This paper reports that the Gas Research Institute has proposed a 1993 US research and development program totaling $201.8 million, the same level as the 1991 but down from $212.9 million this year. GRI filed the 1993 proposal and its 1993-97 R and D plan with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. If FERC approves the plan, interstate gas pipeline companies would support the GRI research by collecting a surcharge of 1.51 cents/Mcf on nondiscounted gas transactions and 8 cents/Mcf/month on uniform demand or reservations. The proposed budget is based on a revised funding mechanism FERC is considering for GRI. The research agency's general expanses and capital budget would remain at the 1992 level of $9.8 million
This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...
This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...
Knebel Sebastian; Seele Peter
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the status of non financial reporting according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) 3.1 A+ standard. By examining the comprehensiveness of the GRI performance in corporate non financial reports classified as A+ the authors challenge the external assurance system imposed by GRI 3.1 A+ and discuss future directions for the application of GRI 4.0 particularly with regard to the standardized corporate reporting software language XBRL. Des...
Knödlseder, Jürgen; von Ballmoos, Peter; Frontera, Filippo; Bazzano, Angela; Christensen, Finn; Hernanz, Margarida; Wunderer, Cornelia
The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reaching 600 cm2. It will be complemented by a single reflection multilayer coated mirror, extending the GRI energy band into the hard X-ray regime, down to ˜10 keV. The concentrated photons will be collected by a position sensitive pixelised CZT stack detector. We estimate continuum sensitivities of better than 10 - 7 ph cm - 2s - 1keV - 1 for a 100 ks exposure; the narrow line sensitivity will be better than 3 × 10 - 6 ph cm - 2s - 1 for the same integration time. As focusing instrument, GRI will have an angular resolution of better than 30 arcsec within a field of view of roughly 5 arcmin—an unprecedented achievement in the gamma-ray domain. Owing to the large focal length of 100 m of the lens and the mirror, the optics and detector will be placed on two separate spacecrafts flying in formation in a high elliptical orbit. R&D work to enable the lens focusing technology and to develop the required focal plane detector is currently underway, financed by ASI, CNES, ESA, and the Spanish Ministery of Education and Science. The GRI mission has been proposed as class M mission for ESAs Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. GRI will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the universe.
Hill, V.L.; Barone, S.P.; Meyer, H.S.
Corrosion, erosion/corrosion and mechanical property testing of commercial available materials in coal gasification atmospheres has been supported by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) since 1978. Recent corrosion data developed in the program for gasification and methanation technologies under development by GRI are presented. A brief discussion of typical results of long-term stress-rupture tests in coal gasification atmospheres is included
Project submitted as partial requirement for the conferral of Master in International Management This thesis is a corporate project analyzing the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) reporting process. Its main objective is to propose a practical framework to guide organizations that plan to engage in first-time voluntary sustainability reporting using GRI’s Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. The thesis provides insight into the exact tasks involved in each stage of the GRI repo...
Wrzaczek, Michael; Brosché, Mikael; Kollist, Hannes; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have important functions in plant stress responses and development. In plants, ozone and pathogen infection induce an extracellular oxidative burst that is involved in the regulation of cell death. However, very little is known about how plants can perceive ROS and regulate the initiation and the containment of cell death. We have identified an Arabidopsis thaliana protein, GRIM REAPER (GRI), that is involved in the regulation of cell death induced by extracellular ROS. Plants with an insertion in GRI display an ozone-sensitive phenotype. GRI is an Arabidopsis ortholog of the tobacco flower-specific Stig1 gene. The GRI protein appears to be processed in leaves with a release of an N-terminal fragment of the protein. Infiltration of the N-terminal fragment of the GRI protein into leaves caused cell death in a superoxide- and salicylic acid-dependent manner. Analysis of the extracellular GRI protein yields information on how plants can initiate ROS-induced cell death during stress response and development.
Nesbitt, D.M.; Singh, J.; Pine, G.D.; Kline, D.; Barron, M.; Cheung, P.D.
This paper summarizes the results from the GRI North American Regional Gas Supply-Demand Model using the four scenarios defined for the Energy Modeling Forum Number 9 (EMF-9) described in EMF-9 Working Paper 9.4 (1987). The analysis is designed both to showcase the GRI North American Regional model as well as to infer meaningful results about the North American natural gas system. The focus of the analysis is not R ampersand D per se; R ampersand D analysis using the model is conducted regularly by GRI and described elsewhere. Rather, the objective is to analyze some of the major uncertainties in the North American gas market, uncertainties that potentially affect all players including GRI. In particular, the authors seek to quantify the overall economic environment in which production, transmission, distribution, consumption, and R ampersand D decisions will be made and how different that overall environment might be under alternative assumptions. An attendant objective of this analysis has been to enlist economists from a range of organizations (producers, regulators, GRI, and consultants) to carefully scrutinize the GRI North American Regional model and results. In particular, the coauthors were assembled from diverse organizations to review and evaluate model outputs, applying their particular experience and perspective. The four EMF-9 scenarios upon which this paper is based are described in detail later in this document. Briefly, scenario one represents a world with a surfeit of gas and a relatively high oil price projection; scenario two considers a lower oil price forecast; scenario three assumes a pessimistic outlook for the gas resource base with the same oil prices as scenario one; and scenario four examines a higher level of demand for gas in the North American gas market. An important objective of this analysis is to illustrate the predictive power of multi-scenario comparisons (as contrasted with detailed analysis of any individual scenario)
ÜSTÜN, Gökhan; TIRPANCI, Ayşenur
Çalışmanın amacı, gri su arıtımının ve yeniden kullanılması konusunun incelenmesidir. Bu amaç için daha önce yapılmış literatür çalışmaları araştırılıp, yorumlanmıştır. Çalışmanın ilk aşamasında gri suyun tanımlanması ile fiziksel, kimyasal ve biyolojik karakteristiği açıklanmıştır. İkinci kısmında, gri suyun arıtım yöntemleri ve yeniden kullanımı incelenmiştir. Üçüncü kısımda gri suların arıtımında kullanılan teknolojiler tek tek açıklanmıştır. Son olarak gri su arıtımı ve yeniden kullanımı ...
This paper presents a summary of the key observations and conclusions from the Gas Research Institute's (GRI's) Comprehensive Study Well (CSW) research program conducted in the Devonian Shales of the Appalachian Basin. Initiated in 1987, the CSW program was a series of highly instrumented study wells drilled in cooperation with industry partners. Seven wells were drilled as part of the program. Extensive data sets were collected and special experiments were run on the CSW's in addition to the operator's normal operations, with the objectives of identifying geologic production controls, refining formation evaluation tools, and improving reservoir description and stimulation practices in the Devonian Shales. This paper highlights the key results from the research conducted in the CSW program in the areas of geologic production controls, formation evaluation, stimulation and reservoir engineering, and field operations. The development of geologic, log analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analysis, and reservoir models for the Shales from the data gathered and analyzed during the research is discussed. In addition, on the basis of what was learned in the CSW program, GRI's plans for new research in the Devonian Shales are described
Kawahara, Naoko; Irie, Noriko
[Abstract] Japanese companies do not comply with the Global Reporting Initiatives （GRI）'s Sustainability Guidelines as much as other developed countries, and their compliance levels are lower among developed countries. This study overviewed the characteristics of Japanese GRI compliance and analysed 15 Japanese listed companies on the information of their corporate sustainability reports in which they comply with the GRI version 3.1 Guidelines. The possible correlation between GRI compliance ...
Dombrowski, L.P.; Pine, G.D.; Rinholm, R.C.
From GRI's inception in 1978 through early 1991, 170 GRI-sponsored research and development (R and D) products have been placed into commercial service. Twenty-four of these products were introduced between April 1990 and March 1991. Benefits have been quantified for 87 of the 170 items, and the calculated ratio of the benefits to gas customers to total GRI costs incurred through the end of 1990 is 4.9 to 1. The calculated internal rate of return to gas customers on their investment in GRI to date is 21.5 percent. When only the costs of completed, terminated, or deferred R and D are included, the benefit-to-cost ratio rises to 7.9 to 1, and the gas customer return on investment rises to 25 percent. The 4.9 to 1 benefit-to-cost ratio is greater than the ratio calculated in May 1990, primarily because of the quantification for the first time of the benefits of two groups of GRI information items: (1) items supporting the use of plastic pipe for gas distribution, and (2) items leading to a better understanding of mid-efficiency gas furnaces and their venting systems
Higashi, Tatsuichiro; Iwasaki, Yuko; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Horinouchi, Sueharu
Grixazone (GX), which is a diffusible yellow pigment containing a phenoxazinone chromophore, is one of the secondary metabolites under the control of A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone) in Streptomyces griseus. GX production is also induced by phosphate starvation. The whole biosynthesis gene cluster for GX was cloned and characterized. The gene cluster consisting of 13 genes contained six transcriptional units, griT, griSR, griR, griAB, griCDEFG, and griJIH. During cul...
Nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI = Level of disclosure in sustainability reports in compliance with Global Reporting Initiative (GRI
Daniela Di Domenico
Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é analisar o nível de disclosure nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o Global Reporting Initiative (GRI nas empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa. Nesse sentido, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva com procedimentos de coleta documental e abordagem quantitativa. A amostra analisada ficou composta por 93 empresas listadas na BM&FBovespa, que divulgaram o relatório de sustentabilidade no ano de 2014 em conformidade com o modelo GRI. Os resultados mostram que à medida em que há maior complexidade nas informações, que compreendem os grupos de indicadores apresentados nos relatórios de sustentabilidade, reduz o nível de evidenciação pelas empresas. Com relação ao nível de evidenciação, percebe-se que o maior grupo de empresas se concentra com baixa evidenciação. Representa cerca de 30% das empresas analisadas, atendendo até 50 itens dos 150 que o relatório propõe. Quanto ao setor econômico, utilidade pública apresentou maior nível de evidenciação nos relatórios de sustentabilidade em conformidade com o modelo GRI. Conclui-se que, embora tenha havido aumento na divulgação dos relatórios de sustentabilidade, as empresas ainda carecem de adaptação para atender aos indicadores do GRI, melhorando a qualidade dos relatórios divulgados e elevando a transparência aos diversos públicos de interesse. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of disclosure in the sustainability reports in compliance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI in the companies listed on the BM&FBovespa. In this sense, a descriptive research was carried out with procedures of documentary collection and quantitative approach. The sample analyzed was composed of 93 companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, which published the sustainability report in 2014 in compliance with the GRI model. The results show that to the extent that there is more complexity in the information that comprises the groups of indicators
Sustainability reporting refers to the process in which an organization gives an account of issues related to corporate sustainability over a particular reporting period. The report is meant for both internal and external use. Sustainability reporting gives information about the organization’s interactions with its social and ecological environment. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has pioneered the development of the world’s most widely used sustainability reporting framework. GRI Repor...
Knodlseder, J.; von Ballmoos, P.; Frontera, F.
The gamma-ray imager (GRI) is a novel mission concept that will provide an unprecedented sensitivity leap in the soft gamma-ray domain by using for the first time a focusing lens built of Laue diffracting crystals. The lens will cover an energy band from 200-1,300 keV with an effective area reach...... processes in the universe....
Liliana Fernández Lorenzo
Full Text Available Actualmente para lograr un desarrollo sustentable, la sociedad requiere que las organizaciones asuman su responsabilidad socio-ambiental y emitan información acerca de los impactos que su actividad genera en el medioambiente.Dicha información mayormente se presenta a través de las denominadas Memorias o Reportes de Sostenibilidad, que responden a distintas formas y contenidos. Cada vez son más los informes que se elaboran siguiendo los lineamientos del Pacto Mundial (PM y del Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.Consideramos que la información sobre la responsabilidad socio-ambiental debería reunir los requisitos que hacen a toda buena información contable, para incrementar su utilidad.Para comprobarlo, se realiza un estudio de casos a los fines de determinar las características generales de estos informes elaborados bajo pautas del PM y del GRI conjuntamente, concluyendo que la información presentada en las memorias analizadas no reúne los requisitos de una buena información contable.A fin de que la exposición de las CoPs y memorias de sostenibilidad GRI, pueda calificarse de contable, se expresan sintéticamente los indicadores analizados agregando su relación porcentual y se incorporan al Estado Contable Socio-ambiental realizado de acuerdo al modelo base de la FCE-UNLP, considerado como un estado contable (Fernández Lorenzo y Geba, 2008.Nowadays in order to achieve sustainable development, organizations are required to take on their social and environmental responsibility and give information about the impact of their activities in the environment.This information is usually presented through sustainability reports, which widely differ in content and layout. Many organizations worldwide have assumed their responsibility by implementing Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and United Nations Global Compact (GC guidelines.We consider that the information regarding socio-environmental responsibility, should meet the characteristics of the
Mendicino, Giuseppe; Senatore, Alfonso; Versace, Pasquale
SummaryDrought indices are essential elements of an efficient drought watching system, aimed at providing a concise overall picture of drought conditions. Owing to its simplicity, time-flexibility and standardization, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has become a very widely used meteorological index, even if it is not able to account for effects of aquifers, soil, land use characteristics, canopy growth and temperature anomalies. Many other drought indices have been developed over the years, with monitoring and forecasting purposes, also with the purpose of taking advantage of the opportunities offered by remote sensing and improved general circulation models (GCMs). Moreover, some aggregated indices aimed at capturing the different features of drought have been proposed, but very few drought indices are focused on the groundwater resource status. In this paper a novel Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) is presented as a reliable tool useful in a multi-analysis approach for monitoring and forecasting drought conditions. The GRI is derived from a simple distributed water balance model, and has been tested in a Mediterranean region, characterized by different geo-lithological conditions mainly affecting the summer hydrologic response of the catchments to winter precipitation. The analysis of the GRI characteristics shows a high spatial variability and, compared to the SPI through spectral analysis, a significant sensitivity to the lithological characterization of the analyzed region. Furthermore, the GRI shows a very high auto-correlation during summer months, useful for forecasting purposes. The capability of the proposed index in forecasting summer droughts was tested analyzing the correlation of the GRI April values with the mean summer runoff values of some river basins (obtaining a mean correlation value of 0.60) and with the summer NDVI values of several forested areas, where correlation values greater than 0.77 were achieved. Moreover, its performance
Grišakov, Ülle, 1953-
Esimene Tallinna erapark, ainulaadne projekt, mis kombineerib vana industriaalarhitektuuri uute hoonetega ning linnamaastiku värskete lahendustega. Säilitatud on kõrghaljastus. Projekti autorid on Olga Borisik, Triin Järve ja Ülle Grišakov OÜ Kivisilla, 2005
Languille, F.; Gaudel, A.; Vidal, B.; Binet, R.; Poulain, V.; Trémas, T.
In the frame of the Copernicus program of the European Commission, Sentinel-2 is a constellation of 2 satellites on a polar sun-synchronous orbit with a revisit time of 5 days (with both satellites), a high field of view - 290km, 13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infrared, and high spatial resolution - 10m, 20m and 60m. The Sentinel-2 mission offers a global coverage over terrestrial surfaces. The satellites acquire systematically terrestrial surfaces under the same viewing conditions in order to have temporal images stacks. The first satellite was launched in June 2015 and the second in March 2017. In cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA), the French space agency (CNES) is in charge of the image quality of the project, and so ensured the CAL/VAL commissioning phase during the months following the launch. This cooperation is also extended to routine phase as CNES supports European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) and the Sentinel-2 Mission performance Centre (MPC) for validation in geometric and radiometric image quality aspects, and in Sentinel-2 Global Reference Image (GRI) geolocation performance assessment. This paper points on geometric image quality on Sentinel-2B commissioning phase. It relates to the methods and the performances obtained, as well as the comparison between S2A and S2B. This deals with geolocation and multispectral registration. A small focus is also done on the Sentinel-2 GRI which is a set of S2A images at 10m resolution covering the whole world with a good and consistent geolocation. This ground reference leads to ensure an accurate multi-temporal registration -on refined Sentinel-2 products over GRI- which is also presented in this paper.
Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo neste estudo foi identificar aspectos negativos no modelo de reporte proposto pelo Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, na opinião dos funcionários responsáveis pelo reporte. A importância deste estudo reside no fato de que poucos trabalhos investigam os relatórios de sustentabilidade a partir desse ponto de vista, e por oferecer ao GRI pontos específicos para serem melhorados. A pesquisa foi conduzida por meio da análise de conteúdo das respostas de 27 empresas à seguinte questão: que aspectos negativos você identifica no modelo de reporte proposto pelo GRI? Essa questão foi enviada a todas as empresas brasileiras que publicaram o relatório GRI, referente ao ano-base 2010, entre os anos 2011 e 2013. Como resultado, os respondentes consideraram que as empresas têm dificuldade em entender o modelo proposto pelo GRI, o qual foi considerado complexo, ambíguo e flexível demais, o que dificulta a padronização e a comparação entre os relatórios. Esse fato tem implicações para o GRI, que poderia propor uma metodologia mais simples e menos flexível.
Describes South Carolina's Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI), an instructional management system that links diagnostic tests and teaching modules for use by high school mathematics and reading laboratories. (TW)
Ana Kundid Novokmet
Full Text Available Sustainability accounting, with its final output – sustainability reporting, is a new field of accounting focused on evaluating and following up activities regarding a firm’s governance, environmental issues and social inclusion and interaction. Among several standardized frameworks, companies worldwide often choose the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Since the year 2000, GRI Guidelines have evolved and currently the fourth generation is in use. The aim of this study is to assess the latest form of sustainability reporting within an integrated report in the banking industry using the UniCredit Group, which operates in 15 countries, as an example. Sustainability reporting will soon become mandatory in the European Union (EU for large companies, listed companies and publicinterest entities (e.g. banks with an average of at least 500 employees, starting from the year 2018 (for activities in 2017. This paper is focused on a content analysis of the recent bank sustainability reporting with a critical review on this matter.
Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.B.
The annual GRI baseline projection is the result of a complex modeling effort that seeks to achieve an internally consistent energy supply and demand outlook across all energy sources and end-use demand sectors. The year's projection includes the adoption of a new petroleum refinery methodology, the incorporation of a new approach to determining electric utility generating capacity heat rates, the extensive update of both the residential and commercial databases and methodologies, and the continued update of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model. The report presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1992 edition of the projection, an analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer projection, a comparison of the 1992 edition of the projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on natural gas markets. Summary of the annual GRI Energy Seminar (12th) for the GRI Board of Directors and Advisory Council. Held in Asheville, North Carolina on August 12-14, 1991
Each year, Gas Research Institute (GRI) conducts an energy seminar for its Board of Directors and Advisory Council on an issue of timely importance to the gas industry. The topic selected for the Twelfth Annual GRI Energy Seminar was 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Impacts on Natural Gas Markets.' The two sessions of the seminar focused upon the sectors of the energy market most significantly affected by the legislation. Session I: Fuel Choices for Stationary Applications explored the impact of the Clean Air Act Amendments upon stationary, fuel-burning applications, particularly power plants. The current outlook for bringing existing coal-fired power plants into conformance with the law and the significance of the provisions for the choice of fuels for major future fuel-burning facilities were discussed, along with the impact of the provisions upon GRI's strategies and the technical and economic targets for ongoing R and D. Session II: The Emerging Alternative-Fuel Vehicle Market addressed the significance of the new requirements to the outlook for compressed natural gas vehicles and the suitability of GRI's methane vehicle R and D strategy to the revised outlook. The report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the seminar
Nyberg, Niklas; Moberg, Sofia
Sammanfattning Titel: ”Hållbarhetsredovisning i svenska börsbolag – En studie utifrån GRI:s riktlinjer” Seminariedatum: Måndagen 25 Februari 2008 Ämne/kurs: Företagsekonomi C-uppsats, 15 p Författare: Niklas Nyberg, Sofia Moberg Handledare: Margareta Paulsson Nyckelord: GRI, Hållbarhetsredovisning, redovisning, svenska företag Bakgrund: De senaste åren har kraven på svenska företag ökat, och intressenter efterfrågar nu information angående produktion, underleverantörer m.m. Att visa att de ta...
Tamil Eelam and the Tamil genocide in Sri Lanka. This campaign tries to achieve its objectives through the boycott of Sri Lankan tourism and products...Lanka campaign.157 The boycott Sri Lanka campaign is not limited to tourism or products. The Tamil Youth Organization (TYO) is conducting a “Boycott...Sri Lankan sports are not accepted in international fora as they 155Tamils Against Genocide
Gas Research Institute is an independent, not-for-profit organization that plans, manages, and develops financing for a cooperative research and development program for the mutual benefit of the natural gas industry and its customers. The research program consists of over 500 active research projects in natural gas supply and end use, and in gas industry operations, as well as related basic research. This paper summarizes the U.S. natural gas demand and supply outlook projected in a preliminary version of the 191 edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. The projection used for this paper is from an early run of the GRI modeling structure. As such, it is subject to substantial revision before the Baseline Projection is finalized. The paper presents a projection of natural gas demand in the major end-use sectors and the slate of supply sources expected to meet that demand over the period from 1989 to 2010
The paper summarizes the 1993 edition of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, and presents the implications of the projection that are important for GRI research and development planning and the gas industry. The survey of supply and demand considerations is followed by a breakdown of energy demand by type of fuel, by consumption sector, and by service application. Gas supply and prices are analyzed in terms of two scenarios: a constrained energy demand scenario, and an optimistic scenario. Tables and charts accompany the summary
Lilian Soares Outtes Wanderley
Full Text Available Corporations with systematic relationships to tourism are developing activities and publishing CSR reports applying the GRI framework (GRI, 2009. The contribution of tourism to climate change is estimated at between 5% and 12% and by 2050 the amount spent on the tourism sector will consume the entire carbon budget required to avoid dangerous climate change (Scott et al. 2009, UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008. This study defines the TC-8 group, a group of transport in tourism related companies, in order to answer the main questions:To what extent is climate change addressed in the CSR reports of transport companies? Climate change is mentioned and receives attention in all of the company reports analysed, however,overall the transport sector shows that in comparison to the GRI/KPMG (2007 survey, it under-performs. Are the companies just reporting direct emissions from production or also broader emissions from the use of the products? Half of these companies report emissions; some include direct and indirect emissions. Further actions can be mentioned such as, companies participating in forums discussing solutions to climate change, assuming shared responsibilities and employing measures such as reducing energy consumption by runningtheir own photovoltaic power unit or planning for a CO2 neutral operation by 2012.
Van Liedekerke, Luc; De Moor, Lieven; Vanwalleghem, Dieter
We analyse the risk-return profile of Belgian SRI funds versus conventional investment funds. We apply a four-factor conditional Carhart model to establish whether there are significant differences in risk-return profile between an SRI portfolio and a conventional portfolio and test for learning effects in SRI funds. We show that there is no difference in risk-return profile between SRI and conventional funds. If return is not the problem, then what is it that limits the development of an SRI...
The paper summarizes the gas supply outlook in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents the GRI planning outlook for the economic and the energy supply and demand situation to the year 2010. It was prepared independently by GRI using publicly available data and a framework of commercially available models that GRI has developed over several years. It is not derived from the views of GRI member companies. The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices. The gas prices in the 1992 projection support growth in all major U.S. gas supply sources: lower-48, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, and LNG. By about 2005, U.S. gas supply is at its highest level ever. By 2010, U.S. gas supply has grown to almost 25 quads. U.S. gas production increases 2.6 quads between 1990 and 2010; imports increase 2.2 quads. Although imports do not increase as much as U.S. gas production, they account for an increased share of U.S. gas supply. The import share grows from 7 percent to 12 percent over the projection period. Supplemental gas sources provide about 1 percent of U.S. gas supply
Jevgeni Griškovetsi teksti põhjal valminud lavastustest: "Samal ajal", tõlkinud, lavastanud ja mängib Priit Ruttas, esietendus Tartu Athena keskuses 30. juunil 2008. "Linn", lavastaja Lembit Peterson, esietendus Theatrumi saalis 7. juunil 2008. "Vene rännumehe ülestähendused", lavastajad ja kunstnikud Ott Aardam ja Mart Aas, Tartu Uue Teatri esietendus 9. augustil Genialistide klubis
Kramar, Sabina; Rožič, Boštjan; Žbona, Nina; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenović, Ana
The limestone known as Drenov Grič black limestone is considered one of the most beautiful Slovenian natural stones due to its homogenous black colour interwoven with white veins. Over the centuries it has been exploited from three major quarries west of Ljubljana, with the main quarry at Drenov Grič playing the primary role in supplying building material for the central parts of Slovenia. All the quarries are currently not active. In the area of Drenov grič, one locality of black limestone is protected - Kuclerjev kamnolom quarry. It has the status of 'valuable natural feature of national importance' and is protected as a natural monument. This well-stratified micritic limestone of Triassic (Carnian) age occurs in 10-80 cm thick beds, with thin marl interlayers. The stone contains abundant fossil bivalves and ostracods. Apart from calcite as the main component, dolomite, quartz, illite/muscovite and pyrite are also present. The limestone is relatively rich in carbonaceous and bituminous organic matter, which is responsible for the black colour of the stone. This component does not have any adverse effect on mechanical and physical characteristics. As the lime¬stone is dense, thus facilitating a good polish, it has been commercially considered as marble. The stone has been widely used in Slovenian monuments, not only in Ljubljana but also in other regions of Slovenia. Many inner and outdoor architectural elements were made of this limestone, particularly in the baroque period, which was known for the extensive use of black limestones also in other European countries. The most significant use of this limestone has been recorded in sculptured portals and altars. Some of the important buildings decorated utilising this stone, are the Ljubljana Cathedral, the St. James's Parish Church, and the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural monuments of local or national importance. When
Luisa Cecilia Rodríguez-Guerra
Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de investigación realizada a 87 empresas que reportaron bajo la metodología Global Reporting Initiative (GRI G4, capítulo Colombia, entre el 01 de enero y 31 de diciembre del año 2015 con el objetivo de describir el nivel de sostenibilidad social, económica y ambiental, teniendo en cuenta el concepto definido por ellas mismas. Para lograr obtener los resultados esperados, se elaboró una escala de medición, la cual cataloga a la organización de acuerdo a su desempeño en Madura, En Desarrollo e Incipiente, independientemente del tamaño o sector económico al cual pertenezca. Las conclusiones y la discusión pretenden explicar porque el nivel En Desarrollo es el predominante en entorno empresarial Colombiano. De igual manera, se sugiere una implementación organizacional para que la mayor cantidad de empresas posibles, logren la Sostenibilidad Organizacional por medio de un agente externo que así lo determine, después de realizar el respectivo análisis de la información
As part of a program to help improve detection and characterization of defects that may occur in pipelines, the Gas Research Institute has announced the completion of the first phase of a testing facility for the evaluation of new and existing pipeline inspection technologies. GRI is a private, not-for-profit membership organization based in Chicago. The first phase of the facility consists of a pull rig which includes four 300-foot lengths of pipe with diameters of 12, 24, 30, and 36 inches. NDE inspection devices can be pulled through these pipe segments by a winch at speeds up to 25 miles per hour
Omar Al Farooque
Full Text Available This paper explores changes in environmental reporting among Australian MNEs between 2004 and 2007, using the GRI guidelines, and explains how GRI transformation (from G2 to G3 leads to changes in environmental disclosure aspects along with their association with company size, profitability, industry sector. Applying Wilcoxon matched pair signed ranked and Spearman rank correlation tests, twenty companies from the Australian SAM Sustainability Index (AuSSI are examined to identify the extent of changes on specific aspects of environmental disclosure. The findings of the paper document a significant increase in environmental reporting in Australian companies. In particular, reporting has increased for energy, emissions and environmental management followed by water, overall, materials, transport and product/services aspects. However, a shift in emphasis from compliance and biodiversity aspects associated with climate changes and resource preservation is also evident. Again, the majority of changes occurred in companies operating in environmentally sensitive industries with industry sector having significant relationship with a few environmental disclosure aspects, the study shows no significant effect of company size and profitability on different environmental disclosure aspects. These evidences indicate that external forces (such as, legislation, industry sensitiveness to environment, and stakeholder awareness and pressure rather than internal factors are more effective to influence and determine environmental disclosure in Australian companies.
Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; Hillier, David
The concept of materiality emerged as the most important element in the new G4 guideline on corporate sustainability reporting launched by the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) in 2013. This commentary paper offers a preliminary examination of the way in which these new guidelines are being adopted within the business community. The paper begins with a short discussion of the GRI guidelines and the enhanced emphasis on materiality, and the paper draws its empirical material from the first 10 ...
Full Text Available This paper intends to investigate the correlation between the business and organizational size of companies as well as GRI and CSR practices adoption, and the level of sustainability disclosure. The correlation is highlighted through SPSS statistic analysis and determination of an econometric model between a dependent variable - sustainability information disclosure - and five independent ones- sales, number of employees, GRI and CSR policies and ultimately reporting period/year -. We use the Deloitte Sustainability Scorecard for measuring the sustainability reporting practices. Our sample comprises companies that adopted integrated reporting for the period 2009-2010. Sample selection was made on the basis that sustainability reports are incorporated within the integrated reports. We assume to obtain a high correlation between the business and organizational size of companies, GRI and/or CSR polities and the level of sustainability information disclosed in our integrated reports.
Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.
The report summarizes the 1989 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, which was adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of GRI's 1991 R and D program. Summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends are presented. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1989 projection, and analysis of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration energy supply and demand, a comparison of the 1989 projection with previous GRI projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection
The Gas Research Institute (GRI) has been leading an effort over the past few years to consolidate recent developments in the elementary reaction modeling of the oxidation of methane for combustion applications into a single...
Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility is no longer considered an optional activity by companies. The changes that take place worldwide have determined an increasing number of companies to elaborate instruments of implementing CSR principles into their business strategy. A CSR policy adapted to the specifics of the company’s field of activity and to the community in which it is present will bring advantages for both parties. The way through which a company makes their CSR activity results public is by writing a sustainability report which corresponds to international practices in the field. In recent years, an increasing number of companies publish their yearly CSR reports. This reporting originated in the USA, but in the last decade, the number of reports from Europe is increasing. In order to answer to the needs of reporting of the companies, a series of nongovernmental organisms have involved in trying to find the most accessible way that would correspond to the needs of the companies and of the stakeholders. Global Reporting Initiative is a platform that came to the aid of the companies by creating reporting standards which to guide companies through the process of creating the sustainability report. In this paper, we have analysed the evolution in the number of CSR reports worldwide, having then analysed their distribution on continents. We have given attention to the situation in Romania, which in the past ten years, due to multinational companies coming in the market. The presence of multinational companies has helped develop this concept. In the past five years, Romanian companies have submitted CSR reports according to GRI standards. Although the percent of companies of Romanian companies that submit reports according to the GRI standards is small (0.0017%, we believe that it will grow in following years, due to companies realizing the role they have in the society and because the European Commission’s 2014/95/EU Directive will enter into
Full Text Available This study aims to provide an overview of the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the mining company's corporate sustainability report. It is also to analyze the disclosure of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in corporate sustainability report with standard Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI 3.1. Research was conducted in Batubara Bukit Asam (Persero Tbk. and Timah (Persero Tbk. on their corporatesustainability report for the year of 2012. The analysis was conducted on the presentation of economic performance indicator, environmental performance indicator, performance indicators of employment and workplace practices, human rights performance indicator, public performance indicator and performance indicator reported products liability provisions established in the GRI 3.1. The result is the two companies havedisclosed CSR in accordance with GRI3.1. Batubara Bukit Asam (Persero Tbk and Timah (Persero Tbk have disclosed their performance indicators; and the average has exceeded 75%. However, the disclosure of each indicator and its aspects are not comprehensive.
A Summary of the gas supply outlook in the 1993 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand, adopted as a major input to the planning cycle of the 1994 research and development program, is presented. Significant changes were made in developing the gas supply and price trends for the 1993 edition of the projection. The GRI Hydrocarbon Model was expanded to include the Canadian hydrocarbon resource base. Thus, Canadian and lower-48 gas production and prices were developed on a fully integrated basis in the 1993 projection. The lower-48 hydrocarbon resource estimate was increased, reflecting the results of the recent National Petroleum Council gas study and ongoing GRI resource work. The effects of new technology and practice on drilling costs and exploration efficiency were included for the first time. Appendices include comparisons of supply and price trends
Full Text Available We introduce a controlled concurrency framework, derived from the Owicki-Gries method, for describing a hardware interface in detail sufficient to support the modelling and verification of small, embedded operating systems (OS's whose run-time responsiveness is paramount. Such real-time systems run with interrupts mostly enabled, including during scheduling. That differs from many other successfully modelled and verified OS's that typically reduce the complexity of concurrency by running on uniprocessor platforms and by switching interrupts off as much as possible. Our framework builds on the traditional Owicki-Gries method, for its fine-grained concurrency is needed for high-performance system code. We adapt it to support explicit concurrency control, by providing a simple, faithful representation of the hardware interface that allows software to control the degree of interleaving between user code, OS code, interrupt handlers and a scheduler that controls context switching. We then apply this framework to model the interleaving behavior of the eChronos OS, a preemptible real-time OS for embedded micro-controllers. We discuss the accuracy and usability of our approach when instantiated to model the eChronos OS. Both our framework and the eChronos model are formalised in the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover, taking advantage of the high level of automation in modern reasoning tools.
Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis; Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Kandambi, H K Dushantha; Pyron, R Alexander; Wickramasinghe, Nethu
We describe a new species, Aspidura ravanai sp. nov., representing the eighth species of the genus known from Sri Lanka. The new species is readily distinguished from all other congeners by its colour pattern, scalation, and genetic distinctiveness. Our molecular results indicated that Aspidura began diversifying in the Miocene approximately 18 Ma, and A. ravanai sp. nov. diverged from its likely sister lineage A. trachyprocta at least 6.2 Ma. The species is currently known only from the type locality, on the western slopes of Sri Pada Peak in the central highlands of Sri Lanka.
There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology . This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)
Müller, Jørn; Schwartz, M; Skakkebaek, N E
The first and essential step in normal sexual differentiation takes place during the 5th-6th week of gestation. The testis determining factor (TDF) directs the undifferentiated gonad into a testis, which secretes hormones responsible for normal male development. A new candidate for TDF has recently...... been reported, and it has been called the sex determining region of the Y (SRY). The hypothesis has been supported by the finding of XX individuals with SRY, and two females with 46,XY karyotype and a mutation in SRY. However, XX males without SRY has been reported, and the role of SRY still has...... to be determined. We have tested three human females with 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis and two 46,XX males for the presence of SRY using the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. Both 46,XX males contained SRY, whereas one of the 46,XY females had suffered a point mutation in SRY...
Ülevaade Sri Lankal aastakümneid kestnud ja umbes 70 000 tapetut nõudnud kodusõjast, kus omavahel võitlevad võimul olevad singalid ja vähemuses olevad ning mässuliste organisatsiooniks Tamili Tiigrid koondunud tamilid. Kaart: Sri Lanka
state of Tamil Eelam based on the rights of self- determination .”30 They protested restricted citizenship and franchise rights for South Indian Tamils...Lankan terrorist organizations from August 1983 for several reasons,38 beginning with New Delhi’s objection to Sri Lanka’s pro -Western policy after 1977...nonTaxnom. (accessed August 15, 2011) 35 Government of Sri Lanka, “The Parliament of Sri Lanka, 1978 Constitution,” http://www.priu.gov.lk/ Cons
Gonzalez, V.; Dolores, VV. de los; Pastor, V.; Martinez, J.; Gimeno, J.; Guardino, C.; Crispin, V.
Algorithm has been used at our institution iGRiMLO scheduled for individual verification of treatment plans for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) step and shoot through portal dosimetry pretreatment of non-transmission, triggering the plan directly to a portal imaging device (EPID) of an amorphous silicon flat panel.
Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-
Eesti puidufirma Hapa Group alustab tootmist Sri Lankal, lootes suurendada kasumit odava toorme ja tööjõu kasutamise läbi. Lisa: Mõned faktid Hapa Groupi kohta. Diagramm: Tööjõud Sri Lankal 10 korda odavam. Kommenteerivad August Kull, Jaak Leimann, Ilmar Petersen ja Alar Kolk
Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P
Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.
citizens working together. Endnotes 1 Asoka Bandarage, “The Sri Lankan Conflict a Multi-Polar Approach,” Harvard International Review, 15 June 2008...8 Asoka Bandarage, “The Sri Lankan Conflict a Multi-Polar Approach”, Harvard International Review, 15 June 2008, available from...Eastern University Press, 2003), 222. 24 H. Kaunaratna. BA (Ceylon) University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, interviewed by author, 25 November 2008. 25 Asoka
Hansen, Morten Høgh; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld
Determining fetal sex noninvasively is dependent of a robust assay. We designed a novel SRY assay and combined it with a SRY assay from literature forming a duplex assay with the same fluorescent dye to increase detection of Y-chromosome at low cell-free fetal DNA or chimeric DNA concentrations....
Cheryl S. Rosenfeld
Full Text Available Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Testes development in mammals requires a Y chromosome and testis determining gene SRY (in humans/Sry (all other therian mammals, although there are notable exceptions. Two species of spiny rats: Amami spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis and Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis and two species of mole voles (Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, lack a Y chromosome/Sry and possess an XO chromosome system in both sexes. Such rodent species, prototherians (monotremes, who also lack Sry, and fish and reptile species that demonstrate temperature sex determination (TSD seemingly call into question the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation. This review will consider brain regions expressing SRY/Sry in humans and rodents, respectively, and potential roles of SRY/Sry in the brain will be discussed. The evidence from various taxa disputing the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation in mammals (therians and prototherians and certain fish and reptilian species will be examined. A comparative approach to address this question may elucidate other genes, pathways, and epigenetic modifications stimulating brain sexual differentiation in vertebrate species, including humans.
Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal
A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.
Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E
Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.
Lihn, M.L.; Woods, T.J.
The paper summarizes the trends in lower-48 gas transportation in the 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010, which has been adopted as a major input to the planning cycle leading to the development of the Gas Research Institute (GRI) 1993 research and development program. The 1992 projection presents an optimistic outlook for the U.S. gas industry in which increased gas supply can be obtained at competitive prices
29 avr. 2016 ... Aquaculture au Sri Lanka. L'adoption de l'ostréiculture dans deux collectivités côtières du Sri Lanka a donné lieu aux premières exportations d'huîtres du pays. Au Sri Lanka, le gouvernement a pour objectif de doubler la consommation de poisson par personne, de 11 kilos à 22 kilos par année, d'ici à la fin ...
Full Text Available SRY is a sex-determining gene that encodes a transcription factor, which triggers male development in most mammals. The molecular mechanism of SRY action in testis determination is, however, poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that WDR5, which encodes a WD-40 repeat protein, is a direct target of SRY. EMSA experiments and ChIP assays showed that SRY could bind to the WDR5 gene promoter directly. Overexpression of SRY in LNCaP cells significantly increased WDR5 expression concurrent with histone H3K4 methylation on the WDR5 promoter. To specifically address whether SRY contributes to WDR5 regulation, we introduced a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen-inducible SRY allele into LNCaP cells. Conditional SRY expression triggered enrichment of SRY on the WDR5 promoter resulting in induction of WDR5 transcription. We found that WDR5 was self regulating through a positive feedback loop. WDR5 and SRY interacted and were colocalized in cells. In addition, the interaction of WDR5 with SRY resulted in activation of Sox9 while repressing the expression of β-catenin. These results suggest that, in conjunction with SRY, WDR5 plays an important role in sex determination.
Sumathipala, Dulika S; Abeysekera, Gayan S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Tallaksen, Chantal ME; Dissanayake, Vajira HW
Background Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders. Prevalence of SCA subtypes differ worldwide. Autosomal dominant ataxias are the commonest types of inherited ataxias seen in Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to determine the genetic etiology of patients with autosomal dominant ataxia in Sri Lanka and to describe the clinical features of each genetic subtype. Methods ...
The article deals with the use of X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging in medical diagnosis in its introduction. Then it elaborates on the facilities in the field of medical imaging for diagnosis, in Sri Lanka. The use of Technetium-99m in diagnostic medicine as well as the future of medical imaging in Sri Lanka is also dealt with
Dreyfus, D.A.; Koklauner, A.B.
Strategic planning of the research and development program carried out by Gas Research Institute (GRI) is supported by an annual GRI baseline projection of U.S. energy supply and demand. Because petroleum products compete in a wide variety of energy uses, oil prices serve as a market clearing force for the entire energy system. A significant portion of the U.S. petroleum supply is imported, and the price of crude oil to U.S. refiners is determined by the international oil trade. Any projection of the U.S. energy situation, therefore, requires the evaluation of the global oil market and the impact of oil price changes on the supply/demand balances of market participants. The 1992 edition of the projection completed in August 1991 assumed that in the aftermath of the war in the Middle East the fundamentals of oil trade would reassert their influence. This did indeed occur and with astonishing speed. In the face of this outlook, GRI has revised its 1993 oil price track downward
Hikkaduwa Liyanage, A.R.
Sri Lanka's involvement with Nuclear Science and Technology began in 1957 when it became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This was followed by the establishment of the Radioisotope Centre of the University of Colombo in 1962 and the establishment of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) in 1969 by the Atomic Energy Authority Act no. 19 of 1969. The Atomic Energy Authority Act delegated two main responsibilities to the AEA, namely, promotion of the utilization of nuclear technology for the benefit of the people of Sri Lanka, and protection of workers engaged in using radiation and radioisotopes and the public from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Until 2014, the Atomic Energy Authority functioned as the national regulatory authority on use of radiation and radioisotopes, the national organization responsible for facilitating the use of nuclear technology in medical, industrial and agricultural sectors and as the focal point of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Sri Lanka. With the expansion of uses of radiation in Sri Lanka and commencement of use of high activity sources by the AEA for development and business activities, the need for an independent regulatory authority was realized. The importance of establishment of independent regulatory body for Sri Lanka was also emphasized by the IAEA in several advisory missions conducted in Sri Lanka and as results; a new Act on Atomic Energy was promulgated.
R. H. G. Ranil
Full Text Available Diversity, phytogeography and conservation status of Sri Lankan tree-ferns are discussed in this paper. The family Cyatheaceae is represented by eight taxa (seven species and one doubtful variety in Sri Lanka with a high rate of endemism of 75%. Apart from Cyathea walkerae and C. gigantea, the other species are restricted to geographically isolated areas in the country with limited population sizes. Fortunately, all Sri Lankan species of Cyathea occur within the protected areas of the wet zone. However, ex situ conservation is limited to C. walkerae and C. crinita at Botanic Gardens in Hakgala. Despite the family being listed in Annex II of CITES, its species have not yet been assessed in Sri Lanka for the Red Listing criteria. Identification of the nature and level of threat to Sri Lankan Cyathea species is therefore a major priority, followed by the monitoring of populations in situ in protected areas in the wet zone. Ex situ conservation of rare species and cultivation of Cyathea species from spores have also been identified as priority areas. A strong programme should be developed with the National Herbarium to explore little known forest patches in the wet zone to enhance our knowledge of Cyathea species in Sri Lanka. Such information will provide a strong basis for preparing a conservation and management plan for tree-ferns in the country.
Yoshida, M.; Vitanage, P.W.
A dolerite dike from southwestern Sri Lanka gave whole-rock K-Ar ages of 152.6 ± 7.6 Ma and 143.3 ± 7.2 Ma. Many of the other dolerite dikes of Sri Lanka are considered to be of Mesozoic ages judging from the present age data and tectonometamorphic history of Sri Lanka. Petrographic similarities should not be used for age correlations, because dolerites of different age may have the same petrography. Preliminary natural remanent magnetization (NRM) after AF and thermal demagnetization gave a mean inclination of 24.6deg and declination of 67.5deg with α95=21.7deg. A virtual geomagnetic pole position calculated from the mean NRM was rotated relative to Antarctica so as to fit with that obtained from the Jurassic Ferrar dolerite of Antarctica. This rotation results in the location and attitude of Sri Lanka to attach with Antarctica at Lutzow-Holm Bay as suggested by Barron et al. (1978). (author). 18 refs
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the values Gurindam Twelfth contained in Bujang Sri Ladang fairy tale. This study uses an objective approach, the approach that focuses only on work study itself (fairy tale Bujang Sri Ladang. The method used is descriptive method, which describe the values Gurindam Twelfth contained in Bujang Sri Ladang fairy tale. Data collected by interview, the interviewing community leaders in the city of Tanjungpinang fairytale owner, to obtain data related to the fairy tale Bujang Sri Ladang. Data analysis technique conducted by: (1 describe the synopsis legend Ship Island, (2 describe the mandate of the fabled Bujang Sri Ladang, (3 describe the values Gurindam Twelfth contained in a fairy tale Bujang Sri Ladang, and (4 interprets the value -value Gurindam Twelfth contained in Bujang Sri Ladang fairy tale. The results obtained: Bujang Sri Ladang fairytale field contains: Islamic values, the value of faith, social values, manners and character, introspective, benefits, and ethical values. It is as the result of analyzes performed. Those values are the essential values and become a lifeline of society, especially the Malay community Tanjungpinang city
Ardiansyah; Chusnul, A.; Krissandi, W.; Asna, M.
The aim of this research is to observe biomass development of SRI on farmers practice in three plots with different level. This research observes the farmer practice of SRI and Non-SRI during the uncertainty of irrigation water supply and its effects on paddy biomass development during growth stages and final stage of crop. A farmer group that already understand the principle of SRI, applied this method into several plots of their rented paddy field. Researcher interventions were eliminated from their action, so it is purely on farmers decision on managing their SRI plots. Three plots from both SRI and Non-SRI were chosen based on the position of the plot related their access to water. First plots had direct access to water from tertiary irrigation channel (on farm). Second plots were received water from previous upper plots and drainage water into other plots. Third plots were in the bottom position, where they received water from upper plot, and drainage water into farm drainage channel. Result shows there are similar patterns of root, straw, and leaves of biomass during crop growth. On the other hand, during generative phase, grain development shows different pattern and resulting different biomass in harvest time. Second plot, (of SRI) that has water from first plot has the average of biomass grain per plant of 54.4, higher than first plot and third plot, which are 33.8 g and 38.4. Average biomass in second plot is 74.6 g, higher than first and third plot, which are 49.9 g and 52.3 g.
Full Text Available Sri Aurobindo’s teachings on Integral Yoga are couched in a universal and impersonal language, and could be considered an early input to contemporary transpersonal psychology. Yet, while he was writing his principal works in English, he was also keeping a diary of his experiences and understandings in a personal patois that hybridized English and Sanskrit. A hermeneutic perusal of this text, The Record of Yoga, published by the Sri Aurobindo Ashram, uncovers the semiotics of Indian yoga traditions, showing how Sri Aurobindo utilizes and furthers their discourse, and where he introduces new elements which may be considered “modern.” This essay takes a psycho-biographical approach to the life of Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950, tracing his encounters with texts and situated traditions of Indian yoga from the period of his return to India from England (1893 till his settlement in Pondicherry (1910, to excavate the traditional roots and modern ruptures of his own yoga practice, which goes to inform his non-sectarian yoga teachings.
Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; McCabe, N.C.
The report summarizes the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand and presents a series of summary tables, sectoral breakdowns of energy demand, and the natural gas supply and price trends. Appendixes include a discussion of the methodology and assumptions used to prepare the 1991 projection, a brief discussion of the potential for higher levels of gas demand, a description of industrial and commercial cogeneration, a description of the independent power producer (IPP) methodology and projection, a comparison of the 1991 edition with previous projections, and a discussion of additional data used in developing the projection
With a significant unelectrified rural population, Sri Lanka has followed the evolution of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the West very closely since the 1970s as terrestrial applications for photovoltaics were developed. It was not until 1980 that the Sri Lankan government embarked on the promotion of solar photovoltaics for rural domestic use when the Ceylon Electricity Board formed the Energy Unit. In addition, Australian and Sri Lankan government-funded pilot projects have given the local promoters further valuable insight into how and how not to promote solar photovoltaics. The establishment of community-based solar photovoltaic programmes by non-governmental organizations has developed a novel approach to bridge the gap between this state-of-the-art technology and the remotely located end-users. (author)
Perera, Ethmadalage Dineeli Nadeesha
This dissertation presents a study of culture by bifurcating it into two parts: National and Organisational Culture. Through research, a profile of the Sri Lankan National Culture and the Organisational Culture of 3 selected companies is arrived at. Consequently, the research findings are analysed to distinguish if the National Culture of Sri Lanka has had an influence on the Organisational Culture of Sri Lankan companies.
the adult franchise .43 With this decision, a controversial question arose about who should be given the voting privilege. The Indian Tamils, who...therefore, of its defense. It possesses unrivalled geographical advantages . Consider its radiating distances towards the west and East, Sri Lanka’s central...with a antagonist attitude in Sri Lankan affairs over strategic concerns. British involvement in Sri Lanka was strategically disadvantageous for
Gabriela Dias da Silva
Full Text Available O estudo se propõe analisar, sob a perspectiva das Teorias Institucional e da Legitimidade, quais companhias do Novo Mercado da BM&FBovespa aderiram às diretrizes da Global Reporting Initiative (GRI e identificar qual a versão das diretrizes GRI adotadas. O estudo é descritivo, qualitativo e documental. Os dados foram analisados por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo e se referem ao período de 2011 a 2013. Percebe-se que, das 133 companhias da amostra, 67 não possuem ou não foram encontrados os relatórios de sustentabilidade no período analisado. Das 66 empresas que publicaram o relatório de sustentabilidade no período de 2011 a 2013, somente 17 empresas não divulgaram as informações socioambientais conforme as diretrizes da GRI. Os resultados revelam que as empresas divulgam práticas de sustentabilidade nos relatórios para reafirmar sua legitimidade perante a sociedade. Além disso, utilizam práticas de divulgação com base em outras empresas modelos, como é o caso da adesão às diretrizes da GRI, o que se pode relacionar com a Teoria Institucional com base no isomorfismo mimético. Sobre as práticas socioambientais, essas são institucionalizadas nas empresas, e a mudança de versão da G3 para G4 possibilita a ampliação do disclosure pelos indicadores propostos.
Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project. There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. The largest of these, the Nanasala (rural knowledge centres) program, aims to reach 1 000 villages across the nation. Sarvodaya, an early ...
Bandara, Jayatilleke S.; Yu, Wusheng
were not explicitly outlined in Sri Lanka's two FTAs with its big rival neighbours (India and Pakistan), the FTAs helped Sri Lanka to successfully execute the war against the LTTE (the Tamil Tigers) by neutralising India on the one hand and gaining military assistance from Pakistan on the other...
Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko
This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…
in 600 Sri Lankan and 4,000 Indian plantations ... Building a culture of evaluation ... this need in South Asia, universities in ... The boundaries and names shown on the map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IDRC. Y. O. SE. F.
The name of "adakite" is used to describe a far too large group of rocks, whose sole common feature is high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. Defining adakites only by this criterion is misleading, as the definition of this group of rocks does include many other criteria, including major elements. In itself, high (or commonly moderate!) Sr/Y ratios can be achieved via different processes: melting of a high Sr/Y (and La/Yb) source; deep melting, with abundant residual garnet; fractional crystallization or AFC; or interactions of felsic melts with the mantle, causing selective enrichment in LREE and Sr over HREE. A database of the compositions of "adakitic" rocks - including "high silica" and "low silica" adakites, "continental" adakites and Archaean adakites—was assembled. Geochemical modeling of the potential processes is used to interpret it, and reveals that (1) the genesis of high-silica adakites requires high pressure evolution (be it by melting or fractionation), in equilibrium with large amounts of garnet; (2) low-silica adakites are explained by garnet-present melting of an adakite-metasomatized mantle, i.e at depths greater than 2.5 GPa; (3) "Continental" adakites is a term encompassing a huge range of rocks, with a corresponding diversity of petrogenetic processes, and most of them are different from both low- and high- silica adakites; in fact in many cases it is a complete misnomer and the rocks studied are high-K calc-alkaline granitoids or even S-type granites; (4) Archaean adakites show a bimodal composition range, with some very high Sr/Y examples (similar to part of the TTG suite) reflecting deep melting (> 2.0 GPa) of a basaltic source with a relatively high Sr/Y, while lower Sr/Y rocks formed by shallower (1.0 GPa) melting of similar sources. Comparison with the Archaean TTG suite highlights the heterogeneity of the TTGs, whose composition spreads the whole combined range of HSA and Archaean adakites, pointing to a diversity of sources and processes
Reducing fruit losses in India and. Sri Lanka using ... The post-harvest losses — between 35 and 40% and valued at about ... Industrial Technology Institute in Sri Lanka has a bio-wax ... Better jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities for women.
The report summarizes the gas supply and price outlook in the 1991 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand. Projected U.S. gas production, gas imports, and other sources of gas supply are discussed along with the sensitivity of the outlook to changes in price expectations. The critical uncertainties and issues affecting the gas supply and price outlook are discussed. Appendixes include a comparison of the 1991 and the 1989 projections of gas supply and price trends; and a description of the GRI Hydrocarbon Model
Premaratne, Nilantha P.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited After thirty years of protracted war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), Sri Lanka defeated its long-lasting terrorist insurgency in May 2009. Sri Lanka’s victory surprised the world. This thesis examines why Sri Lanka’s counterterrorism strategy succeeded in 2009 when it had previously failed. Discriminatory government policies, the economic liberalization in the 1980s, and external support fueled Tamil insurgency and...
Alan Diógenes Góis
Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo investigar os fatores determinantes da divulgação dos indicadores de desempenho de sustentabilidade da GRI nas empresas listadas nas bolsas do Brasil e da Espanha. Para tanto, foram analisados os dados de 94 empresas de capital aberto dos dois países que publicaram relatórios anuais e/ou de sustentabilidade, referentes a 2011, no padrão GRI-G3. A pesquisa é descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa dos dados, utilizando-se a Regressão Linear Múltipla para quatro modelos de disclosure (econômico, ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade. Os resultados mostram que as empresas da Espanha apresentam um nível de disclosure de sustentabilidade mais elevado, e que o nível de evidenciação geral, considerando o conjunto das dimensões da sustentabilidade (econômica, social e ambiental, corresponde a 72,7%. Quanto ao resultado dos modelos de regressão, observa-se que as variáveis independentes (Tamanho, Rentabilidade, Endividamento, Auditoria, Setor de Impacto Ambiental e Idade não explicam o disclosure econômico; porém, quanto aos disclosures ambiental, social e de sustentabilidade, as variáveis Tamanho e Idade são fatores determinantes.
Pine, G.D.; Rinholm, R.C.
Conducted in cooperation with gas industry partners, GRI's R and D program brought 93 gas products, processes and techniques, and 53 information items to the marketplace during 1987-1990. Quantitative estimates of economic benefits to the gas industry and its customers are provided for 60 of the technologies. The net present value is approximately $7.4 billion. While not accounting for R and D efforts in progress, the figure is 4.3 times the cumulative net present value of the cost of the entire GRI R and D program from its inception and represents a rate of return to ratepayers of almost 20%. When compared with the cost of completed R and D, the benefit-to-cost ratio is 8.1 to 1
Yokota, Yuui; Ito, Tomoki; Yoshino, Masao; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Yoshikawa, Akira
Pr-doped SrI2 (Pr:SrI2) single crystals with various Pr concentrations were grown by the halide-micro-pulling-down (H-μ-PD) method, and the scintillation properties were investigated. Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal with high transparency could be grown by the H-μ-PD method while Pr2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals included some cracks and opaque parts. In the photoluminescence spectrum of the Pr1%:SrI2 single crystal, an emission peak originated from the Pr3+ ion was observed around 435 nm while the radioluminescence spectra showed an emission peak around 535 nm for the undoped SrI2 and Pr:SrI2 single crystals. Light yields of Pr1, 2, 3 and 5%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 7700, 8700, 7200 and 6700 photons/MeV, respectively. Decay times of Pr1 and 2%:SrI2 single crystals under γ-ray irradiation were 55.9 and 35.0 ns of the fast decay component, and 435 and 408 ns of the slow decay component, respectively.
The 1992 Edition of the GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand is summarized. Three broad implications concerning the future of the natural gas industry are highlighted: the residual impact of the August 1990 Gulf War on crude oil prices and the factors influencing the long-term price path, the impact of the growing number of environmental constraints on future energy use, and the effect of recent developments in gas production on future gas supply and price
Prasanna-Perera Welgamage Lalith Prasanna-Perera
Full Text Available Thirty years of civil war in Sri Lanka has affected economic, political, social, cultural and psychological aspects of the society significantly. This paper presents an overview of postwar development strategies in Sri Lanka and compares it with the prewar economy from a political economic perspective. The paper specifically examines the progress of the overall postwar development in the war affected Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Using mixed methodologies data was gathered on critical aspects related to political economy. According to the current study, no clear progress has been made in the areas of economic growth, FDI growth, household income, and poverty and income inequality in the postwar economy of Sri Lanka when compared with the prewar economy. Government fiscal policy targets the postwar reconstruction works while monetary policy enjoys the amalgamation of North and East provinces to country’s aggregate supply apart from introducing very few loan schemes. Security phobia of the government of Sri Lanka limits local, national, regional and international none-government organizations especially in the North and East. There is a considerable amount of progress made in the area of infrastructure development and resettlement of displaced persons. However, primary data from the study indicates these strategies lack conflict sensitivity and public trust. This study emphasizes that postwar economic development strategies should address the critical determinants of sustainable recovery, peace and development aiming at protecting human rights, ensuring rule of law, establishing efficient public service system and finally offering constitutional reforms in Sri Lanka.
Holtberg, P.D.; Woods, T.J.; Lihn, M.L.; Koklauner, A.K.
The 1992 Baseline Projection Data Book provides backup data in tabular form for the 1992 GRI Baseline Projection of U.S. Energy Supply and Demand to 2010. Summary tables and data for the residential, commercial, industrial, electric utility, and transportation sectors are presented in the volume
Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Nugegoda, Danasela B; Meyer, Haakon E
South Asians living in western countries are known to have unfavourable cardiovascular risk profiles. Studies indicate migrants are worse off when compared to those living in country of origin. The purpose of this study was to compare selected cardiovascular risk factors between migrant Sri Lankans living in Oslo, Norway and Urban dwellers from Kandy, Sri Lanka. Data on non fasting serum lipids, blood pressure, anthropometrics and socio demographics of Sri Lankan Tamils from two almost similar population based cross sectional studies in Oslo, Norway between 2000 and 2002 (1145 participants) and Kandy, Sri Lanka in 2005 (233 participants) were compared. Combined data were analyzed using linear regression analyses. Men and women in Oslo had higher HDL cholesterol. Men and women from Kandy had higher Total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Mean waist circumference and body mass index was higher in Oslo. Smoking among men was low (19.2% Oslo, 13.1% Kandy, P = 0.16). None of the women smoked. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in Kandy than in Oslo. Our comparison showed unexpected differences in risk factors between Sri Lankan migrants living in Oslo and those living in Kandy Sri Lanka. Sri Lankans in Oslo had favorable lipid profiles and blood pressure levels despite being more obese.
de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.
Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the
Women face many barriers to political participation in conflict zones across South ... perpetuate a culture of impunity and lack of justice for victims of violence and abuse ... INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA, LEGISLATIVE POWER, Gender ... Sri Lanka is turning to aquaculture to diversify its rural economy and ...
Full Text Available Beds underlying the Carnian bauxite on the Kopitov gri~ (Slovenia are by the author’s opinion not Carnian (Cordevolian, but Ladinian age. The considerable stratigraphical gap is presented between Carnian clastic rocks and underlying limestones and dolomites. Bauxite is result of the weathering during the emersion.
Sujet: VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, MARGINALISM, INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, SRI LANKA, LEGISLATIVE POWER. Région: Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 315,800.00.
Vetro, Annalisa; Ciccone, Roberto; Giorda, Roberto; Patricelli, Maria Grazia; Della Mina, Erika; Forlino, Antonella; Zuffardi, Orsetta
SOX9 is a widely expressed transcription factor playing several relevant functions during development and essential for testes differentiation. It is considered to be the direct target gene of the protein encoded by SRY and its overexpression in an XX murine gonad can lead to male development in the absence of Sry. Recently, a family was reported with a 178 kb duplication in the gene desert region ending about 500 kb upstream of SOX9 in which 46,XY duplicated persons were completely normal and fertile whereas the 46,XX ones were males who came to clinical attention because of infertility. We report a family with two azoospermic brothers, both 46,XX, SRY negative, having a 96 kb triplication 500 kb upstream of SOX9. Both subjects have been analyzed trough oligonucleotide array-CGH and the triplication was confirmed and characterised through qPCR, defining the minimal region of amplification upstream of SOX9 associated with 46,XX infertile males, SRY negative. Our results confirm that even in absence of SRY, complete male differentiation may occur, possibly driven by overexpression of SOX9 in the gonadal ridge, as a consequence of the amplification of a gene desert region. We hypothesize that this region contains gonadal specific long-range regulation elements whose alteration may impair the normal sex development. Our data show that normal XX males, with alteration in copy number or, possibly, in the critical sequence upstream to SOX9 are a new category of infertility inherited in a dominant way with expression limited to the XX background.
Like others Sri Lankans too have fear of nuclear radiation, probably because of the weak system of proper radiation education. Some National Institutes and few Universities are involved in nuclear science teaching and research. There are two major levels of obtaining radiation or nuclear education and training in Sri Lanka : the University and training courses in nuclear related technology and radiation protection offered by the Atomic Energy Authority of the Ministry of Science and Technology. This paper summarizes the status, some of the activities and problems of radiation education in Sri Lanka. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective: To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design: We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results: There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions: Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.
Berkhout, E.D.; Glover, D.B.A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is being promoted worldwide, but relatively little is yet known about its impacts at farm level. This article reviews available evidence on the impact of SRI practices in terms of yield and productivity. Adoption of SRI practices necessarily changes the mix
Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan
The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.
Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Ranasinghe, S.
This paper describes a study conducted in the lighting sector of office buildings as a part of a broader research study aimed at developing building codes for Sri Lanka addressing lighting as well as thermal comfort in order to optimise the use of electricity within these buildings. The study covered different tasks performed in office buildings and the optimum lighting levels required to perform these tasks in the office environment in Sri Lanka. Also, it included assessing the visual performance of people involved in different activities under varying illumination levels in a controlled environment and a comparison of these optimum lighting levels with international standards. It can be seen that the required optimum lighting levels are generally lower in Sri Lanka in comparison to specified standard levels, and this scenario is likely to be similar in other developing countries too. These findings clearly emphasise the need to adopt lighting standards most appropriate to local conditions, in turn helping improve the energy efficiency within buildings
Hellung Schønning, Marie; Agampodi, Suneth; Phelps, Matthew
Sri Lanka has one of the highest incidences of human leptospirosis worldwide. Outbreaks of this zoonotic infection are related to the monsoons and flooding. The present study investigates risks associated with environmental, animal and occupational exposure. Data was obtained from structured inte...
Szczerbal, Izabela; Stachowiak, Monika; Dzimira, Stanislaw; Sliwa, Krystyna; Switonski, Marek
SRY-positive XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD) caused by X;Y translocations was not yet reported in domestic animals. In humans it is rarely diagnosed and a majority of clinical features resemble those which are typical for Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Here we describe the first case of SRY-positive XX DSD in a tortoiseshell cat with a rudimentary penis and a lack of scrotum. Molecular analysis showed the presence of two Y-linked genes (SRY and ZFY) and a normal sequence of the SRY gene. Application of classical cytogenetic techniques revealed two X chromosomes (38,XX), but further FISH studies with the use of the whole X chromosome painting probe and BAC probes specific to the Yp chromosome facilitated identification of Xp;Yp translocation. The SRY gene was localised at a distal position of Xp. The karyotype of the studied case was described as: 38,XX.ish der(X)t(X;Y)(p22;p12)(SRY+). Moreover, the X inactivation status assessed by a sequential R-banding and FISH with the SRY-specific probe showed a random inactivation of the derivative X(SRY) chromosome. Our study showed that among DSD tortoiseshell cats, apart from XXY trisomy and XX/XY chimerism, also SRY-positive XX cases may occur. It is hypothesized that the extremely rare occurrence of this abnormality in domestic animals, when compared with humans, may be associated with a different organisation of the Yp arm in these species.
Sturm, Benjamin; Cherepy, Nerine; Drury, Owen; Thelin, P.; Fisher, S.E.; O'Neal, S.P.; Payne, Stephen A.; Burger, Arnold; Boatner, Lynn A.; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Shah, Kanai; Hawrami, Rastgo
High energy resolution gamma-ray detectors that can be formed into relatively large sizes while operating at room temperature offer many advantages for national security applications. We are working toward that goal through the development of SrI 2 (Eu) scintillator detectors, which routinely provide ;10 cm 3 . In this study, we have tested pure, undoped SrI 2 to gain a better understanding of the scintillation properties and spectroscopic performance achievable without activation. An undoped crystal grown from 99.999% pure SrI 2 pellets was tested for its spectroscopic performance, its light yield, and uniformity of scintillation light collection as a function of gamma-ray interaction position relative to the crystal growth direction. Undoped SrI 2 was found to provide energy resolution of 5.3% at 662 keV, and the light collection nonuniformity varied by only 0.72% over the length of the crystal. Measurements of both a 3% Eu-doped and the undoped SrI 2 crystal were carried out in the SLYNCI facility and indicate differences in their light yield non-proportionality. The surprisingly good scintillation properties of the pure SrI 2 crystal suggests that with high-purity feedstock, further reduction of the Eu concentration can be made to grow larger crystals while not adversely impacting the spectroscopic performance.
significant socio -ethnic division in Sri Lankan society is between the numerical majority, the Sinhalese, and the numerical minority, the Sri Lankan...37 K. M. De Silva, Universal Franchise , 1931–1981: The Sri Lankan Experience (Colombo: Dept. of Information, Ministry of State...ethnic conflict due to socio -demographic electoral dynamics and constitutional constraints.118 This did not occur within the GoSL during the CFA period
Purpose: To investigate the antiglycation and cross-link breaking activities of Sri Lankan low-grown orthodox Orange Pekoe grade black tea (Camellia sinensis L) Methods: Five concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 or 100.0 ìg/ml) of Black tea brew (BTB) were made using Sri Lankan low-grown Orange Pekoe (O.P.) grade ...
Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of government budget deficit on debt sustainability in Sri Lanka by using a novel methodological approach. The study used annual time series data from 1960 to 2012 in Sri Lanka for empirical testing. Sustainability of government debt is tested by using face value, market value and discounted market value of government debt as a proportion of GDP. Discounted market value of debt to GDP ratio was calculated using weighted average interest rate. Results of Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests indicate that debt ratios are non-stationary implying the existence of an unsustainable debt outlook. Results of the Chow test, employed to test if a structural break can be observed in 1978 as a result of moving away from the command economy to a market-oriented economy, indicate that the policy change has not led to have any fixed change in the mean of debt serials. The results compel us to conclude that public debt in Sri Lankan is not sustainable, so that a switch is required from foreign debt to other sources of financing of fiscal deficit or deficit reduction.
Hoque, M N
Sri Lanka, an island country off the southeastern coast of India, populated by an estimated 16.1 million inhabitants, was one of the 1st developing countries to adopt a population policy aimed at reducing population growth and redistributing the population more equitably throughout the country. Population density is high. There are 636 persons/square mile, and 2/3 of the population lives in the southwestern and central regions of the country. Government redistribution policies seek to increase internal migration flows to the drier and less populated areas. The country's birth rate was 27 in 1982, the death rate was 6 in 1981, and the infant mortality rate was 34.4 in 1980. The rate of natural increase in 1982 was 2.1%, and the population growth rate declined from 2.5% prior to 1970 to 1.7% in 1980. The total fertility rate declined between 1963-74 from 5.0-3.4 and then increased to 3.7 in recent years. Given the age structure of the population, the population is expected to continue growing at a high rate in the coming years; however, the age at marriage is increasing and the proportion of young married women in the population is declining, and these trends will have an impact on population growth. These trends are due in part to increased educational and employment opportunities for women. The delay in marriage may also be linked to the dowry system. Given the high rate of poverty, it is difficult for parents to accummulate sufficient resources to provide dowries for their daughters. Sri lanka's economy is predominantly agricultural, with only 15% of the gross national product derived from manufacturing. Approximately 22% of thepopulation lives in urban areas. In 1981 exports totaled US$1.1 billion, and major export items were tea and rubber. In the same year, imports totaled US$1.8 billion and consisted primarily of food, petroleum, and fertilizers. The per capita gross national product was US$320 in 1982. Sri Lanka receives considerable foreign aid, and the
Feride İffet Şahin
Full Text Available Mutations in the SRY gene prevent the differentiation of the fetal gonads to testes and cause developing female phenotype, and as a result sex reversal and pure gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome can be developed. Different types of mutations identified in the SRY gene are responsible for 15% of the gonadal dysgenesis. In this study, we report a new mutation (R132P in the High Mobility Group (HMG region of SRY gene was detected in a patient with primary amenorrhea who has 46,XY karyotype. This mutation leads to replacement of the polar and basic arginine with a nonpolar hydrophobic proline residue at aminoacid 132 in the nuclear localization signal region of the protein. With this case report we want to emphasize the genetic approach to the patients with gonadal dysgenesis. If Y chromosome is detected during cytogenetic analysis, revealing the presence of the SRY gene and identification of mutations in this gene by sequencing analysis is become important in.
P. Srinivasan; Santhosh Kumar P. K; L. Ganesh
The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of tourism on economic growth in Sri Lanka through the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. The analysis was carried out for the period from 1969 to 2009. By and large, our analysis reveals that the tourism has a positive impact on economic growth in Sri Lanka both in the short-run and long-run. Hence, it is crucial for the Sri Lankan government to achieve unification and stability by focusing on political solutions t...
Yamada, Seiji; Gunatilake, Ravindu P; Roytman, Timur M; Gunatilake, Sarath; Fernando, Thushara; Fernando, Lalan
The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 killed 31,000 people in Sri Lanka and produced morbidity primarily resulting from near-drownings and traumatic injuries. In the immediate aftermath, the survivors brought bodies to the hospitals, which hampered the hospitals' operations. The fear of epidemics led to mass burials. Infectious diseases were prevented through the provision of clean water and through vector control. Months after the tsunami, little rebuilding of permanent housing was evident, and many tsunami victims continued to reside in transit camps without means of generating their own income. The lack of an incident command system, limited funding, and political conflicts were identified as barriers to optimal relief efforts. Despite these barriers, Sri Lanka was fortunate in drawing upon a well-developed community health infrastructure as well as local and international resources. The need continues for education and training in clinical skills for mass rescue and emergency treatment, as well as participation in a multidisciplinary response.
Full Text Available The military conflict in Sri Lanka may be over officially, but conflict continues as a ‘war without sound’ (community informant, Mullaitivu 2013, or as war by other means (Dahlman 2011. In the absence of peace and reconciliation, but the presence of economic growth, development by stealth proceeds. Much has been written about the militarisation of civilian life in Sri Lanka (Kadirgamar 2013; David 2013, but this paper focuses specifically on how militarisation has proceeded with little public protest or pushback. The political work accomplished by ‘securitisation’ is used to gain consent and create new space and capacity for state security measures and militarisation. This paper recasts the connections between security, peace, and development in post-war Sri Lanka, drawing on fieldwork in one area that connects all of these projects: tourism. An analysis of ‘war tourism’ in Sri Lanka shows how it reproduces threats to Sri Lanka’s security at the same time that it celebrates military victory and might. Tourism encapsulates economic, security, and development agendas in very specific ways. Tourist sites mobilise fear of potential terrorism and return to the rule of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, if vigilance and militarisation are not maintained. In such a context of risk, development is best done by the military. Within this logic of securitisation, militarisation becomes a common sense approach. How is this common sense produced? The securitisation of development is vivid in the post-war context of Sri Lanka, inextricably tied to neoliberal imperatives to convey a democratic, stable country that is open to and good for business.
Jayawardena, S D.L.; Peiris, R [Central Agricultural Research Institute, Gannoruwa, Peradeniya (Sierra Leone)
Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka`s best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet.
Jayawardena, S.D.L.; Peiris, R.
Since Rice is the staple food in Sri Lanka strong emphasis has been given for the improvement of Rice in Sri Lanka. Over the last three decades 36 high yielding rice varieties have been developed. The present yield potential of Sri Lanka's best varieties have been recorded to be be around 10 mt/ha. At present more than 90% of the total paddy extent is grown with modern high yielding rice varieties and as a result the national paddy production has increased from 1.8 mt/ha to 3.5 mt/ha. Induced mutations is used in plant breeding. Use of radiation to produce haploids and for production of transitory sexuality in apomicts have been done. Under the coarse grains and millet varietal program, maize have recorded increasing attention owing to the fact that is is used for human consumption and as feed grain for poultry. Promising varieties of Soya bean, cowpea, mung bean, black gram and ground nut have been recommended for cultivation. Research attention has also been directed towards Root and Tuber crops which have great potential in providong food for the rapidly increasing population in Sri Lanka. Potato is the most important and popular tuber crop. A number of improved varieties with respect to a number of local fruit crops such as banana, sweet orange, lemonime, avocado, pineapple, rambutan, grapes.have been introduced. New improved varieties of indigenous vegetables such as tomato, brinjal etc. have been produced. Chillies and onions with desirable qualities also have been identified. Mutation breeding provides a novel approach to the plant breeders for raising the productivity of crop plants, thus complementing conventional methods. Any way the use of induced mutations in crop improvement has not been properly exploited in Sri Lanka as yet
There is a wide variation in fracture probabilities estimated by Asian FRAX models, although the outputs of South Asian models are concordant. Clinicians can choose either fixed or age-specific intervention thresholds when making treatment decisions in postmenopausal women. Cost-effectiveness of such approach, however, needs to be addressed. This study examined suitable fracture probability intervention thresholds (ITs) for Sri Lanka, based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model. Fracture probabilities were estimated using all Asian FRAX models for a postmenopausal woman of BMI 25 kg/m² and has no clinical risk factors apart from a fragility fracture, and they were compared. Age-specific ITs were estimated based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model using the method followed by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group in the UK. Using the age-specific ITs as the reference standard, suitable fixed ITs were also estimated. Fracture probabilities estimated by different Asian FRAX models varied widely. Japanese and Taiwan models showed higher fracture probabilities while Chinese, Philippine, and Indonesian models gave lower fracture probabilities. Output of remaining FRAX models were generally similar. Age-specific ITs of major osteoporotic fracture probabilities (MOFP) based on the Sri Lankan FRAX model varied from 2.6 to 18% between 50 and 90 years. ITs of hip fracture probabilities (HFP) varied from 0.4 to 6.5% between 50 and 90 years. In finding fixed ITs, MOFP of 11% and HFP of 3.5% gave the lowest misclassification and highest agreement. Sri Lankan FRAX model behaves similar to other Asian FRAX models such as Indian, Singapore-Indian, Thai, and South Korean. Clinicians may use either the fixed or age-specific ITs in making therapeutic decisions in postmenopausal women. The economical aspects of such decisions, however, need to be considered.
Prasanna-Perera Lalith Welgamage
Full Text Available Sri Lanka aims to transform its tourism sector into one of the largest foreign exchange earners in 2016 by attracting 2.5 million high spending tourists. Tourism was ranked as the fifth largest source of foreign exchange earnings in 2012, and third largest in 2013 contributing 5.2 percent to total foreign earnings of the country. Further to this, the Sri Lankan government also identified tourism as a major hub of the country’s economy. Given the multi-dimensional impact the sector has on the country’s economy, it has to be examined systematically. This paper develops an econometric model based on the Cobb-Douglas function to analyze the relation between foreign exchange earnings, tourist arrivals, tourist prices, and tourist spending and direct employment in tourism. These variables of tourism are estimated utilizing model parameters such as R-Studio based on data from the sample period from 2002 to 2013. The formula presented in this study can be used by policy makers to calculate future foreign exchange earnings, employment, arrivals and prices related to tourism in Sri Lanka.
Vakili Azghandi, Masoume; Nasiri, Mohammadreza; Shamsa, Ali; Jalali, Mohsen; Shariati, Mohammad Mahdi
The SRY gene (SRY) provides instructions for making a transcription factor called the sex-determining region Y protein. The sex-determining region Y protein causes a fetus to develop as a male. In this study, SRY of 15 spices included of human, chimpanzee, dog, pig, rat, cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, horse, zebra, frog, urial, dolphin and killer whale were used for determine of bioinformatic differences. Nucleotide sequences of SRY were retrieved from the NCBI databank. Bioinformatic analysis of SRY is done by CLC Main Workbench version 5.5 and ClustalW (http:/www.ebi.ac.uk/clustalw/) and MEGA6 softwares. The multiple sequence alignment results indicated that SRY protein sequences from Orcinus orca (killer whale) and Tursiopsaduncus (dolphin) have least genetic distance of 0.33 in these 15 species and are 99.67% identical at the amino acid level. Homosapiens and Pantroglodytes (chimpanzee) have the next lowest genetic distance of 1.35 and are 98.65% identical at the amino acid level. These findings indicate that the SRY proteins are conserved in the 15 species, and their evolutionary relationships are similar.
I Gusti Ayu Risma Pramita
Full Text Available Masalah gizi adalah salah satu permasalahan kesehatan masyarakat yang belum tuntas ditanggulangi di dunia. Berdasarkan data Riskesdas 2010, prevalensi balita yang mengalami gizi buruk secara nasional adalah 4,9%, gizi kurang 13%, dan gizi lebih 5,8%. Asram Sri Sri Radha Madhava berada di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Gianyar II. Masyarakat tersebut adalah kelompok vegetarian lakto mulai dari remaja, hamil, sampai pada anak yang dilahirkan. Berdasarkan laporan tahunan Puskesmas Gianyar II tahun 2012 terjadi masalah gizi kurang sebesar 2,3%. Pada tahun 2013 di Puskesmas Gianyar II tercatat masalah gizi kurang pada balita meningkat menjadi 5%, sedangkan jumlah balita gizi buruk adalah sebesar 2%. Puskesmas Gianyar II belum dapat mencapai target yakni 0% untuk balita gizi buruk maupun gizi kurang. Balita dan anak-anak Asram jarang mengikuti kegiatan Posyandu sehingga pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya sulit untuk dipantau. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui status gizi bayi dan balita serta anak vegetarian di komunitas Asram Sri Sri Radha Madhava. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi potong lintang (cross-sectional deskriptif. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan pengukuran langsung tinggi badan dan berat badan serta wawancara. Status gizi pada 36 orang yang termasuk kelompok balita dan anak vegetarian dilihat berdasarkan indeks berat badan terhadap umur (BB/U, tinggi badan terhadap umur (TB/U, berat badan terhadap tinggi badan (BB/TB, dan indeks masa tubuh terhadap umur (IMT/U dari grafik WHO. Sebagian besar tergolong gizi baik berdasarkan BB/U (80,6%, TB/U normal (72,2%, BB/TB normal (63,9%, dan IMT/U normal (72,2%. Sebanyak 2,8% termasuk kategori obese, 11,1% kategori gemuk (overweight dan 13,9% kategori kurus (underweight.
Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra
pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were......BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). RESULTS: There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17...
Goonaratna, C; Fonseka, P; Wijeywardene, K
To determine the types of perimenopausal symptoms (PMS) associated with the natural menopause and to make a preliminary assessment of the influence of PMS on household work, employment duties and social life, since no published data are available regarding these aspects in Sri Lankan women. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women after natural menopause chosen randomly from four selected groups. A pre-tested coded questionnaire administered by trained women medical students to consenting menopausal women. An overwhelming majority of menopausal women (87.1%) had one or more PMS. The principal PMS reported were insomnia (57.8%), joint pains (55.8%), night sweats (55.6%), hot flushes (40.2%), irritability (35.3%) and headaches (33.3%). Of the 171 women employed outside the home, 38% noted some interference with employment duties. PMS causes much morbidity in Sri Lankan perimenopausal women.
Full Text Available The Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD, taking the lives of thousands in poor farming communities in Sri Lanka, is commonly seen as a problem peculiar to the island’s north central dry zone agricultural region. The prevailing bio-medical focus is on identifying one or more “environmental nephrotoxins.” While delineating important controversies on the etiology of the disease, this article seeks to broaden the discourse on the hitherto neglected political economy of CKD in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it seeks to bring together the bio-medical debate on the impact of widespread and unregulated use of agrochemicals on public health and kidney disease with broader global interdisciplinary perspectives on the industrialization of agriculture and the consolidation of food production by transnational agribusiness corporations. The article concludes pointing out environmentally sustainable and socially equitable development and organic agriculture as the long-term solutions to CKD in Sri Lanka and elsewhere.
Full Text Available Following the Sri Lankan Government’s military defeat of the internationally proscribed terrorist organisation, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE in May 2009, Sri Lanka embarked on an essential and long-term twofold post-conflict strategy: (i rehabilitation and reintegration of former LTTE combatants, and (ii the rebuilding of the conflict-affected Tamil communities of the Northern and Eastern Provinces. The rehabilitation program was by many counts a success, with demonstrated cognitive transformation in attitudes and behaviour of most of the (formerly radicalised combatants. Reconciliation initiatives were implemented to fulfill the urgent social, political, and economic needs of the conflict-affected communities of the North and East. These reconciliation efforts continue to be implemented and comprise different measures taken in: (1 resettlement and humanitarian assistance, (2 reconstruction of key transport, economic, health, and social infrastructure for reintegration, (3 political engagement, and (4 various types of peace-building work. Sri Lanka’s post-conflict strategy adopts a holistic approach, seeking the contribution of the public sector, private sector, community organisations, international organisations, NGOs, and private individuals from different segments of society in Sri Lanka. However, despite the many effective state-led and other reconciliation efforts undertaken by Sri Lanka, the author is able to present a number of recommendations to the government of Sri Lanka to overcome shortcomings in the rehabilitation and reconciliation programs adopted, as well as other challenges faced by Sri Lanka, such as the relentless disinformation campaign against the Sri Lankan state pursued by the remnant LTTE cells surviving internationally. To understand the complex nature of the Sri Lankan conflict and the skillful disinformation campaign pursued against the Sri Lankan state by the LTTE’s transnational network, a
Tourism Council. Travel & Tourism : Economic Impact 2015, Sri Lanka. London, UK: Author, 2015. https://www.wttc.org/- / media /files/reports/economic...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Immigration has social , political, economic, and...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT Immigration has social , political, economic, and security significance in Sri Lanka. Immigrants bring economic
De Silva, Saranga A; Colucci, Erminia; Mendis, Jayan; Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry
Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Gatekeeper programs aimed at specific target groups could be a promising suicide prevention strategy in the country. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines that help members of the public to provide first aid to persons in Sri Lanka who are at risk of suicide. The Delphi method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to include in the guidelines. These statements describe information members of the public should have and actions they can take to help a person who is experiencing suicidal thoughts. An expert panel, comprised of mental health and suicide experts in Sri Lanka, rated each statement. The panellists were encouraged to suggest any additional action that was not included in the original questionnaire and, in particular, to include items that were culturally appropriate or gender specific. Responses to open-ended questions were used to generate new items. These items were included in the subsequent Delphi rounds. Three Delphi rounds were carried out. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed (rated as essential or important) by at least 80 % of the panel. Statements endorsed by 70-79 % of the panel were re-rated in the following round. Statements with less than 70 % endorsement, or re-rated items that did not receive 80 % or higher endorsement were rejected. The output from the Delphi process was a set of endorsed statements. In the first round questionnaire 473 statements were presented to the panel and 58 new items were generated from responses to the open-ended questions. Of the total 531 statements presented, 304 were endorsed. These statements were used to develop the suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka. By engaging Sri Lankans who are experts in the field of mental health or suicide this research developed culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to a person at risk of suicide in Sri
Full Text Available Games of a subject: A sketch of the (early works of Mladen Stilinović The article concerns the conceptualization of the subject in the works of the contemporary Croatian visual artist Mladen Stilinović. The object of analysis are most of all works (collages, texts from the 1970s and early 1980s, when the artist formulated the basis for his creative philosophy and at the same time determined the directions of their research. His system of reference were the socialist state order and the traditionalist, academic system of artistic practice, which he criticized from the perspectives of Diogenes, philosophical Cynicism and constructive anarchism. Until this day, the attitude of resistance is the main creative principle for Stilinović’s art. He sets strong, conscious and autonomous creator’s “I” against symbolic violence of different systems (political, ideological, educational, etc.. This “I” is not so much the material and object of expression as a space of play based on concpetualism and self-irony. Gry w podmiot. Szkic o (wczesnej twórczości Mladena Stilinovicia Artykuł dotyczy konceptualizacji podmiotu w twórczości współczesnego chorwackiego artysty wizualnego – Mladena Stilinovicia. Przedmiotem analizy są przede wszystkim prace (kolaże, teksty z lat 70. i początku 80. XX wieku, kiedy to artysta formułował podstawy filozofii twórczej i określał kierunki swych poszukiwań. Układem odniesienia były dla niego wówczas socjalistyczny porządek państwa i tradycjonalistyczny, akademicki system praktyki artystycznej, które poddawał konsekwentnej krytyce z pozycji rozumnego, diogenesowskiego cynizmu i konstruktywnego anarchizmu. Do dziś postawa oporu jest dla Stilinovicia podstawową zasadą twórczą. Przemocy symbolicznej wszelkich systemów (politycznych, ideologicznych, edukacyjnych itp. przeciwstawia mocne, świadome i niezależne „ja” twórcy. Jest tu ono nie tyle tworzywem i przedmiotem ekspresji
Masoume Vakili Azghandi
Full Text Available Background: The SRY gene (SRY provides instructions for making a transcription factor called the sex-determining region Y protein. The sex-determining region Y protein causes a fetus to develop as a male. In this study, SRY of 15 spices included of human, chimpanzee, dog, pig, rat, cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, horse, zebra, frog, urial, dolphin and killer whale were used for determine of bioinformatic differences. Methods: Nucleotide sequences of SRY were retrieved from the NCBI databank. Bioinformatic analysis of SRY is done by CLC Main Workbench version 5.5 and ClustalW (http:/www.ebi.ac.uk/clustalw/ and MEGA6 softwares. Results: The multiple sequence alignment results indicated that SRY protein sequences from Orcinus orca (killer whale and Tursiopsaduncus (dolphin have least genetic distance of 0.33 in these 15 species and are 99.67% identical at the amino acid level. Homosapiens and Pantroglodytes (chimpanzee have the next lowest genetic distance of 1.35 and are 98.65% identical at the amino acid level. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the SRY proteins are conserved in the 15 species, and their evolutionary relationships are similar.
Smit, L.A.M.; Wendel- de Joode, B.N. van; Heederik, D.; Peiris-John, R.J.; Hoek, W. van der
Background: In many agricultural districts in Sri Lanka, pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of death. This study aims to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on Sri Lankan farmers' health. Methods: A total of 260 subjects were surveyed in both a low and a high exposure period.
Williams, N. E.; Carrico, A.
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka's primary rice-farming zone. Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka, this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.
Perinbanayagam, R S
HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.
Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Okubo, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Ikuo; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Yokoyama, Naoaki
Babesia bovis, the causative agent of severe bovine babesiosis, is endemic in Sri Lanka. The live attenuated vaccine (K-strain), which was introduced in the early 1990s, has been used to immunize cattle populations in endemic areas of the country. The present study was undertaken to determine the genetic diversity of merozoite surface antigens (MSAs) in B. bovis isolates from Sri Lankan cattle, and to compare the gene sequences obtained from such isolates against those of the K-strain. Forty-four bovine blood samples isolated from different geographical regions of Sri Lanka and judged to be B. bovis-positive by PCR screening were used to amplify MSAs (MSA-1, MSA-2c, MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b), AMA-1, and 12D3 genes from parasite DNA. Although the AMA-1 and 12D3 gene sequences were highly conserved among the Sri Lankan isolates, the MSA gene sequences from the same isolates were highly diverse. Sri Lankan MSA-1, MSA-2c, MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b sequences clustered within 5, 2, 4, 1, and 9 different clades in the gene phylograms, respectively, while the minimum similarity values among the deduced amino acid sequences of these genes were 36.8%, 68.7%, 80.3%, 100%, and 68.3%, respectively. In the phylograms, none of the Sri Lankan sequences fell within clades containing the respective K-strain sequences. Additionally, the similarity values for MSA-1 and MSA-2c were 40-61.8% and 90.9-93.2% between the Sri Lankan isolates and the K-strain, respectively, while the K-strain MSA-2a/b sequence shared 64.5-69.8%, 69.3%, and 70.5-80.3% similarities with the Sri Lankan MSA-2a1, MSA-2a2, and MSA-2b sequences, respectively. The present study has shown that genetic diversity among MSAs of Sri Lankan B. bovis isolates is very high, and that the sequences of field isolates diverged genetically from the K-strain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tharindu Nimantha Herath
Full Text Available Sustainable utilization of the fishery resources along with manpower is one of the most important aspects of fisheries science. Although a huge manpower is available in the fisheries sector, lapses in knowledge also prevalent in various subsections of fishery related occupations. In this scenario, this paper attempts to evaluate the various levels of fisheries education in Sri Lanka. It has been observed that clear demarcation of the level of fisheries education such as undergraduate, postgraduate, and basic level exists in Sri Lanka. Although a low level of student enrolment, university education of fisheries and aquaculture is at satisfactory level. Expansion of fisheries education for basic levels such as education of fisherwomen needs to be improved. Scientific dissemination of knowledge by published works such as journals should further be expanded and indexing of those journals in reputable and reliable databases is needed. Several constraints in Sri Lankan fisheries education such as inadequate funding, low level of student enrolment, quality of the students and less cooperation with industries etc. were also identified. Therefore, finding possible solutions to these issues is necessary to ensure the quality of the education in Sri Lanka.
Alahakoon, Amali U; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D
Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review.
This article explores the links that exist between education and conflict in Sri Lanka and examines recent curriculum changes directed at fostering national social cohesion. The article argues that the reforms only have a minimum impact, because teachers' and pupils' everyday experiences with the...... with the education system contradict the values communicated in the new curriculum. Through their efforts to secure proper education, the pupils engage in discussions about the meaning of citizenship in presentday Sri Lanka....
Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.
The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.
S.Y. Surendra Kumar
Full Text Available The way the foreign policy of China has evolved in recent decades to consolidate its interests could be an object lesson to other countries. Initially, China’s Asia policy focused on Northeast and Southeast Asia. But in recent times, South Asia has gained tremendous importance in China’s foreign policy, which currently aims to maintain and promote regional peace and stability and, in consequence, sustain China’s own peaceful rise. As a result, South Asia constitutes an important region for China’s strategic ambit, and Sri Lanka is no different. In this context, this paper attempts to examine the growing China-Sri Lanka strategic engagement in general and particularly under President Rajapakse regime, which actually transformed the bilateral ties. India’s response to deepening ties between China and Sri Lanka and President Sririsena’s balancing approach towards India and China is analysed.
Full Text Available AbstractLandslide disaster risk reduction is presently a challenging task facing by Sri Lankangeologists. Increasing trend of population growth in Sri Lanka has adversely affected thestability of central highland due to various human activities. Among them establishment ofhuman settlements and change in land use pattern have become a serious issue in triggeringland instabilities in central highland of the country. National Building Research Oragnisationwhich is the main focal point in land slide disaster risk reduction in Sri Lanka has takenvaluable and timely needed actions including preparation of landslide hazard zonation maps,early warnings and mitigations. Though the landslide is a geological phenomenon, it is highlyinteracted with human societies. Hence managing the issues arising with the landslideoccurrence should be addressed with a sociological approach. This new approach is known asSocio Geological approach which is discussed here.Key words: Landslide, Geology, Socio Geology, Social Geologist
Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.
Stöpler, L.; Frerks, G.E.
Lucien Stopler & Georg Frerks discuss the plight of the Tamil ex-child soldiers in Sri Lanka, an unresolved heritage of a bloody war. In the wake of the defeat of the LTTE, the Sri Lankan government has not shown much effort in addressing the root causes of the conflict and in building peace. It
Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.
This article seeks to explore the 'two faces of education' through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be.
As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…
Full Text Available Montane zone mixed-species bird flock system is distinct from that of low-land wet zone of SriLanka, although some species are present in both systems. The present study identified the mixed speciesflocks of birds in Riverstan at Knuckles Region, Sri Lanka. Monthly transect counts and opportunisticobservations were made between January and May, 2012. A total of 78 flocks and 27 bird species wereencountered at Riverstan during the study period. The flock size varied between 2 to 13 species and 4 to58 individuals. The mean number of species per flock was 6.03 ± 2.25 and the mean number ofindividuals in a flock was 18.41±9.87. The flock size was positively correlated with the number of speciespresent (r = 0.756, P <0.05. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher was the most abundant species (mean2.68±1.02 birds per flocks while Sri Lanka White-eye was the most frequent species (mean 5.69±3.92birds per flocks. Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher and Sri Lanka Scimitar-babbler were the nuclear speciesin Riverstan. The leading species were Sri Lanka white-eye and Sri Lanka Yellow-eared Bulbul. Differentbird species used different heights within flocks.Keywords: Mixed-species flock, Nuclear species, Abundance, Foraging flocks
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rickettsioses are emerging infections in Sri Lanka as shown by the increase in the number of clinically diagnosed rickettsial patients being reported to the Epidemiology Unit, Sri Lanka. However, mapping the disease for the whole island with laboratory confirmed cases has not been previously carried out. Methods 615 samples received from 23 hospital representing 8 provinces were tested using ELISA or IFA methods and clinical data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Results Rash was found among more spotted fever seropositive patients than scrub typhus seropositive patients while the opposite was true for the presence of eschar. Spotted fever and scrub typhus was found in a geographically restricted manner. Consistent temporal patterns were seen for the presentation of patients with rickettsioses in Kandy and Kurunegala districts for 2009 and 2010. Conclusions This study expanded knowledge on the distribution of rickettsioses in Sri Lanka and their clinical profiles which in turn helps in the clinical diagnosis of these infections.
Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter
The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry's ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function.
J. Derwall (Jeroen)
textabstractFinancial markets and company managers are increasingly acknowledging the concepts of socially responsible investing (SRI) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), but not without reservations. These hesitations are largely attributable to ongoing debates about a potential conflict
Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H
Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles....... The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka....
Full Text Available National cultural differences pose major obstacles to global business expansion. Managers, therefore, seek to learn more about cultures. Conventional managerial learning mostly draws from descriptive scientific models which have potential drawbacks such as unidimensionality, decontextualisation, and culture-level information. Explanatory models of cultural psychology can help overcome these limitations. Further, insights from a cross-culturally fluent authority provide reflective learnings. Toward this end, I engage in a conversation with Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, the founder of the Art of Living organization, on issues related to cultural identity in the global workplace in the Indian context.
Full Text Available Research methodology is the procedural framework within which the research is conducted. This includes the overall approach to a problem that could be put into practice in a research process, from the theoretical underpinning to the collection and analysis of data. Choice of methodology depends on the primary drivers: topic to be researched and the specific research questions. Hence, methodological perspectives of managing stakeholder expectations of PDHR context are composed of research philosophies, research strategy, research design, and research techniques. This research belonged to social constructivism or interpretivism within a philosophical continuum. The nature of the study was more toward subjectivism where human behavior favored voluntary stance. Ontological, methodological, epistemological, and axiological positioning carried the characteristics of idealism, ideographic, anti-positivism, and value laden, respectively. Data collection comprises two phases, preliminary and secondary. Exploratory interviews with construction experts in the United Kingdom and Sri Lanka were carried out to refine the interview questions and identify the case studies. Case study interviews during the secondary phase took place in Sri Lanka. Data collected at the preliminary stage were used to assess the attributes of power, legitimacy/proximity, and urgency of stakeholders to the project using Stakeholder Circle™ software. Moreover, the data collected at secondary phase via case studies will be analyzed with NVivo 8. This article aims to discuss these methodological underpinnings in detail applied in a post-disaster housing reconstruction context in Sri Lanka.
Context. In Sri Lanka, fish are a vital food source, ... of disease and degradation of water bodies ... specific better management practices to address ... This was integrated in a pilot knowledge ... result, 80% of farmers took actions to implement.
Full Text Available Although proclaimed as a democratic republic, the Sri Lankan state is strongly controlled and ruled by Sinhala Buddhist influence due to a deep engrained belief that the island belongs to the Sinhala Buddhists. The modus operandi of the Sri Lankan state apparatus outlines the ethnocratic characteristics of the state. This mono-ethnic and mono-religious attitude has led to the widening and deepening of the discrimination against a particular ethnic group known as the Tamils who traditionally inhabit the North and East of the island. Ethnocracy continues to be defended and justified by the state in the name of sovereignty, territorial integrity and national security and has led to further polarization of the already divided ethnic groups. As a consequence and outcome of the ethnocratic nature of the Sri Lankan state, a bloody war erupted between successive governments of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE. After nearly 38 years the prolonged war came to a brutal end in May 2009 amidst blatant violations of international law. However, the root causes of this conflict, which occurred due to ethnocratic nature of the state, have not yet been addressed resulting in the continuation of the ethnic conflict despite the end of the war.
Garcin , Manuel; Desprats , Jean-François; Pedreros , Rodrigo; Fontaine , Mélanie; Sedan , Olivier; Lenotre , Nicole; Attanayake , Nishantha; De Silva , Udaya; Fernando , Starin; Siriwardana , Cher
1 p.; International audience; The impact of the tsunami of December 26, 2004 in Sri Lanka clearly showed the importance of a thorough knowledge of coastal risks and of taking these into account in order to reduce their impacts. We present here a project funded by French Government (Ministère des Affaires Etrangères) and BRGM Research Division including both Sri Lankan and French institutions. The aims of this project are to implement an effective tool designed to reduce the impact of coastal ...
ÇAMURDANOĞLU, Niyazi ACER - Tolga ERTEKİN - Ayşegül KÜ; ACER, Niyazi; ERTEKİN, Tolga; KÜÇÜK, Ayşegül; BABAOĞLU, Cumhur; ÇANKAYA, M. Niyazi; ÇAMURDANOĞLU, Mehmet
Amaç: İnsan beyninde cinsiyete ilişkin varyasyonlar birçok araştırıcı tarafından incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmaların çoğunda erkek beyin hacminin bayanlardan daha büyük olduğu bildirilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı MR görüntüleri üzerinde beyaz ve gri cevher ölçümleri planimterik yöntem ile değerlendirmektir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Bu çalışmada beyaz ve gri cevher hacimleri 20-25 yaş arası sağlıklı gençlerde incelenmiştir. T2 ağırlıklı MR görüntüleri 12 kişi üzerinde elde edilmiş, kadın ve erkeklerde ...
