in this work is based on a large grid of stellar models that is characterized by five independent parameters: model mass and age, initial metallicity (Zini, initial helium (Yini, and mixing length parameter (αMLT. Using this grid relaxes assumptions used in all previous GBM work where the initial composition is determined by a single parameter and that αMLT is fixed to a solar-calibrated value. The new grid allows us to study, for example, the impact of different galactic chemical enrichment models on the determination of stellar parameters such as mass radius and age. Also, it allows to include new results from stellar atmosphere models on αMLT in the GBM analysis in a simple manner. Alternatively, it can be tested if global asteroseismology is a useful tool to constraint our ignorance on quantities such as Yini and αMLT. Initial findings show that mass determination is robust with respect to freedom in the latter quantities, with a 4.4% maximum deviation for extreme assumptions regarding prior information on Yini – Zini relations and aMLT. On the other hand, tests carried out so far seem to indicate that global seismology does not have much power to constrain Yini – Zni relations of αMLT values without resourcing to additional information.
Smart Grid Demonstration Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Craig [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Carroll, Paul [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States); Bell, Abigail [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Arlington, VA (United States)
2015-03-11
The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houston, J.M.
1977-01-01
An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manero Amoros, F.
1962-01-01
In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs
Maximilien Brice
2006-01-01
Housed in the CERN Computer Centre, these banks of computers process and store data produced on the CERN systems. When the LHC starts operation in 2008, it will produce enough data every year to fill a stack of CDs 20 km tall. To handle this huge amount of data, CERN has also developed the Grid, allowing processing power to be shared between computer centres around the world.
Pöchacker, Manfred; Sobe, Anita; Elmenreich, Wilfried
2013-01-01
Major challenges for the transition of power systems do not only tackle power electronics but also communication technology, power market economy and user acceptance studies. Simulation is an important research method therein, as it helps to avoid costly failures. A common smart grid simulation platform is still missing. We introduce a conceptual model of agents in multiple flow networks. Flow networks extend the depth of established power flow analysis through use of networks of information ...
Cosma Sorinel
2010-01-01
The largest interconnected machine on Earth, the century-old power grid is so massively complex and inextricably linked to human involvement and endeavor that it has been called an ecosystem. To meet sustainability requirements, the electric industry is poised to make the transformation from a centralized, producer-controlled network to one that is less centralized and more consumerinteractive. This move promises to change the industry’s entire business model and its relationship with all sta...
Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization
Cafaro, Massimo; Aloisio, Giovanni
This chapter introduces and puts in context Grids, Clouds, and Virtualization. Grids promised to deliver computing power on demand. However, despite a decade of active research, no viable commercial grid computing provider has emerged. On the other hand, it is widely believed - especially in the Business World - that HPC will eventually become a commodity. Just as some commercial consumers of electricity have mission requirements that necessitate they generate their own power, some consumers of computational resources will continue to need to provision their own supercomputers. Clouds are a recent business-oriented development with the potential to render this eventually as rare as organizations that generate their own electricity today, even among institutions who currently consider themselves the unassailable elite of the HPC business. Finally, Virtualization is one of the key technologies enabling many different Clouds. We begin with a brief history in order to put them in context, and recall the basic principles and concepts underlying and clearly differentiating them. A thorough overview and survey of existing technologies provides the basis to delve into details as the reader progresses through the book.
Resilient Grid Operational Strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-03-01
Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.
Wireless Communications in Smart Grid
Bojkovic, Zoran; Bakmaz, Bojan
Communication networks play a crucial role in smart grid, as the intelligence of this complex system is built based on information exchange across the power grid. Wireless communications and networking are among the most economical ways to build the essential part of the scalable communication infrastructure for smart grid. In particular, wireless networks will be deployed widely in the smart grid for automatic meter reading, remote system and customer site monitoring, as well as equipment fault diagnosing. With an increasing interest from both the academic and industrial communities, this chapter systematically investigates recent advances in wireless communication technology for the smart grid.
GAIA: A 2-D Curvilinear moving grid hydrodynamic code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jourdren, H.
1987-02-01
The GAIA computer code is developed for time dependent, compressible, multimaterial fluid flow problems, to overcome some drawbacks of traditional 2-D Lagrangian codes. The initial goals of robustness, entropy accuracies, efficiency in presence of large interfacial slip, have already been achieved. The general GODUNOV approach is applied to an arbitrary time varying control-volume formulation. We review in this paper the Riemann solver, the GODUNOV cartesian and curvilinear moving grid schemes and an efficient grid generation algorithm. We finally outline a possible second order accuracy extension
Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries
Petitdidier, Monique
2014-05-01
The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.
Kutzner, Florian; Vogel, Tobias; Freytag, Peter; Fiedler, Klaus
2011-01-01
In the present research, we argue for the robustness of illusory correlations (ICs, Hamilton & Gifford, 1976) regarding two boundary conditions suggested in previous research. First, we argue that ICs are maintained under extended experience. Using simulations, we derive conflicting predictions. Whereas noise-based accounts predict ICs to be maintained (Fielder, 2000; Smith, 1991), a prominent account based on discrepancy-reducing feedback learning predicts ICs to disappear (Van Rooy et al., 2003). An experiment involving 320 observations with majority and minority members supports the claim that ICs are maintained. Second, we show that actively using the stereotype to make predictions that are met with reward and punishment does not eliminate the bias. In addition, participants' operant reactions afford a novel online measure of ICs. In sum, our findings highlight the robustness of ICs that can be explained as a result of unbiased but noisy learning.
Eggenberg, Niklaus; Salani, Matteo; Bierlaire, Michel
2010-01-01
Due to economic pressure industries, when planning, tend to focus on optimizing the expected profit or the yield. The consequence of highly optimized solutions is an increased sensitivity to uncertainty. This generates additional "operational" costs, incurred by possible modifications of the original plan to be performed when reality does not reflect what was expected in the planning phase. The modern research trend focuses on "robustness" of solutions instead of yield or profit. Although ro...
Progress in Grid Generation: From Chimera to DRAGON Grids
Liou, Meng-Sing; Kao, Kai-Hsiung
1994-01-01
Hybrid grids, composed of structured and unstructured grids, combines the best features of both. The chimera method is a major stepstone toward a hybrid grid from which the present approach is evolved. The chimera grid composes a set of overlapped structured grids which are independently generated and body-fitted, yielding a high quality grid readily accessible for efficient solution schemes. The chimera method has been shown to be efficient to generate a grid about complex geometries and has been demonstrated to deliver accurate aerodynamic prediction of complex flows. While its geometrical flexibility is attractive, interpolation of data in the overlapped regions - which in today's practice in 3D is done in a nonconservative fashion, is not. In the present paper we propose a hybrid grid scheme that maximizes the advantages of the chimera scheme and adapts the strengths of the unstructured grid while at the same time keeps its weaknesses minimal. Like the chimera method, we first divide up the physical domain by a set of structured body-fitted grids which are separately generated and overlaid throughout a complex configuration. To eliminate any pure data manipulation which does not necessarily follow governing equations, we use non-structured grids only to directly replace the region of the arbitrarily overlapped grids. This new adaptation to the chimera thinking is coined the DRAGON grid. The nonstructured grid region sandwiched between the structured grids is limited in size, resulting in only a small increase in memory and computational effort. The DRAGON method has three important advantages: (1) preserving strengths of the chimera grid; (2) eliminating difficulties sometimes encountered in the chimera scheme, such as the orphan points and bad quality of interpolation stencils; and (3) making grid communication in a fully conservative and consistent manner insofar as the governing equations are concerned. To demonstrate its use, the governing equations are
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marek Hicar
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The article is about a control design for complete structure of the crane: crab, bridge and crane uplift.The most important unknown parameters for simulations are burden weight and length of hanging rope. We will use robustcontrol for crab and bridge control to ensure adaptivity for burden weight and rope length. Robust control will be designed for current control of the crab and bridge, necessary is to know the range of unknown parameters. Whole robust will be splitto subintervals and after correct identification of unknown parameters the most suitable robust controllers will be chosen.The most important condition at the crab and bridge motion is avoiding from burden swinging in the final position. Crab and bridge drive is designed by asynchronous motor fed from frequency converter. We will use crane uplift with burden weightobserver in combination for uplift, crab and bridge drive with cooperation of their parameters: burden weight, rope length and crab and bridge position. Controllers are designed by state control method. We will use preferably a disturbance observerwhich will identify burden weight as a disturbance. The system will be working in both modes at empty hook as well asat maximum load: burden uplifting and dropping down.
Some results in Diophantine approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Steffen Højris
the basic concepts on which the papers build. Among other it introduces metric Diophantine approximation, Mahler’s approach on algebraic approximation, the Hausdorff measure, and properties of the formal Laurent series over Fq. The introduction ends with a discussion on Mahler’s problem when considered......This thesis consists of three papers in Diophantine approximation, a subbranch of number theory. Preceding these papers is an introduction to various aspects of Diophantine approximation and formal Laurent series over Fq and a summary of each of the three papers. The introduction introduces...
Limitations of shallow nets approximation.
Lin, Shao-Bo
2017-10-01
In this paper, we aim at analyzing the approximation abilities of shallow networks in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove that there is a probability measure such that the achievable lower bound for approximating by shallow nets can be realized for all functions in balls of reproducing kernel Hilbert space with high probability, which is different with the classical minimax approximation error estimates. This result together with the existing approximation results for deep nets shows the limitations for shallow nets and provides a theoretical explanation on why deep nets perform better than shallow nets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Function approximation of tasks by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gougam, L.A.; Chikhi, A.; Mekideche-Chafa, F.
2008-01-01
For several years now, neural network models have enjoyed wide popularity, being applied to problems of regression, classification and time series analysis. Neural networks have been recently seen as attractive tools for developing efficient solutions for many real world problems in function approximation. The latter is a very important task in environments where computation has to be based on extracting information from data samples in real world processes. In a previous contribution, we have used a well known simplified architecture to show that it provides a reasonably efficient, practical and robust, multi-frequency analysis. We have investigated the universal approximation theory of neural networks whose transfer functions are: sigmoid (because of biological relevance), Gaussian and two specified families of wavelets. The latter have been found to be more appropriate to use. The aim of the present contribution is therefore to use a m exican hat wavelet a s transfer function to approximate different tasks relevant and inherent to various applications in physics. The results complement and provide new insights into previously published results on this problem
A flexible model for economic operational management of grid battery energy storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fares, Robert L.; Webber, Michael E.
2014-01-01
To connect energy storage operational planning with real-time battery control, this paper integrates a dynamic battery model with an optimization program. First, we transform a behavioral circuit model designed to describe a variety of battery chemistries into a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. Then, we discretize the differential equations to integrate the battery model with a GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System) optimization program, which decides when the battery should charge and discharge to maximize its operating revenue. We demonstrate the capabilities of our model by applying it to lithium-ion (Li-ion) energy storage operating in Texas' restructured electricity market. By simulating 11 years of operation, we find that our model can robustly compute an optimal charge-discharge schedule that maximizes daily operating revenue without violating a battery's operating constraints. Furthermore, our results show there is significant variation in potential operating revenue from one day to the next. The revenue potential of Li-ion storage varies from approximately $0–1800/MWh of energy discharged, depending on the volatility of wholesale electricity prices during an operating day. Thus, it is important to consider the material degradation-related “cost” of performing a charge-discharge cycle in battery operational management, so that the battery only operates when revenue exceeds cost. - Highlights: • A flexible, dynamic battery model is integrated with an optimization program. • Electricity price data is used to simulate 11 years of Li-ion operation on the grid. • The optimization program robustly computes an optimal charge-discharge schedule. • Variation in daily Li-ion battery revenue potential from 2002 to 2012 is shown. • We find it is important to consider the cost of a grid duty cycle
Non-Gaussian power grid frequency fluctuations characterized by Lévy-stable laws and superstatistics
Schäfer, Benjamin; Beck, Christian; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc
2018-02-01
Multiple types of fluctuations impact the collective dynamics of power grids and thus challenge their robust operation. Fluctuations result from processes as different as dynamically changing demands, energy trading and an increasing share of renewable power feed-in. Here we analyse principles underlying the dynamics and statistics of power grid frequency fluctuations. Considering frequency time series for a range of power grids, including grids in North America, Japan and Europe, we find a strong deviation from Gaussianity best described as Lévy-stable and q-Gaussian distributions. We present a coarse framework to analytically characterize the impact of arbitrary noise distributions, as well as a superstatistical approach that systematically interprets heavy tails and skewed distributions. We identify energy trading as a substantial contribution to today's frequency fluctuations and effective damping of the grid as a controlling factor enabling reduction of fluctuation risks, with enhanced effects for small power grids.
Microgrid Stability Controller Based on Adaptive Robust Total SMC
Su, Xiaoling; Han, Minxiao; Guerrero, Josep M.; Sun, Hai
2015-01-01
This paper presents a microgrid stability controller (MSC) in order to provide existing distributed generation units (DGs) the additional functionality of working in islanding mode without changing their control strategies in grid-connected mode and to enhance the stability of the microgrid. Microgrid operating characteristics and mathematical models of the MSC indicate that the system is inherently nonlinear and time-variable. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive robust total sliding...
Homogeneity and EPR metrics for assessment of regular grids used in CW EPR powder simulations.
Crăciun, Cora
2014-08-01
CW EPR powder spectra may be approximated numerically using a spherical grid and a Voronoi tessellation-based cubature. For a given spin system, the quality of simulated EPR spectra depends on the grid type, size, and orientation in the molecular frame. In previous work, the grids used in CW EPR powder simulations have been compared mainly from geometric perspective. However, some grids with similar homogeneity degree generate different quality simulated spectra. This paper evaluates the grids from EPR perspective, by defining two metrics depending on the spin system characteristics and the grid Voronoi tessellation. The first metric determines if the grid points are EPR-centred in their Voronoi cells, based on the resonance magnetic field variations inside these cells. The second metric verifies if the adjacent Voronoi cells of the tessellation are EPR-overlapping, by computing the common range of their resonance magnetic field intervals. Beside a series of well known regular grids, the paper investigates a modified ZCW grid and a Fibonacci spherical code, which are new in the context of EPR simulations. For the investigated grids, the EPR metrics bring more information than the homogeneity quantities and are better related to the grids' EPR behaviour, for different spin system symmetries. The metrics' efficiency and limits are finally verified for grids generated from the initial ones, by using the original or magnetic field-constraint variants of the Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grid-Current-Feedback Control for LCL-Filtered Grid Converters With Enhanced Stability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a Second-Order-Generalized- Integrator (SOGI)-based time delay compensation method for extending the stable region of dual-loop Grid-Current-Feedback (GCF) control system. According to the analysis, stable region of the dual-loop system should be designed below a certain...... critical frequency, before time delay compensation method can be applied. To always meet the requirement, relationship between single-loop converter-current-feedback and dual-loop GCF control is clarified, before a robust inner-loop gain for the dualloop GCF scheme is determined. Enforcing this gain allows...
Non-Galerkin Coarse Grids for Algebraic Multigrid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Falgout, Robert D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schroder, Jacob B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2014-06-26
Algebraic multigrid (AMG) is a popular and effective solver for systems of linear equations that arise from discretized partial differential equations. And while AMG has been effectively implemented on large scale parallel machines, challenges remain, especially when moving to exascale. Particularly, stencil sizes (the number of nonzeros in a row) tend to increase further down in the coarse grid hierarchy, and this growth leads to more communication. Therefore, as problem size increases and the number of levels in the hierarchy grows, the overall efficiency of the parallel AMG method decreases, sometimes dramatically. This growth in stencil size is due to the standard Galerkin coarse grid operator, $P^T A P$, where $P$ is the prolongation (i.e., interpolation) operator. For example, the coarse grid stencil size for a simple three-dimensional (3D) seven-point finite differencing approximation to diffusion can increase into the thousands on present day machines, causing an associated increase in communication costs. We therefore consider algebraically truncating coarse grid stencils to obtain a non-Galerkin coarse grid. First, the sparsity pattern of the non-Galerkin coarse grid is determined by employing a heuristic minimal “safe” pattern together with strength-of-connection ideas. Second, the nonzero entries are determined by collapsing the stencils in the Galerkin operator using traditional AMG techniques. The result is a reduction in coarse grid stencil size, overall operator complexity, and parallel AMG solve phase times.
GStat 2.0: Grid Information System Status Monitoring
Field, L; Tsai, M; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
2010-01-01
Grid Information Systems are mission-critical components in today's production grid infrastructures. They enable users, applications and services to discover which services exist in the infrastructure and further information about the service structure and state. It is therefore important that the information system components themselves are functioning correctly and that the information content is reliable. Grid Status (GStat) is a tool that monitors the structural integrity of the EGEE information system, which is a hierarchical system built out of more than 260 site-level and approximately 70 global aggregation services. It also checks the information content and presents summary and history displays for Grid Operators and System Administrators. A major new version, GStat 2.0, aims to build on the production experience of GStat and provides additional functionality, which enables it to be extended and combined with other tools
Spherical Approximation on Unit Sphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eman Samir Bhaya
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a Jackson type theorem for functions in LP spaces on sphere And study on best approximation of functions in spaces defined on unit sphere. our central problem is to describe the approximation behavior of functions in spaces for by modulus of smoothness of functions.
Numerical solution of the full potential equation using a chimera grid approach
Holst, Terry L.
1995-01-01
A numerical scheme utilizing a chimera zonal grid approach for solving the full potential equation in two spatial dimensions is described. Within each grid zone a fully-implicit approximate factorization scheme is used to advance the solution one interaction. This is followed by the explicit advance of all common zonal grid boundaries using a bilinear interpolation of the velocity potential. The presentation is highlighted with numerical results simulating the flow about a two-dimensional, nonlifting, circular cylinder. For this problem, the flow domain is divided into two parts: an inner portion covered by a polar grid and an outer portion covered by a Cartesian grid. Both incompressible and compressible (transonic) flow solutions are included. Comparisons made with an analytic solution as well as single grid results indicate that the chimera zonal grid approach is a viable technique for solving the full potential equation.
Approximate circuits for increased reliability
Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.
2015-08-18
Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.
1978-01-01
An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints
Keyhani, Ali
2012-01-01
Electric power systems are experiencing significant changes at the worldwide scale in order to become cleaner, smarter, and more reliable. This edited book examines a wide range of topics related to these changes, which are primarily caused by the introduction of information technologies, renewable energy penetration, digitalized equipment, new operational strategies, and so forth. The emphasis will be put on the modeling and control of smart grid systems. This book addresses research topics such as high efficiency transforrmers, wind turbines and generators, fuel cells, or high speed turbines
Zhuge, Hai
2004-01-01
The Knowledge Grid is an intelligent and sustainable interconnection environment that enables people and machines to effectively capture, publish, share and manage knowledge resources. It also provides appropriate on-demand services to support scientific research, technological innovation, cooperative teamwork, problem solving, and decision making. It incorporates epistemology and ontology to reflect human cognitive characteristics; exploits social, ecological and economic principles; and adopts techniques and standards developed during work toward the future web. This book presents its methodology, theory, models and applications systematically for the first time.
The GridSite Web/Grid security system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNab, Andrew; Li Yibiao
2010-01-01
We present an overview of the current status of the GridSite toolkit, describing the security model for interactive and programmatic uses introduced in the last year. We discuss our experiences of implementing these internal changes and how they and previous rounds of improvements have been prompted by requirements from users and wider security trends in Grids (such as CSRF). Finally, we explain how these have improved the user experience of GridSite-based websites, and wider implications for portals and similar web/grid sites.
Smart Grid: Network simulator for smart grid test-bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, L C; Ong, H S; Che, Y X; Do, N Q; Ong, X J
2013-01-01
Smart Grid become more popular, a smaller scale of smart grid test-bed is set up at UNITEN to investigate the performance and to find out future enhancement of smart grid in Malaysia. The fundamental requirement in this project is design a network with low delay, no packet drop and with high data rate. Different type of traffic has its own characteristic and is suitable for different type of network and requirement. However no one understands the natural of traffic in smart grid. This paper presents the comparison between different types of traffic to find out the most suitable traffic for the optimal network performance.
Local facet approximation for image stitching
Li, Jing; Lai, Shiming; Liu, Yu; Wang, Zhengming; Zhang, Maojun
2018-01-01
Image stitching aims at eliminating multiview parallax and generating a seamless panorama given a set of input images. This paper proposes a local adaptive stitching method, which could achieve both accurate and robust image alignments across the whole panorama. A transformation estimation model is introduced by approximating the scene as a combination of neighboring facets. Then, the local adaptive stitching field is constructed using a series of linear systems of the facet parameters, which enables the parallax handling in three-dimensional space. We also provide a concise but effective global projectivity preserving technique that smoothly varies the transformations from local adaptive to global planar. The proposed model is capable of stitching both normal images and fisheye images. The efficiency of our method is quantitatively demonstrated in the comparative experiments on several challenging cases.
Approximate Dynamic Programming: Combining Regional and Local State Following Approximations.
Deptula, Patryk; Rosenfeld, Joel A; Kamalapurkar, Rushikesh; Dixon, Warren E
2018-06-01
An infinite-horizon optimal regulation problem for a control-affine deterministic system is solved online using a local state following (StaF) kernel and a regional model-based reinforcement learning (R-MBRL) method to approximate the value function. Unlike traditional methods such as R-MBRL that aim to approximate the value function over a large compact set, the StaF kernel approach aims to approximate the value function in a local neighborhood of the state that travels within a compact set. In this paper, the value function is approximated using a state-dependent convex combination of the StaF-based and the R-MBRL-based approximations. As the state enters a neighborhood containing the origin, the value function transitions from being approximated by the StaF approach to the R-MBRL approach. Semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) convergence of the system states to the origin is established using a Lyapunov-based analysis. Simulation results are provided for two, three, six, and ten-state dynamical systems to demonstrate the scalability and performance of the developed method.