Hofset, Nicolai; Larsen, Sindre Veen
Master i økonomi og administrasjon Denne oppgavens hensikt er å studere forskjeller i lønnsomhet mellom skandinavisk forvaltede SRI-fond og konvensjonelle fond, og effekten av å bruke en best-in-classstrategi basert på ESG-kriteriet ved SRI. Forfatterne fant det hensiktsmessig å dele oppgaven inn i to problemstillinger. Den første problemstillingen omhandler eventuelle forskjeller i SRI-fond og konvensjonelle fond, mens den andre problemstillingen omhandler lønnsomhet ved an...
Private tuition classes are growing phenomenon in Sri Lanka especially among students who prepare for competitive national school qualifying examinations. It is one of major education issues under the free education policy in Sri Lanka. It can tarnish the real purpose of free education policy. In this paper, we examine the demand for private tuition classes in Sri Lanka by using two waves of Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (HIES) conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics (...
Sri Lanka Telecentre Family Network Project ... will require telecentre manager training, technical and business support, and knowledge-sharing across programs. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.
Lita Ayudia Fitriyani
Full Text Available Indonesia is an agricultural country that has majority occupation as farmer. Unfortunately, farmers still become the biggest contributor to poverty in Indonesia around 62.25% in 2012. As a country that has a vision to become an independent country, Indonesia should be able to meet the welfare of its people, including farmers. This can be achieved if the cooperation between the government and the perpetrators of activities in Indonesia; such as natural resource companies that perform social responsibility programs as a contribution to society. One form of social responsibility is a community development program which is considered to be more useful. System of Rice Intensification or SRI Organic Organic is one of the community development programs that were developed to improve the welfare of farmers. The aim of this study were 1 to evaluate the impact of a given Organic SRI as a community development programs; 2 measuring the level of Organic SRI farmers' income; 3 Organic SRI analyze opportunities in the future as an independent and sustainable program. By doing a case study on community development programs conducted by PT Medco E & P Indonesia in the dusun parit 9, Banyuasin District, the authors analyze and evaluate the impact of using SEAGA to 20 respondents. The results of these studies are intended to provide input in order to make the community development program more effective in the future.Keywords: welfare, corporate social responsibility, community development, SRI organic, SEAGAABSTRAKIndonesia adalah negara agraris dimana petani merupakan mayoritas pekerjaan namun menjadi penyumbang kemiskinan terbesar di Indonesia sekitar 62,25% pada 2012. Sebagai negara yang memiliki visi untuk menjadi negara mandiri, Indonesia harus mampu memenuhi kesejahteraan rakyatnya termasuk petani. Hal tersebut dapat tercapai jika adanya kerjasama antara pemerintah dan pelaku aktivitas di Indonesia; seperti perusahaan sumber daya alam yang melakukan
Kopsida, Eleni; Lynn, Phoebe M; Humby, Trevor; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Davies, William
Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG) model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression) and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects) to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry) exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry); in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes) XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water) consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i) the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii) dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.
Full Text Available Whilst gonadal hormones can substantially influence sexual differentiation of the brain, recent findings have suggested that sex-linked genes may also directly influence neurodevelopment. Here we used the well-established murine 'four core genotype' (FCG model on a gonadally-intact, outbred genetic background to characterise the contribution of Sry-dependent effects (i.e. those arising from the expression of the Y-linked Sry gene in the brain, or from hormonal sequelae of gonadal Sry expression and direct effects of sex-linked genes other than Sry ('sex chromosome complement' effects to sexually dimorphic mouse behavioural phenotypes. Over a 24 hour period, XX and XY gonadally female mice (lacking Sry exhibited greater horizontal locomotor activity and reduced food consumption per unit bodyweight than XX and XY gonadally male mice (possessing Sry; in two behavioural tests (the elevated plus and zero mazes XX and XY gonadally female mice showed evidence for increased anxiety-related behaviours relative to XX and XY gonadally male mice. Exploratory correlational analyses indicated that these Sry-dependent effects could not be simply explained by brain expression of the gene, nor by circulating testosterone levels. We also noted a sex chromosome complement effect on food (but not water consumption whereby XY mice consumed more over a 24hr period than XX mice, and a sex chromosome complement effect in a third test of anxiety-related behaviour, the light-dark box. The present data suggest that: i the male-specific factor Sry may influence activity and feeding behaviours in mice, and ii dissociable feeding and anxiety-related murine phenotypes may be differentially modulated by Sry and by other sex-linked genes. Our results may have relevance for understanding the molecular underpinnings of sexually dimorphic behavioural phenotypes in healthy men and women, and in individuals with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions.
This paper measures and compares performance of Islamic, SRI and Green mutual equity funds worldwide in the period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2015. The sample consists of 611 mutual equity funds and their performance was assessed by using traditional risk-adjusted measures, namely Sharpe ratio, Modified Sharpe Ratio, Adjusted Sharpe Ratio, Treynor measure, Information ratio and Jensen’s alpha. The main findings show that Green mutual equity funds, on average, outperform both SRI and I...
Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.
Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.
Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter
The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry’s ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function. PMID:25074915
Lopes Cardozo, M.T.A.; Hoeks, C.C.M.Q.
This paper aims to explore the agency of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between context - education policies and governance - and agent - teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka
Full Text Available Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH is a global problem which has steadily increased over the past few years in developing countries and has become as one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these countries. The aim of this prospective study was to analyze the prevalence of organophosphate poisoning among other acute DSH cases admitted to the medical ward at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. We report the socio-demographic, and outcome of organophosphate poisoning. Method: The prospective study comprises of 121 cases of acute poisoning admitted at Batticaloa Teaching Hospital (BTH, Sri Lanka. This study was conducted for a period of three months from April 12 through July 12, 2017. Results: Among the subjects, 119 (98.34% cases had intentional poisoning and only two cases (1.65% accidental poisoning. Poisoning with organophosphate compounds (OP 23 (19% was the second leading type. There were 13 (56.5% males and 10 (43.5% females. Most of the patients were under the age group of 20-29 years old. 21 cases lived in rural areas and 2 in urban areas. Out of 23 patients, there were 2 (8.7% deaths, 18 (78.3% were discharged without any complications. Conclusion: DSH in Sri Lanka is reported to be associated with interpersonal conflict, short premeditation, as well as alcohol misuse among males.
Human degenerative diseases and congenital defects are common throughout the world. Many people suffer also from burns, fractures and nerve damage resulting from traumatic accidents and outbreaks of violence which occur all too frequently, especially in poorer countries. Far too many people are impaired for life because they have no access to treatment or simply cannot afford it. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Division of Nuclear Medicine, to improve facilities at the Sri Lanka Tissue Bank. (IAEA)
Sérgio Henrique Conceição
Full Text Available O presente trabalho propõe um estudo exploratório sobre a prática de evidenciação em sustentabilidade empresarial (SE em companhias do Brasil e demais países da América Latina, tomando como parâmetro o relatório de sustentabilidade empresarial denominado Global Reporting Initiative (GRI. A partir dos pressupostos teóricos da teoria da divulgação voluntária e da teoria de legitimidade, estabelece reflexões acerca da sua aderência ao processo de comunicação em sustentabilidade empresarial das companhias. O estudo da série histórica a partir de 1999 até 2010 identifica as companhias brasileiras como responsáveis por mais de 50% dos informes de sustentabilidade empresarial e a América Latina enquanto espaço em que se consolida a utilização do relatório GRI no mundo. Indica pressupostos no desenvolvimento de novas pesquisas que contribuam para a concepção de metodologias de análise, avaliação e interpretação do desempenho em sustentabilidade empresarial das companhias e para o estudo dos fenômenos de sua divulgação, contribuindo para o fortalecimento das variáveis do desempenho em sustentabilidade empresarial no contexto decisório dos stakeholders.
Zhao, Liang; Quinn, Alexander; Ng, Ee Ting; Veyrunes, Frederic; Koopman, Peter
In most eutherian mammals, sex determination is governed by the Y-linked gene Sry, but in African pygmy mice Mus minutoides, Sry action is overridden by a variant X chromosome (X*), yielding X*Y females. We hypothesized that X*Y sex reversal may be underpinned not only by neomorphic X chromosome functionality, but also by a compromised Sry pathway. Here, we show that neither M. minutoides SRY nor its target, the Sox9-TESCO enhancer, had appreciable transcriptional activity in in vitro assays, correlating with sequence degradation compared to Mus musculus counterparts. However, M. minutoides SRY activated its cognate TESCO to a moderate degree, and can clearly engage the male pathway in M. minutoides in the wild, indicating that SRY and TESCO may have co-evolved in M. minutoides to retain function above a threshold level. We suggest that weakening of the SRY/TESCO nexus may have facilitated the rise and spread of a variant X* chromosome carrying female-inducing modifier gene(s).
Full Text Available Poziom kompetencji matematycznych ma bardzo duże znaczenie dla osiągnięcia sukcesu edukacyjnego, wpływa również znacząco na jakość i poziom życia w wieku dorosłym. Niski poziom kompetencji matematycznych może być dla jednostki bardziej dotkliwy niż deficyty w zakresie czytania. Największe możliwości wspierania rozwoju kompetencji matematycznych pojawiają się na początku edukacji, gdyż z czasem deficyty te się pogłębiają. Liniowo zorganizowane gry planszowe z kolejno ponumerowanymi polami stanowią interesujące narzędzie wspomagania kompetencji matematycznych u dzieci. Pomagają wykształcić odpowiednią reprezentację liczebności, a efekty interwencji z ich wykorzystaniem wykraczają poza poprawę w zadaniach, które przypominają bezpośrednio trenowane umiejętności. W pracy przedstawiono przegląd wyników badań nad skutecznością takiej interwencji oraz propozycję zastosowania ich na polskim gruncie. Co więcej, interwencje z ich wykorzystaniem można przeprowadzić w krótkim czasie i przy niewielkim wkładzie finansowym.
Perera, Shenali Anne
This study aims to provide a better understanding of the Sri Lankan stock market in terms of asset pricing models. In order to achieve this goal this research evaluates the Fama and French three-factor model and a behavioural asset pricing model to investigate which framework is better suited for security valuation in Sri Lanka. Accordingly findings reveal that small stocks with low book-to-market equity generate high realized returns. But results indicate that superior returns on these stock...
The framework for public financial accountability in Sri Lanka is founded in the principles of governance associated with the model inherited from the British, widely accepted as appropriate for the country. The primary accountability institutions, and organizations for financial management, control, audit and legislative scrutiny have, however, not evolved in line with the changes in the ...
Malinda G. Sirisena
The aim of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of software quality assurance approaches of Sri Lankan offshore software development organizations, and to propose a framework which could be used across all offshore software development organizations. An empirical study was conducted using derived framework from popular software quality evaluation models. The research instrument employed was a questionnaire survey among thirty seven Sri Lankan registered offshore software develop...
Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret
Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van der Hoek, W; Premasiri, D A; Wickremasinghe, A R
To assess the possibility of developing a protocol for the clinical diagnosis of malaria, a study was done at the regional laboratory of the Anti-Malaria Campaign in Puttalam, Sri Lanka. Of a group of 502 patients, who suspected they were suffering from malaria, 97 had a positive blood film for malaria parasites (71 Plasmodium vivax and 26 P. falciparum). There were no important differences in signs and symptoms between those with positive and those with negative blood films. It is argued that it is unlikely that health workers can improve on the diagnosis of malaria made by the patients themselves, if laboratory facilities are not available. For Sri Lanka the best option is to expand the number of facilities where microscopic examination for malaria parasites can take place.
Full Text Available SRY (sex-determining region Y is widely conserved in eutherian mammals as a sex-determining gene located on the Y chromosome. SRY proteins bind to the testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 (TES with SF1 to upregulate SOX9 expression in undifferentiated gonads of XY embryos of humans and mice. The core region within TES, named TESCO, is an important enhancer for mammalian sex determination. We show that TESCO of the genus Tokudaia lost enhancer activity caused by mutations in its SRY and SF1 binding sites. Two species of Tokudaia do not have the Y chromosome or SRY, and one species has multiple SRYs located on the neo-Y chromosome consisting of the Y fused with an autosome. The sequence of Tokudaia TESCO exhibited more than 83% identity with mouse TESCO, however, nucleotide substitution(s were found in two out of three SRY binding sites and in five out of six SF1 binding sites. TESCO of all species showed low enhancer activity in cells co-transfected with SRY and SF1, and SOX9 and SF1 in reporter gene assays. Mutated TESCO, in which nucleotide substitutions found in SRY and SF1 binding sites were replaced with mouse sequence, recovered the activity. Furthermore, SRYs of the SRY-positive species could not activate the mutated TESCO or mouse TESCO, suggesting that SRYs lost function as a sex-determining gene any more. Our results indicate that the SRY dependent sex-determining mechanism was lost in a common ancestor of the genus Tokudaia caused by nucleotide substitutions in SRY and SF1 binding sites after emergence of a new sex-determining gene. We present the first evidence for an intermediate stage of the switchover from SRY to a new sex-determining gene in the evolution of mammalian sex-determining mechanism.
Kimura, Ryutaro; Murata, Chie; Kuroki, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Asato
SRY (sex-determining region Y) is widely conserved in eutherian mammals as a sex-determining gene located on the Y chromosome. SRY proteins bind to the testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 (TES) with SF1 to upregulate SOX9 expression in undifferentiated gonads of XY embryos of humans and mice. The core region within TES, named TESCO, is an important enhancer for mammalian sex determination. We show that TESCO of the genus Tokudaia lost enhancer activity caused by mutations in its SRY and SF1 binding sites. Two species of Tokudaia do not have the Y chromosome or SRY, and one species has multiple SRYs located on the neo-Y chromosome consisting of the Y fused with an autosome. The sequence of Tokudaia TESCO exhibited more than 83% identity with mouse TESCO, however, nucleotide substitution(s) were found in two out of three SRY binding sites and in five out of six SF1 binding sites. TESCO of all species showed low enhancer activity in cells co-transfected with SRY and SF1, and SOX9 and SF1 in reporter gene assays. Mutated TESCO, in which nucleotide substitutions found in SRY and SF1 binding sites were replaced with mouse sequence, recovered the activity. Furthermore, SRYs of the SRY-positive species could not activate the mutated TESCO or mouse TESCO, suggesting that SRYs lost function as a sex-determining gene any more. Our results indicate that the SRY dependent sex-determining mechanism was lost in a common ancestor of the genus Tokudaia caused by nucleotide substitutions in SRY and SF1 binding sites after emergence of a new sex-determining gene. We present the first evidence for an intermediate stage of the switchover from SRY to a new sex-determining gene in the evolution of mammalian sex-determining mechanism.
Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.
This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…
Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R
To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.
Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M
BACKGROUND: Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased 8-fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005, rates had halved. We investigated whether Sri Lanka's regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible...... with these declines. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that in countries where pesticides are commonly used in acts of self-poisoning, import controls on the most toxic pesticides may have a favourable impact on suicide. In Asia, there are an estimated 300,000 deaths from pesticide self-poisoning annually. National...
Gunawardena, Panduka S; Marston, Denise A; Ellis, Richard J; Wise, Emma L; Karawita, Anjana C; Breed, Andrew C; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C; Fooks, Anthony R
A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Results Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. Conclusion A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.
Nandasena, Yatagama Lokuge S; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini
Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects in Sri Lanka. All the studies pertaining to air pollution and health effects were considered. Sixteen studies investigated the association between exposure to ambient or indoor air pollution (IAP) and various health outcomes ranging from respiratory symptoms, low birth weight and lung cancers. Of the sixteen, three used a case control design. Half of the studies collected exposure data only through questionnaires. There were positive associations between air pollution and adverse health effects in all studies. Methodological limitations in most of the studies resulted in poor quantification of risk estimates. A limited number of epidemiological studies in Sri Lanka have investigated the health effects of air pollution. Based on findings of studies and reported air quality levels, air pollution may be considered a neglected public health problem in Sri Lanka.
Since 1977 considerable effort has been made in Sri Lanka to develop and disseminate wind pumping systems primarily in the small-scale agricultural sector in the island's dry zone. Through close cooperation with the Consultancy Services Wind Energy Developing Countries (CWD) in the Netherlands this programme has been successful in developing the necessary hardware but the broad objective of promoting wide spread use of wind pumping in Sri Lanka is yet to materialize. In analyzing probable reasons for this, the paper highlights that the basic arguments underlying the origin of the project in 1976, such as foreign exchange savings and local industrial development, became irrelevant to the post 1977 political and economic policies of the new government. Thus, the general economic framework adopted in Sri Lanka since 1977 does not seem to provide the necessary pre-conditions for development of a local industry for wind pumps. Due to this reason and the fact that kerosene oil used in conventional agriculturla pumps is subsidized, the ability of wind pumps to compete in the wind pump market seems highly constrained. It is concluded that under such conditions the prospects for the manufacturing and marketing of wind pumps on an industrial scale are not very favourable
Full Text Available In this work, a Fibre Bragg grating (FBG encapted with no-core fibre (NCF as surrounding refractive index (SRI and temperature sensors are practically demonstrated. A FBG with 1550 nm wavelength was attached with 5 cm length of no-core fibre (NCF is used as SRI and temperature sensing probe. The change of temperature and SRI induced the wavelength shift in FBG. The wavelength shift in FBG reacts directly proportional to the temperature with a sensitivity of while the sensitivity of NCF was measured as 13.13 pm °C−1. Keywords: FBG, No-core fibre (NCF, Temperature, Sensor
... of Sri Lanka is increasingly emphasizing aquaculture development as a means to foster ... Pilot interventions tested the effectiveness of mobile short text messaging to ... Building on this project, researchers will test three ways of scaling-up ...
Full Text Available The system of rice intensification (SRI is a production system that involves the adoption of certain changes in management practices for rice cultivation that create a better growing environment for the crop. This system was compared with conventional practices and assessed under organic and inorganic management. SRI practices showed significant response in root number, number of effective tillers per hill, days to flowering and harvest index. In addition, SRI was found effective in minimizing pest and disease incidence, shortening the crop cycle, and improving plant stand. Grain yield was not different from conventional method. Except for harvest index and plant lodging percentage, there were no significant effects from management treatments. Synergistic responses were noted when SRI practices were combined with organic management for plant height, number of effective tillers per hill, days to flowering and to maturity. The improved panicle characteristics, lower plant lodging percentage and higher harvest index that ultimately led to comparable grain yields. Net returns increased approximately 1.5 times for SRI-organic management regardless of the added labor requirements for weed control. However, comparatively higher grain yield from conventional-inorganic methods underscore the need for further investigations in defining what constitutes an optimum set of practices for an SRI-organic system specifically addressing grain yield and weed management.
Urbanistid ja keskkonnaeksperdid: iga muudatuse eest Reidi tee projektis oleme pidanud võitlema / Helen Sooväli-Sepping, Kristi Grišakov, Mari Jüssi ; intervjueerinud Mari Peegel ; kommenteerinud Taavi Aas
Sooväli-Sepping, Helen, 1974-
TLÜ keskkonnakorralduse professor ja linnakorralduse õppekava juht Helen Sooväli-Sepping, TTÜ maastikuarhitektuuri õppekava juht ja linnaplaneerija-urbanist Kristi Grišakov ning Stockholmi keskkonnainstituudi Tallinna keskuse liikuvus- ja keskkonnaekspert Mari Jüssi kinnitavad, et Reidi tee projekt ei ole endiselt inimsõbralik
Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; de Zoysa, Piyanjli
Objectives: The study had two objectives: to examine the rates of exposure to family violence among students in a non-Western society, with Sri Lanka as a case study and to examine the psychological effects of their exposure. Method: Four hundred seventy six medical students in Sri Lanka were surveyed. A self-administered questionnaire was…
Ariyarathne, Nisanka Sanjeewani
Masteroppgave i development management- Universitetet i Agder 2009 In thirty years period conflict became as main actor in Sri Lankan socio economic and political back grounds. As the consequences of the conflict, Sri Lankan mainstreams had harmful damages. These damages directly affected to the development. North and Eastern province are most conflict affected regions in Sri Lanka. North was the first conflict affected region. Eastern is the totally different form when compari...
Ürel Demir, Gizem; Doğan, Özlem Akgün; Şimşek Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Utine, Gülen Eda; Boduroğlu, Koray; Gucer, Safak; Alikaşifoğlu, Mehmet
Ovotesticular disorder of sex development (OT-DSD) is a rare disorder of sexual differentiation characterized by the presence of both testicular and ovarian tissue in an individual and the majority of cases have been reported with 46,XX karyotype. In 46,XX cases, testicular differentiation may occur due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or to an autosome. Herein, we present a female newborn with a combination of trisomy 13 and SRY (-) XX OT-DSD. Trisomy 13 is a relatively common and well-known chromosomal disorder in which disorders of sexual differentiation are not frequent. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of pro-testis genes, or decreased expression of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes have been suggested as underlying mechanisms of testicular formation. The findings in this patient were suggestive of an underlying genomic disorder associated with FGF9 and/or SPRY2.
Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue
Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is common in Sri Lanka. To date, most preventive strategies have focused on limitation of access to toxic pesticides, which has reduced the rates of fatal self-poisoning. However the ongoing phenomenon of non-fatal self-poisoning indicates the need for exploration of alternate preventive strategies. Self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive, with little premeditation, but the motivations associated with this act have not been studied in depth. This research describes the triggers and motivations associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. It is anticipated that the findings would help guide future preventive strategies. Two studies were carried out, at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, each using a different methodology - Study 1 consisted of qualitative semi-structured interviews, and Study 2 was a cross sectional survey. Both studies were conducted among those who had recently attempted self-poisoning, and explored associated triggers and motivations associated with the act of self-poisoning. There was no overlap between participants of the two studies. A total of 24 persons participated in the semi-structured interviews (Study 1), and 921 took part in the cross-sectional survey (Study 2). Interpersonal conflict was the most common trigger prior to the act of non-fatal self-poisoning. A mixture of motivations was associated with the act of self-poisoning, including intent to die, to escape, and difficulty tolerating distress associated with interpersonal conflict. Development of interpersonal skills and interpersonal problem solving skills, particularly in adolescents and young people, emerges as a key primary preventive strategy. Further, there is value in exploring and helping people to develop more adaptive strategies to cope with emotional distress associated with interpersonal conflict. While distress tolerance and interpersonal skill training strategies used in the West may be
Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin
Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511
Jeevan Dananjaya Kottawa-Arachchi
Full Text Available The climate change impacts are felt by all facets and sectors of ecosystems, covering flora, fauna and environment. Sri Lanka is considered as a vulnerable, small island country that is under serious threat from climate change impacts. The most profound impacts of climate change in Sri Lanka will be on agriculture and food security, water and coastal resources, biodiversity changes, and human health. Sri Lanka's biodiversity is significantly important both on a regional and global scale as it has the highest species density for flowering plants, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Sri Lanka's varied ecosystems provide many services that are of significant economic value and play a crucial role in providing goods and ecosystem services. The subsequent sections featuring specific aspects of biodiversity in forests, freshwater wetlands, coastal and marine systems and agricultural systems, provide greater detail on the ecosystem services and bio-resources. Habitat loss and fragmentation, invasive alien species, deforestation and forest degradation, development projects, environmental pollutions and climate change (global warming are the major threats to the biodiversity of the country. Climate change impacts on environment lead to a reduction in the distribution and abundance of species, especially endemics, which may even result in their global extinction. The introduction of various policies and guidelines in relation to environment is a good sign for conservation of ecosystems and biodiversity. The government of Sri Lanka has been implementing various environmental projects aiming at reducing deforestation and degradation of ecosystems. Policies and measures already developed under such initiatives will no doubt preserve natural habitats for plant and animal species. However, being a developing country with many economic challenges, the funds and expertise available for monitoring climate change impacts and biodiversity conservation are not
The commonest cause of nutritional anaemia in the Sri Lankan population is iron deficiency. The diets of the population belonging to the lower socio-economic groups contain little food of animal origin. Thus, their diets are deficient in easily absorbable (haem) iron; and are also heavily cereal-based. Therefore interference in the absorption of dietary iron also occurs. Iron-deficiency anaemia is not restricted to the so-called ''vulnerable groups'' in Sri Lanka, however, their greater demands make the problem not only commoner but also more severe. Among pregnant and lactating women anaemia is often associated with folate deficiency. It must also be noted that the low availability of dietary iron is compounded in large population groups. Malaria, presently raging on an epidemic scale is also a major contributory factor to the incidence of anaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the iron status of pre-school children and pregnant women; to establish normal levels of biochemical indices at different trimesters; to record the effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy; and to record the bioavailability of iron from weaning foods and common adult diets. 6 figs, 14 tabs
Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.
Megan E Reller
Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007.We enrolled febrile patients ≥ 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR. Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797 patients without acute dengue virus (DENV infection, 64.3% (18/28 of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007 showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5% patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection.Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available Background Freemartinism generally occurs in female offspring of dizygotic twins in a mixed-sex pregnancy. Most bovine heterosexual twin females are freemartins. However, about 10% of bovine heterosexual twin females are fertile. Farmers mostly cull bovine fertile heterosexual twin females due to the lack of a practical diagnostic approach. Culling of such animals results in economic and genetic-material losses both for dairy and beef industry. Methods In this study, a comparative test, including qualitative detection of SRY gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, quantitative detection of relative content of SRY by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and quantitative detection of H-Y antigen, was performed to establish the most accurate diagnosis for freemartin. Twelve Holstein heterosexual twin females were used in this study, while three normal Holstein bulls and three normal Holstein cows were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Results Polymerase chain reaction results revealed that SRY gene were absent in three heterosexual twin females and only two of them were verified as fertile in later age. The qPCR results showed that relative content of SRY was more than 14.2% in freemartins and below 0.41% in fertile heterosexual twin females. The H-Y antigen test showed no significant numerical difference between freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. Discussion Our results show that relative content of SRY quantified by qPCR is a better detection method for diagnosis of freemartin in Holstein cattle as compare to qualitative detection of SRY gene by PCR or quantitative detection of H-Y antigen. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time we applied qPCR to diagnosing freemartin by quantifying SRY gene and got relative SRY content of each freemartin and fertile heterosexual twin female. We concluded that low-level of SRY would not influence fertility of bovine heterosexual twin female.
Holtberg, P.D.; Webb, D.O.
Although the significance of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait is indeterminate, a move toward more efficient use of energy in end use applications and increased reliance on domestic energy sources is anticipated. The short and long term potential for natural gas to displace oil in end use applications is analyzed and R and D initiatives are proposed that would accelerate the development of technology by GRI and the gas industry necessary to maximize the substitution of gas for oil
Georg, I; Bagheri-Fam, S; Knower, K C; Wieacker, P; Scherer, Gerd; Harley, V R
During mouse sex determination, SRY upregulates the core testis-specific enhancer of Sox9, TESCO. Mutations in human SRY are found in one third of cases with XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (XY GD; Swyer syndrome), while two thirds remain unexplained. Heterozygous SOX9 mutations can cause XY GD in association with the skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia. We hypothesized that human TESCO mutations could cause isolated XY GD. Sixty-six XY GD cases with an intact SRY were analyzed for TESCO point mutations or deletions. No mutations were identified. We conclude that TESCO mutations are not a common cause of XY GD. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Kaur, Gurpreet; Lieu, Kim G.; Jans, David A.
We recently showed that the developmentally important family of SOX (SRY (sex determining region on the Y chromosome)-related high mobility group (HMG) box) proteins require the calcium-binding protein calmodulin (CaM) for optimal nuclear accumulation, with clinical mutations in SRY that specifically impair nuclear accumulation via this pathway resulting in XY sex reversal. However, the mechanism by which CaM facilitates nuclear accumulation is unknown. Here, we show, for the first time, that the 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein hsc70 plays a key role in CaM-dependent nuclear import of SRY. Using a reconstituted nuclear import assay, we show that antibodies to hsc70 significantly reduce nuclear accumulation of wild type SRY and mutant derivatives thereof that retain CaM-dependent nuclear import, with an increased rate of nuclear accumulation upon addition of both CaM and hsc70, in contrast to an SRY mutant derivative with impaired CaM binding. siRNA knockdown of hsc70 in intact cells showed similar results, indicating clear dependence upon hsc70 for CaM-dependent nuclear import. Analysis using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching indicated that hsc70 is required for the maximal rate of SRY nuclear import in living cells but has no impact upon SRY nuclear retention/nuclear dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate direct binding of hsc70 to the SRY·CaM complex, with immunoprecipitation experiments from cell extracts showing association of hsc70 with wild type SRY, but not with a mutant derivative with impaired CaM binding, dependent on Ca2+. Our novel findings strongly implicate hsc70 in CaM-dependent nuclear import of SRY. PMID:23235156
Harnessing big data to meet the Sustainable Development Goals – Building capacity in the ... and facilitate development in sectors such as health, urban development, ... North and Central America, South America, Mexico, Rwanda, Sri Lanka.
Lane, David A
When massive tsunamis affected the coast of Sri Lanka and other Indian Ocean littorals, elements of the Third Force Service Support Group and assigned Navy, Air Force, Army, and Coast Guard units from the U.S. Pacific Command were "task organized" to form Combined Support Group-Sri Lanka (CSG-SL), charged to conduct humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations. The specific mission was to provide immediate relief to the affected population of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, to minimize loss of life, and to mitigate human suffering. A 30-person health care team deployed to the northern province of Jaffna and provided medical assistance to that chronically underserved and acutely overstressed region. For a 12-day period, the team served as the principal medical staff of an under-resourced government hospital and conducted mobile primary care clinics at nearby welfare camps housing > 7,000 internally displaced persons made homeless by the tsunamis. By every measurable standard, CSG-SL accomplished its assigned HA/DR task in Sri Lanka, including the medical mission. In doing so, the medical team learned many important lessons, including five of particular value to planners of similar relief operations in the future. This article discusses the context in which CSG-SL planned and executed the medical aspects of its HA/DR operations in Sri Lanka, and it describes the most significant medical lessons learned.
van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming
This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were...... admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning....... Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...
book by Asoka Bandarage titled, The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy examined the conflict in Sri Lanka...population, including the Tamil Diaspora, 23 Asoka Bandarage, The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka...Books Bandarage, Asoka . The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. New York: IUniverse, Inc., 2009. Books LLC
Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu Rekha; Adams, Andrew A.; Rassool, Naz; Williams, Shirley A.
Education, especially higher education, is considered vital for maintaining national and individual competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. Following the introduction of its "Free Education Policy" as early as 1947, Sri Lanka is now the best performer in basic education in the South Asian region, with a remarkable record in terms of high literacy rates and the achievement of universal primary education. However, access to tertiary education is a bottleneck, due to an acute shortage of university places. In an attempt to address this problem, the government of Sri Lanka has invested heavily in information and communications technologies (ICTs) for distance education. Although this has resulted in some improvement, the authors of this article identify several barriers which are still impeding successful participation for the majority of Sri Lankans wanting to study at tertiary level. These impediments include the lack of infrastructure/resources, low English language proficiency, weak digital literacy, poor quality of materials and insufficient provision of student support. In the hope that future implementations of ICT-enabled education programmes can avoid repeating the mistakes identified by their research in this Sri Lankan case, the authors conclude their paper with a list of suggested policy options.
account for about four-fifths of the country’s exports, including garments , textiles, gems, as well as agricultural goods. Tourism and repatriated...May 28, 2009. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 13 reform and privatization of state-owned industries in...port facilities in Gwadar, Pakistan; Chittagong, Bangladesh ; and Sittwe, Burma.75 Colombo was also
Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend
Fernando, Sunera M.; Deane, Frank P.; McLeod, Hamish J.
Background: Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment.\\ud Aims: To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help‐seeking delay.\\ud Methods: Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale.\\ud Results: Stigma was positively related to help‐seeking delay for carer...
De Silva, Nalika; Wijesundara, Sarojini; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Stenos, John
Data on pediatric scrub typhus is uncommon in Sri Lanka and other countries. The objective of this study was to identify the clinical features of patients with scrub typhus at a Base Hospital in Sri Lanka. Sixty patients presenting with suspected scrub typhus were included in the study. Their blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against rickettsioses using the reference method. Twenty patients had confirmed scrub typhus and 24 had possible scrub typhus. Their clinical feat...
Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B
Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Full Text Available Urbanization tends bring out a number of problems, such as inadequate housing and urban services, increase land prices and construction costs, propagation of slums, pollution and deterioration of the urban environment. Currently, spatial development activities focusing on major cities of Sri Lanka are demanding urban infrastructure and services where municipalities are facing challenges on provision of the infrastructure and proper urban management too. This study seeks to identify the relevant criteria, indicators and a method for assessing the urban management performance of municipalities in Sri Lanka since specific measurement criteria and related indicators are not yet identified to evaluate urban management by the central government or local government levels. Based on Literature review, five criteria and 25 indicators were selected considering their applicability for the context of Sri Lanka. The Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator Method (FPPSI was applied to synthesize indicators and the Synthetic indicator has been used to show the performance of each criterion in terms of urban service delivery. Colombo Municipal Council (CMC, Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Municipal Council (SJKMC and Moratuwa Municipal Council (MMC have been selected as the case studies for this research. Although selected cases are within Colombo Metropolitan Region, none of the municipalities were achieved the “High” or “Very High” level of synthetic indicator (SR>= 0.50 that shows the standard of municipal service delivery of Sri Lanka as a whole. This research lays the platform to evaluate the functional performance of Municipal Councils to guide the future scenario and to make decisions at the grass root level for managing the urbanization related issues in the country. Also this research helps the government to know the current trends of development impact and to take necessary policy level decisions to guide the economic growth in a correct
Involuntary resettlement: A cross-country study on urban inequality and poverty ... INDIA, Poverty, SOUTH ASIA, SRI LANKA, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, Gender ... LOW INCOME GROUPS, WOMEN, RESEARCH CAPACITY, Social Policy, POLICY ...
Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.
The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…
Full Text Available La búsqueda de la unidad nacional se ha convertido en un desafío para el liderazgo de sucesivos gobernantes tanto en Malasia como en Sri Lanka. Mientras ambos países presentan notables diferencias tanto en sus contextos como en sus orígenes históricos, existen igualmente grandes parecidos. Lo que sigue es un artículo basado en el estudio de dos países llevado a cabo por el autor con el fin de analizar y explorar el Programa "1 Malasia" lanzado en el 2009 tras la elección del primer ministro de Malasia, Tun Najib Razak durante su primer mandato. La autora pasó dos semanas en la Fundación "1 Malasia" en Malasia durante el verano del 2012 para estudiar las facetas del programa que había sido formulado con la intención de resolver las tensiones étnicas que llevan afectando a Malasia desde su acceso a la independencia (Merdeka. El propósito de esta búsqueda es triple: primero, identificar y extraer aquellos aspectos del Programa "1 Malasia" relevantes para el contexto de Sri Lanka para poder así formular un potencial Programa "1 Sri Lanka" que tenga en cuenta las variables en juego. Segundo, el artículo busca criticar el marco ya existente del Programa "1 Malasia" ofreciendo recomendaciones para las mejoras pertinentes. Tercero, iniciar un diálogo y deliberaciones sobre el rico aprendizaje y el intercambio que se pueden cultivar entre los dos países ofreciendo un marco para la cooperación bilateral entre los gobiernos de Malasia y Sri Lanka.
Maduwage, Kalana; Kularatne, Keerthi; Wazil, Abdul; Gawarammana, Indika
Snakebite is a major medical problem in developing Asia. Hump-nosed pit viper (Genus Hypnale) causes the most number of snakebites with significant morbidity and mortality in Sri Lanka. Even though there are three species (Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale zara and Hypnale nepa) in Sri Lanka there are few published literature on species-specific clinico-epidemiological data. This report describes an authenticated fatal case of a 47 years old male due to coagulopthy and acute kidney injury following envenoming by H. zara in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
May 2, 2016 ... Researchers used innovative ways to reduce the spread of ... the role of their veterinarians into areas such as antibiotic resistance and farm practices. ... with Sri Lanka's Ministry of Livestock and Rural Development and the ...
Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund
In this article I argue that in Sri Lanka the field of education has been a constant and significant element in the relationship between population and politicians, and it plays an important role in most people's experiences and understandings of politics, just as it affects their own political...
Fordyce, F.M.; Johnson, C.C.; Appleton, J.D.; Navaratna, U.R.B.; Dissanayake, C.B.
Endemic goitre has been reported in the climatic wet zone of south-west Sri Lanka for the past 50 years, but rarely occurs in the northern dry zone. Despite government-sponsored iodised salt programmes, endemic goitre is still prevalent. In recent years, it has been suggested that Se deficiency may be an important factor in the onset of goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Prior to the present study, environmental concentrations of Se in Sri Lanka and the possible relationships between Se deficiency and endemic goitre had not been investigated. During the present study, chemical differences in the environment (measured in soil, rice and drinking water) and the Se-status of the human population (demonstrated by hair samples from women) were determined for 15 villages. The villages were characterised by low ( 25%) goitre incidence (NIDD, MIDD and HIDD, respectively). Results show that concentrations of soil total Se and iodine are highest in the HIDD villages, however, the soil clay and organic matter content appear to inhibit the bioavailability of these elements. Concentrations of iodine in rice are low (≤58 ng/g) and rice does not provide a significant source of iodine in the Sri Lankan diet. High concentrations of iodine (up to 84 μg/l) in drinking water in the dry zone may, in part, explain why goitre is uncommon in this area. This study has shown for the first time that significant proportions of the Sri Lankan female population may be Se deficient (24, 24 and 40% in the NIDD, MIDD and HIDD villages, respectively). Although Se deficiency is not restricted to areas where goitre is prevalent, a combination of iodine and Se deficiency could be involved in the pathogenesis of goitre in Sri Lanka. The distribution of red rice cultivation in Sri Lanka is coincident with the HIDD villages. Varieties of red rice grown in other countries contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, compounds which in other foodstuffs are known goitrogens. The potential
Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie; Richards, Justin; Surenthirakumaran, Rajendra
Mental disorders contribute to the global disease burden and have an increased prevalence among children in emergency settings. Good physical health is crucial for mental well-being, although physical health is multifactorial and the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Using Sri Lanka as a case study, we assessed the baseline levels of, and the association between, mental health and physical health in Tamil school children. We conducted a cross sectional study of mental and physical health in 10 schools in Kilinochchi town in northern Sri Lanka. All Grade 8 children attending selected schools were eligible to participate in the study. Mental health was assessed using the Sri Lankan Index for Psychosocial Stress - Child Version. Physical health was assessed using Body Mass Index for age, height for age Z scores and the Multi-stage Fitness Test. Association between physical and mental health variables was assessed using scatterplots and correlation was assessed using Pearson's R. There were 461 participants included in the study. Girls significantly outperformed boys in the MH testing t (459) = 2.201, p Tamil school children.
Ranil P. Nanayakkara
Full Text Available The arboreal spiders in the genus Poecilotheria is represented by 16 species and restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Each country has eight endemic species. During a survey on mygalomorph spiders in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, the critically endangered species of Theraphosidae Poecilotheria hanumavilasumica was discovered for the first time outside of its native habitat in India, expanding its range to northern Sri Lanka. The discovery of P. hanumavilasumica is unique, as it used to be a critically endangered and endemic species of the genus Poecilotheria found in India, and it is evident that during the land bridge connection between India and Sri Lanka, when the Pleistocene epoch biotic exchange took place between the two countries, taxa were dispersed through the land connections.
Sri Lanka's ten-year development framework aims at accelerating economic growth while ensuring a path of sustainable development and prioritizing conservation of the country's natural heritage. It is in this context that this policy note seeks to examine the scope for enhancing protection of Sri Lanka's natural assets through nature based tourism as an instrument for conservation with a sp...
Therese Rydberg Sterner
Full Text Available The Positive–Negative Sex-Role Inventory (PN-SRI assesses gender identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the PN-SRI in a population of 70-year-olds within the Gothenburg H70-study in Sweden. The overarching objective of testing the PN-SRI within the H70-study was to evaluate its usability to further study gender identity in large population-based samples of older adults. A total of 1124 individuals participated in the psychometric testing. A sub-sample of these (n = 406 provided a comprehensive survey regarding societal norms on femininity and masculinity. Reliability and validity tests were performed using Cronbach’s Alpha and factor analyses. The Cronbach’s α coefficients (0.734–0.787 indicated a satisfactory level of internal consistency, and the four-factor model (Model 2 fitted the data at an acceptable level (root-mean-square error of approximation, RMSEA = 0.068, standardized root-mean-square residual, SRMR = 0.07. This cross-cultural adaptation of the PN-SRI indicates that it may be applicable in a Swedish research setting comprising older adults. Future research is needed to further test the psychometric properties of this scale. Adding the PN-SRI to population-based studies will contribute to providing a nuanced way of analyzing differences and similarities among men and women.
Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.
We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.
Arai, Y T; Takahashi, H; Kameoka, Y; Shiino, T; Wimalaratne, O; Lodmell, D L
Thirty-four suspected rabid brain samples from 2 humans, 24 dogs, 4 cats, 2 mongooses, I jackal and I water buffalo were collected in 1995-1996 in Sri Lanka. Total RNA was extracted directly from brain suspensions and examined using a one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the rabies virus nucleoprotein (N) gene. Twenty-eight samples were found positive for the virus N gene by RT-PCR and also for the virus antigens by fluorescent antibody (FA) test. Rabies virus isolates obtained from different animal species in different regions of Sri Lanka were genetically homogenous. Sequences of 203 nucleotides (nt)-long RT-PCR products obtained from 16 of 27 samples were found identical. Sequences of 1350 nt of N genes of 14 RT-PCR products were determined. The Sri Lanka isolates under study formed a specific cluster that included also an earlier isolate from India but did not include the known isolates from China, Thailand, Malaysia, Israel, Iran, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Nepal, Philippines, Japan and from several other countries. These results suggest that one type of rabies virus is circulating among human, dog, cat, mongoose, jackal and water buffalo living near Colombo City and in other five remote regions in Sri Lanka.
Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.;
Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.
Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R
We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Fredy Hernán Villalobos-Galvis
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las propiedades psicométricas del Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25, adaptado al español, en una muestra de adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. MÉTODOS: Se adaptó el SRI-25 al idioma español por medio de una traducción simple. Se contó con 573 participantes, estudiantes de colegios y universidades, de 10 a 25 años de edad. RESULTADOS: En un análisis factorial exploratorio por componentes principales se encontró una estructura de tres factores que explican el 52,83% de la varianza. Se realizaron análisis factoriales según el sexo, el nivel educativo y la etapa evolutiva, a partir de los cuales se confirmó que en todos los grupos, los ítems cargan en los mismos factores de la prueba original, a saber: protección interna, estabilidad emocional y protección externa. Se obtuvo un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach de 0,922 para la prueba total. En cuanto a la validez de constructo, el SRI-25 presentó correlaciones significativas con medidas de autoestima, apoyo social, solución de problemas, razones para vivir, depresión, desesperanza e ideas suicidas. CONCLUSIÓN: Se comprobó que el SRI-25 es un instrumento útil para medir la resiliencia ante el suicidio en adolescentes y jóvenes escolarizados de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia.OBJECTIVE: Describe the psychometric properties of the Suicide Resilience Inventory (SRI-25, adapted to Spanish, in a student sample of adolescents and young adults from San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. METHODS: The SRI-25 was adapted to the Spanish language by means of a simple translation. This involved the participation of 573 schoolchildren and college/ university students between 10 and 25 years of age. RESULTS: In an exploratory factorial analysis by principal components, a structure of three factors was found to explain 52.83% of the variance. Factorial analysis was carried out by sex, educational level, and developmental stage. On this basis, it was
Region: India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia ... Peace and Development : Democratization, Poverty Reduction and Risk Mitigation in ... Global Network : Integration and Harmonization of ICT Policy and Regulation ...
Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila
Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…
textabstractFinancial markets and company managers are increasingly acknowledging the concepts of socially responsible investing (SRI) and corporate social responsibility (CSR), but not without reservations. These hesitations are largely attributable to ongoing debates about a potential conflict between social responsibility goals and the traditional financial objectives of investors and companies. This thesis bundles six empirical studies that deepen our understanding of the economic value o...
I Gede Setiawan Adi Putra
Full Text Available Despite the SRI’s higher yield potential, the Subak member rice farmers are still reluctant to adopt this new way of cultivating rice. In about five years since its introduction to Bali, only 288 rice farmers have adopted it. This slow rate of adoption became a problem worth to investigate. In this conjunction, this study attempted to disclose the extent of SRI adoption amongst these farmers, and to explain how factors such as farmer’s personal characteristics, perceptions about SRI, attitudes toward SRI, Self-Reliance, and Extension workers’ as well as the heads of Subak competencies jointly affected the adoption behavior of the Balinese rice farmers. To attain these objectives an ex post facto study was designed. A random sample of 104 rice farmers was thereafter selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were then analyzed by employing the Structural Equation Model (SEM procedure with the Lisrel Version 8.3 program. The study concluded that the extent of adoption of the 9 components of SRI amongst the Balinese rice farmers were still diverse, and the intensity of the above factors’ effects on the SRI adoption amongst the Balinese rice farmers ranged from weak to moderate.
Full Text Available The metaphors used in the Sri Lankan English newspaper editorials during the peace talk time (2001-2007 commenting on the international intervention in the Sri Lankan ethnic conflict reveal community based ideological and attitudinal positions of the newspapers published in Sri Lanka. Metaphors literally contribute to our understanding of reality. The frames and scripts used for legitimization and de-legitimization of the issues related to international intervention and facilitation in the peace talk, peace process and monitoring the ceasefire bring out certain realities comfortable to certain people, groups or communities. The binary positions projected in the editorial discourse are identified. Discourse constitutes power in constructing ideational, textual and interpersonal constructs which are ideological. It can transmit and even legitimize power in society. During the peace talk time, the editorials are expected to develop constructive discourse on conflict intervention and resolution to make a positive impact on legislative changes but they display ‘ethno-nationalist’ tendencies. The study analyzes whether the media has been a part of the problem or a part of the solution. Since newspaper and editorial discourses are the constructions of journalists and editors of the elites, the biased ideologies are “hidden or subtle in expressions and often revealed in mild forms”. This study takes up selected editorials of the Sri Lankan English newspapers which appeared mainly during the Memorandum of Understanding between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eezham during that period, to relate the discourse themes with rhetorical and metaphorical features.
Full Text Available Most studies seeking common variant associations with type 2 diabetes (T2D have focused on individuals of European ancestry. These discoveries need to be evaluated in other major ancestral groups, to understand ethnic differences in predisposition, and establish whether these contribute to variation in T2D prevalence and presentation. This study aims to establish whether common variants conferring T2D-risk in Europeans contribute to T2D-susceptibility in the South Asian population of Sri Lanka.Lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs at 37 T2D-risk loci attaining genome-wide significance in Europeans were genotyped in 878 T2D cases and 1523 normoglycaemic controls from Sri Lanka. Association testing was performed by logistic regression adjusting for age and sex and by the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test after stratifying according to self-identified ethnolinguistic subgroup. A weighted genetic risk score was generated to examine the combined effect of these SNPs on T2D-risk in the Sri Lankan population.Of the 36 SNPs passing quality control, sixteen showed nominal (p<0.05 association in Sri Lankan samples, fifteen of those directionally-consistent with the original signal. Overall, these association findings were robust to analyses that accounted for membership of ethnolinguistic subgroups. Overall, the odds ratios for 31 of the 36 SNPs were directionally-consistent with those observed in Europeans (p = 3.2×10(-6. Allelic odds ratios and risk allele frequencies in Sri Lankan subjects were not systematically different to those reported in Europeans. Genetic risk score and risk of T2D were strongly related in Sri Lankans (per allele OR 1.10 [95%CI 1.08-1.13], p = 1.2×10(-17.Our data indicate that most T2D-risk variants identified in Europeans have similar effects in South Asians from Sri Lanka, and that systematic difference in common variant associations are unlikely to explain inter-ethnic differences in prevalence or presentation of T2D.
Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka
Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid of ...
Silva, L.P.; Rajapaksha, W.R.A.K.J.S.
The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)
Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin
To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly
Otake, Tomofumi; Kuroiwa, Asato
The sex-determining gene SRY induces SOX9 expression in the testes of eutherian mammals via two pathways. SRY binds to testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TESCO) with SF1 to activate SOX9 transcription. SRY also up-regulates ER71 expression, and ER71 activates Sox9 transcription. After the initiation of testis differentiation, SOX9 enhances Amh expression by binding to its promoter with SF1. SOX8, SOX9 and SOX10, members of the SOXE gene family, also enhance the activities of the Amh promoter and TESCO. In this study, we investigated the regulation of these sexual differentiation genes in Tokudaia osimensis, which lacks a Y chromosome and the SRY gene. The activity of the AMH promoter was stimulated by SOXE genes and SF1. Mutant AMH promoters, with mutations in its SOX and SF1 binding sites, did not show significant activity by SOX9 and SF1. These results indicate that AMH expression was regulated by the binding of SOX9 and SF1. By contrast, SOXE genes could not enhance TESCO activity. These results indicate that TESCO enhancer activity was lost in this species. Furthermore, the activity of the SOX9 promoter was enhanced by ER71, indicating that ER71 may play an important role in the testis-specific expression of SOX9.
Full Text Available The present works reviewed the existing information on leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and in other countries, focusing on challenges of controlling leishmaniasis in the country, in an outbreak. Evidence from recent studies suggests that there is a possibility of a leishmaniasis outbreak in Sri Lanka in the near future. Difficulty of early diagnosis due to lack of awareness and unavailability or inadequacy of sensitive tests are two of the main challenges for effective case management. Furthermore, the absence of a proper drug for treatment and lack of knowledge about vector biology, distribution, taxonomy and bionomics, and reservoir hosts make the problem serious. The evident potential for visceralization in the cutaneous variant of L. donovani in Sri Lanka may also complicate the issue. Lack of knowledge among local communities also reduces the effectiveness of vector and reservoir host control programs. Immediate actions need to be taken in order to increase scientific knowledge about the disease and a higher effectiveness of the patient management and control programs must be achieved through increased awareness about the disease among general public and active participation of local community in control activities.
Full Text Available The diagnosis of cancer is associated with an unexpected breakdown of the physical, psychological and social well being. In addition to cancer related physical outcomes, cross-cultural issues are known to hasten patients’ clinical deterioration and can impact upon orientation as a healthy human being in society. As members of a developing nation in the second world, to provide patient oriented quality care while maintaining high standards of ethical practice, health care workers in Sri Lanka have to be culturally competent. In Sri Lanka, the cross-cultural ethical issues related to patients with a diagnosis of cancer include, awareness of one’s own cultural identity, gaining knowledge of different cultural issues, verbal and non verbal communication skills, respect for patients’ autonomy, involvement of the family and the relatives, addressing moral and spiritual backgrounds, development of effective communication skills and provision of social support. Therefore in the management of cancer patients in Sri Lanka, cultural issues should be given a high priority to maintain ethical standards and quality in palliative care. Culturally competent Health care workers safeguard the rights of patients, as well as providing optimal medical and surgical care.
IDRC's Focus Cities Research Initiative (FCRI) is supporting research teams in nine ... Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia ... it was reported that mangrove wetlands and other thick coastal vegetation served to ...
Jayamanne, D.; Fernando, W.L.W.; Ariyadasa
This document is intended as background information on nuclear energy to contribute to Sri Lanka's comparative study of alternative sources of energy. This study has considered the safety and environmental effects of nuclear power reactors. Basic concepts of nuclear physics are introduced and providing and appreciation of safety considerations and safety aspects of nuclear power plants and the personnel. Radioactive waste management, storage and disposal are also discussed. Natural radiation levels in Sri Lanka are provided as well as information on biological effects of radiation especially occupational exposure licensing procedures for nuclear power plants are outlined strategy for public awareness of nuclear power is proposed
Suchiradipta, Bhattacharjee; Raj, Saravanan
Purpose: This paper identifies the stakeholders of System of Rice Intensification (SRI), their roles and actions and the supporting and enabling environment of innovation in the state as the elements of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI in Tripura state of India and studies the relationship matrix among the stakeholders.…
This paper seeks to examine the embodiment of female masculinity as experienced by 12 gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lanka. By drawing on western feminist and queer theories, it critiques western theories in relation to a non-western subjectivity, attempting to unravel the seemingly empowering, albeit problematic, category of female masculinity. Data gathered through qualitative interviews address one key research question: how do gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lankan embody female masculinity? As the discussion unfolds, this paper analyses the ways they view themselves, the extent to which their actions and behaviours fit within a masculine framework and the ways in which notions of desire are felt and understood in relation to their understanding of gender. In terms of theory, the analysis is located in social constructivist theory, while drawing on a postmodernist approach. Theoretically, the concept of female masculinity allows a woman embodying masculinity to dislodge men and maleness from it. The reality within a Sri Lankan experience, however, can at times be different, as this paper reveals.
Imran, M. S.; Manan, M. S. Abdul; Khalil, A. N. M.; MdNaim, M. K.; Ahmad, R. N.
There is a demand to develop transplanter specifically for system of rice intensification (SRI) cultivation in Malaysia. This SRI transplanter is different from conventional transplanter as it is required special requirements for transplanting. The work focused on transplanting mechanism design which can be later attached to SRI transplanter. The mechanical design was established using linkage mechanism, having a wheel that act as timing wheel that will control the distance between transplanted seedlings. The linkage mechanism also control the opening of the flapper that allow the seedling together with its nursery soil to be dropped, and control the stopper to prevent next seedling from sliding down the tray. The use of simple mechanism will have low cost for fabrication. The design was analysed using motion analysis software. Results show the design is perfectly good and can be fabricated without any problem. The animation successfully shows the perfect movement of the mechanism and transplanting process.
Siriwardhana, E A R I E; Perera, P A J; Sivakanesan, R; Abeysekara, T; Nugegoda, D B; Jayaweera, J A A S
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.
Rexroth, P.E.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.
SIMMER-II was used to analyze the results of the SRI nitrogen bubble expansion experiments. Good agreement was found for all of the experiments analyzed as well as the theoretical isentropic limiting case. Scaling to a full size CRBR reactor reveals no significant scaling effects for the structureless core
R. Kurian (Rachel); K. Jayawardena (Kumari)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Plantation production began in Sri Lanka in the early 19th century under British colonial rule, when the government provided financial incentives and infrastructural support for the commercialisation and export of agricultural crops in line with promoting
Full Text Available In most mammals, male development is triggered by the transient expression of the SRY gene, which initiates a cascade of gene interactions ultimately leading to the formation of a testis from the indifferent fetal gonad. Mutation studies have identified several genes essential for early gonadal development. We report here a molecular study of the SRY, DAX1, SF1 and WNT4 genes, mainly involved in sexual determination, in Brazilian 46,XX and 46,XY sex-reversed patients. The group of 46,XX sex-reversed patients consisted of thirteen 46,XX true hermaphrodites and four 46,XX males, and was examined for the presence of the SRY gene and for the loss of function (inactivating mutations and deletions of DAX1 and WNT4 genes. In the second group consisting of thirty-three 46,XY sex-reversed patients we investigated the presence of inactivating mutations in the SRY and SF1 genes as well as the overexpression (duplication of the DAX1 and WNT4 genes. The SRY gene was present in two 46,XX male patients and in none of the true hermaphrodites. Only one mutation, located outside homeobox domain of the 5' region of the HMG box of SRY (S18N, was identified in a patient with 46,XY sex reversal. A novel 8-bp microdeletion of the SF1 gene was identified in a 46,XY sex-reversed patient without adrenal insufficiency. The dosage of DAX1 and WNT4 was normal in the sex-reversed patients studied. We conclude that these genes are rarely involved in the etiology of male gonadal development in sex-reversed patients, a fact suggesting the presence of other genes in the sex determination cascade.
V . O . Subardja
Full Text Available Soil salinity has negative effect on soil biodiversity as well as microbial activities. Hence, rice growth also effected by salinity. Application of organic fertilizer and adoption of System of Rice Intensification (SRI cultivation might improve the (biological soil properties and increase rice yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different rice cultivation methods namely conventional rice cultivation method and System of Rice Intensification (SRI rice cultivation method and two kinds organic fertilizer on improvement of soil biological properties and rice yield. In this study, a split plot experimental design was applied where rice cultivation method (conventional and SRI was the main plot and two kinds of organic fertilizer (market waste and rice straw was the sub plot. The treatments had four replicates. The results showed that SRI cultivation with market waste organic fertilizer could increase soil biological properties (population of microbe, fungi and soil respiration. The same treatment also increased rice growth and production. Combination of SRI and market waste organic fertilizer yielded the highest rice production (7.21 t/ha.
Amarasekara, A A T D; Fongkaew, W; Turale, S; Wimalasekara, S W; Chanprasit, C
Globally, type 2 diabetes is increasingly prevalent; however, unique cultural contexts in each country might affect these diabetes control behaviours. Diabetes is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka and little is known about the impact of sociocultural context on diabetes health behaviours. This first-time qualitative Sri Lankan study explored the health beliefs and practices of adults with diabetes to enhance current nursing care and medical treatment. An ethnographic approach was used to collect data through participant observations, in-depth interviews with 14 key informants in their homes and field notes. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Findings revealed unique, informative insights into sociocultural worlds of the participants from three Sinhalese, Tamils and Moor ethnic groups. Findings are described under five themes: gaining religious support, changing food habits is a struggle, exercising is challenging, Western medicine causes long-term consequences and Ayurveda/traditional treatments can cure. In Sri Lankans, the impact of sociocultural context on glycaemic control behaviours is significant and should be taken in consideration when health professionals provide care, treatment and health education. Study informants were selected from three ethnic groups and just two communities. Further in-depth research is required using both qualitative and quantitative approaches in individual groups. Culturally relevant policies and protocols for community care and treatment of people with diabetes are urgently required in Sri Lanka to enhance cultural treatment and care and reduce the epidemic of diabetes. These policies need to take into account traditional beliefs and practices of various ethnic groups. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Full Text Available Abstract Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal.
There has been dramatic growth in telecentres and other local information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Sri Lanka. Start Date: May 27, 2006. End Date: March 17, 2010. Topic: COMMUNITY FACILITIES, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, INFORMATION SERVICES, INFORMATION NETWORKS. Region: ...
Gayan Dharmasiri, A G; Perera, A Yashan; Harishchandra, Jeevanie; Herath, Hemantha; Aravindan, Kandasamy; Jayasooriya, H T R; Ranawaka, Gaya R; Hewavitharane, Mihirini
The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country. Adult mosquito collections were done through indoor and outdoor resting collections, animal and human biting collections and emergence traps. Potential mosquito breeding sites were investigated through larval surveys. The larvae and adults of An. stephensi were initially identified using morphological keys, and subsequently confirmed by sequencing the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. This is the first report of the presence of An. stephensi in the island of Mannar in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Anopheles stephensi (36.65%) was the most abundant anopheline species in the larval habitats in Mannar. It was found breeding together with An. culicifacies (20.7%), An. subpictus (13.5%) and An. varuna (28.13%). Anopheles stephensi was found to be abundantly breeding in built wells used for domestic purposes. Adult females of An. stephensi were observed in emergence trap collections (93.9%), human landing catches all night (79.2%), pyrethrum spray sheet collections (38.6%), outdoor collections (8.3%), donkey-baited trap collections (14.3), and cattle-baited net trap collections (0.7%). Sri Lanka was certified as malaria-free by the WHO in September 2016, however, this new finding may pose a serious challenge to the efforts of the Ministry of Health to prevent the re-introduction of malaria transmission in the country, considering the role that An. stephensi could play in urban and high
Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…
Beneragama, Hemantha; Shridhar, Manisha; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Dissanayake, Vajira Hw
In 2008, the Global strategy and plan of action on public health, innovation and intellectual property (GSPA-PHI) was launched by the World Health Organization, to stimulate fresh thinking on innovation in, and access to, medicines and to build sustainable research on diseases disproportionately affecting low- and middle-income countries. As part of the activities of the GSPA-PHI, Sri Lanka has been the first country to date to assess the national environment for medical technology and innovation. This year-long, multistakeholder, participative analysis facilitated identification of clear and implementable policy recommendations, for the government to increase its effectiveness in promoting innovation in health products through institutional development, investment and coordination among all areas relevant to public health. The assessment also highlighted areas for priority action, including closing the technology gap in development of health products, facilitating technology transfer, and building the health-research and allied workforces. The Sri Lankan experience will inform the ongoing independent external evaluation of the GSPA-PHI worldwide. The assessment process coincided with the passing of the National Medicines Regulatory Authority Act in 2015. In addition, there is growing recognition that regional cooperation will be critical to improving access to medical products in the future. Sri Lanka is therefore actively promoting cooperation to establish a regional regulatory affairs network. Lessons learnt from the Sri Lankan assessment may also benefit other countries embarking on a national GSPA-PHI assessment.
Gao, Zoe; Muecke, James; Edussuriya, Kapila; Dayawansa, Ranasiri; Hammerton, Michael; Kong, Aimee; Sennanayake, Saman; Senaratne, Tissa; Marasinghe, Nirosha; Selva, Dinesh
To identify the causes of blindness and severe visual impairment (BL/SVI) in children attending schools for the blind in Sri Lanka, and to provide optical devices and ophthalmic treatment where indicated. Two hundred and six children under 16 years from 13 schools for the blind in Sri Lanka were examined by a team of ophthalmologists and optometrists. Data were entered in the World Health Organization Prevention of Blindness Eye Examination Record for Childhood Blindness (WHO/PBL ERCB). Of the 206 children, 83.5% were blind (BL = Visual acuity [VA] schools for the blind in Sri Lanka had potentially avoidable causes of BL/SVI. Vision could also be improved in a third of children. The data support the need to develop specialized pediatric ophthalmic services, particularly in the face of advancing neonatal life support in Sri Lanka, and the need for increased provision of optical support.
Ranaweera, Lanka; Kaewsutthi, Supannee; Win Tun, Aung; Boonyarit, Hathaichanoke; Poolsuwan, Samerchai; Lertrit, Patcharee
Located only a short distance off the southernmost shore of the Greater Indian subcontinent, the island of Sri Lanka has long been inhabited by various ethnic populations. Mainly comprising the Vedda, Sinhalese (Up- and Low-country) and Tamil (Sri Lankan and Indian); their history of settlements on the island and the biological relationships among them have remained obscure. It has been hypothesized that the Vedda was probably the earliest inhabitants of the area, followed by Sinhalese and Tamil from the Indian mainland. This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island. From the phylogenetic, principal coordinate and analysis of molecular variance results, the Vedda occupied a position separated from all other ethnic people of the island, who formed relatively close affiliations among themselves, suggesting a separate origin of the former. The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that Vedda people's mitochondrial sequences are more related to the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils' than the Indian Tamils' sequences. MtDNA haplogroup analysis revealed that several West Eurasian haplogroups as well as Indian-specific mtDNA clades were found amongst the Sri Lankan populations. Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.
Maintaining presence and proximity is an increasing challenge for humanitarian agencies. The final phase of Sri Lanka’s civil war (1983-2009) was characterised by humanitarian crisis. The government of Sri Lanka denounced a demarcated safe zone in Vanni, the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, claiming it was providing a haven for civilians but prohibited humanitarian agencies accessing the area. In my research, I focused on the Catholic aid agencies who were authorised to remain or to pay s...
Bandara, Ruwanthi; Medagama, Arjuna; Munasinghe, Ruwan; Dinamithra, Nandana; Subasinghe, Amila; Herath, Jayantha; Ratnayake, Mahesh; Imbulpitiya, Buddhini; Sulaiman, Ameena
Background Sri Lanka is a developing country with a high rate of cardiovascular mortality. It is still largely dependent on thrombolysis for primary management of acute myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to present current data on the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at a tertiary-care hospital in Sri Lanka. Methods Eighty-one patients with acute STEMI presenting to a teaching hospital in Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, we...
The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the
Mario Francisco Tamba
Full Text Available Paddy is one of main farming commodity since rice is one of main food in Indonesia. Innovation adoption about paddy farming was meaningful, because there were land conversion from food farming to industrial land or plantation. This study aimed to know about the adoption of farming technical was used by farmers, then aimed to know the efficiency of farming. This study took place in Empat Balai Village Kuok Sub-district Kampar Municipality. The results of this study showed there were differences about faming technical between faming technical with SRI and conventional faming technical that was used for a long time. The differences between SRI paddy farming and conventional farming were the amount of seeds per planted hole and the use of fertilizers. The amount of seeds on SRI method was only 1 seed per planted hole, meanwhile the use of fertilizers was more prioritize on using the organic materials i.e. golden snail, rice water, and brown sugar. On the other hand, there was an increasing of paddy production from SRI method which reached the production of 3.014,51 kg per ha. The increase of production caused the increase of total net income by SRI method Rp.14.953.667,01 per ha. RCR value of this farming was 1,76 per ha, which the value of RCR > 1 then this farming was profitable categorized.Keywords: Farming, Paddy, SRI, Income, Efficiency
Suraweera, Inoka K; Wijesinghe, Supun D; Senanayake, Sameera J; Herath, Hema D B; Jayalal, T B Ananda
Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among workers in four selected small-scale industry categories in two districts of Sri Lanka. A small-scale industry was defined as a work setting with less than 20 workers. Cluster sampling using probability proportionate to size of workers was used. Eighty clusters with a cluster size of eight from each district were selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Our study surveyed 198 industries. Headache (2.2%, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and eye problems (2.1%, 95% CI 1.4-2.9) were the commonest general health issues detected. Back pain (4.8%, 95% CI 3.8-6.1) was the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal pain reported. Knee pain was the second highest (4.4%, 95% CI 3.4-5.6). Most of the work-related musculoskeletal pain was either of short duration or long lasting. Work-related musculoskeletal pain was much more common than the general health issues reported. Health promotional programs at workplaces focusing ergonomics will benefit the workers at small-scale industries inSri Lanka.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.