Recent trends in grid computing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Kenichi
2004-01-01
Grid computing is a technology which allows uniform and transparent access to geographically dispersed computational resources, such as computers, databases, experimental and observational equipment etc. via high-speed, high-bandwidth networking. The commonly used analogy is that of electrical power grid, whereby the household electricity is made available from outlets on the wall, and little thought need to be given to where the electricity is generated and how it is transmitted. The usage of grid also includes distributed parallel computing, high through-put computing, data intensive computing (data grid) and collaborative computing. This paper reviews the historical background, software structure, current status and on-going grid projects, including applications of grid technology to nuclear fusion research. (author)
Workshop on Future Generation Grids
Laforenza, Domenico; Reinefeld, Alexander
2006-01-01
The Internet and the Web continue to have a major impact on society. By allowing us to discover and access information on a global scale, they have created entirely new businesses and brought new meaning to the term surf. In addition, however, we want processing, and increasingly, we want collaborative processing within distributed teams. This need has led to the creation of the Grid - an infrastructure that enables us to share capabilities, and integrate services and resources within and across enterprises. "Future Generation Grids" is the second in the "CoreGRID" series. This edited volume brings together contributed articles by scientists and researchers in the Grid community in an attempt to draw a clearer picture of the future generation Grids. This book also identifies some of the most challenging problems on the way to achieving the invisible Grid ideas
Health-e-Child a grid platform for european paediatrics
Skaburskas, K; Shade, J; Manset, D; Revillard, J; Rios, A; Anjum, A; Branson, A; Bloodsworth, P; Hauer, T; McClatchey, R; Rogulin, D
2008-01-01
The Health-e-Child (HeC) project [1], [2] is an EC Framework Programme 6 Integrated Project that aims to develop a grid-based integrated healthcare platform for paediatrics. Using this platform biomedical informaticians will integrate heterogeneous data and perform epidemiological studies across Europe. The resulting Grid enabled biomedical information platform will be supported by robust search, optimization and matching techniques for information collected in hospitals across Europe. In particular, paediatricians will be provided with decision support, knowledge discovery and disease modelling applications that will access data in hospitals in the UK, Italy and France, integrated via the Grid. For economy of scale, reusability, extensibility, and maintainability, HeC is being developed on top of an EGEE/gLite [3] based infrastructure that provides all the common data and computation management services required by the applications. This paper discusses some of the major challenges in bio-medical data integr...
A mixed nonoverlapping covolume method on quadrilateral grids for elliptic problems
Zhao, X.; Chen, Y.; Lv, J.
2016-01-01
A covolume method is proposed for the mixed formulation of second-order elliptic problems. The solution domain is divided by a quadrilateral grid, corresponding to which a nonoverlapping dual grid is constructed. The velocity and pressure are approximated by the lowest-order Raviart–Thomas space on
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None, None
2015-01-12
The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.
Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha
2011-01-01
Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586
Robust efficient video fingerprinting
Puri, Manika; Lubin, Jeffrey
2009-02-01
We have developed a video fingerprinting system with robustness and efficiency as the primary and secondary design criteria. In extensive testing, the system has shown robustness to cropping, letter-boxing, sub-titling, blur, drastic compression, frame rate changes, size changes and color changes, as well as to the geometric distortions often associated with camcorder capture in cinema settings. Efficiency is afforded by a novel two-stage detection process in which a fast matching process first computes a number of likely candidates, which are then passed to a second slower process that computes the overall best match with minimal false alarm probability. One key component of the algorithm is a maximally stable volume computation - a three-dimensional generalization of maximally stable extremal regions - that provides a content-centric coordinate system for subsequent hash function computation, independent of any affine transformation or extensive cropping. Other key features include an efficient bin-based polling strategy for initial candidate selection, and a final SIFT feature-based computation for final verification. We describe the algorithm and its performance, and then discuss additional modifications that can provide further improvement to efficiency and accuracy.
The efficiency of Flory approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obukhov, S.P.
1984-01-01
The Flory approximation for the self-avoiding chain problem is compared with a conventional perturbation theory expansion. While in perturbation theory each term is averaged over the unperturbed set of configurations, the Flory approximation is equivalent to the perturbation theory with the averaging over the stretched set of configurations. This imposes restrictions on the integration domain in higher order terms and they can be treated self-consistently. The accuracy δν/ν of Flory approximation for self-avoiding chain problems is estimated to be 2-5% for 1 < d < 4. (orig.)
Adaptive grid generation in a patient-specific cerebral aneurysm
Hodis, Simona; Kallmes, David F.; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan
2013-11-01
Adapting grid density to flow behavior provides the advantage of increasing solution accuracy while decreasing the number of grid elements in the simulation domain, therefore reducing the computational time. One method for grid adaptation requires successive refinement of grid density based on observed solution behavior until the numerical errors between successive grids are negligible. However, such an approach is time consuming and it is often neglected by the researchers. We present a technique to calculate the grid size distribution of an adaptive grid for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in a complex cerebral aneurysm geometry based on the kinematic curvature and torsion calculated from the velocity field. The relationship between the kinematic characteristics of the flow and the element size of the adaptive grid leads to a mathematical equation to calculate the grid size in different regions of the flow. The adaptive grid density is obtained such that it captures the more complex details of the flow with locally smaller grid size, while less complex flow characteristics are calculated on locally larger grid size. The current study shows that kinematic curvature and torsion calculated from the velocity field in a cerebral aneurysm can be used to find the locations of complex flow where the computational grid needs to be refined in order to obtain an accurate solution. We found that the complexity of the flow can be adequately described by velocity and vorticity and the angle between the two vectors. For example, inside the aneurysm bleb, at the bifurcation, and at the major arterial turns the element size in the lumen needs to be less than 10% of the artery radius, while at the boundary layer, the element size should be smaller than 1% of the artery radius, for accurate results within a 0.5% relative approximation error. This technique of quantifying flow complexity and adaptive remeshing has the potential to improve results accuracy and reduce
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.
1992-01-01
Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de
Smart Grids and Distributed Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorin BICĂ
2018-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the main characteristics of Smart Grids and distributed generation. Smart Grids can be defined as a modernization of the power system so it monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the operation of its interconnected elements (power plants, transmission and distribution system, industrial and residential loads. Distributed generation (DG refers to the production of electricity near the consumption place using renewable energy sources. A load flow analysis is performed for the IEEE14 system in which a DG source (a 5MW wind turbine is added that is on-grid or off-grid. The power losses are determined for these two cases.
Mapping robust parallel multigrid algorithms to scalable memory architectures
Overman, Andrea; Vanrosendale, John
1993-01-01
The convergence rate of standard multigrid algorithms degenerates on problems with stretched grids or anisotropic operators. The usual cure for this is the use of line or plane relaxation. However, multigrid algorithms based on line and plane relaxation have limited and awkward parallelism and are quite difficult to map effectively to highly parallel architectures. Newer multigrid algorithms that overcome anisotropy through the use of multiple coarse grids rather than relaxation are better suited to massively parallel architectures because they require only simple point-relaxation smoothers. In this paper, we look at the parallel implementation of a V-cycle multiple semicoarsened grid (MSG) algorithm on distributed-memory architectures such as the Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon computers. The MSG algorithms provide two levels of parallelism: parallelism within the relaxation or interpolation on each grid and across the grids on each multigrid level. Both levels of parallelism must be exploited to map these algorithms effectively to parallel architectures. This paper describes a mapping of an MSG algorithm to distributed-memory architectures that demonstrates how both levels of parallelism can be exploited. The result is a robust and effective multigrid algorithm for distributed-memory machines.
OGC and Grid Interoperability in enviroGRIDS Project
Gorgan, Dorian; Rodila, Denisa; Bacu, Victor; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas
2010-05-01
EnviroGRIDS (Black Sea Catchment Observation and Assessment System supporting Sustainable Development) [1] is a 4-years FP7 Project aiming to address the subjects of ecologically unsustainable development and inadequate resource management. The project develops a Spatial Data Infrastructure of the Black Sea Catchment region. The geospatial technologies offer very specialized functionality for Earth Science oriented applications as well as the Grid oriented technology that is able to support distributed and parallel processing. One challenge of the enviroGRIDS project is the interoperability between geospatial and Grid infrastructures by providing the basic and the extended features of the both technologies. The geospatial interoperability technology has been promoted as a way of dealing with large volumes of geospatial data in distributed environments through the development of interoperable Web service specifications proposed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), with applications spread across multiple fields but especially in Earth observation research. Due to the huge volumes of data available in the geospatial domain and the additional introduced issues (data management, secure data transfer, data distribution and data computation), the need for an infrastructure capable to manage all those problems becomes an important aspect. The Grid promotes and facilitates the secure interoperations of geospatial heterogeneous distributed data within a distributed environment, the creation and management of large distributed computational jobs and assures a security level for communication and transfer of messages based on certificates. This presentation analysis and discusses the most significant use cases for enabling the OGC Web services interoperability with the Grid environment and focuses on the description and implementation of the most promising one. In these use cases we give a special attention to issues such as: the relations between computational grid and
Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oliver J. D. Barrowclough
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.
Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration
Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.
2008-01-01
Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a
Weighted approximation with varying weight
Totik, Vilmos
1994-01-01
A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.
Framework for sequential approximate optimization
Jacobs, J.H.; Etman, L.F.P.; Keulen, van F.; Rooda, J.E.
2004-01-01
An object-oriented framework for Sequential Approximate Optimization (SAO) isproposed. The framework aims to provide an open environment for thespecification and implementation of SAO strategies. The framework is based onthe Python programming language and contains a toolbox of Python
Surface Wave Detection and Measurement Using a One Degree Global Dispersion Grid
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Stevens, Jeffry L
2006-01-01
.... The models consist of approximately 550 distinct crust and upper mantle structures, with surface layering and/or ocean depths that vary on a one-degree grid to create a total of 64,800 earth models...
Grid Generation Techniques Utilizing the Volume Grid Manipulator
Alter, Stephen J.
1998-01-01
This paper presents grid generation techniques available in the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) code. The VGM code is designed to manipulate existing line, surface and volume grids to improve the quality of the data. It embodies an easy to read rich language of commands that enables such alterations as topology changes, grid adaption and smoothing. Additionally, the VGM code can be used to construct simplified straight lines, splines, and conic sections which are common curves used in the generation and manipulation of points, lines, surfaces and volumes (i.e., grid data). These simple geometric curves are essential in the construction of domain discretizations for computational fluid dynamic simulations. By comparison to previously established methods of generating these curves interactively, the VGM code provides control of slope continuity and grid point-to-point stretchings as well as quick changes in the controlling parameters. The VGM code offers the capability to couple the generation of these geometries with an extensive manipulation methodology in a scripting language. The scripting language allows parametric studies of a vehicle geometry to be efficiently performed to evaluate favorable trends in the design process. As examples of the powerful capabilities of the VGM code, a wake flow field domain will be appended to an existing X33 Venturestar volume grid; negative volumes resulting from grid expansions to enable flow field capture on a simple geometry, will be corrected; and geometrical changes to a vehicle component of the X33 Venturestar will be shown.
From the grid to the smart grid, topologically
Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco
2016-05-01
In its more visionary acceptation, the smart grid is a model of energy management in which the users are engaged in producing energy as well as consuming it, while having information systems fully aware of the energy demand-response of the network and of dynamically varying prices. A natural question is then: to make the smart grid a reality will the distribution grid have to be upgraded? We assume a positive answer to the question and we consider the lower layers of medium and low voltage to be the most affected by the change. In our previous work, we analyzed samples of the Dutch distribution grid (Pagani and Aiello, 2011) and we considered possible evolutions of these using synthetic topologies modeled after studies of complex systems in other technological domains (Pagani and Aiello, 2014). In this paper, we take an extra important step by defining a methodology for evolving any existing physical power grid to a good smart grid model, thus laying the foundations for a decision support system for utilities and governmental organizations. In doing so, we consider several possible evolution strategies and apply them to the Dutch distribution grid. We show how increasing connectivity is beneficial in realizing more efficient and reliable networks. Our proposal is topological in nature, enhanced with economic considerations of the costs of such evolutions in terms of cabling expenses and economic benefits of evolving the grid.
Power grid complex network evolutions for the smart grid
Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Aiello, Marco
2014-01-01
The shift towards an energy grid dominated by prosumers (consumers and producers of energy) will inevitably have repercussions on the electricity distribution infrastructure. Today the grid is a hierarchical one delivering energy from large scale facilities to end-users. Tomorrow it will be a
Grid-connected to/from off-grid transference for micro-grid inverters
Heredero Peris, Daniel; Chillón Antón, Cristian; Pages Gimenez, Marc; Gross, Gabriel Igor; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel
2013-01-01
This paper compares two methods for controlling the on-line transference from connected to stand-alone mode and vice versa in converters for micro-grids. The first proposes a method where the converter changes from CSI (Current Source Inverter) in grid-connected mode to VSI (Voltage Source Inverter) in off-grid. In the second method, the inverter always works as a non-ideal voltage source, acting as VSI, using AC droop control strategy.
The Grid2003 Production Grid Principles and Practice
Foster, I; Gose, S; Maltsev, N; May, E; Rodríguez, A; Sulakhe, D; Vaniachine, A; Shank, J; Youssef, S; Adams, D; Baker, R; Deng, W; Smith, J; Yu, D; Legrand, I; Singh, S; Steenberg, C; Xia, Y; Afaq, A; Berman, E; Annis, J; Bauerdick, L A T; Ernst, M; Fisk, I; Giacchetti, L; Graham, G; Heavey, A; Kaiser, J; Kuropatkin, N; Pordes, R; Sekhri, V; Weigand, J; Wu, Y; Baker, K; Sorrillo, L; Huth, J; Allen, M; Grundhoefer, L; Hicks, J; Luehring, F C; Peck, S; Quick, R; Simms, S; Fekete, G; Van den Berg, J; Cho, K; Kwon, K; Son, D; Park, H; Canon, S; Jackson, K; Konerding, D E; Lee, J; Olson, D; Sakrejda, I; Tierney, B; Green, M; Miller, R; Letts, J; Martin, T; Bury, D; Dumitrescu, C; Engh, D; Gardner, R; Mambelli, M; Smirnov, Y; Voeckler, J; Wilde, M; Zhao, Y; Zhao, X; Avery, P; Cavanaugh, R J; Kim, B; Prescott, C; Rodríguez, J; Zahn, A; McKee, S; Jordan, C; Prewett, J; Thomas, T; Severini, H; Clifford, B; Deelman, E; Flon, L; Kesselman, C; Mehta, G; Olomu, N; Vahi, K; De, K; McGuigan, P; Sosebee, M; Bradley, D; Couvares, P; De Smet, A; Kireyev, C; Paulson, E; Roy, A; Koranda, S; Moe, B; Brown, B; Sheldon, P
2004-01-01
The Grid2003 Project has deployed a multi-virtual organization, application-driven grid laboratory ("GridS") that has sustained for several months the production-level services required by physics experiments of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN (ATLAS and CMS), the Sloan Digital Sky Survey project, the gravitational wave search experiment LIGO, the BTeV experiment at Fermilab, as well as applications in molecular structure analysis and genome analysis, and computer science research projects in such areas as job and data scheduling. The deployed infrastructure has been operating since November 2003 with 27 sites, a peak of 2800 processors, work loads from 10 different applications exceeding 1300 simultaneous jobs, and data transfers among sites of greater than 2 TB/day. We describe the principles that have guided the development of this unique infrastructure and the practical experiences that have resulted from its creation and use. We discuss application requirements for grid services deployment and configur...
Robust automated knowledge capture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
2011-10-01
This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.
Passion, Robustness and Perseverance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lim, Miguel Antonio; Lund, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Evaluation and merit in the measured university are increasingly based on taken-for-granted assumptions about the “ideal academic”. We suggest that the scholar now needs to show that she is passionate about her work and that she gains pleasure from pursuing her craft. We suggest that passion...... and pleasure achieve an exalted status as something compulsory. The scholar ought to feel passionate about her work and signal that she takes pleasure also in the difficult moments. Passion has become a signal of robustness and perseverance in a job market characterised by funding shortages, increased pressure...... way to demonstrate their potential and, crucially, their passion for their work. Drawing on the literature on technologies of governance, we reflect on what is captured and what is left out by these two evaluation instruments. We suggest that bibliometric analysis at the individual level is deeply...
Robust Optical Flow Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Sánchez Pérez
2013-10-01
Full Text Available n this work, we describe an implementation of the variational method proposed by Brox etal. in 2004, which yields accurate optical flows with low running times. It has several benefitswith respect to the method of Horn and Schunck: it is more robust to the presence of outliers,produces piecewise-smooth flow fields and can cope with constant brightness changes. Thismethod relies on the brightness and gradient constancy assumptions, using the information ofthe image intensities and the image gradients to find correspondences. It also generalizes theuse of continuous L1 functionals, which help mitigate the effect of outliers and create a TotalVariation (TV regularization. Additionally, it introduces a simple temporal regularizationscheme that enforces a continuous temporal coherence of the flow fields.
Robust Multimodal Dictionary Learning
Cao, Tian; Jojic, Vladimir; Modla, Shannon; Powell, Debbie; Czymmek, Kirk; Niethammer, Marc
2014-01-01
We propose a robust multimodal dictionary learning method for multimodal images. Joint dictionary learning for both modalities may be impaired by lack of correspondence between image modalities in training data, for example due to areas of low quality in one of the modalities. Dictionaries learned with such non-corresponding data will induce uncertainty about image representation. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic model that accounts for image areas that are poorly corresponding between the image modalities. We cast the problem of learning a dictionary in presence of problematic image patches as a likelihood maximization problem and solve it with a variant of the EM algorithm. Our algorithm iterates identification of poorly corresponding patches and re-finements of the dictionary. We tested our method on synthetic and real data. We show improvements in image prediction quality and alignment accuracy when using the method for multimodal image registration. PMID:24505674
Robust snapshot interferometric spectropolarimetry.
Kim, Daesuk; Seo, Yoonho; Yoon, Yonghee; Dembele, Vamara; Yoon, Jae Woong; Lee, Kyu Jin; Magnusson, Robert
2016-05-15
This Letter describes a Stokes vector measurement method based on a snapshot interferometric common-path spectropolarimeter. The proposed scheme, which employs an interferometric polarization-modulation module, can extract the spectral polarimetric parameters Ψ(k) and Δ(k) of a transmissive anisotropic object by which an accurate Stokes vector can be calculated in the spectral domain. It is inherently strongly robust to the object 3D pose variation, since it is designed distinctly so that the measured object can be placed outside of the interferometric module. Experiments are conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. The proposed snapshot scheme enables us to extract the spectral Stokes vector of a transmissive anisotropic object within tens of msec with high accuracy.
International Conference on Robust Statistics
Filzmoser, Peter; Gather, Ursula; Rousseeuw, Peter
2003-01-01
Aspects of Robust Statistics are important in many areas. Based on the International Conference on Robust Statistics 2001 (ICORS 2001) in Vorau, Austria, this volume discusses future directions of the discipline, bringing together leading scientists, experienced researchers and practitioners, as well as younger researchers. The papers cover a multitude of different aspects of Robust Statistics. For instance, the fundamental problem of data summary (weights of evidence) is considered and its robustness properties are studied. Further theoretical subjects include e.g.: robust methods for skewness, time series, longitudinal data, multivariate methods, and tests. Some papers deal with computational aspects and algorithms. Finally, the aspects of application and programming tools complete the volume.
Homogeneity and EPR metrics for assessment of regular grids used in CW EPR powder simulations
Crăciun, Cora
2014-08-01
CW EPR powder spectra may be approximated numerically using a spherical grid and a Voronoi tessellation-based cubature. For a given spin system, the quality of simulated EPR spectra depends on the grid type, size, and orientation in the molecular frame. In previous work, the grids used in CW EPR powder simulations have been compared mainly from geometric perspective. However, some grids with similar homogeneity degree generate different quality simulated spectra. This paper evaluates the grids from EPR perspective, by defining two metrics depending on the spin system characteristics and the grid Voronoi tessellation. The first metric determines if the grid points are EPR-centred in their Voronoi cells, based on the resonance magnetic field variations inside these cells. The second metric verifies if the adjacent Voronoi cells of the tessellation are EPR-overlapping, by computing the common range of their resonance magnetic field intervals. Beside a series of well known regular grids, the paper investigates a modified ZCW grid and a Fibonacci spherical code, which are new in the context of EPR simulations. For the investigated grids, the EPR metrics bring more information than the homogeneity quantities and are better related to the grids’ EPR behaviour, for different spin system symmetries. The metrics’ efficiency and limits are finally verified for grids generated from the initial ones, by using the original or magnetic field-constraint variants of the Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation method.
Detecting Change-Point via Saddlepoint Approximations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhaoyuan LI; Maozai TIAN
2017-01-01
It's well-known that change-point problem is an important part of model statistical analysis.Most of the existing methods are not robust to criteria of the evaluation of change-point problem.In this article,we consider "mean-shift" problem in change-point studies.A quantile test of single quantile is proposed based on saddlepoint approximation method.In order to utilize the information at different quantile of the sequence,we further construct a "composite quantile test" to calculate the probability of every location of the sequence to be a change-point.The location of change-point can be pinpointed rather than estimated within a interval.The proposed tests make no assumptions about the functional forms of the sequence distribution and work sensitively on both large and small size samples,the case of change-point in the tails,and multiple change-points situation.The good performances of the tests are confirmed by simulations and real data analysis.The saddlepoint approximation based distribution of the test statistic that is developed in the paper is of independent interest and appealing.This finding may be of independent interest to the readers in this research area.
Diversity comparison of Pareto front approximations in many-objective optimization.
Li, Miqing; Yang, Shengxiang; Liu, Xiaohui
2014-12-01
Diversity assessment of Pareto front approximations is an important issue in the stochastic multiobjective optimization community. Most of the diversity indicators in the literature were designed to work for any number of objectives of Pareto front approximations in principle, but in practice many of these indicators are infeasible or not workable when the number of objectives is large. In this paper, we propose a diversity comparison indicator (DCI) to assess the diversity of Pareto front approximations in many-objective optimization. DCI evaluates relative quality of different Pareto front approximations rather than provides an absolute measure of distribution for a single approximation. In DCI, all the concerned approximations are put into a grid environment so that there are some hyperboxes containing one or more solutions. The proposed indicator only considers the contribution of different approximations to nonempty hyperboxes. Therefore, the computational cost does not increase exponentially with the number of objectives. In fact, the implementation of DCI is of quadratic time complexity, which is fully independent of the number of divisions used in grid. Systematic experiments are conducted using three groups of artificial Pareto front approximations and seven groups of real Pareto front approximations with different numbers of objectives to verify the effectiveness of DCI. Moreover, a comparison with two diversity indicators used widely in many-objective optimization is made analytically and empirically. Finally, a parametric investigation reveals interesting insights of the division number in grid and also offers some suggested settings to the users with different preferences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences
2011-07-01
''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)
Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.
2001-01-01
This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article
Robustness Analyses of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hald, Frederik
2013-01-01
The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many mo...... with respect to robustness of timber structures and will discuss the consequences of such robustness issues related to the future development of timber structures.......The robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest arising from a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures, many...... modern building codes consider the need for the robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore, a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues...