Block, Wendell; Lee, Jessica; Vijayasingham, Kera
The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the pattern of bribe taking in exchange for release from torture, during and after the decades-long war in Sri Lanka. We reviewed the charts of 98 refugee claimants from Sri Lanka referred to the Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture for medical assessments prior to their refugee hearings in Toronto between 1989 and 2013. We tallied the number of incidents in which claimants described paying cash or jewelry to end torture, and collected other associated data such as demographics, organizations of the perpetrators, locations, and, if available, amounts paid. We included torture perpetrated by both governmental and nongovernmental militant groups. Collected data was coded and evaluated. We found that 78 of the 95 subjects (82.1%) whose reported ordeals met the United Nations Convention Against Torture/International Criminal Court definitions of torture described paying to end torture at least once. 43 subjects paid to end torture more than once. Multiple groups (governmental and non-governmental) practiced torture and extorted money by doing so. A middleman was described in 32 percent of the incidents. Payment amounts as reported were high compared to average Sri Lankan annual incomes. The practice of torture and related monetary extortion was still reported after the end of the war, inclusive of 2013. Torture in Sri Lanka is unlikely to end while profit motives remain unchallenged. As well as health injuries, victims of torture and their families suffer significant economic injuries while their assailants are enriched. The frequent link between torture and impunity means multiple populations the world over are vulnerable to this abuse.
Gunda, T.; Yeung, K.; Hornberger, G. M.
Researchers from the Agricultural Decision Making and Adaptation to Precipitation Trends in Sri Lanka (ADAPT-SL) team have been working for the past six years to understand Sri Lanka's agricultural vulnerability to climate change and how farmers and policy makers can adapt to and mitigate the variety of threats and uncertainties that climate change brings. In addition to academic publications, the compiled and developed knowledge from the ADAPT-SL research efforts are shared routinely with Sri Lankan stakeholders directly. While presentations are the norm for academic and government stakeholder outreach, we decided that an interactive component would increase farmers' learning. Drawing on teaching pedagogies, we designed a place-based, hands-on game that incorporated local climate and market characteristics to convey the impact of climate change on crop water needs for the Sri Lanka farmers. The process of developing the game, however, revealed gaps in our research knowledge, specifically regarding how farmers balance uncertainties associated with weather and market conditions. So we took advantage of the opportunity offered by the outreach effort to collect data; findings from the game led to the development of a system dynamics model. The game was well received by farmers and other Sri Lankan stakeholders in January 2016, with the former expressing that they played the game as if it was emulating actual farming decisions. The farmers also expressed a desire for more outreach efforts to be designed in such an interactive way. The game has since been used to engage U.S. students (from 5th grade to college seniors majoring in Sociology) regarding the complexities of tackling climate change issues.
徐晨明; 金帆; 黄荷凤; 陶冶; 叶英辉
Objective To develop a reliable and sensitive method for detection of sex and multiloci of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene in single cell Materials & methods Whole genome of single cell were amplified by using 15-base random primers (primer extension preamplification, PEP), then a small aliquot of PEP product were analyzed by using locus-specific nest PCR amplification. The procedure was evaluated by detection dystrophin exons 8, 17, 19, 44, 45, 48 and human testis-determining gene (SRY)in single lymphocytes from known sources and single blastomeres from the couples with no family history of DMD.Results The amplification efficiency rate of six dystrophin exons from single lymphocytes and single blastomeres were 97. 2% (175/180) and 100% (60/60) respectively.Results of SRY showed that 100% (15/15) amplification in single male-derived lymphocytes and 0% (0/15) amplification in single female-derived lymphocytes. Conclusion The technique of single cell PEP-nest PCR for dystrophin exons 8, 17,19, 44, 45, 48 and SRY is highly specifc. PEP-nest PCR is suitable for Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of DMD at single cell level.
Loubet, Benjamin; Chammakhi, Manel; Mascher, Nicolas; Durand, Brigitte; Gueudet, Jean-Christophe; Decuq, Céline; Lecuyer, Vanessa; Laville, Patricia; Buysse, Pauline; Cellier, Pierre
The carbon and greenhouse gas balance of the ICOS FR-GRI site from 2005 to 2014 is presented. The site is a wheat-barley-maize rotation with the introduction of oil-seed rape in 2012. The site receives large amounts of organic fertilization, but is shown to be a strong source of carbon to the atmosphere, especially due to the increase in the exportations of residues during the period. The exportations have increased from around 4 to around 8 t C ha-1 year-1 over the period on average except for maize for which it remained constant. In the meantime the carbon importations have increased from around 1 to around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 during the same period. Overall the field was losing around 2 t C ha-1 year-1 over the whole period but largely driven by last years (2012-2014). This would represent 17% loss of the soil carbon content in the 0-60 cm in the 2005-2014 period. The discussion focuses on explanations of these losses and possible drawbacks in the methodology. The effect of the winter intermediate crops on the carbon balance is also discussed.
Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J
Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Bilen, S; Okten, A; Karaguzel, G; Ikbal, M; Aslan, Y
Here we present a male newborn with multiple congenital anomalies who also has an extremely rare form of testicular disorder of sex development (DSD). His karyotype was 45X, without any mosaicism. SRY gene was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and rearranged on distal part of the 7th chromosome by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. SRY, normally located on the Y chromosome, is the most important gene that plays a role in the development of male sex. SRY gen may be translocated onto another chromosome, mostly X chromosome in the XX testicular DSD. On the other hand very few cases of 45 X testicular DSD were published to date. Other clinical manifestations of our patient were compatible with distal 7 q deletion syndrome. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of 45 X testicular DSD with SRY gene rearranged on the 7th autosomal chromosome.
Full Text Available According to the Malaysia’s biofuel policy, renewable fuels are crucial for energy sustainability in the transportation sector in the future. This study was aimed to evaluate the potential of bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia in terms of energy efficiency and renewability, as well to estimate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG emissions reduction in CO2 equivalent. Bioethanol production process from cassava includes cassava farming, ethanol production, and transportation in which the primary energy consumption was considered. The Net Energy Balance (NEB and Net Energy Ratio (NER of 25.68 MJ/L and 3.98, respectively, indicated that bioethanol production from Sri Kanji 1 cassava in Malaysia was energy efficient. From the environmental perspective, the GHG balance results revealed that the production and distribution of 1 L of Cassava Fuel Ethanol (CFE could reduce GHG emissions by 73.2%. Although found promising in the present study, Sri Kanji 1 cassava as bioethanol feedstock should be further investigated by constructing an actual ethanol plant to obtain real life data.
Gamage, Prasanna J; Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F
Cricket is a very popular sport in Sri Lanka. In this setting there has been limited research; specifically, there is little knowledge of cricket injuries. To support future research possibilities, the aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt, translate and test the reliability of an Australian-developed questionnaire for the Sri Lankan context. The Australian 'Juniors Enjoying Cricket Safely' (JECS-Aus) injury risk perception questionnaire was cross-culturally adapted to suit the Sri Lankan context and subsequently translated into the two main languages (Sinhala and Tamil) based on standard forward-back translation. The translated questionnaires were examined for content validity by two language schoolteachers. The questionnaires were completed twice, 2 weeks apart, by two groups of school cricketers (males) aged 11-15 years (Sinhala (n=24), Tamil (n=30)) to assess reliability. Test-retest scores were evaluated for agreement. Where responses were statistics were calculated. Questions with moderate-to-poor test-retest reliability (κAus questionnaire for use in a different population, providing an outcome measure for assessing injury risk perceptions in Sri Lankan junior cricketers.
Samarasekura, S W.R.
Sri Lanka is a tropical, predominantly agricultural island with a mixed population. The economy is rapidly expanding since 1977. So far the country is self-sufficient in rice, which is the staple food of the population. Indiscriminate cutting of forests for firewood resulted in a disastrous upsetting of the rain pattern. The existing capacity of hydro-electric power plants is not adequate to meet the demands of the rapidly growing industries and of households where the use of appliances increases dramatically with the progress of the economy. Periodic cut-offs of electric power supply became necessary. These are very harmful to industry. In order to keep the balance of payments in equilibrium, the government is fostering the development of new sources of foreign income, such as tourism and export of gems and spices. Remedies used to master the energy crisis are: the building of new hydroelectric plants, reforestation; introduction of ''kerosene stamps'' which will restrict the sale of this product at subsidized prices to the needy only; encouraging the use of fuel-efficient motorcycles in preference to automobiles; introduction (in cooperation with Honda) of alcohol-powered motorcycles; appointment of a Ministerial Committee endowed with broad powers to formulate and implement national energy policy. Although the general energy situation in Sri Lanka is rather bleak for the moment, it is confidently hoped that these measures will bear fruit in the long run.
Jan 11, 2013 ... The resulting sustainable aquaculture practices could lead to fewer disease ... shrimp, and mussels) holds great promise for improving nutrition and reducing rural poverty in Sri Lanka. ... The challenge: Communicating best practices to farmers. Disease, poor information sharing, and a lack of measureable ...
Full Text Available Gamelan sebagai alat musik atau karawitan sebagai produk musikal dari Kraton Yogyakartamempunyai beberapa karakter yang sangat khas. Karawitan masih dipergunakan sebagai suatu identitasdan diakui oleh masyarakat hingga saat ini. Pengembangan musikal ini bermula dari Sri SultanHamengku Buwono I. Ada dua alasan penting yang mendorong gagasan penciptaan karaktergamelan. Pertama, konsepsi kedudukan raja telah mendudukkan gamelan sebagai salah satu pusakapenting. Kedua, kepribadian Sultan yang maskulin, heroik, dan patriotik menjadi model pengembangan,memberi ciri khas pada masing-masing ricikan gamelan dan musikalitasnya. Gamelan KratonYogyakarta mempunyai kesan rasa musikal: agung, gagah, tegas, mantap, berwibawa, mrabu (sepertiraja, dan ngratoni (seperti suasana di kraton. The Effect of Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I on Kraton Yogyakarta Karawitan. Gamelan asmusical instrument or karawitan as a musical product of Kraton Yogyakarta has some specific characters. Itis still used as an identity and is recognized by karawitan society until now. This musical development wasfirstly introduced by Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono I. There are two important reasons which stimulatethe ideas of creating gamelan characters. First, the king’s authority conception puts the gamelan as one ofthe important heirloom. Second, Sultan’s personalities which are masculine, heroic, and patriotic becomethe influencing model of its development, and give some specific characters on each gamelan instrument andits musicality as well. Kraton Yogyakarta gamelan has many musical rasa(s/feelings: glorious, strong, clear,steady, prestigious, ‘mrabu’ (like a king, and ‘ngratoni’ (such an atmosphere of Kraton.
Hewamanna, R.; Dias, M.P.
The radiation dose to infants due to ingestion of milk containing the maximum limit of radioactivity in milk powder imported to Sri Lanka has been calculated. The radioactivity of Cs-137 was used as an index of fission products for setting radioactivity limits. The computation for milk powder was based on an average daily intake of 125 g by infants, (a critical group of population) during the first year after birth. The recommended dose commitment to the general public is 1 mSv/y. The maximum permissible limit of 20 Bq/kg of Cs-137 in milk powder as stipulated by the Atomic Energy Authority for milk powder imported to Sri Lanka would yield a dose equivalent of 12.6 micro seivert/y from Cs-137
The Central Bank of Sri Lanka has increasingly been relying on interest rates as the instrument for conducting monetary policy. Changes to the key monetary policy variables, the Repo and the Reverse Repo rates, are initially expected to be reflected in the OMO rates and the call money market rates, before being passedthrough to commercial bank retail interest rates. It is important to obtain a good understanding of the speed and magnitude of the interest rate pass-through to make timely monet...
Kudagammana, H D W S; Thevanesam, V; Chu, D K W; Eriyagama, N B; Peiris, J S M; Noordeen, F
Bats are a unique group of mammals well suited to be hosts for emerging viruses. With current rates of deforestation and urbanization, redistribution of bat habitats to urban and suburban areas may bring bats into closer contact with livestock and humans. Common flying fox, Pteropus medius (previously known as Pteropus giganteus), forms large communal roosts on treetops, often in close proximity to human habitation in Sri Lanka. This report describes the detection of coronavirus RNA in P. medius bat guano collected in Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. These viruses had >97% nucleotide identity with coronaviruses detected in Cynopterus sphinx, Scotophilus heathii and S. kuhlii bats in Thailand. Pteropus medius is widespread in Asia and appears to excrete group D coronaviruses, which are hitherto confined to bats; however, these findings may have public health implications in the future. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P
We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 μg/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.
Keerthiratne, Subhani; Tol, Richard S.J.
We explore the relationship between natural disasters and income inequality in Sri Lanka as the first study of this nature for the country. The analysis uses a unique panel data set constructed for the purpose of this paper. It contains district inequality measures based on household income reported
Andrew Shandy Utama
Full Text Available A company that carries out its business activities in the field and/or related to natural resources is obliged to carry out its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. This research was conducted at PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory which is located in Sri Meranti Village. Raw rubber production activities into semi-finished rubbers have been routinely generating pollution for the environment and society, such as air pollution and water pollution. The problem is how the implementation of CSR PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory to the community of Sri Meranti Village in Pekanbaru City? What are the obstacles and the legal effort based on Riau Province Regional Regulation Number 6 Year 2012? This research is a sociological law research. Source of data used in this research is primary data and secondary data. Data collection techniques used in this study are observation, interview, and literature study. Data analysis technique used in this research is qualitative analysis. The result of this research is PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory has implemented CSR, but has not fulfilled the expectation the community of Sri Meranti Village because it is not comparable with the pollution and environmental damage caused by the company's operational activities. The obstacle from the company side is the limited budget of CSR funds owned by PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory to be able to meet all the needs of the community, while from the community side is the lack of legal knowledge of the community of Sri Meranti Village about CSR. The legal effort is that if PT Riau Crumb Rubber Factory does not implement CSR, the community of Sri Meranti Village can convey their aspirations to the DPRD of Riau Province for the company to be recommended to get administrative sanction from the government, such as the suspension of operational license of the company.
The CSDS launched the project's second phase in 2012, but had insufficient funding to ... issues in Sri Lanka in the context of protracted social and ethnic conflicts, civil war, ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...
Full Text Available The term "Environmental Flows (EF" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.
Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah H; Lund, Ragnhild; Singh, Navpreet; Swahnberg, Katarina; Infanti, Jennifer; Schei, Berit; Wijewardene, Kumudu
Although violence against women (VAW) is a global public health issue, its importance as a health issue is often unrecognized in legal and health policy documents. This paper uses Sri Lanka as a case study to explore the factors influencing the national policy response to VAW, particularly by the health sector. A document based health policy analysis was conducted to examine current policy responses to VAW in Sri Lanka using the Shiffman and Smith (2007) policy analysis framework. The findings suggest that the networks and influences of various actors in Sri Lanka, and their ideas used to frame the issue of VAW, have been particularly important in shaping the nature of the policy response to date. The Ministry of Women and Child Affairs led the national response on VAW, but suffered from limited financial and political support. Results also suggest that there was low engagement by the health sector in the initial policy response to VAW in Sri Lanka, which focused primarily on criminal legislation, following global influences. Furthermore, a lack of empirical data on VAW has impeded its promotion as a health policy issue, despite financial support from international organisations enabling an initial health systems response by the Ministry of Health. Until a legal framework was established (2005), the political context provided limited opportunities for VAW to also be construed as a health issue. It was only then that the Ministry of Health got legitimacy to institutionalise VAW services. Nearly a decade later, a change in government has led to a new national plan on VAW, giving a clear role to the health sector in the fight against VAW. High-level political will, criminalisation of violence, coalesced women's groups advocating for legislative change, prevalence data, and financial support from influential institutions are all critical elements helping frame violence as a national public health issue.
Sarath Withanarachchi Samaranayake
Full Text Available This study investigates the current teaching trends and practices in teaching oral English in rural Sinhala-medium schools in Sri Lanka and their relevance to the current theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical perspectives of second-language acquisition (SLA. The present study, which was conducted in two Sri Lankan Sinhala-medium rural schools, is a case study in which the classroom observation, interviewing of the participants, and videotaping of students’ interaction were included as data collection tools. The spoken data were analyzed using the Communicative Orientation of Language Teaching (COLT scheme designed by Fröhlich, Spada, and Allen, while the numerical data obtained from the structured speaking test (Cambridge Key English for Schools Test were analyzed using independent samples t test. The findings of the study indicate that the instructional method used by English teachers does not provide the learners with adequate input of the target language to improve their oral communication skills in rural school contexts. As a result, a majority of students from rural schools in Sri Lanka demonstrate a limited or a low proficiency level in oral communication in English. Therefore, possible reasons for the lack of greater awareness towards more communicative teaching are discussed, and suggestions for promoting changes in teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL in rural school contexts are offered.
Clarence C Tam
Full Text Available Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged <12 years in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We used a catalytic model to estimate the risk of primary infection among seronegative children. Over 50% of children had IgG antibodies to dengue virus and seroprevalence increased with age. The risk of primary infection was 14.1% per year (95% CI: 12.7%-15.6%, indicating that among initially seronegative children, approximately 1 in 7 experience their first infection within 12 months. There was weak evidence to suggest that the force of primary infection could be lower for children aged 6 years and above. We estimate that there are approximately 30 primary dengue infections among children <12 years in the community for every case notified to national surveillance, although this ratio is closer to 100:1 among infants. Dengue represents a considerable infection burden among children in urban Sri Lanka, with levels of transmission comparable to those in the more established epidemics of Southeast Asia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Snake bite is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in certain parts of Sri Lanka. This study was designed to determine the offending snakes, neurological manifestations, disease course, and outcome in neurotoxic envenomation. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Fifty six consecutive patients admitted with neurological manifestations following snake bite were studied prospectively. Data were obtained regarding the offending snakes, neurological symptoms, time taken for onset of symptoms, neurological signs, and time taken for recovery. RESULTS: The offending snake was Russell′s viper in 27(48.2%, common and Sri Lankan krait in 19(33.9%, cobra in 3(5.4%, and unidentified in 7(12.5%. Ptosis was the commonest neurological manifestation seen in 48(85.7% followed by ophthalmoplegia (75%, limb weakness (26.8%, respiratory failure (17.9%, palatal weakness (10.7%, neck muscle weakness (7.1%, and delayed sensory neuropathy (1.8%. Neurological symptoms were experienced usually within 6 hours after the bite. Following administration of antivenom, the signs of recovery became evident within a few hours to several days. The duration for complete recovery ranged from four hours to two weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Complete recovery of neuromuscular weakness was observed in all patients except for one who died with intracerebral haemorrhage shortly after admission.
M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri
Full Text Available Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.
Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.
The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal
Full Text Available The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed. Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka.
The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka.
This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation
Region: Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Canada. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 410,300.00. Involuntary resettlement: A cross-country study on urban inequality and poverty. Project. Involuntary displacement in urban areas takes place when people are forced to leave and do ...
Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick
In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…
Kaur, Gurpreet; Delluc-Clavieres, Aurelie; Poon, Ivan K H; Forwood, Jade K; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A
The HMG (high-mobility group)-box-containing chromatin-remodelling factor SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) plays a key role in sex determination. Its role in the nucleus is critically dependent on two NLSs (nuclear localization signals) that flank its HMG domain: the C-terminally located 'beta-NLS' that mediates nuclear transport through Impbeta1 (importin beta1) and the N-terminally located 'CaM-NLS' which is known to recognize the calcium-binding protein CaM (calmodulin). In the present study, we examined a number of missense mutations in the SRY CaM-NLS from human XY sex-reversed females for the first time, showing that they result in significantly reduced nuclear localization of GFP (green fluorescent protein)-SRY fusion proteins in transfected cells compared with wild-type. The CaM antagonist CDZ (calmidazolium chloride) was found to significantly reduce wild-type SRY nuclear accumulation, indicating dependence of SRY nuclear import on CaM. Intriguingly, the CaM-NLS mutants were all resistant to CDZ's effects, implying a loss of interaction with CaM, which was confirmed by direct binding experiments. CaM-binding/resultant nuclear accumulation was the only property of SRY found to be impaired by two of the CaM-NLS mutations, implying that inhibition of CaM-dependent nuclear import is the basis of sex reversal in these cases. Importantly, the CaM-NLS is conserved in other HMG-box-domain-containing proteins such as SOX-2, -9, -10 and HMGN1, all of which were found for the first time to rely on CaM for optimal nuclear localization. CaM-dependent nuclear translocation is thus a common mechanism for this family of important transcription factors.
Wijerathne, Iresha; Wickramasinghe, Sriyani
The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from 2013 to 2015. Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill (SLGh). The study recorded 35 behavioral events i...
Fernando, Gaithri A; Berger, Dale E
Little research is available on the role of religious coping among youth exposed to disasters. This study examined the role of general and religious coping in a sample of 669 Sri Lankan Buddhist, Hindu, Muslim, and Christian youth (mean age = 14). Youth completed a survey with measures of exposure to disaster-related stressors, psychological and psychosocial functioning, and general and religious coping. Exposure to stressors was the most consistent predictor of negative outcomes, while approach-related coping predicted better outcomes for Buddhist and Hindu youth. Religious coping was the highest reported type of coping for all four religious groups, but was not significantly associated with any of the measured outcomes. The results suggest that Sri Lankan youth of different religious backgrounds are probably more similar than different in the ways they cope with adversity.
Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.
Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of
Ruwanpura, Kanchana N
This paper interrogates the social and political geographies of resettlement and reconstruction of temporary and permanent shelters, which are fundamental to rebuilding tsunami-affected communities. War and ethnic cleavages are an endemic feature of Sri Lanka's social polity, and uneven development processes in the country are clearly visible. This paper draws attention to these spaces of inequality by drawing on in-depth interviews and participant observation carried out in Eastern and Southern Sri Lanka. It argues that communities' concerns and anxieties regarding displacement and resettlement have tended to be articulated against prevailing fault lines of war and inequality. This is the backdrop against which communities negotiated the recovery process. My fieldwork shows that it is critical to understand that disaster and development relief are ingrained within context specificities. Relief efforts therefore need to recognise that the process of 'putting houses in place' should be embedded within local social relations.
Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F
Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait...... catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of human blood by ELISAs. House surveys were done at two-day intervals to record cases of blood film...... in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean...
E. A. R. I. E. Siriwardhana
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD of unknown etiology (CKDu is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05 likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.
Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.
We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…
Étude sur l'état de la démocratie et de la gouvernance au Sri Lanka. Ce projet de recherche aidera la Social Scientists' Association (SSA) du Sri Lanka à contribuer à la deuxième phase du projet State of Democracy and Human Security in South Asia (SDSA). Des chercheurs chevronnés de la SSA et du programme Lokniti ...
Tissera, Shaluni R; Silva, S N
Sri Lanka is planning to move towards an Electronic Health Record (EHR) system. This research argues that the public preparedness should be considered in order to implement a functioning and an effective EHR system in a country. When asked about how concerned the participants were about the security of their health records, 40.5% stated they were concerned and 38.8% were very concerned. They were asked to rate the 'level of trust' they have on health institutes in Sri Lanka on a scale from 1 to 10 (1 lowest level of trust and 10 highest), 66.1% rated at level 5 or less.
Kulatunge, S.S.; Motha, L.; Sultanbawa, Y.; Malavipathirana, S.; Silva, A de; Nanayakkara, S.; Hewajulige, I.G.N.; Silva, K.R.C de
Research on radiation processing of natural polymer such as polysaccharides of chitosan, cellulose, carrageenan has been carried out in Sri Lanka since the year 2004. The research group have been involving in development activities on application of chitin and chitosan for wound dressing, irradiated chitosan on shelf life extension of fruits such as papaya, banana, mangoes, radiation crosslinked super-absorbent hydrogel from sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by radiation processing. Hydrogels prepared with PVA/Carrageenan/Agar has been studied on guinea pigs to determine the wound healing effect. Irradiated chitosan powder and chitosan solution was studied in vitro and found chitosan solution (1%) directly subjected to irradiation dosages even at 5 kGy was highly effective in control of anthracnose causing organism of papaya. In vivo studies with irradiated 1% chitosan solution on Rathana and red lady variety of papaya shows better control of spoilage of papaya to a considerable extent. The government of Sri Lanka (Ministry of Science and Technology and Atomic Energy Authority) is in the process of establishing the first government owned Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility and it will be helpful to transfer the output of R and D in radiation processing. (author)
N. D. B. Ehelepola
Full Text Available There are two categories of hantaviruses resulting in two distinct illnesses. The Old World (Asia and Europe viruses give rise to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, and the New World (Americas viruses cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. Hantavirus infections have very similar clinical pictures and epidemiology to leptospirosis. Here, we present two cases of hantavirus infections from Sri Lanka (in South Asia initially misdiagnosed as leptospirosis and later further investigated and diagnosed as hantavirus infections with serological confirmation of the diagnosis. They had clinical pictures of a combination of both HFRS and HPS as well as the involvement of the central nervous system. Hantavirus infections are rarely diagnosed in South Asia. Reports on such atypical clinical pictures of hantavirus infections are extremely rare. Having arrived at the correct diagnosis late/retrospectively, both these patients recovered notwithstanding being seriously ill, indicating adequate supportive therapy can save lives in such cases. The emergence of the hantavirus, an infection seriously affecting multiple organ systems with a high case fatality rate that is spread by aerosol and other routes, could become a serious public health issue in Sri Lanka.
Anutaliya, Arachaporn; Send, Uwe; McClean, Julie L.; Sprintall, Janet; Rainville, Luc; Lee, Craig M.; Priyantha Jinadasa, S. U.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Metzger, E. Joseph
The existence of a seasonally varying undercurrent along 8° N off the east coast of Sri Lanka is inferred from shipboard hydrography, Argo floats, glider measurements, and two ocean general circulation model simulations. Together, they reveal an undercurrent below 100-200 m flowing in the opposite direction to the surface current, which is most pronounced during boreal spring and summer and switches direction between these two seasons. The volume transport of the undercurrent (200-1000 m layer) can be more than 10 Sv in either direction, exceeding the transport of 1-6 Sv carried by the surface current (0-200 m layer). The undercurrent transports relatively fresher water southward during spring, while it advects more saline water northward along the east coast of Sri Lanka during summer. Although the undercurrent is potentially a pathway of salt exchange between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, the observations and the ocean general circulation models suggest that the salinity contrast between seasons and between the boundary current and interior is less than 0.09 in the subsurface layer, suggesting a small salt transport by the undercurrent of less than 4 % of the salinity deficit in the Bay of Bengal.
Sujet: Internet, LANGUAGE BARRIER, ASIAN LANGUAGES, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, INFORMATION SOCIETY. Région: ... Les télécentres et autres projets locaux de technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) ont connu une croissance exceptionnelle au Sri Lanka. Date de ...
Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika
This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…
Konradsen, F; Steele, P; Perera, D
The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated...... to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs...
The work we are doing is really cutting-edge. Through this research we are talking about creating choices for farmers, giving them power using mobile phones as a tool. We just completed an extensive and comprehensive study of how 10 000 poor people use ICTs in Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, and ...
Lombardo, Sarah R; Vijitha de Silva, P; Lipscomb, Hester J; Ostbye, Truls
To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their association with sociodemographic risk factors among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka. 1058 randomly selected female garment factory workers employed in the free trade zone of Kogalla, Sri Lanka were recruited to complete two interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and health behaviors. Musculoskeletal complaints among female garment workers in the FTZ of Kogalla are less common than expected. Sociocultural factors may have resulted in underreporting and similarly contribute to the low rates of healthcare utilization by these women. 164 (15.5%) of workers reported musculoskeletal symptoms occurring more than 3 times or lasting a week or more during the previous 12-month period. Back (57.3%) and knee (31.7%) were the most common sites of pain. Although most symptomatic women reported that their problems interfered with work and leisure activities, very few missed work as a result of their pain. Prevalence correlated positively with increased age and industry tenure of less than 12 months. Job type, body mass index, and education were not significant predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms.
Muthucumarana, R; Gaur, A.S.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Manders, M.; Rao, B.R; Bhushan, R; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.
of Ceylon, Colombo. Parthesius R, Millar K, Devendra S, Green J (2003) Sri Lanka Maritime Archaeological Unit Report on the Avondster Project 2001 – 2002. The Netherlands Ray HP (2003) The Archaeology of Seafaring in South Asia. Cambridge University... and Mesopotamia, Part I: New WDS analysis. Archaeometry, 48(4):581-603. Somadeva R (2006) Urban origins in Southern Sri Lanka. Published by African and comparative Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and ancient History Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden...
Zhang, Jenny J; Senaratne, Tharanga N; Daniels, Rachel
Abstract. Widespread antimalarial resistance has been a barrier to malaria elimination efforts in Sri Lanka. Analysis of genetic markers in historic parasites may uncover trends in the spread of resistance. We examined the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine transporter (pfcrt; codons 72......-76) haplotypes in Sri Lanka in 1996-1998 and 2004-2006 using a high-resolution melting assay. Among 59 samples from 1996 to 1998, we detected the SVMNT (86%), CVMNK (10%), and CVIET (2%) haplotypes, with a positive trend in SVMNT and a negative trend in CVMNK frequency (P = 0.004) over time. Among 24 samples...
In this work, we present for the first time, the use of a simple fractal capacitive biosensor for the quantification and detection of sex-determining region Y (SRY) genes. This section of genetic code, which is found on the Y chromosome, finds importance for study as it causes fetuses to develop characteristics of male sex-like gonads when a mutation occurs. It is also an important genetic code in men, and disorders involving the SRY gene can cause infertility and sexual malfunction that lead to a variety of gene mutational disorders. We have therefore designed silicon-based, label-free fractal capacitive biosensors to quantify various proteins and genes. We take advantage of a good dielectric material, Parylene C for enhancing the performance of the sensors. We have integrated these sensors with a simple microchannel for easy handling of fluids on the detection area. The read-out value of an Agilent LCR meter used to measure capacitance of the sensor at a frequency of 1 MHz determined gene specificity and gene quantification. These data revealed that the capacitance measurement of the capacitive biosensor for the SRY gene depended on both the target and the concentration of DNA. The experimental outcomes in the present study can be used to detect DNA and its variations in crucial fields that have a great impact on our daily lives, such as clinical and veterinary diagnostics, industrial and environmental testing and forensic sciences.
Hartog, J.; Ranasinghe, A.
Using the human capital theory we modelled and estimated the school enrolment and the length of schooling decisions of Sri Lankans. Our results show a very clear positive association between family background and the education decision. Children of affluent families seem to derive more benefits from
For IPS, this project will help enhance its research quality, organizational performance, and policy engagement. Enhancing research ... -consolidate the institutional transformations made to achieve improved performance ... -influence policies based on its work to place Sri Lanka on a smarter growth path -have an impact on ...
Samarajeewa, A.D.; Schiere, J.B.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.; Viets, T.C.
A study was carried out to identify biological and socio-economic constraints and opportunities for livestock development in coconut plantations in Sri Lanka. One part of the study focussed on the use of participatory rural appraisal to establish felt needs of different farmer categories in terms of
T. P. Burt
Full Text Available Daily rainfall totals are analyzed for the main agro-climatic zones of Sri Lanka for the period 1976–2006. The emphasis is on daily rainfall rather than on longer-period totals, in particular the number of daily falls exceeding given threshold totals. For one station (Mapalana, where a complete daily series is available from 1950, a longer-term perspective on changes over half a century is provided. The focus here is particularly on rainfall in March and April, given the sensitivity of agricultural decisions to early southwest monsoon rainfall at the beginning of the Yala cultivation season but other seasons are also considered, in particular the northeast monsoon. Rainfall across Sri Lanka over three decades is investigated in relation to the main atmospheric drivers known to affect climate in the region: sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, of which the former are shown to be more important. The strong influence of El Niño and La Niña phases on various aspects of the daily rainfall distribution in Sri Lanka is confirmed: positive correlations with Pacific sea-surface temperatures during the north east monsoon and negative correlations at other times. It is emphasized in the discussion that Sri Lanka must be placed in its regional context and it is important to draw on regional-scale research across the Indian subcontinent and the Bay of Bengal.