TIGER: Turbomachinery interactive grid generation
Soni, Bharat K.; Shih, Ming-Hsin; Janus, J. Mark
1992-01-01
A three dimensional, interactive grid generation code, TIGER, is being developed for analysis of flows around ducted or unducted propellers. TIGER is a customized grid generator that combines new technology with methods from general grid generation codes. The code generates multiple block, structured grids around multiple blade rows with a hub and shroud for either C grid or H grid topologies. The code is intended for use with a Euler/Navier-Stokes solver also being developed, but is general enough for use with other flow solvers. TIGER features a silicon graphics interactive graphics environment that displays a pop-up window, graphics window, and text window. The geometry is read as a discrete set of points with options for several industrial standard formats and NASA standard formats. Various splines are available for defining the surface geometries. Grid generation is done either interactively or through a batch mode operation using history files from a previously generated grid. The batch mode operation can be done either with a graphical display of the interactive session or with no graphics so that the code can be run on another computer system. Run time can be significantly reduced by running on a Cray-YMP.
Resource allocation in grid computing
Koole, Ger; Righter, Rhonda
2007-01-01
Grid computing, in which a network of computers is integrated to create a very fast virtual computer, is becoming ever more prevalent. Examples include the TeraGrid and Planet-lab.org, as well as applications on the existing Internet that take advantage of unused computing and storage capacity of
The smart grid research network
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Troi, Anders; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Larsen, Emil Mahler
2013-01-01
Grid Network’s recommendations’, which relate to strengthening and marketing the research infrastructure that will position Denmark as the global hub for Smart Grid development; strengthening basic research into the complex relationships in electric systems with large quantities of independent parties...
Nuclear Hartree-Fock approximation testing and other related approximations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohenca, J.M.
1970-01-01
Hartree-Fock, and Tamm-Dancoff approximations are tested for angular momentum of even-even nuclei. Wave functions, energy levels and momenta are comparatively evaluated. Quadripole interactions are studied following the Elliott model. Results are applied to Ne 20 [pt
Ruggieri, F
2001-01-01
An overview of the objectives and status of the DataGrid Project is presented, together with a brief introduction to the Grid metaphor and some references to the Grid activities and initiatives related to DataGrid. High energy physics experiments have always requested state of the art computing facilities to efficiently perform several computing activities related with the handling of large amounts of data and fairly large computing resources. Some of the ideas born inside the community to enhance the user friendliness of all the steps in the computing chain have been, sometimes, successfully applied also in other contexts: one bright example is the World Wide Web. The LHC computing challenge has triggered inside the high energy physics community, the start of the DataGrid Project. The objective of the project is to enable next generation scientific exploration requiring intensive computation and analysis of shared large-scale databases. (12 refs).
Andrade, Pedro
2008-01-01
gCube is a service-based framework for eScience applications requiring collaboratory, on-demand, and intensive information processing. It provides to these communities Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to support their activities. gCube is build on top of standard technologies for computational Grids, namely the gLite middleware. The software was produced by the DILIGENT project and will continue to be supported and further developed by the D4Science project. gCube reflects within its name a three-sided interpretation of the Grid vision of resource sharing: sharing of computational resources, sharing of structured data, and sharing of application services. As such, gCube embodies the defining characteristics of computational Grids, data Grids, and virtual data Grids. Precisely, it builds on gLite middleware for managing distributed computations and unstructured data, includes dedicated services for managing data and metadata, provides services for distributed information retrieval, allows the orchestration...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schröder, Sascha Thorsten
special characteristics of offshore grids. With an operational real options approach, it is furthermore illustrated how different support schemes and connections to additional countries affect the investment case of an offshore wind farm and the income of the transmission system operator. The investment...... and investment implications under different regulatory frameworks are a hitherto underrepresented research field. They are addressed by this thesis. Offshore grids between several countries combine the absorption of wind energy with international power trading. However, the inclusion into an offshore grid......This cumulative PhD thesis deals with wind integration in offshore grids from an economic point of view. It is composed of a generic part and eight papers. As the topic has mostly been analysed with a focus on topology and technical issues until now, market-operational questions in offshore grids...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lunde, Morten; Røpke, Inge; Heiskanen, Eva
2016-01-01
how their (intentional or unintentional) choices serve to create or maintain certain boundaries in smart grid development: for example, an exclusive focus on electricity within the broader context of a sustainable energy system. As serious investment starts being made in the smart grid, concepts like......The smart grid is an important but ambiguous element in the future transition of the European energy system. The current paper unpacks one influential national vision of the smart grid to identify what kinds of expectations guide the work of smart grid innovators and how the boundaries of the smart...... research and development and to attract new players into the field. A scenario process such as that demonstrated in this article can serve to articulate some of these implicit assumptions and help actors to navigate the ongoing transition. On the basis of our analysis, European policy makers might consider...
Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q
2012-01-01
Multivariate functions are typically governed by anisotropic features such as edges in images or shock fronts in solutions of transport-dominated equations. One major goal both for the purpose of compression as well as for an efficient analysis is the provision of optimally sparse approximations...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...... to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported shearlet frames as well as a reference for the state-of-the-art of this research field....
Diophantine approximation and Dirichlet series
Queffélec, Hervé
2013-01-01
This self-contained book will benefit beginners as well as researchers. It is devoted to Diophantine approximation, the analytic theory of Dirichlet series, and some connections between these two domains, which often occur through the Kronecker approximation theorem. Accordingly, the book is divided into seven chapters, the first three of which present tools from commutative harmonic analysis, including a sharp form of the uncertainty principle, ergodic theory and Diophantine approximation to be used in the sequel. A presentation of continued fraction expansions, including the mixing property of the Gauss map, is given. Chapters four and five present the general theory of Dirichlet series, with classes of examples connected to continued fractions, the famous Bohr point of view, and then the use of random Dirichlet series to produce non-trivial extremal examples, including sharp forms of the Bohnenblust-Hille theorem. Chapter six deals with Hardy-Dirichlet spaces, which are new and useful Banach spaces of anal...
Approximations to camera sensor noise
Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo
2013-02-01
Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.
Rational approximations for tomographic reconstructions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, Matthew; Beylkin, Gregory; Monzón, Lucas
2013-01-01
We use optimal rational approximations of projection data collected in x-ray tomography to improve image resolution. Under the assumption that the object of interest is described by functions with jump discontinuities, for each projection we construct its rational approximation with a small (near optimal) number of terms for a given accuracy threshold. This allows us to augment the measured data, i.e., double the number of available samples in each projection or, equivalently, extend (double) the domain of their Fourier transform. We also develop a new, fast, polar coordinate Fourier domain algorithm which uses our nonlinear approximation of projection data in a natural way. Using augmented projections of the Shepp–Logan phantom, we provide a comparison between the new algorithm and the standard filtered back-projection algorithm. We demonstrate that the reconstructed image has improved resolution without additional artifacts near sharp transitions in the image. (paper)
Approximation methods in probability theory
Čekanavičius, Vydas
2016-01-01
This book presents a wide range of well-known and less common methods used for estimating the accuracy of probabilistic approximations, including the Esseen type inversion formulas, the Stein method as well as the methods of convolutions and triangle function. Emphasising the correct usage of the methods presented, each step required for the proofs is examined in detail. As a result, this textbook provides valuable tools for proving approximation theorems. While Approximation Methods in Probability Theory will appeal to everyone interested in limit theorems of probability theory, the book is particularly aimed at graduate students who have completed a standard intermediate course in probability theory. Furthermore, experienced researchers wanting to enlarge their toolkit will also find this book useful.
Wave Resource Characterization Using an Unstructured Grid Modeling Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Cheng Wu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling study conducted on the central Oregon coast for wave resource characterization, using the unstructured grid Simulating WAve Nearshore (SWAN model coupled with a nested grid WAVEWATCH III® (WWIII model. The flexibility of models with various spatial resolutions and the effects of open boundary conditions simulated by a nested grid WWIII model with different physics packages were evaluated. The model results demonstrate the advantage of the unstructured grid-modeling approach for flexible model resolution and good model skills in simulating the six wave resource parameters recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission in comparison to the observed data in Year 2009 at National Data Buoy Center Buoy 46050. Notably, spectral analysis indicates that the ST4 physics package improves upon the ST2 physics package’s ability to predict wave power density for large waves, which is important for wave resource assessment, load calculation of devices, and risk management. In addition, bivariate distributions show that the simulated sea state of maximum occurrence with the ST4 physics package matched the observed data better than with the ST2 physics package. This study demonstrated that the unstructured grid wave modeling approach, driven by regional nested grid WWIII outputs along with the ST4 physics package, can efficiently provide accurate wave hindcasts to support wave resource characterization. Our study also suggests that wind effects need to be considered if the dimension of the model domain is greater than approximately 100 km, or O (102 km.
Approximate reasoning in physical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutihac, R.
1991-01-01
The theory of fuzzy sets provides excellent ground to deal with fuzzy observations (uncertain or imprecise signals, wavelengths, temperatures,etc.) fuzzy functions (spectra and depth profiles) and fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. First, the basic ideas of fuzzy set theory are briefly presented. Secondly, stress is put on application of simple fuzzy set operations for matching candidate reference spectra of a spectral library to an unknown sample spectrum (e.g. IR spectroscopy). Thirdly, approximate reasoning is applied to infer an unknown property from information available in a database (e.g. crystal systems). Finally, multi-dimensional fuzzy reasoning techniques are suggested. (Author)
Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marso, Karol
Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various diﬀerent ﬁelds for example in security. Throughout the years this ﬁeld evolved and there are many approaches and many diﬀerent algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as eﬀective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....
Non-Pilot Protection of the HVDC Grid
Badrkhani Ajaei, Firouz
This thesis develops a non-pilot protection system for the next generation power transmission system, the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) grid. The HVDC grid protection system is required to be (i) adequately fast to prevent damages and/or converter blocking and (ii) reliable to minimize the impacts of faults. This study is mainly focused on the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) -based HVDC grid since the MMC is considered as the building block of the future HVDC systems. The studies reported in this thesis include (i) developing an enhanced equivalent model of the MMC to enable accurate representation of its DC-side fault response, (ii) developing a realistic HVDC-AC test system that includes a five-terminal MMC-based HVDC grid embedded in a large interconnected AC network, (iii) investigating the transient response of the developed test system to AC-side and DC-side disturbances in order to determine the HVDC grid protection requirements, (iv) investigating the fault surge propagation in the HVDC grid to determine the impacts of the DC-side fault location on the measured signals at each relay location, (v) designing a protection algorithm that detects and locates DC-side faults reliably and sufficiently fast to prevent relay malfunction and unnecessary blocking of the converters, and (vi) performing hardware-in-the-loop tests on the designed relay to verify its potential to be implemented in hardware. The results of the off-line time domain transients studies in the PSCAD software platform and the real-time hardware-in-the-loop tests using an enhanced version of the RTDS platform indicate that the developed HVDC grid relay meets all technical requirements including speed, dependability, security, selectivity, and robustness. Moreover, the developed protection algorithm does not impose considerable computational burden on the hardware.
Dynamics robustness of cascading systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan T Young
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A most important property of biochemical systems is robustness. Static robustness, e.g., homeostasis, is the insensitivity of a state against perturbations, whereas dynamics robustness, e.g., homeorhesis, is the insensitivity of a dynamic process. In contrast to the extensively studied static robustness, dynamics robustness, i.e., how a system creates an invariant temporal profile against perturbations, is little explored despite transient dynamics being crucial for cellular fates and are reported to be robust experimentally. For example, the duration of a stimulus elicits different phenotypic responses, and signaling networks process and encode temporal information. Hence, robustness in time courses will be necessary for functional biochemical networks. Based on dynamical systems theory, we uncovered a general mechanism to achieve dynamics robustness. Using a three-stage linear signaling cascade as an example, we found that the temporal profiles and response duration post-stimulus is robust to perturbations against certain parameters. Then analyzing the linearized model, we elucidated the criteria of when signaling cascades will display dynamics robustness. We found that changes in the upstream modules are masked in the cascade, and that the response duration is mainly controlled by the rate-limiting module and organization of the cascade's kinetics. Specifically, we found two necessary conditions for dynamics robustness in signaling cascades: 1 Constraint on the rate-limiting process: The phosphatase activity in the perturbed module is not the slowest. 2 Constraints on the initial conditions: The kinase activity needs to be fast enough such that each module is saturated even with fast phosphatase activity and upstream changes are attenuated. We discussed the relevance of such robustness to several biological examples and the validity of the above conditions therein. Given the applicability of dynamics robustness to a variety of systems, it
Smart grid security innovative solutions for a modernized grid
Skopik, Florian
2015-01-01
The Smart Grid security ecosystem is complex and multi-disciplinary, and relatively under-researched compared to the traditional information and network security disciplines. While the Smart Grid has provided increased efficiencies in monitoring power usage, directing power supplies to serve peak power needs and improving efficiency of power delivery, the Smart Grid has also opened the way for information security breaches and other types of security breaches. Potential threats range from meter manipulation to directed, high-impact attacks on critical infrastructure that could bring down regi
Shah, Sohil Atul; Koltun, Vladlen
2017-09-12
Clustering is a fundamental procedure in the analysis of scientific data. It is used ubiquitously across the sciences. Despite decades of research, existing clustering algorithms have limited effectiveness in high dimensions and often require tuning parameters for different domains and datasets. We present a clustering algorithm that achieves high accuracy across multiple domains and scales efficiently to high dimensions and large datasets. The presented algorithm optimizes a smooth continuous objective, which is based on robust statistics and allows heavily mixed clusters to be untangled. The continuous nature of the objective also allows clustering to be integrated as a module in end-to-end feature learning pipelines. We demonstrate this by extending the algorithm to perform joint clustering and dimensionality reduction by efficiently optimizing a continuous global objective. The presented approach is evaluated on large datasets of faces, hand-written digits, objects, newswire articles, sensor readings from the Space Shuttle, and protein expression levels. Our method achieves high accuracy across all datasets, outperforming the best prior algorithm by a factor of 3 in average rank.
Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population density grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's...
Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry
Crossley, A. P.
1969-01-01
Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.
Sensing and Measurement Architecture for Grid Modernization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); De Martini, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
2016-02-01
This paper addresses architecture for grid sensor networks, with primary emphasis on distribution grids. It describes a forward-looking view of sensor network architecture for advanced distribution grids, and discusses key regulatory, financial, and planning issues.
Flexible Mode Control of Grid Connected Wind Energy Conversion System Using Wavelet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhavna Jain
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Small wind turbine systems offer services to critical loads during grid faults and also connected back to grid in normal condition. The connection of a wind energy conversion system to the grid requires a robust phase locked loop (PLL and continuous monitoring of the grid conditions such as overvoltage, undervoltage, overfrequency, underfrequency, and grid outages. This paper describes a flexible control operation to operate a small wind turbine in both stand-alone mode via planned islanding and grid connected mode as well. In particular, a proper monitoring and control algorithm is required for transition between the modes. A wavelet based energy function is used for detection of grid disturbances as well as recovery of grid so that transition between the modes is made. To obtain good power quality LCL filter is used to reduce ripples. PLL is used for synchronization whenever mode changes from stand-alone to grid connected. Simulation results from a 10 kW wind energy conversion system are included to show the usefulness of the proposed methods. The control method is tested by generated gate pulses for single phase bridge inverter using field programmable gate array (FPGA.
Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
2009-01-01
In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...
Approximate Matching of Hierarchial Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augsten, Nikolaus
-grams of a tree are all its subtrees of a particular shape. Intuitively, two trees are similar if they have many pq-grams in common. The pq-gram distance is an efficient and effective approximation of the tree edit distance. We analyze the properties of the pq-gram distance and compare it with the tree edit...
Approximation of Surfaces by Cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup, Thomas
1998-01-01
We present a new method for approximation of a given surface by a cylinder surface. It is a constructive geometric method, leading to a monorail representation of the cylinder surface. By use of a weighted Gaussian image of the given surface, we determine a projection plane. In the orthogonal...
Approximation properties of haplotype tagging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dreiseitl Stephan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.
All-Norm Approximation Algorithms
Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik
2002-01-01
A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation
Truthful approximations to range voting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro
We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare...
On badly approximable complex numbers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.
We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...
Approximate reasoning in decision analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, M M; Sanchez, E
1982-01-01
The volume aims to incorporate the recent advances in both theory and applications. It contains 44 articles by 74 contributors from 17 different countries. The topics considered include: membership functions; composite fuzzy relations; fuzzy logic and inference; classifications and similarity measures; expert systems and medical diagnosis; psychological measurements and human behaviour; approximate reasoning and decision analysis; and fuzzy clustering algorithms.
Rational approximation of vertical segments
Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte
2007-08-01
In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.
Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions
Peralta, Javier
2008-01-01
In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…
Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap
Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt
Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and
Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods
Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu
2015-05-05
An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaulieu, R A
2009-07-13
The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water
Bilinear Approximate Model-Based Robust Lyapunov Control for Parabolic Distributed Collectors
Elmetennani, Shahrazed; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2016-01-01
This brief addresses the control problem of distributed parabolic solar collectors in order to maintain the field outlet temperature around a desired level. The objective is to design an efficient controller to force the outlet fluid temperature
Robust Trust in Expert Testimony
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Dahlman
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The standard of proof in criminal trials should require that the evidence presented by the prosecution is robust. This requirement of robustness says that it must be unlikely that additional information would change the probability that the defendant is guilty. Robustness is difficult for a judge to estimate, as it requires the judge to assess the possible effect of information that the he or she does not have. This article is concerned with expert witnesses and proposes a method for reviewing the robustness of expert testimony. According to the proposed method, the robustness of expert testimony is estimated with regard to competence, motivation, external strength, internal strength and relevance. The danger of trusting non-robust expert testimony is illustrated with an analysis of the Thomas Quick Case, a Swedish legal scandal where a patient at a mental institution was wrongfully convicted for eight murders.
The Internet of things and Smart Grid
Li, Biao; Lv, Sen; Pan, Qing
2018-02-01
The Internet of things and smart grid are the frontier of information and Industry. The combination of Internet of things and smart grid will greatly enhance the ability of smart grid information and communication support. The key technologies of the Internet of things will be applied to the smart grid, and the grid operation and management information perception service centre will be built to support the commanding heights of the world’s smart grid.
Robustness of mission plans for unmanned aircraft
Niendorf, Moritz
This thesis studies the robustness of optimal mission plans for unmanned aircraft. Mission planning typically involves tactical planning and path planning. Tactical planning refers to task scheduling and in multi aircraft scenarios also includes establishing a communication topology. Path planning refers to computing a feasible and collision-free trajectory. For a prototypical mission planning problem, the traveling salesman problem on a weighted graph, the robustness of an optimal tour is analyzed with respect to changes to the edge costs. Specifically, the stability region of an optimal tour is obtained, i.e., the set of all edge cost perturbations for which that tour is optimal. The exact stability region of solutions to variants of the traveling salesman problems is obtained from a linear programming relaxation of an auxiliary problem. Edge cost tolerances and edge criticalities are derived from the stability region. For Euclidean traveling salesman problems, robustness with respect to perturbations to vertex locations is considered and safe radii and vertex criticalities are introduced. For weighted-sum multi-objective problems, stability regions with respect to changes in the objectives, weights, and simultaneous changes are given. Most critical weight perturbations are derived. Computing exact stability regions is intractable for large instances. Therefore, tractable approximations are desirable. The stability region of solutions to relaxations of the traveling salesman problem give under approximations and sets of tours give over approximations. The application of these results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1-tree relaxation are discussed. Bounds on edge cost tolerances and approximate criticalities are obtainable likewise. A minimum spanning tree is an optimal communication topology for minimizing the cumulative transmission power in multi aircraft missions. The stability region of a minimum spanning tree is given and tolerances, stability balls
Observability of Low Voltage grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu
2017-01-01
Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...
Microgrid Stability Controller Based on Adaptive Robust Total SMC
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoling Su
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a microgrid stability controller (MSC in order to provide existing distributed generation units (DGs the additional functionality of working in islanding mode without changing their control strategies in grid-connected mode and to enhance the stability of the microgrid. Microgrid operating characteristics and mathematical models of the MSC indicate that the system is inherently nonlinear and time-variable. Therefore, this paper proposes an adaptive robust total sliding-mode control (ARTSMC system for the MSC. It is proved that the ARTSMC system is insensitive to parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. The MSC provides fast dynamic response and robustness to the microgrid. When the system is operating in grid-connected mode, it is able to improve the controllability of the exchanged power between the microgrid and the utility grid, while smoothing the DGs’ output power. When the microgrid is operating in islanded mode, it provides voltage and frequency support, while guaranteeing seamless transition between the two operation modes. Simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
National transmission grid study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abraham, Spencer [USDOE Office of the Secretary of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)
2003-05-31
The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).
Grid simulator for power quality assessment of micro-grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carrasco, Joaquin Eloy Garcia; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.
2013-01-01
voltages, low-order harmonics and flicker. The aim of this equipment is to test the performance of a given system under such distorted voltages. A prototype of the simulator, consisting of two inverters connected back-to-back to a 380 V three-phase grid and feeding a micro-grid composed of two......-inverter interfaced distributed generators and a critical load was built and tested. A set of experimental results for linear purely resistive loads, non-linear loads and current-controlled inverters is presented to prove the capabilities of the simulator. Finally, a case study is presented by testing a micro-grid.......In this study, a grid simulator based on a back-to-back inverter topology with resonant controllers is presented. The simulator is able to generate three-phase voltages for a range of amplitudes and frequencies with different types of perturbations, such as voltage sags, steady-state unbalanced...
Profitability of smart grid solutions applied in power grid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katić Nenad A.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The idea of a Smart Grid solution has been developing for years, as complete solution for a power utility, consisting of different advanced technologies aimed at improving of the efficiency of operation. The trend of implementing various smart systems continues, e.g. Energy Management Systems, Grid Automation Systems, Advanced Metering Infrastructure, Smart power equipment, Distributed Energy Resources, Demand Response systems, etc. Futhermore, emerging technologies, such as energy storages, electrical vehicles or distributed generators, become integrated in distribution networks and systems. Nowadays, the idea of a Smart Grid solution becomes more realistic by full integration of all advanced operation technologies (OT within IT environment, providing the complete digitalization of an Utility (IT/OT integration. The overview of smart grid solutions, estimation of investments, operation costs and possible benefits are presented in this article, with discusison about profitability of such systems.
Grid Transmission Expansion Planning Model Based on Grid Vulnerability
Tang, Quan; Wang, Xi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Quanming; Zhang, Hongli; Li, Huaqiang
2018-03-01
Based on grid vulnerability and uniformity theory, proposed global network structure and state vulnerability factor model used to measure different grid models. established a multi-objective power grid planning model which considering the global power network vulnerability, economy and grid security constraint. Using improved chaos crossover and mutation genetic algorithm to optimize the optimal plan. For the problem of multi-objective optimization, dimension is not uniform, the weight is not easy given. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method to comprehensive assessment of the population every generation, make the results more objective and credible assessment. the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model are validated by simulation results of Garver-6 bus system and Garver-18 bus.