Samuel, Sophia; Advocat, Jenny; Russell, Grant
Sri Lankan Tamil refugees are among the largest group of refugees to resettle in Australia in the last decade. The aim of this study is to characterise the narratives of health-seeking among unwell Sri Lankan Tamil refugees in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Drawing on a qualitative, phenomenological perspective, we conducted in-depth interviews in Tamil and English with 12 participants who identified as being unwell for 6 months or more. Findings revealed three narratives of health-seeking: the search for the 'good life' that was lost or never experienced, seeking help from familiar channels in an unfamiliar context, and the desire for financial and occupational independence. These three narratives are undergirded by the metanarrative of a hope-filled recovery. These narratives of Tamil refugees' lived experience provide new insights into clinical care and health service delivery.
Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming
Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15-25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Wijethilaka, D.; De Silva, S.; Deshapriya, R. M. C.; Gunaratne, L. H. P.
Dairy farming has been playing a key role by improving household incomes and food security for rural communities in Sri Lanka. Nevertheless, it has failed to meet the expected self-sufficiency. In 2015, Sri Lanka imported 51percent of the national milk requirement spending US 251 million from its debt-ridden economy. This paper aims to analyse socio-economic characteristics of dairy farmers and factors affecting dairy production efficiency in the Uva Province of Sri Lanka, a highly potential area comprising all the dairy value chain actors. Surveyed was conducted to farmers, key informants from input suppliers, collectors, transporters, processors, sellers and support service providers. Result revealed that intensive farmer’s milk yields per cow was only 7.97 L/day, which was 35% and 60% higher than the yields of semi-intensive and extensive farmers respectively. The highest profit of Rs. 53.30 per litre was earned by extensive farmers, whereas it was Rs. 47.63 for semi-intensive and Rs. 44.76 for intensive farmers respectively if family labour cost was not taken into the account. The Technical Efficiency Analysis revealed that 37.1% and 20% milk production of intensive farmers and semi-intensive is being loss due to inefficiency and could be increased without any additional inputs. The main factors affecting efficiency in milk production included farmers’ socio-economic characteristics and farm characteristics. Based on the results it can be concluded that sustainability dairy production depends on farmer training, collectivizing farmers into farmer societies, culling unproductive male animals, increasing the availability and access to AI/other breading programs and low-cost quality concentrate feed and other supplements, and, thus appropriate measures should be taken to provide these conditions if Sri Lanka aims to achieve self-sufficiency in milk production.
Full Text Available Veddas are considered to be the indigenous people of Sri Lanka. A century ago, the Veddas were scattered across the Eastern Province, and some parts of the North-Central and Uva Provinces, although at present they are confined to Bintanne that stretches to some parts of the Uva and Eastern provinces. This paper explores the subsistence pattern of the Veddas in Sri Lanka in relation to their old equipment and practices. It builds on ethno-archaeological interpretations drawing from archaeological evidence from Prehistoric to Historical periods. Evidence of interaction of humans, technology,faunal and floral resources found from archaeological sites in relation to subsistence was interpreted through the method of ethnographic analogy. Evidence suggests that during the historical period, the Veddas lived in various parts of Sri Lanka including Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Ratnapura, Buttala, Tambalagam pattu, Kattakulam pattu, Bintannae, Nilgala and Batticaloa. They bartered deer hide, dried flesh, cotton and honey for rice, Kurrakkan (Elusine coracana , tobacco, salt, clothes and iron arrow heads a century ago. The existence of charred bones and arrow head type of bone tools shows the practice of hunting during the protohistoric and early historic periods. The Veddas did not adopt Sinhalese mode of life up till the 19th century. However, acculturation is gradually taking place at least in the lifestyle of Veddas in Dambana at present. Especially the Anuradhapura Veddas who lived outside the Bintanne area do not seem to possess traditional Vedda livelihoods, and maintain a lifestyle comparable with the Sinhalese Buddhist culture. Based on the above evidence, the paper concludes that the subsistence patterns of Veddas prior to the last century are quite comparable with similar evidence found from the Mesolithic, Proto and the Early Historic periods in Sri Lanka, though a certain decline in the distinction between Vedda culture and the dominant culture
Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to develop an integrated model to predict corporate failure of listed companies in Sri Lanka. The logistic regression analysis was employed to a data set of 70 matched-pairs of failed and non-failed companies listed in the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE in Sri Lanka over the period 2002 to 2010. A total of fifteen financial ratios and eight corporate governance variables were used as predictor variables of corporate failure. Analysis of the statistical testing results indicated that model consists with both corporate governance variables and financial ratios improved the prediction accuracy to reach 88.57 per cent one year prior to failure. Furthermore, predictive accuracy of this model in all three years prior to failure is above 80 per cent. Hence model is robust in obtaining accurate results for up to three years prior to failure. It was further found that two financial ratios, working capital to total assets and cash flow from operating activities to total assets, and two corporate governance variables, outside director ratio and company audit committee are having more explanatory power to predict corporate failure. Therefore, model developed in this study can assist investors, managers, shareholders, financial institutions, auditors and regulatory agents in Sri Lanka to forecast corporate failure of listed companies.
national security of Sri Lanka. 14. SUBJECT TERMS transnational organized crime, drug trafficking, money laundering , trafficking in persons...42 4. Money Laundering .......................................................................45 5. Trafficking of Illegal Arms...MILF Moro Islamic Liberation Front ML money laundering MNLF Moro National Liberation Front MOD Ministry of Defense NDDCB National Dangerous
Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka N. S.
This article illustrates the application of psychological and educational consultation in an international setting. With the goal of promoting psychological well-being of the school-age population, a partnership was formed between an American school psychologist and a Sri Lankan educational sociologist and teacher educator. The partners, or…
Mejía Giraldo, Luis Miguel
Trabajo de grado (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas, 2013 El presente trabajo de investigación gira en torno al análisis de las condiciones de sostenibilidad bajo el contexto del Reporte de Iniciativa Global (Global Reporting Initiative, GRI) para el sector productor de plátano en el Departamento del Quindío, implicando el abordaje de la sostenibilidad en el esperado equilibrio entre ...
Perera, E. A. Ramani; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T.
Background: Suicidal behaviour among youth is a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prevention of youth suicides using effective, feasible and culturally acceptable methods is invaluable in this regard, however research in this area is grossly lacking. Objective: This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of problem solving counselling as a therapeutic intervention in prevention of youth suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. Setting and design: This control trial study was based on ho...
Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Dissanayake, Devani Sakunthala; Abeywardena, Gihan Sajiwa
The present study was aimed at assessing the validity and the reliability of the Sinhala version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Version (UWES-S) among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka. The 17-item UWES-S was translated to Sinhala and the judgmental validity was assessed by a multi-disciplinary panel of experts. Construct validity of the UWES-S was appraised by using multi-trait scaling analysis and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) on data obtained from a sample of 194 grade thirteen students in the Kurunegala district, Sri Lanka. Reliability of the UWES-S was assessed by using internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Except for item 13, all other items showed good psychometric properties in judgemental validity, item-convergent validity and item-discriminant validity. EFA using principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation, suggested a three-factor solution (including vigor, dedication and absorption subscales) explaining 65.4% of the total variance for the 16-item UWES-S (with item 13 deleted). All three subscales show high internal consistency with Cronbach's α coefficient values of 0.867, 0.819, and 0.903 and test-retest reliability was high (p valid and a reliable instrument to assess work engagement among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka.
Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani
To determine risk factors for chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year olds in Sri Lanka. Cases and controls for this population based unmatched case-control study were identified from a broader cross-sectional study which was conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic periodontitis in 30-60 year old adults in Colombo district Sri Lanka. The study included 694 cases and 706 controls. Data were collected by means of a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioural factors, a physical examination to record anthropometric measurements and an oral examination. Being a male, a Muslim, belonging to the 45-60 year old age group, having less than 12 years of education, using the finger to clean teeth, current smoking, current betel quid chewing, self-reported diabetes and hypertension emerged as risk factors for chronic periodontitis. Several socio-demographic and behavioural factors as well as co-morbid conditions emerged as independent risk factors for chronic periodontits in this population. The findings could be used for planning programmes to reduce the burden of chronic periodontits in Colombo district Sri Lanka.
This article examines the effects of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on households' out-of-pocket health expenditures in Sri Lanka. We explore the disease specific impacts on out-of-pocket health care expenses from chronic NCDs such as heart diseases, hypertension, cancer, diabetics and asthma. We use nationwide cross-sectional household income and expenditure survey 2012/2013 data compiled by the department of census and statistics of Sri Lanka. Employing propensity score matching method to account for selectivity bias, we find that chronic NCD affected households appear to spend significantly higher out-of-pocket health care expenditures and encounter grater economic burden than matched control group despite having universal public health care policy in Sri Lanka. The results also suggest that out-of-pocket expenses on medicines and other pharmaceutical products as well as expenses on medical laboratory tests and other ancillary services are particularly higher for households with chronic NCD patients. The findings underline the importance of protecting households against the financial burden due to NCDs.
Sivashankar, Shilpa; Sapsanis, Christos; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.
In this work, we present for the first time, the use of a simple fractal capacitive biosensor for the quantification and detection of sex-determining region Y (SRY) genes. This section of genetic code, which is found on the Y chromosome, finds
S.M.S. Jayasundara-Smits (Shyamika)
textabstractAbstract: For decades, Sri Lanka has been a laboratory for research and scholarship on ethnic conflict, liberal peacebuilding and civil war. Methodologically, this pre-war academic work laments the risks of applying simplified “episode based approaches” and narrow theoretical frameworks
Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris
A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.
Shriram Applied Radiation Centre (SARC) is a part of Shriram Institute for Industrial Research (SRI), and was established in 1986, in collaboration with Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). SARC was established with a objective to popularize the radiation processing technology for various applications. SARC is a fully automatic, computerized plant setup as per the design and norms of BRIT/AERB for round the clock fail safe operations. The capacity of SARC Irradiator is 800 kCi of Cobalt -60 source which can process up to 10,000 cubic meters of material (0.1g/cc) at 25 kGy level
Full Text Available There are 243 species of butterflies which including 5 families in Sri Lanka and 20 of them are endemic. However out of the 243 species 37 butterfly species belonging to 4 families was discovered from Tanthirimale Archaeological Forest area. This forest is classified as a Tropical dry mixed evergreen forests and its situated dry zone in Anuradapura district of Sri Lanka. We select three habitat types such as: forests, Rock outcrops and scrublands for studding composition and structure of butterflies in Archaeological Forest area. However, this important forest is threatened by harmful human activities such as man made fire, illegal logging, chena cultivation and road kills.
Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Robertson, C; Nelson, T A; Stephen, C
Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. A large outbreak of suspected human leptospirosis began in Sri Lanka during 2008. This study investigated spatial variables associated with suspected leptospirosis risk during endemic and outbreak periods. Data were obtained for monthly numbers of reported cases of suspected clinical leptospirosis for 2005-2009 for all of Sri Lanka. Space-time scan statistics were combined with regression modelling to test associations during endemic and outbreak periods. The cross-correlation function was used to test association between rainfall and leptospirosis at four locations. During the endemic period (2005-2007), leptospirosis risk was positively associated with shorter average distance to rivers and with higher percentage of agriculture made up of farms <0·20 hectares. Temporal correlation analysis of suspected leptospirosis cases and rainfall revealed a 2-month lag in rainfall-case association during the baseline period. Outbreak locations in 2008 were characterized by shorter distance to rivers and higher population density. The analysis suggests the possibility of household transmission in densely populated semi-urban villages as a defining characteristic of the outbreak. The role of rainfall in the outbreak remains to be investigated, although analysis here suggests a more complex relationship than simple correlation.
Nanayakkara, Ethel; Webber, Richard
A discussion of the new Sri Lankan General Certificate of Education (GCE) O-Level standardized test of English focuses on how new ideas in testing have been implemented in the test and on their effect on classroom practice and the quality of English instruction. The discussion begins with a brief outline of the history and context in which the new…
Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Dibley, Michael J
Prevalence of obesity and overweight is rising in developing countries, including Sri Lanka at a rapid pace due to dietary and lifestyle changes. This study aimed to assess the association between high carbohydrate diet, physical inactivity and central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. A sample of 100 premenopausal women with home duties aged between 20 to 45 years were selected randomly from two divisional secretariats (DS), representing urban and rural sectors in Sri Lanka. Data on basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and physical activity were collected. We defined central obesity as a waist circumference ≥80 cm, which is the WHO recommended cut-off. Independent sample t test was used to compare the mean values. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to find out the relationship and the magnitude of association between central obesity and percentage of energy contributed from carbohydrate and physical activity level, respectively. The women reported an average of 18 starch portions per day, which was well above the national recommendations. Seventy percent of energy in the diet came from carbohydrate. The mean BMI and waist circumference of total sample was 25.4 kgm-2 and 78.5 cm, respectively. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and centrally obesity among total sample was 38%, 34% and 45%, respectively. A significant positive correlation observed between high carbohydrate diet and waist circumference (r = 0.628, p household level to reverse this trend among the housewives in Sri Lanka.
Arya, Sumedha; Xue, Siqi; Embuldeniya, Amanda; Narammalage, Harsha; da Silva, Tricia; Williams, Shehan; Ravindran, Arun
Psychosocial consequences of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been well documented in Western populations, but there is no published literature on such incidence in the Sri Lankan population. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of SCI in a Sri Lankan population and to examine this population's coping mechanisms. Participants were recruited purposively at the Ragama Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Hospital, the sole rehabilitation facility for SCI patients in Sri Lanka. Focus groups were conducted with 23 consenting individuals. Interview transcripts were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Four domains of life impact, three types of active coping strategies and four types of external supports were identified. Decreased ambulation and burden on family life were significant concerns for male and female participants alike. Religious practices were reported most frequently as active coping strategies, followed by positive reframing and goal-setting. Reported external supports included guided physiotherapy, informational workshops, social support and peer networks. Rehabilitation efforts for Sri Lankan SCI patients should be sensitive to psychosocial concerns in addition to physical concerns in order to help patients re-integrate into their family lives and community. Furthermore, religious practices should be respected as possible aids to rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitative efforts should be conscientious of patients' psychosocial well-being in addition to their physical well-being. Hospital-based rehabilitative efforts for traumatic spinal cord injury patients should promote functional independence and community re-integration. Spiritual and/or religious practices should be respected as ways by which traumatic spinal cord injury patients may confront personal challenges that arise following injury.
R. G. Rastogi
Full Text Available The paper discusses the variations of the horizontal (H, vertical (Z and eastward (Y components of the geomagnetic field at Peredinia (PRD, an electrojet station in Sri Lanka, with the time of the day, season, sudden commencement (SSC and during geomagnetic storms. The daily variation of H showed a large peak around midday. The daily variation of Z appeared to be almost a time gradient curve of the daily variation of H, showing a maximum around 09:00 LT (75° EMT when the H field was increasing fastest and not at noon when Δ H was the maximum. Storm time variation of H resembled the variation of the Dst index but that of Z showed a large minimum about 2-3h before the time of minimum Dst or at the time of maximum time gradient of Dst variation. These features are compared with corresponding variations at the equatorial stations Trivandrum (TRD in India, and remarkable similarity in all observations is noticed at PRD and TRD. It is suggested that the observed abnormal features of Z variations at electrojet stations in India-Sri Lanka are due to (i direct effect of the ionospheric electrojet current (ii the induction effect of the image current by the average spatially extended conductivity region and (iii the induction current in the local subsurface conductor. It is suggested that the conductor responsible for the observed features in Z in India and Sri Lanka has to have extended spatial domain to latitudes well south of India, rather than confined to narrow Palk Strait.
In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869–2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed ...
Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani
Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead.
Legislation plays a critical role in regulating motor traffic in a country. The Motor Traffic Act of Sri Lanka has undergone many revisions in the recent past to accommodate new provisions to regularize road traffic effectively. However implementation of such provisions is heavily dependent on the rapid and effective action of the police on road traffic offences and awareness and attitudes of courts towards penalizing offenders in view of streamlining the legislation on road traffic.
Suranga, M S; Silva, K T; Senanayake, L
Abortion is legally permitted in Sri Lanka, only if it is performed to save the mother’s life. However, it is estimated that a large number of induced abortions take place in Sri Lanka. Knowledge and attitudes towards induced abortion in the society are key issues influencing the policy response towards changes in the law. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of adults towards induced abortion in Sri Lanka. Six Grama Niladhari Divisions (GNDs) and five to eight housing clusters from each GND were selected from Thimbirigasyaya Divisional Secretariat Division using multi stage stratified random sampling. Fifty households were systematically selected from each GND. An interview was scheduled among 743 residents aged between 19 to 49 years of age after receiving written informed consent. Only 11% of the respondents knew the situations in which abortion was legal in Sri Lanka. Approximately one tenth of the respondents (11%) did not agree with the current law which allows an induced abortion only to save the life of the mother. However, a majority agreed to legalization of abortion for rape (65%), incest (55%) and pregnancies with lethal fetal abnormalities (53%). Less than one tenth of respondents agreed with legalisation of induced abortion for other reasons such as con-traceptive failure (6%), poor economic conditions (7%) and, on request (4%). Although the society rejects abortion on request majority are in favour of allowing abortions for rape, incest and fetuses with lethal abnormalities.
Navoda Dhananjika Edirisinghe
Full Text Available Maintaining price stability is one of the primary objectives of monetary policy in any economy as price instability, particularly high inflation, will cause to reduce economic growth by reducing investments and productivity growth. Therefore, investigating the existence of Fisher Effect and Price Puzzle is a necessary requirement in order to understand the nature, extent and dynamics of effective monetary policies in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this study is to investigate the existence of short run and long run Fisher Effect and Price Puzzle in Sri Lanka. The results from co-integration technique, Error Correction Model (ECM which employed in the study suggest that in Sri Lanka, nominal interest rates fully adjust for expected inflation in long-run. But in short-run, a significant positive association between nominal interest rates and expected inflation is there with absence of full Fisher Effect. Moreover the analysis has been extended and identified the existence of the Price Puzzle both in a short run and long run. Therefore, changes in monetary instruments do not appear to be completely effective in meeting the goal of low inflation. In order to solve this problem what we can recommend is, Sri Lanka should move towards inflation-targeting monetary policy system.
Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.
Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income
Full Text Available The apparel industry is a major export industry in Sri Lanka that depends upon labour intensive manufacturing. The Sri Lankan apparel industry is transitioning from Cut, Make, Trims (CMT assembly and Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM to Original Design Manufacturing (ODM and Original Brand Manufacturing (OBM, experiencing the economic benefits of apparel product export. The transition relies on having expert professionals who can provide creative, commercial, technical, and leadership skills in the process. In order to identify the creative roles and responsibilities that can contribute to the industrial upgrading process in Sri Lanka, this paper first provides an analysis of the global apparel value chain and the journeys of the countries with newly industrialized economies (NIEs in the region. Second, a comparison of Hong Kong and Sri Lankan apparel industries contextualises the development of fashion design within each nation’s industry as a competitive advantage. In each country we examine three factors that demonstrate growth in fashion design: development of fashion design education; development of exportable own brands; and the establishment of local showcases to a global audience. The examples of both Hong Kong and Sri Lanka demonstrate the ways in which creative roles may act as a bridge between production and marketing networks, buyers and producers in maintaining and building industry value-adding for highly sophisticated and competitive fashion production systems. Although the Sri Lankan apparel industry has not progressed as far as Hong Kong in this arena, evidence suggests the industry is actively growing design capabilities
Samarakoon, Lasitha; Sirisena, Nirmala D; Wettasinghe, Kalum T; Kariyawasam, Kariyawasam Warnakulathanthrige Jayani C; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W
Chromosomal abnormalities are implicated in the etiology of primary amenorrhea. The underlying chromosomal aberrations are varied and regional differences have been reported. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of various types of chromosomal abnormalities in Sri Lankan women with primary amenorrhea. Medical records of all patients diagnosed with primary amenorrhea referred for cytogenetic analysis to two genetic centers in Sri Lanka from January 2005 to December 2011 were reviewed. Chromosome culture and karyotyping was performed on peripheral blood samples obtained from each patient. Data were analyzed using standard descriptive statistics. Altogether 338 patients with primary amenorrhea were karyotyped and mean age at testing was 20.5 years. Numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 115 (34.0%) patients which included 45,X Turner syndrome (10.7%), Turner syndrome variants (13.9%), XY females (6.5%), 45,X/46,XY (0.9%), 46,XX/46,XY (0.6%), 47,XXX (0.3%), 47,XX,+ mar (0.3%), 46,X,i(X)(p10) (0.3%), 46,XX with SRY gene translocation on X chromosome (0.3%) and 46,XX,inv(7)(p10;q11.2) (0.3%). Short stature, absent secondary sexual characteristics, neck webbing, cubitus valgus and broad chest with widely spaced nipples were commonly seen in patients with Turner syndrome and variant forms. Neck webbing and absent secondary sexual characteristics were significantly associated with classical Turner syndrome than variant forms. A considerable proportion of women with primary amenorrhea had chromosomal abnormalities. Mean age at testing was late suggesting delay in referral for karyotyping. Early referral for cytogenetic evaluation is recommended for the identification of underlying chromosomal aberrations in women with primary amenorrhea. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Ranagalage, M. M.
26th December 2004 tsunami disaster has caused massive loss of life, damage to coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activities in the coastal belt of Sri Lanka. Tsunami vulnerability assessment is a requirement for disaster risk and vulnerability reduction. It plays a major role in identifying the extent and level of vulnerabilities to disasters within the communities. There is a need for a clearer understanding of the disaster risk patterns and factors contributing to it in different parts of the coastal belt. The main objective of this study is to investigate tsunami vulnerability assessment of Moratuwa Municipal council area in Sri Lanka. We have selected Moratuwa area due to considering urbanization pattern and Tsunami hazards of the country. Different data sets such as one-meter resolution LiDAR data, orthophoto, population, housing data and road layer were employed in this study. We employed tsunami vulnerability model for 1796 housing units located there, for a tsunami scenario with a maximum run-up 8 meters. 86% of the total land area affected by the tsunami in 8 meters scenarios. Additionally, building population has been used to estimate population in different vulnerability levels. The result shows that 32% of the buildings have extremely critical vulnerability level, 46% have critical vulnerability level, 22% have high vulnerability level, and 1% have a moderate vulnerability. According to the population estimation model results, 18% reside building with extremely critical vulnerability, 43% with critical vulnerability, 36% with high vulnerability and 3% belong to moderate vulnerability level. The results of the study provide a clear picture of tsunami vulnerability. Outcomes of this analysis can use as a valuable tool for urban planners to assess the risk and extent of disaster risk reduction which could be achieved via suitable mitigation measures to manage the coastal belt in Sri Lanka.
Jeewandara, Chandima; Gomes, Laksiri; Paranavitane, S. A.; Tantirimudalige, Mihiri; Panapitiya, Sumedha Sandaruwan; Jayewardene, Amitha; Fernando, Samitha; Fernando, R. H.; Prathapan, Shamini
Background Sri Lanka has been affected by epidemics of dengue infections for many decades and the incidence and severity of dengue infections have been rising each year. Therefore, we investigated the age stratified seroprevalence of dengue infections in order to facilitate future dengue vaccine strategies. In addition, since the symptomatic dengue infections have increased during the past few decades, we also investigated the possible association with Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody seropositivity with symptomatic dengue in a community cohort in Sri Lanka. Methods 1689 healthy individuals who were attending a primary health care facility were recruited. Dengue and JEV antibody status was determined in all individuals and JEV vaccination status was recorded. Results 1152/1689 (68.2%) individuals were seropositive for dengue and only 133/1152 (11.5%) of them had been hospitalized to due to dengue. A significant and positive correlation was observed for dengue antibody seropositivity and age in children (Spearmans R = 0.84, p = 0.002) and in adults (Spearmans R = 0.96, p = 0.004). We observed a significant rise in the age stratified seroprevalence rates in children over a period of 12 years. For instance, in year 2003 the annual seroconversion rate was 1.5% per annum, which had risen to 3.79% per annum by 2014. We also found that both adults (pdengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV antibodies. However, 244 (91.4%) of adults who were seropositive for JEV had not had the JEV vaccine. Conclusions Dengue seroprevalence rates have risen significantly over the last 12 years in Sri Lanka, possibly due to increased transmission. As individuals who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV, the possibility of cross-reactive assays and/or of JEV infection on immunity to the DENV and clinical disease severity should be further investigated. PMID:26696417
... grande intégration économique, on voit apparaître tout un éventail de difficultés interreliées ayant trait aux garanties constitutionnelles et aux garanties des droits de la personne. End Date: 17 mars 2016. Sujet: PRISONS, Gender. Région: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. Programme: Gouvernance et justice.
Ananda, Jayanath; Herath, Gamini; Chisholm, Anthony H.
Tea has been Sri Lanka’s major export earner for several decades. However, soil erosion on tea‐producing land has had considerable on‐site and off‐site effects. This study quantifies soil erosion impacts for smallholder tea farms in Sri Lanka by estimating a yield damage function and an erosion damage function using a subjective elicitation technique. The Mitscherlich‐Spillman type of function was found to yield acceptable results. The study indicates that high rates of soil erosion require e...
Sagner, Michael; Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Hills, Andrew P; De Silva, H Janaka; Karunapema, R P Palitha; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Arambepola, Carukshi; Puska, Pekka
The current burden and future escalating threat of chronic diseases, constitutes the major global public health challenge. In Sri Lanka, cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of annual deaths. Data from Sri Lanka also indicate a high incidence and prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes; 1 in 5 adults have elevated blood sugar in Sri Lanka. It is well established that chronic diseases share four primary behavioral risk factors: 1) tobacco use; 2) unhealthy diet; 3) physical inactivity; and 4) harmful use of alcohol. Evidence has convincingly shown that replacing these behavioral risk factors with the converse, healthy lifestyle characteristics, decrease the risk of poor outcomes associated with chronic disease by 60 to 80%. In essence, prevention or reversal of these behavioral risk factors with effective healthy lifestyle programing and interventions is the solution to the current chronic disease crisis. Expert commentary: Healthy lifestyle is medicine with global applicability, including Sri Lanka and the rest of the South Asia region. This policy statement will discuss the chronic disease crisis in Sri Lanka, its current policies and action implemented to promote healthy lifestyles, and further recommendations on preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle initiatives that are needed to move forward.
Mohammad Agus Yusoff
Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the overall impact of anti-halal and anti-slaughtering campaigns in the context of post-war Sri Lanka. The reemergence of majoritarian ethno-religious anti-minority nationalist forces and their intensified anti-minority hatred and violence have made it challenging for ethno-religious minorities in Sri Lanka to engage in religious norms and duties. This is especially true for the Muslim community. Numerous Islamic fundamentals have been criticized and opposed. Muslims have had to endure threats and acts of violence. These campaigns and violent oppositions, imposed by the Buddhist-nationalist forces, have caused concern for Muslims performing their obligatory religious duties and norms. In Sri Lanka, the Muslim community has been allowed to produce halal food and slaughter animals for human consumption and religious rituals for a long period without disturbance. Unfortunately, retaliation and hatred in the post-civil war era in the country have threatened these rights. Thus, it has become imperative to investigate the motivating factors of the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and violence, as well as their related impact, which is lacking in the existing literature on ethno-religious politics in the context of Sri Lanka. This study found that the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughtering campaigns and oppositions that have been intensified by the Buddhist nationalist forces were part of anti-Muslim sentiments intended to sabotage the economic pride of Muslims and undermine their religious renaissance. The study also found that these campaigns have been facilitated by the state and that continuous facilitation of the anti-Muslim sentiments and campaigns, including the anti-halal and anti-animal slaughter campaigns, would challenge the country’s economic prosperity and the rebuilding of ethno-religious harmony.
Jafar, Tazeen H; Gandhi, Mihir; Jehan, Imtiaz; Naheed, Aliya; de Silva, H Asita; Shahab, Hunaina; Alam, Dewan; Luke, Nathasha; Lim, Ching Wee
Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is a leading risk factor for death and disability in South Asia. We aimed to determine the cross-country variation, and the factors associated with uncontrolled BP among adults treated for hypertension in rural South Asia. We enrolled 1718 individuals aged ≥40 years treated for hypertension in a cross-sectional study from rural communities in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the factors associated with uncontrolled BP (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg). Among hypertensive individuals, 58.0% (95% confidence interval 55.7, 60.4) had uncontrolled BP: 52.8% (49.0, 56.6) in Bangladesh, 70.6% (65.7, 75.1) in Pakistan, and 56.5% (52.7, 60.1) in Sri Lanka. The odds (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) of uncontrolled BP were significantly higher in individuals with lower wealth index (1.17 (1.02, 1.35)); single vs married (1.46 (1.10, 1.93)); higher log urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (1.41 (1.24, 1.60)); lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (1.23 (1.01, 1.49)); low vs high adherence to antihypertensive medication (1.50 (1.16, 1.94)); and Pakistan (2.91 (1.60, 5.28)) vs Sri Lanka. However, the odds were lower in those with vs without self-reported kidney disease (0.51 (0.28, 0.91)); and receiving vs not receiving statins (0.62 (0.44, 0.87)). The majority of individuals with treated hypertension have uncontrolled BP in rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka with significant disparities among and within countries. Urgent public health efforts are needed to improve access and adherence to antihypertensive medications in disadvantaged populations in rural South Asia.
Rivera, A.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.
Agriculture accounts for approximately 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change as well as increasing demands for water necessitate an increased understanding of the water-food intersection, notably at a local scale to inform farmer adaptations to improve water productivity, i.e., to get more food with less water. Local assessments of water-food security are particularly important for nations with self-sufficiency policies, which prioritize in-country production of certain resources. An ideal case study is the small island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a self-sufficiency policy for its staple food of rice. Because rice is a water-intensive crop, assessment of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) and the associated changes over time is especially important. Previous studies on IWRs of rice in Sri Lanka have failed to consider the Yala (dry) season, when water is scarcest.The goal of this study is to characterize the role that a human decision, setting the planting date, can play in buffering declines in rice yield against changes in precipitation patterns. Using four meteorological stations in the main rice-growing zones in Sri Lanka, we explore (1) general changes in IWRs over time during the Yala season and (2) the impact of the rice planting date. We use both historical data from meteorological stations as well as future projections from regional climate models. Our results indicate that gains can be achieved using a variable planting date relative to a fixed date, in accordance with a similar conclusion for the Maha (wet) season. This local scale assessment of Sri Lanka IWRs will contribute to the growing global literature on the impacts of water scarcity on agriculture and the role that one adaptation measure can play in mitigating deleterious impacts.
Hoek, Wim van der; Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F
, potential secondary vectors, were characterized by site, exposure to sunlight, substratum, turbidity of the water, presence of vegetation, and presence of fauna. Availability of pools of stagnant water in the stream near the village and along the edge of the village tank was highly predictive for presence......In and around a village in the Anuradhapura District of Sri Lanka anopheline larvae were sampled from July 1994 to April 1996 in all surface water bodies. Samples positive for Anopheles culicifacies, the established vector of malaria in Sri Lanka, and for An. barbirostris, An. vagus, and An. varuna...... clear water pools, was able to exploit habitats that were shaded and contained turbid water. Environmental management interventions to control An. culicifacies breeding have to take into account that the secondary vectors of malaria exploit other habitats and would not be affected by the interventions....
Morimoto, R.; Hope, C.
World net electricity consumption is expected to double over the next two decades. With increasing demand, electricity shortages will be prevalent, particularly in developing countries. An adequate and regular power supply would support economic growth in developing countries. Previous studies have demonstrated a strong correlation between electricity use and economic development. Studies have shown that there is a bi-directional causal relationship between gross domestic product and electricity consumption in Taiwan for the period 1954 to 1997. In order to examine the impact of electricity supply on economic growth in Sri Lanka, this paper presented the results of a study that applied Yang's model, using a simple regression analysis. The paper presented the methodology and estimation results. The study incorporated a cost benefit analysis model which assessed the economic, social and environmental impacts of dam projects in Sri Lanka. It was concluded that the application of Yang's regression analysis is one possible approach to estimate a better range for the expected increase in economic output parameter. 14 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs
Marambe, Kosala N; Edussuriya, D H; Dayaratne, K M P L
The General Medical Council of the UK, advocates that by the end of their undergraduate course, medical students should be proficient in communicating with patients. However, the attitude of some medical students toward formal training in communication skills seems lukewarm. Although several studies on assessing attitudes of medical students on learning communication skills have been carried out in Europe and America, Asian studies are very few and literature in the Sri Lankan context is lacking. To explore the attitudes of first to fourth year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya (FOMUP), Sri Lanka on learning communication skills and to identify possible factors that may influence student attitudes. A total of 675 students from year 1 to 4 of the FOMUP were asked to complete a modified version of the Communication Skills Attitude Scale. Items of its positive attitude scale (PAS) were analyzed together while negative items were considered individually. Response rates ranged from 70% to 98% for the various year groups. There were no significant differences between the PAS for males and females and for those exposed to formal training and those who were not. The junior students scored significantly higher on the PAS than seniors. Most students of all the groups disagreed with the item "I don't see why I should learn communication skills". Approximately one-quarter of the students of each group endorsed the statement "Nobody is going to fail their medical degree for having poor communication skills". Out of the students who have undergone formal communication training, almost one-third agreed that they find it difficult to take communication skills learning seriously. Although medical students seem to have realized the importance of communication skills training for the practice of medicine, a significant minority have reservations on attending such sessions. Sri Lanka faculty will need to make a concerted effort to change this
Full Text Available This article describes free radical-scavenging activities of extracts of several plants harvested in Sri Lanka through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. These plants have traditionally been used in the indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below. (English name, “local name in Sri Lanka,” (scientific name.bougainvillea plant, “bouganvilla,” (Bougainvillea grabla, purple fruited pea eggplant,”welthibbatu,” (Solanum trilobatum , country borage plant, “kapparawalliya,” (Plectranthus amboinicus , malabar nut plant, “adhatoda,” (Justicia adhatoda , long pepper plant,”thippili,” (Piper longum , holy basil plant, “maduruthala,” (Ocimum tenuiflorum , air plant, “akkapana,” (Kalanchoe pinnata , plumed cockscomb plant, “kiri-henda,” (Celosia argentea , neem plant,”kohomba,” (Azadirachta indica , balipoovu plant, “polpala,” (Aerva lanata , balloon-vine plant, “wel penera,” (Cardiospermum halicacabum , emblic myrobalan plant, “nelli,” (Phyllanthus emblica , indian copperleaf plant, “kuppameniya,” (Acalypha indica , spreading hogweed plant, “pita sudu sarana,” (Boerhavia diffusa , curry leaf plant, “karapincha,” (Murraya koenigii , indian pennywort plant, “gotukola,” (Centera asiatica , jewish plum plant, “ambarella,”(Spondias dulcis . Keywords: Antioxidative activity, DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Traditional plant, Medical herb
Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi
This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability.