Rezvani, Alireza; Khalili, Abbas; Mazareie, Alireza; Gandomkar, Majid
2016-07-01
Nowadays, photovoltaic (PV) generation is growing increasingly fast as a renewable energy source. Nevertheless, the drawback of the PV system is its dependence on weather conditions. Therefore, battery energy storage (BES) can be considered to assist for a stable and reliable output from PV generation system for loads and improve the dynamic performance of the whole generation system in grid connected mode. In this paper, a novel topology of intelligent hybrid generation systems with PV and BES in a DC-coupled structure is presented. Each photovoltaic cell has a specific point named maximum power point on its operational curve (i.e. current-voltage or power-voltage curve) in which it can generate maximum power. Irradiance and temperature changes affect these operational curves. Therefore, the nonlinear characteristic of maximum power point to environment has caused to development of different maximum power point tracking techniques. In order to capture the maximum power point (MPP), a hybrid fuzzy-neural maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method is applied in the PV system. Obtained results represent the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method, and the average tracking efficiency of the hybrid fuzzy-neural is incremented by approximately two percentage points in comparison to the conventional methods. It has the advantages of robustness, fast response and good performance. A detailed mathematical model and a control approach of a three-phase grid-connected intelligent hybrid system have been proposed using Matlab/Simulink. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morch, Stein
2000-01-01
Bilateral grid control that obstructs free trade of electricity is in retreat. Negotiations on opening the Skagerrak cables are in progress. The EU, national authorities, network companies with system responsibility, market actors, electricity exchanges all push for quick opening of the grid. At present, free trade of electricity is hindered not so much by physical bottlenecks in the grid as by market actors possessing control and bilateral agreements. The article discusses current bilateral agreements and how they might affect the possibility of a free trade of electricity in Europe
Smart Grid Security. White Paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2011-09-15
One of the biggest concerns for smart grid developers is cyber security due to the reliance on IT communication networks. While the current grid is not immune to energy theft, fraud and malicious cyber-attacks, the smart grid poses new security issues. It is more likely now that theft, malicious attack and fraud will be committed by people working remotely from a laptop several miles away, even in a different country, than someone physically manipulating meters. This makes it difficult to predict where attacks will come from.
Secondary emission monitor (SEM) grids.
Patrice Loïez
2002-01-01
A great variety of Secondary Emission Monitors (SEM) are used all over the PS Complex. At other accelerators they are also called wire-grids, harps, etc. They are used to measure beam density profiles (from which beam size and emittance can be derived) in single-pass locations (not on circulating beams). Top left: two individual wire-planes. Top right: a combination of a horizontal and a vertical wire plane. Bottom left: a ribbon grid in its frame, with connecting wires. Bottom right: a SEM-grid with its insertion/retraction mechanism.
Nonlinear multigrid solvers exploiting AMGe coarse spaces with approximation properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Max la Cour; Vassilevski, Panayot S.; Villa, Umberto
2017-01-01
discretizations on general unstructured grids for a large class of nonlinear partial differential equations, including saddle point problems. The approximation properties of the coarse spaces ensure that our FAS approach for general unstructured meshes leads to optimal mesh-independent convergence rates similar...... to those achieved by geometric FAS on a nested hierarchy of refined meshes. In the numerical results, Newton’s method and Picard iterations with state-of-the-art inner linear solvers are compared to our FAS algorithm for the solution of a nonlinear saddle point problem arising from porous media flow...
Space-Efficient Approximation Scheme for Circular Earth Mover Distance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brody, Joshua Eric; Liang, Hongyu; Sun, Xiaoming
2012-01-01
The Earth Mover Distance (EMD) between point sets A and B is the minimum cost of a bipartite matching between A and B. EMD is an important measure for estimating similarities between objects with quantifiable features and has important applications in several areas including computer vision...... to computer vision [13] and can be seen as a special case of computing EMD on a discretized grid. We achieve a (1 ±ε) approximation for EMD in $\\tilde O(\\varepsilon^{-3})$ space, for every 0 ... that matches the space bound asked in [9]....
Beyond the random phase approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.
2013-01-01
We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...... functional theory and the adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation theorem and contains no fitted parameters. The new kernel is shown to preserve the accurate description of dispersive interactions from RPA while significantly improving the description of short-range correlation in molecules, insulators......, and metals. For molecular atomization energies, the rALDA is a factor of 7 better than RPA and a factor of 4 better than the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional when compared to experiments, and a factor of 3 (1.5) better than RPA (PBE) for cohesive energies of solids. For transition metals...
Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scivetti, Ivan
2003-01-01
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)
2007-06-15
The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)
Cheap contouring of costly functions: the Pilot Approximation Trajectory algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huttunen, Janne M J; Stark, Philip B
2012-01-01
The Pilot Approximation Trajectory (PAT) contour algorithm can find the contour of a function accurately when it is not practical to evaluate the function on a grid dense enough to use a standard contour algorithm, for instance, when evaluating the function involves conducting a physical experiment or a computationally intensive simulation. PAT relies on an inexpensive pilot approximation to the function, such as interpolating from a sparse grid of inexact values, or solving a partial differential equation (PDE) numerically using a coarse discretization. For each level of interest, the location and ‘trajectory’ of an approximate contour of this pilot function are used to decide where to evaluate the original function to find points on its contour. Those points are joined by line segments to form the PAT approximation of the contour of the original function. Approximating a contour numerically amounts to estimating a lower level set of the function, the set of points on which the function does not exceed the contour level. The area of the symmetric difference between the true lower level set and the estimated lower level set measures the accuracy of the contour. PAT measures its own accuracy by finding an upper confidence bound for this area. In examples, PAT can estimate a contour more accurately than standard algorithms, using far fewer function evaluations than standard algorithms require. We illustrate PAT by constructing a confidence set for viscosity and thermal conductivity of a flowing gas from simulated noisy temperature measurements, a problem in which each evaluation of the function to be contoured requires solving a different set of coupled nonlinear PDEs. (paper)
Approximation errors during variance propagation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinsmore, Stephen
1986-01-01
Risk and reliability analyses are often performed by constructing and quantifying large fault trees. The inputs to these models are component failure events whose probability of occuring are best represented as random variables. This paper examines the errors inherent in two approximation techniques used to calculate the top event's variance from the inputs' variance. Two sample fault trees are evaluated and several three dimensional plots illustrating the magnitude of the error over a wide range of input means and variances are given
WKB approximation in atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karnakov, Boris Mikhailovich
2013-01-01
Provides extensive coverage of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation and its applications. Presented as a sequence of problems with highly detailed solutions. Gives a concise introduction for calculating Rydberg states, potential barriers and quasistationary systems. This book has evolved from lectures devoted to applications of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin- (WKB or quasi-classical) approximation and of the method of 1/N -expansion for solving various problems in atomic and nuclear physics. The intent of this book is to help students and investigators in this field to extend their knowledge of these important calculation methods in quantum mechanics. Much material is contained herein that is not to be found elsewhere. WKB approximation, while constituting a fundamental area in atomic physics, has not been the focus of many books. A novel method has been adopted for the presentation of the subject matter, the material is presented as a succession of problems, followed by a detailed way of solving them. The methods introduced are then used to calculate Rydberg states in atomic systems and to evaluate potential barriers and quasistationary states. Finally, adiabatic transition and ionization of quantum systems are covered.
The Cardiovascular Research Grid (CVRG)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CardioVascular Research Grid (CVRG) project is creating an infrastructure for sharing cardiovascular data and data analysis tools. CVRG tools are developed using...
Governments plan data grid projects
Thibodeau, Patrick
2007-01-01
"Some governments and not-for-profit organizations such as hospitals are beginning to look at data grid technology as a means to improve servies, lower operating costs and spur economic development." (1 page)
Distribution Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL
Distribution Integration Distribution Integration The goal of NREL's distribution integration research is to tackle the challenges facing the widespread integration of distributed energy resources NREL engineers mapping out a grid model on a whiteboard. NREL's research on the integration of
Transmission Integration | Grid Modernization | NREL
Transmission Integration Transmission Integration The goal of NREL's transmission integration integration issues and provide data, analysis, and models to enable the electric power system to more and finding solutions to address them to enable transmission grid integration. Capabilities Power
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — isotop.bin - topographic data for conterminous U.S. projected on an 8 km grid. Projection is Albers, central meridian = 96 degrees West, base latitude = 0 degrees...
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) USNGVT is a U.S. National Grid Index (1000m x 1000m) covering Vermont. It is a polygon feature class originally constructed by the Center for...
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF SOLAR SYSTEM PROCESSES ON GEODESIC GRIDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Florinski, V.; Guo, X.; Balsara, D. S.; Meyer, C.
2013-01-01
This report describes a new magnetohydrodynamic numerical model based on a hexagonal spherical geodesic grid. The model is designed to simulate astrophysical flows of partially ionized plasmas around a central compact object, such as a star or a planet with a magnetic field. The geodesic grid, produced by a recursive subdivision of a base platonic solid (an icosahedron), is free from control volume singularities inherent in spherical polar grids. Multiple populations of plasma and neutral particles, coupled via charge-exchange interactions, can be simulated simultaneously with this model. Our numerical scheme uses piecewise linear reconstruction on a surface of a sphere in a local two-dimensional 'Cartesian' frame. The code employs Haarten-Lax-van-Leer-type approximate Riemann solvers and includes facilities to control the divergence of the magnetic field and maintain pressure positivity. Several test solutions are discussed, including a problem of an interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium, and a simulation of Earth's magnetosphere.
Multigrid and multilevel domain decomposition for unstructured grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, T.; Smith, B.
1994-12-31
Multigrid has proven itself to be a very versatile method for the iterative solution of linear and nonlinear systems of equations arising from the discretization of PDES. In some applications, however, no natural multilevel structure of grids is available, and these must be generated as part of the solution procedure. In this presentation the authors will consider the problem of generating a multigrid algorithm when only a fine, unstructured grid is given. Their techniques generate a sequence of coarser grids by first forming an approximate maximal independent set of the vertices and then applying a Cavendish type algorithm to form the coarser triangulation. Numerical tests indicate that convergence using this approach can be as fast as standard multigrid on a structured mesh, at least in two dimensions.
Robust pattern decoding in shape-coded structured light
Tang, Suming; Zhang, Xu; Song, Zhan; Song, Lifang; Zeng, Hai
2017-09-01
Decoding is a challenging and complex problem in a coded structured light system. In this paper, a robust pattern decoding method is proposed for the shape-coded structured light in which the pattern is designed as grid shape with embedded geometrical shapes. In our decoding method, advancements are made at three steps. First, a multi-template feature detection algorithm is introduced to detect the feature point which is the intersection of each two orthogonal grid-lines. Second, pattern element identification is modelled as a supervised classification problem and the deep neural network technique is applied for the accurate classification of pattern elements. Before that, a training dataset is established, which contains a mass of pattern elements with various blurring and distortions. Third, an error correction mechanism based on epipolar constraint, coplanarity constraint and topological constraint is presented to reduce the false matches. In the experiments, several complex objects including human hand are chosen to test the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that our decoding method not only has high decoding accuracy, but also owns strong robustness to surface color and complex textures.
A Comprehensive Study of Gridding Methods for GPS Horizontal Velocity Fields
Wu, Yanqiang; Jiang, Zaisen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Wei, Wenxin; Zhu, Shuang; Zhang, Long; Zou, Zhenyu; Xiong, Xiaohui; Wang, Qixin; Du, Jiliang
2017-03-01
Four gridding methods for GPS velocities are compared in terms of their precision, applicability and robustness by analyzing simulated data with uncertainties from 0.0 to ±3.0 mm/a. When the input data are 1° × 1° grid sampled and the uncertainty of the additional error is greater than ±1.0 mm/a, the gridding results show that the least-squares collocation method is highly robust while the robustness of the Kriging method is low. In contrast, the spherical harmonics and the multi-surface function are moderately robust, and the regional singular values for the multi-surface function method and the edge effects for the spherical harmonics method become more significant with increasing uncertainty of the input data. When the input data (with additional errors of ±2.0 mm/a) are decimated by 50% from the 1° × 1° grid data and then erased in three 6° × 12° regions, the gridding results in these three regions indicate that the least-squares collocation and the spherical harmonics methods have good performances, while the multi-surface function and the Kriging methods may lead to singular values. The gridding techniques are also applied to GPS horizontal velocities with an average error of ±0.8 mm/a over the Chinese mainland and the surrounding areas, and the results show that the least-squares collocation method has the best performance, followed by the Kriging and multi-surface function methods. Furthermore, the edge effects of the spherical harmonics method are significantly affected by the sparseness and geometric distribution of the input data. In general, the least-squares collocation method is superior in terms of its robustness, edge effect, error distribution and stability, while the other methods have several positive features.
Robust and distributed hypothesis testing
Gül, Gökhan
2017-01-01
This book generalizes and extends the available theory in robust and decentralized hypothesis testing. In particular, it presents a robust test for modeling errors which is independent from the assumptions that a sufficiently large number of samples is available, and that the distance is the KL-divergence. Here, the distance can be chosen from a much general model, which includes the KL-divergence as a very special case. This is then extended by various means. A minimax robust test that is robust against both outliers as well as modeling errors is presented. Minimax robustness properties of the given tests are also explicitly proven for fixed sample size and sequential probability ratio tests. The theory of robust detection is extended to robust estimation and the theory of robust distributed detection is extended to classes of distributions, which are not necessarily stochastically bounded. It is shown that the quantization functions for the decision rules can also be chosen as non-monotone. Finally, the boo...
Robustness of IPTV business models
Bouwman, H.; Zhengjia, M.; Duin, P. van der; Limonard, S.
2008-01-01
The final stage in the STOF method is an evaluation of the robustness of the design, for which the method provides some guidelines. For many innovative services, the future holds numerous uncertainties, which makes evaluating the robustness of a business model a difficult task. In this chapter, we
Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2009-01-01
Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1975-01-01
An illustrative embodiment of the invention has one or more corrugations formed in the surface of a fuel element grid for a nuclear reactor. Not only does the corrugation enhance the strength of the grid plate in which it is formed, but it also provides a simple and convenient means for regulating the reactor coolant pressure drop through an appropriate choice of the corrugation depth
Smart grid applications and developments
Mah, Daphne; Li, Victor OK; Balme, Richard
2014-01-01
Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologi
Micro Grid: A Smart Technology
Naveenkumar, M; Ratnakar, N
2012-01-01
Distributed Generation (DG) is an approach that employs small-scale technologies to produce electricity close to the end users of power. Todays DG technologies often consist of renewable generators, and offer a number of potential benefits. This paper presents a design of micro grid as part of Smart grid technologies with renewable energy resources like solar, wind and Diesel generator. The design of the microgrid with integration of Renewable energy sources are done in PSCAD/EMTDC.This paper...
Robust statistical methods with R
Jureckova, Jana
2005-01-01
Robust statistical methods were developed to supplement the classical procedures when the data violate classical assumptions. They are ideally suited to applied research across a broad spectrum of study, yet most books on the subject are narrowly focused, overly theoretical, or simply outdated. Robust Statistical Methods with R provides a systematic treatment of robust procedures with an emphasis on practical application.The authors work from underlying mathematical tools to implementation, paying special attention to the computational aspects. They cover the whole range of robust methods, including differentiable statistical functions, distance of measures, influence functions, and asymptotic distributions, in a rigorous yet approachable manner. Highlighting hands-on problem solving, many examples and computational algorithms using the R software supplement the discussion. The book examines the characteristics of robustness, estimators of real parameter, large sample properties, and goodness-of-fit tests. It...
Robust-yet-fragile nature of interdependent networks
Tan, Fei; Xia, Yongxiang; Wei, Zhi
2015-05-01
Interdependent networks have been shown to be extremely vulnerable based on the percolation model. Parshani et al. [Europhys. Lett. 92, 68002 (2010), 10.1209/0295-5075/92/68002] further indicated that the more intersimilar networks are, the more robust they are to random failures. When traffic load is considered, how do the coupling patterns impact cascading failures in interdependent networks? This question has been largely unexplored until now. In this paper, we address this question by investigating the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi random graphs and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks under either random failures or intentional attacks. It is found that interdependent Erdös-Rényi random graphs are robust yet fragile under either random failures or intentional attacks. Interdependent Barabási-Albert scale-free networks, however, are only robust yet fragile under random failures but fragile under intentional attacks. We further analyze the interdependent communication network and power grid and achieve similar results. These results advance our understanding of how interdependency shapes network robustness.
Robustness of inflation to inhomogeneous initial conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clough, Katy; Lim, Eugene A. [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Physics Department, Kings College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); DiNunno, Brandon S.; Fischler, Willy; Flauger, Raphael; Paban, Sonia, E-mail: katy.clough@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: bsd86@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: fischler@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: flauger@physics.utexas.edu, E-mail: paban@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712 (United States)
2017-09-01
We consider the effects of inhomogeneous initial conditions in both the scalar field profile and the extrinsic curvature on different inflationary models. In particular, we compare the robustness of small field inflation to that of large field inflation, using numerical simulations with Einstein gravity in 3+1 dimensions. We find that small field inflation can fail in the presence of subdominant gradient energies, suggesting that it is much less robust to inhomogeneities than large field inflation, which withstands dominant gradient energies. However, we also show that small field inflation can be successful even if some regions of spacetime start out in the region of the potential that does not support inflation. In the large field case, we confirm previous results that inflation is robust if the inflaton occupies the inflationary part of the potential. Furthermore, we show that increasing initial scalar gradients will not form sufficiently massive inflation-ending black holes if the initial hypersurface is approximately flat. Finally, we consider the large field case with a varying extrinsic curvature K , such that some regions are initially collapsing. We find that this may again lead to local black holes, but overall the spacetime remains inflationary if the spacetime is open, which confirms previous theoretical studies.
TAO-robust backpropagation learning algorithm.
Pernía-Espinoza, Alpha V; Ordieres-Meré, Joaquín B; Martínez-de-Pisón, Francisco J; González-Marcos, Ana
2005-03-01
In several fields, as industrial modelling, multilayer feedforward neural networks are often used as universal function approximations. These supervised neural networks are commonly trained by a traditional backpropagation learning format, which minimises the mean squared error (mse) of the training data. However, in the presence of corrupted data (outliers) this training scheme may produce wrong models. We combine the benefits of the non-linear regression model tau-estimates [introduced by Tabatabai, M. A. Argyros, I. K. Robust Estimation and testing for general nonlinear regression models. Applied Mathematics and Computation. 58 (1993) 85-101] with the backpropagation algorithm to produce the TAO-robust learning algorithm, in order to deal with the problems of modelling with outliers. The cost function of this approach has a bounded influence function given by the weighted average of two psi functions, one corresponding to a very robust estimate and the other to a highly efficient estimate. The advantages of the proposed algorithm are studied with an example.
A robust nonlinear filter for image restoration.
Koivunen, V
1995-01-01
A class of nonlinear regression filters based on robust estimation theory is introduced. The goal of the filtering is to recover a high-quality image from degraded observations. Models for desired image structures and contaminating processes are employed, but deviations from strict assumptions are allowed since the assumptions on signal and noise are typically only approximately true. The robustness of filters is usually addressed only in a distributional sense, i.e., the actual error distribution deviates from the nominal one. In this paper, the robustness is considered in a broad sense since the outliers may also be due to inappropriate signal model, or there may be more than one statistical population present in the processing window, causing biased estimates. Two filtering algorithms minimizing a least trimmed squares criterion are provided. The design of the filters is simple since no scale parameters or context-dependent threshold values are required. Experimental results using both real and simulated data are presented. The filters effectively attenuate both impulsive and nonimpulsive noise while recovering the signal structure and preserving interesting details.
Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-03-01
Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non
High-resolution subgrid models: background, grid generation, and implementation
Sehili, Aissa; Lang, Günther; Lippert, Christoph
2014-04-01
The basic idea of subgrid models is the use of available high-resolution bathymetric data at subgrid level in computations that are performed on relatively coarse grids allowing large time steps. For that purpose, an algorithm that correctly represents the precise mass balance in regions where wetting and drying occur was derived by Casulli (Int J Numer Method Fluids 60:391-408, 2009) and Casulli and Stelling (Int J Numer Method Fluids 67:441-449, 2010). Computational grid cells are permitted to be wet, partially wet, or dry, and no drying threshold is needed. Based on the subgrid technique, practical applications involving various scenarios were implemented including an operational forecast model for water level, salinity, and temperature of the Elbe Estuary in Germany. The grid generation procedure allows a detailed boundary fitting at subgrid level. The computational grid is made of flow-aligned quadrilaterals including few triangles where necessary. User-defined grid subdivision at subgrid level allows a correct representation of the volume up to measurement accuracy. Bottom friction requires a particular treatment. Based on the conveyance approach, an appropriate empirical correction was worked out. The aforementioned features make the subgrid technique very efficient, robust, and accurate. Comparison of predicted water levels with the comparatively highly resolved classical unstructured grid model shows very good agreement. The speedup in computational performance due to the use of the subgrid technique is about a factor of 20. A typical daily forecast can be carried out in less than 10 min on a standard PC-like hardware. The subgrid technique is therefore a promising framework to perform accurate temporal and spatial large-scale simulations of coastal and estuarine flow and transport processes at low computational cost.
Approximate solutions to Mathieu's equation
Wilkinson, Samuel A.; Vogt, Nicolas; Golubev, Dmitry S.; Cole, Jared H.
2018-06-01
Mathieu's equation has many applications throughout theoretical physics. It is especially important to the theory of Josephson junctions, where it is equivalent to Schrödinger's equation. Mathieu's equation can be easily solved numerically, however there exists no closed-form analytic solution. Here we collect various approximations which appear throughout the physics and mathematics literature and examine their accuracy and regimes of applicability. Particular attention is paid to quantities relevant to the physics of Josephson junctions, but the arguments and notation are kept general so as to be of use to the broader physics community.
Approximate Inference for Wireless Communications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten
This thesis investigates signal processing techniques for wireless communication receivers. The aim is to improve the performance or reduce the computationally complexity of these, where the primary focus area is cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) (and extensions...... to the optimal one, which usually requires an unacceptable high complexity. Some of the treated approximate methods are based on QL-factorization of the channel matrix. In the work presented in this thesis it is proven how the QL-factorization of frequency-selective channels asymptotically provides the minimum...
Quantum tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2008-01-01
Hawking radiation as tunneling by Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation is analysed. We compute all quantum corrections in the single particle action revealing that these are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We show that a simple choice of the proportionality constants reproduces the one loop back reaction effect in the spacetime, found by conformal field theory methods, which modifies the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Using the law of black hole mechanics we give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Some examples are explicitly worked out.
Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.
1996-01-01
Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society