Jandrić, Zora; Islam, Marivil
Tea is one of the main export products grown in Sri Lanka, which ranks as the world's fourth-largest producer of tea. The selection of specific cultivars, the humidity, cool temperatures, and the rainfall patterns of the country's central highlands provide a climate that favors the production of high-quality tea, which is well known as Ceylon tea. Ceylon tea reportedly contains many compounds beneficial to health. Because of the widespread consumption of Ceylon tea, the quality control and safety of the tea are extremely important. Its popularity and value make Ceylon tea a common target for fraud. As a continuation of the preliminary research on the differentiation of tea varieties discussed in the previous issue of the newsletter, an untargeted metabolomics approach was developed to investigate the possibility of distinguishing Sri Lankan teas from different geographical origins, as well as differentiating between treated and untreated black tea samples. Authentic tea samples were obtained directly from four production sites in Sri Lanka (green (Talawakelle, Hanatana, Ratnapura, and Passara) and black (Talawakelle)), and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography – quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF MS) with multivariate data analysis (MVA).
Sanjeeva S. P. Godakandage
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. Methods We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Results Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. Conclusions and recommendations All evidence
Shanaka, K A S N; Wilathgamuwa, S; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S
Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer in women and approximately 700 deaths have been reported annually in Sri Lanka due to this cancer. Despite, attempts have not been made to investigate the prevalence of HPV amongst Sri Lankan women with normal cytology. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction based assay was set up to detect HPV in both normal and abnormal cytology and the positive samples were then tested for the genotypes, HPV 16 and HPV 18 as they have been identified as the high-risk types associating with cervical cancer. Eighty-four (number = 84) clinical samples (age range 27-69) analyzed in this study indicated that the prevalence of HPV, regardless of cytological abnormalities was 15.5%, (n = 13, 95% class interval ± 7.7) while it was 100% (n = 3) for those with abnormal cytology. Association of HPV 16 and HPV 18 among the abnormal cytology was 0 and 50% (n = 1), respectively and further, the prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 in women was found to be 3.6% (n = 3, 95% CI ± 4.0) and 2.4% (n = 2, 95% CI ± 3.3), respectively. Moreover, age wise prevalence analysis revealed women of the age of 35-years or more to have higher HPV prevalence. The prevalence of HPV among normal cytology is 12.3% (n = 10, 95% CI ± 7.2) which is similar to the rates in other regions of Asia (China 15.4%; India 10.43%). Finally, higher prevalence of HPV in women of the age of 35-years or more in Sri Lanka, especially with malignant types call for such age group to be screened for proper clinical intervention to be made in reducing the incident of cervical cancers. This is the first report of prevalence of HPV among women with normal cytology in Sri Lanka.
Godakandage, Sanjeeva S P; Senarath, Upul; Jayawickrama, Hiranya S; Siriwardena, Indika; Wickramasinghe, S W A D A; Arumapperuma, Prasantha; Ihalagama, Sathyajith; Nimalan, Srisothinathan; Archchuna, Ramanathan; Umesh, Claudio; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie
Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. All evidence-based recommendations are covered in related policies. However, advocacy should be targeted
Keywords: liver and rumen flukes, bovines, influence of climate, Sri Lanka. INTRODUCTION .... they were given two changes of absolute alcohol, each longing ..... inland and where fresh water ditches, streams and large water ... India. Res. ull. Panjab Univ., New series, 18: 369-337. sen J, Perry B. 1994. The epidemiology,.
Olsson, Pia; Wijewardena, Kumudu
In Sri Lanka pregnancy termination is very restricted by law and social norms. Premarital sex, and pregnancies are not generally accepted and unmarried pregnant women are vulnerable in their decision-making on pregnancy termination. The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances of becoming pregnant and factors considered in the decision-making for seeking pregnancy termination in a sample of unmarried women in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 unmarried women seeking pregnancy terminations at a reproductive health centre in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The interviews were later analysed using qualitative content analysis. Becoming pregnant in a love relationship was predominant in this sample. Awareness of contraceptives varied and initial reaction to the pregnancy involved strong contradictory emotions. Multiple interrelated factors were considered in the decision-making for termination. Family pressure was the most prominent factor followed by the partner's qualities and attitude towards the pregnancy, economic factors and own feelings, values and future fertility. The women described that their own emotional, religious and economic reasons for continuing the pregnancy were often outweighed by their responsibility to the family, male partner and unborn child. These unmarried women's sexual and reproductive rights were limited and for many the pregnancy termination was socially unsafe. They found themselves at the interface of two value systems. Modern values allow for relationships with men prior to marriage; whereas, traditional values did not. The limited possibilities to prevent pregnancies and little hope for support if continuing the pregnancy; made women seek pregnancy termination despite own doubts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article is part of major research in describing the configuration of waterfront residential area in urban space structure of the palace and related to the Malay Kingdom in the waterside of the Strait of Malacca. This research aimed to identify the configuration of riverfront residential area in Siak Sri Indrapura City based on physical and non-physical aspects. The method used in this research was qualitative rationalistic referring to the components of urban design theory. The results of the research showed that the spatial configuration in Siak Sri Indrapura City is linear and related to the past events and socio-cultural and socio-economic interaction of the society.
It is increasingly apparent that hostilities continue in the aftermath of war and conflict, where presuppositions of peace and safety are rarely reflected on the ground. In Sri Lanka, the 2002 ceasefire agreement between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has recently collapsed. This collapse developed slowly over a period of several years, beginning with cautious optimism before descending into deep pessimism with increasingly high levels of violence brought about by the absence of any real progress. Efforts to rebuild and reintegrate both rural and urban communities in the north of the country have had to take place within an atmosphere of silence, suspicion and a marked escalation towards the renewed outbreak of war. This article, following sixteen months of fieldwork in the northern Jaffna peninsula, examines how Tamil youths - many of whom were imprisoned and tortured during the war - have transformed a well-known ritual that has seen a dramatic increase since occupation of the far north by government troops in 1996. The ritual, previously an act of devotion to a popular Tamil god, Murugan, has transformed into a demonstration of strength and youthful challenge. This article examines how toleration of ritual pain can be contrasted with the pain and suffering of war, and articulated not only for the self, but also for the entire community.
Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu
In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.
Dayasiri, M B Kavinda Chandimal; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Jayasinghe, Chamilka Y
Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4%) while 283 (93%) children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.
M. B. Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri
Full Text Available Introduction. Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. Methods. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Results. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4% while 283 (93% children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Conclusions. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.
Tsuboi, Motoyuki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Maeki, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Kato, Fumihiro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Saijo, Masayuki; Takaya, Saho; Katanami, Yuichi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio
In June 2017, dengue virus type 2 infection was diagnosed in 2 travelers returned to Japan from Sri Lanka, where the country's largest dengue fever outbreak is ongoing. Travelers, especially those previously affected by dengue fever, should take measures to avoid mosquito bites.
Le Sri Lanka se tourne vers l'aquaculture pour diversifier son économie rurale et accroître sa production alimentaire, particulièrement dans les provinces du nord et de l'est du pays, qui se relèvent du conflit civil. Bien que l'aquaculture représente une stratégie de sécurité alimentaire prometteuse, elle doit être gérée de ...
Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li
Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...
Wickrama, Thulitha; Wickrama, K A S; Banford, Alyssa; Lambert, Jessica
Women in Sri Lanka have been uniquely exposed to a complex and protracted set of stressors stemming from a civil war conflict spanning over 25 years and the tsunami which struck Southeast Asia in 2004. This study investigates coping strategies and their association with trauma-related symptoms of tsunami-exposed mothers in Sri Lanka at two time points. Data for this study come from surveys administered in two waves of data collection to investigate both mothers' and adolescent children's post-tsunami mental health in early 2005, three months after the tsunami struck, and again in 2008, three years later. Latent-variable structural equation modeling was used to test the study hypotheses among 160 tsunami-affected mothers in the Polhena village, Matara district, Sri Lanka. Among the various coping strategies examined, the use of cultural rituals as well as inner psychological strength was associated with lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms. In contrast, passive religious beliefs were associated with greater posttraumatic stress levels. The results of this study reveal the differential associations of various coping strategies including rituals used by mothers exposed to the tsunami in Sri Lanka and their posttraumatic stress symptom levels.
Aithal Sreeramana P.; Suresh Kumar P.M.; Shailashri V.T.; Prithi Jeevan
Srinivas group of colleges has come into being from a humble beginning in1988, into a chain of institutions due to its visionary founder Sri CA A Raghavendra Rao. Today it spreads over 18 colleges with 70 courses and over 12000 students generating livelihood to 3500 employees and their families. His leadership qualities and values are distinct. He is wired like business people but bottom line oriented and extraordinarily committed to results. The steep ascend from humble person to an accompl...
Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini
Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Adikari, Anushka; Pannala, Gayani; Siribaddana, Sisira; Abas, Melanie; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert
Evidence is lacking on the mental health issues of internally displaced persons, particularly where displacement is prolonged. The COMRAID study was carried out in year 2011 as a comprehensive evaluation of Muslims in North-Western Sri Lanka who had been displaced since 1990 due to conflict, to investigate the prevalence and correlates of common mental disorders. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among a randomly selected sample of internally displaced people who had migrated within last 20 years or were born in displacement. The total sample consisted of 450 adults aged 18-65 years selected from 141 settlements. Common mental disorders (CMDs) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalences were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire and CIDI sub-scale respectively. The prevalence of any CMD was 18.8%, and prevalence for subtypes was as follows: somatoform disorder 14.0%, anxiety disorder 1.3%, major depression 5.1%, other depressive syndromes 7.3%. PTSD prevalence was 2.4%. The following factors were significantly associated with CMDs: unemployment (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.6-4.9), widowed or divorced status (4.9, 2.3-10.1) and food insecurity (1.7, 1.0-2.9). This is the first study investigating the mental health impact of prolonged forced displacement in post-conflict Sri Lanka. Findings add new insight in to mental health issues faced by internally displaced persons in Sri Lanka and globally, highlighting the need to explore broader mental health issues of vulnerable populations affected by forced displacement.
Full Text Available This paper examines the principle of environmental justice and its potential applicability to developing countries such as Sri Lanka. It first considers the interpretation and application of the principle in its country of origin, the United States, where it is used primarily to address problems of discrimination in the context of pollution. The paper takes the view that while such an interpretation of environmental justice is valid in this particular context, it cannot address issues of environment and development that arise in countries of the global South, which are grappling with development processes. These processes give rise to issues that may be subject to judicial determination, including sustainable development, protection of natural resources, human rights and social equity. The principle must therefore be re-interpreted to encompass all these dimensions. This paper argues that such an expansion and implementation of the principle of environmental justice in a context of environment and development in countries such as Sri Lanka, is most effective within a constitutional framework of human rights. Constitutions provide both the substantive and procedural foundation of rights, which are interpreted, enforced and given validity at the highest level of the judicial process. Even where environmental rights per se are not contained in a constitution, the existing rights can be, and have been, re-formulated to address issues of environment and development and related human rights. This paper analyses constitutional rights in Sri Lanka, which although limited in scope, has nevertheless formed the basis of a wide body of jurisprudence which brings new dimensions to the principle.
Full Text Available The Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata is arguably the least studied species of all Asiatic pangolin species and, is the solitary pangolin species recorded in Sri Lanka. Growing concerns over their population decline due to poaching and trading has triggered a move to uplift Indian Pangolin to Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. However, lack of reliable scientific information on the behavior, ecology and threats for the survival of Indian Pangolin remains a major limitation in conservation of the species. This narrative review discusses the current knowledge on Indian Pangolin with special reference to Sri Lanka, and identifies key research priorities for better conservation planning of the species.
Sandanayaka, Rohana; Kahawita, Indra; Gamage, Ajith; Siribaddana, Sisira; Agampodi, Suneth
To report cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka. The study population included all patients with CL reported from Polonnaruwa district from January 2008 through April 2012. Data were collected in the dermatology unit of Polonnaruwa General Hospital and the regional epidemiology unit of Polonnaruwa. Four hundred and forty six patients with leishmaniasis were detected; clinical details were available for 362. Mean annual incidence of leishmaniasis between 2008 and 2012 in Polonnaruwa district was 26.2 per 100,000. The case incidence steadily increased during the study period. Case distribution by month peaked between August and November. Cases were geographically clustered in three administrative divisions with a mean annual incidence ranging from 94.7 to 54.1 per 100,000 population. Significantly more (n = 294, 65.9%) males than females were affected (χ(2) for goodness of fit = 48.4, P < 0.001). The commonest type of lesion was nodules (n = 157, 43.4%) followed by crust (n = 116, 32.0%). The majority of patients had lesions on upper limbs (n = 144, 39.8%) or the face (n = 117, 32.3%). Cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasing in Polonnaruwa, with clear spatial and temporal clustering. Sri Lanka needs more vigilant leishmaniasis surveillance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Weerasinghe, I. M. S.; Fernando, R. L. S.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explain critical factors affecting student satisfaction levels in selected state universities in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: The study has applied an quantitative survey design guided by six hypotheses. A conceptual framework has been developed to address the research questions on the basis of a…
Beck, H.P.; Holley, C.; Limmer, A.
The P,T,x-diagram of the system SrI 2 -BaI 2 has been investigated at ambient pressures and at 2.0 GPa. The amount of solid solution in the four structure types occuring in this system (SrI 2 - or PbCl 2 -ZrAs 2 -type with SrI 2 and PbCl 2 - or anti-Fe 2 P-type with BaI 2 ) differs considerably. Structural geometries belonging to the same PbCl 2 structure family show marked differences in their toleration to cation substitution. Solid solution is especially pronounced in the BaI 2 -rich phases which incorporate up to 60 mol-% Sr 2+ in the high pressure phase of BaI 2 . (author)
Redmon, Jennifer Hoponick; Elledge, Myles F; Womack, Donna S; Wickremashinghe, Rajitha; Wanigasuriya, Kamani P; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Lunyera, Joseph; Smith, Kristin; Raymer, James H; Levine, Keith E
The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries.
This paper considers women's participation in foreign currency earning activities in Sri Lanka. The author first analyzes the structure of women's participation patterns in the major foreign currency earning activities in the country, including consideration of their wage levels and the impact of ethnicity, age, educational levels, and skills upon the different components of those activities in which women participate. She then probes the applicability for Sri Lanka of Guy Standing's argument that structural adjustment policies (SAP) have triggered a change in labor force practices leading to a feminization through flexible labor. Many studies have shown that cutbacks in subsidies mandated by SAPs and initiated in the 1980s among developing countries have adversely affected poor women. Women have adjusted to the new situation in a variety of ways, ranging from cutting their household budgets for basic needs to seeking income-generating work in the informal sector and participating in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. In closing, the author assesses the degree to which the new demands made upon women resulting from the effect of SAPs upon their households have stimulated women's increasing participation in foreign currency earning activities.
Liyanage, Harshini M; Magana Arachchi, Dhammika N; Chandrasekaran, Naduviladath V
Sri Lanka has rich cyanobacterial diversity, however, only few studies have been conducted to identify the potential toxin producers in water bodies used for human consumption. As the detection of cyanotoxin is vital in water quality management, a study was done by employing 16S rRNA gene to explore the genetic divergence, phylogenetic relationships and potential toxin producing cyanobacteria in reservoirs and well waters in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Forty five, 16S rRNA gene sequences were assayed and phylogenetic tree was constructed. Among 45 isolates, 20 isolates were classified as unidentified cyanobacteria and considered as novel cyanobacterial genera. Of 25 identified isolates, seven isolates were identified up to species level. With 16S rRNA phylogeny, 20 unidentified cyanobacterial isolates were able to place on their taxonomic positions up to order level. Results revealed that water samples understudy had vast cyanobacterial diversity with potential microcystin (MC) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) producers and eleven clusters clearly demonstrated five cyanobacterial orders with more than 90% similarity irrespective to their toxicity which showed the suitability of 16S rRNA gene for taxonomic differentiation. Sixteen isolates had the potential to produce MC and two isolates to produce CYN. Findings of the study confirm the rich cyanobacterial diversity and the divergence among the potential cyanotoxin producers in the dry zone water bodies of Sri Lanka.
Abeysena, Chrishantha; Jayawardana, Pushpa; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Wickramasinghe, Uthpala
To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on evidence-based medicine (EBM) among doctors in selected hospitals in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 315 doctors in five government hospitals in Sri Lanka between December 2007 and January 2008. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Of the 407 invited, 315 doctors participated, among whom, 87% (271) had heard the term EBM, 30% (n= 94) were aware of the Cochrane Library, and 8.5% (n= 27) were current users of it. Forty-seven per cent (n= 148) claimed to understand the terms systematic review and 37% (n= 115) meta-analysis. Twenty-four per cent (n= 77) had been exposed to some form of EBM training. All three components of EBM were known by 18% (n= 56) of participants. Attitudes toward EBM were positive among 76% (n= 239), 80% (n= 251) believed the practice of EBM would lead to improved patient care, and 77% (n= 243) considered EBM to be fundamental to professional practice. Just 3% (n= 13) considered it unimportant. EBM was used in clinical practice by 54% (n= 169) of participants. Thirty-six per cent (n= 114) referred to EBM sources when relevant. Available clinical guidelines were referred to by 56% (n= 176), and 34% (n= 107) thought that available guidelines provide sufficient support for the practice of EBM. The main barriers to practicing EBM were insufficient resources, overwork, lack of exposure to EBM, and lack of time and lack of endorsement of the need to practice EBM. Knowledge and practices of EBM among Sri Lanka doctors were poor. However, attitudes toward EBM were relatively good. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.
Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Ellawela, Amaya; Gunatilake, Saman B
To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; 'High-achievers' (honours degree at the final MBBS examination) and 'Low-achievers' (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination). A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ) with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable 'Honours degree at final MBBS' as the dependant factor. Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. 'High-achievers' were significantly younger than 'Low-achievers'. Significant proportion of 'High-achievers' were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of 'High-achievers' entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained 'Distinctions' at the GCE A/L English subject. 'High-achievers' demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity.The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a 'Distinction' for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of obtaining a Honours degree. A combined system incorporating both past academic performance and non
Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Adhikari, Chandralatha; Pannala, Waruni; Benninga, Marc A.
Constipation is a common paediatric problem, but its prevalence in Asia is unknown. A cross-sectional survey using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire was conducted in randomly selected children aged 10-16 years, in five randomly selected schools in Sri Lanka. Two schools were in
Ball, Harriet A; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Kovas, Yulia; Glozier, Nick; McGuffin, Peter; Sumathipala, Athula; Hotopf, Matthew
It is important to understand the nature of depression in non-Western and lower-income countries, but little such research exists. This study aimed to examine the characteristic features of depression in Sri Lanka, and to identify environmental risk factors. Depression diagnoses, symptoms and impairment were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, in a population-based sample of 6014 twins and non-twins in the Colombo region of Sri Lanka (the CoTASS sample). Socio-demographic factors and environments were assessed via questionnaires. Lifetime-ever depression was reported in 6.6% of participants, rising to 11.2% if the functional impairment criterion was excluded. The symptom profile of depression and its socio-demographic associations were very comparable to those in Western and more economically developed countries, whether functional impairment was included in the definition or not. Standard of living was independently associated with depression, especially among men at the more deprived end of the distribution. Specific associations were found with both financial wellbeing and material characteristics of the home environment. The observational associations identified are cross-sectional, so do not necessarily imply causal links. Aside from a lower prevalence, depression is very similar in this predominantly urban Sri Lankan sample to higher-income, Western countries, and may be under-identified due to a relatively low cultural appropriateness of the assessment of impairment. Under Sri Lanka's cultural and environmental context, certain aspects of the material environment are associated with depression among certain segments of society, perhaps because of their particular link to social status and social networks. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Catani, Claudia; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; Wieling, Elizabeth; Schauer, Elizabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank
This study examines the impact of children's exposure to natural disaster against the backdrop of exposure to other traumatic events and psychosocial risks. One thousand three hundred ninety-eight Sri Lankan children aged 9-15 years were interviewed in 4 cross-sectional studies about exposure to traumatic life events related to the war, the…
Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich
Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, pconflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, pconflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper analyses the performance of aid-funded livelihoods recovery efforts in Sri Lanka following the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, with special attention paid to the effects on the rural poor. It argues that successful livelihoods recovery was hampered by an excessive focus by aid agencies on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship, and by the lack of a politically informed understanding of the economy. Based on ethnographic and survey-based research, the study demonstrates that the category of 'entrepreneur' is misleading for large parts of the economy. Indeed, the desire to build an entrepreneurial economy actually hampered successful livelihoods recovery in Sri Lanka and, in some cases, reinforced inequitable relations of power. The paper concludes that for livelihoods recovery programmes to be effective, they must be founded on an understanding of the relations of power that constitute the economy; these relations operate across scales, and are historically and geographically specific. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal
BACKGROUND: One of the most important components of suicide prevention strategies is to target people who repeat self-harm as they are a high risk group. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of repeat self-harm is lower in Asia than in the West. The objective of this study...... was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes...... of self-harm. RESULTS: Sixty-one (8.7%, 95% CI 6.7-11%) patients reported at least one previous episode of self-harm [37 (10.7%) male, 24 (6.8%) female]; only 19 (2.7%, 95% CI 1.6-4.2%) patients had made more than one previous attempt. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of previous self-harm is consistent...
Wickramage, K; Galappaththy, G N L
The number of malaria cases among irregular migrants returning to Sri Lanka has not been investigated. In the first 6 months of 2012 we screened 287 irregular migrants returning from seven West African nations to Sri Lanka for malaria to ascertain the risk of infection during migration. Four men were diagnosed as having malaria: three with Plasmodium falciparum had travelled to Togo and one with P. vivax had travelled to Guinea. The risk of contracting malaria was 14 cases per 1000. Facilitating a safe return with selective screening for at-risk inbound migrants flows is desirable as Sri Lanka advances towards its goal of malaria elimination.
Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing, treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied timber species into property levels. The final objective of this study was to develop relationships between the end-uses of timber and their property requirements and levels with reference to 20 Sri Lankan timber species. Timber selection for the use in Sri Lanka is species-oriented and sometimes it is based on the traditional use. Based on wood properties of 20 Sri Lankan timber species selected, an attempt was made to recognise the most important wood properties and their levels to develop a four end-use property classification. In general, the proposed end-use property classification in this study could be differentiated as (i. for building construction, (ii. for furniture and joinery (iii. for light construction, and (iv. for miscellaneous uses. Among the selected timber species, Dipterocarpus zeylanicus is eminently suitable for under-water work. Eucalyptus microcorys is regarded as one of the best timbers for dancing floors. These specialty and causative factors of timber, however, must be explored and documented in order to prepare end-use property classification for miscellaneous use.
the communal tension was at the lowest during this period of time. - 1923 - Expanded Legislative Council with restricted franchise was...established.15 This was in response to a Sinhalese demand for such a council in 1917. However, under restricted franchise the British decided to elect...living in countries such as India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia , Singapore, Mauritius and Fiji. Additionally, the nationalist wave has spread to diaspora
Des travaux de recherche appuyés par le CRDI et dirigés par Learning Initiatives on Reforms for Network Economies (LIRNEasia), à Colombo, au Sri Lanka, ont entre autres pour but de trouver des façons d'utiliser la téléphonie mobile et les technologies connexes pour améliorer les conditions de vie des pauvres. L'un des ...
Zanatta, Melina Borges Teixeira; Nakadi, Flávio Venâncio; da Veiga, Márcia Andreia Mesquita Silva
A new method to determine iodine in drug samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) has been developed. The method measures the molecular absorption of a diatomic molecule, CaI or SrI (less toxic molecule-forming reagents), at 638.904 or 677.692nm, respectively, and uses a mixture containing 5μg of Pd and 0.5μg of Mg as chemical modifier. The method employs pyrolysis temperatures of 1000 and 800°C and vaporization temperatures of 2300 and 2400°C for CaI and SrI, respectively. The optimized amounts of Ca and Sr as molecule-forming reagents are 100 and 150µg, respectively. On the basis of interference studies, even small chlorine concentrations reduce CaI and SrI absorbance significantly. The developed method was used to analyze different commercial drug samples, namely thyroid hormone pills with three different iodine amounts (15.88, 31.77, and 47.66µg) and one liquid drug with 1% m v -1 active iodine in their compositions. The results agreed with the values informed by the manufacturers (95% confidence level) regardless of whether CaI or SrI was determined. Therefore, the developed method is useful for iodine determination on the basis of CaI or SrI molecular absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Staton, Catherine A; De Silva, Vijitha; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Jin, Kezhi; RicardoVissoci, Joao; Østbye, Truls
Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) data to conduct hotspot analyses and safety audits are usually incomplete, poor quality, and not computerized. Police data are often limited, but there are no alternative gold standards. This project evaluates high road utilizer surveys as an alternative to police data to identify RTC hotspots. Retrospective police RTC data was compared to prospective data from high road utilizer surveys regarding dangerous road locations. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems was used to map dangerous locations and identify RTC hotspots. We assessed agreement (Cohen's Kappa), sensitivity/specificity, and cost differences. In Rwanda police data identified 1866 RTC locations from 2589 records while surveys identified 1264 locations from 602 surveys. In Sri Lanka, police data identified 721 RTC locations from 752 records while survey data found 3000 locations from 300 surveys. There was high agreement (97 %, 83 %) and kappa (0.60, 0.60) for Rwanda and Sri Lanka respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 92 % and 95 % for Rwanda and 74 % and 93 % for Sri Lanka. The cost per crash location identified was $2.88 for police and $2.75 for survey data in Rwanda and $2.75 for police and $1.21 for survey data in Sri Lanka. Surveys to locate RTC hotspots have high sensitivity and specificity compared to police data. Therefore, surveys can be a viable, inexpensive, and rapid alternative to the use of police data in LMIC.
Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S
The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational injuries among flight attendants have not been given appropriate attention in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of onboard injury among Sri Lankan flight attendants and to describe the determinants of onboard injury. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among Sri Lankan flight attendants. All flight attendants undergoing their annual health and first aid training were invited to participate. Flight attendants who flew continuously for a six-month period prior to data collection were included in the study sample. Recall history of injuries for a period of six months was recorded. Results The study sample consisted of 98 (30.4% male and 224 (69.6% female flight attendants. The mean age of the study sample was 31 years (SD = 8 and the average duration of service was 10 years (SD = 7. A total of 100 onboard falls, slips or trips in the previous six months were reported by 52 (16.1% respondents. Of the total sample, 128 (39.8% cabin crew members reported an injury in the six months preceding the study. This represents a total injury incidence of 795 per 1000 person per year. The leading causes of injury was pulling, pushing or lifting (60.2%. The commonest type of injuries were strains and sprains (52.3%. Turbulence related injuries were reported by 38 (29.7% flight attendants. The upper limbs (44.5% and the back (32% were the commonest sites affected. After controlling for other factors, female flight attendants had 2.9 times higher risk (95% CI 1.2–7.2 of sustaining and injury than males. Irrespective of sex, body weight less than 56 kilograms (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4–5.8 and less than seven years of on board experience (OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.6–31.0 were associated with higher risk of injury. Conclusion Work related injury is a major occupational hazard to flight attendants. Appropriate preventive strategies are required to minimize them.
Full Text Available There are various cases and impacts of child labour and it has been a universal problem and remains as one of polemical challenge faced by the world. The problem of child labour not only causes to damage their physical and mental health but also their education right freedom development of childhood etc. Both developing countries and developed countries are faced to the phenomenon of child labour. 28 of Working children have faced injuries or fallen ill at least once in a year due to work in Sri Lanka. The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of child labours on their health. 200 primary data were collected in Peta Sri Lanka using simple random sampling method. Binary Logistic regression was employed to identify the health effects of child labour. According to the study child labors have faced some illnesses or injuries due to employment. Hours of working carrying of heavy loads operate heavy machines and equipment place of work and expose to things were highly correlated with physical harm of child labors. Carrying heavy load operate heavy machines and equipment and working place highly affected to physical harm of child labor. Many of them are employed on the street as street vendors construction sites factory and hotel and restaurant. Injuries and physical harms are highly related to the working place. Therefor the study recommends to empower the families provide the better formal education and vocational training to overcome this issue.
Benasayag, S; Rittler, M; Nieto, F; Torres de Aguirre, N; Reyes, M; Copelli, S
A rare case of a female patient with a 47,XYY karyotype is described. She had normal female external genitalia, bilateral testes, rudimentary Fallopian tubes and no uterus. Molecular analysis revealed a normal SRY encoding sequence. The possible events in the etiology of this sex reversal entity are discussed.
14 janv. 2013 ... Un projet appuyé par le Fonds canadien de recherche sur la sécurité alimentaire internationale (FCRSAI) aide les petits crevetticulteurs du Sri Lanka à adapter les bonnes pratiques de l'industrie aux besoins locaux. Les pratiques d'aquaculture durable en résultant pourraient entraîner une diminution des ...
Galappatthy, Priyadarshani; Bataduwaarachchi, Vipula R; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Galappatthy, Gamini K S; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Warapitiya, Dinuka S; Sivapathasundaram, Mythily; Wickramarathna, Thilini; Senarath, Upul; Sridharan, Sathasivam; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Ekanayaka, Ruvan
Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of in-hospital mortality in Sri Lanka. Acute Coronary Syndrome Sri Lanka Audit Project (ACSSLAP) is the first national clinical-audit project that evaluated patient characteristics, clinical outcomes and care provided by state-sector hospitals. ACSSLAP prospectively evaluated acute care, in-hospital care and discharge plans provided by all state-sector hospitals managing patients with ACS. Data were collected from 30 consecutive patients from each hospital during 2-4 weeks window. Local and international recommendations were used as audit standards. Data from 87/98 (88.7%) hospitals recruited 2177 patients, with 2116 confirmed as having ACS. Mean age was 61.4±11.8 years (range 20-95) and 58.7% (n=1242) were males. There were 813 (38.4%) patients with unstable angina, 695 (32.8%) with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and 608 (28.7%) with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Both STEMI (69.9%) and NSTEMI (61.4%) were more in males (Pacute setting and on discharge. In STEMI, 407 (66.9%) were reperfused; 384 (63.2%) were given fibrinolytics and only 23 (3.8%) underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Only 42.3 % had thrombolysis in coronary interventions planned. In patients with ACS, aspirin, clopidogrel and statin use met audit standards in acute setting and on discharge. Vast majority of patients with STEMI underwent fibrinolyisis than PCI, due to limited resources. Primary PCI, planned coronary interventions and timely thrombolysis need improvement in Sri Lanka. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
8 February 2017 - Sri Lanka Hon. Minister of Science, Technology and Research A. D. S. Premajayantha signing the International Cooperation Agreement concerning Scientific and Technical Cooperation in High-Energy Physics 2017 with CERN Director for International Relations C. Warakaulle.
Were present: Hon. A. D. Susil Premajayantha, Minister of Science, Technology and Research, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka; H.E. Mr Ravinatha Aryasinha, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the UN in Geneva; Mrs Samantha Jayasuriya, Deputy Permanent Representative, Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the UN in Geneva; Ms Shashika Somaratne, Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the UN in Geneva; Mr Gihan Indragupta, Member of Sri Lanka Foreign service and Head of the G15 Secretariat; Ms Dilini Gunasekera, Second Secretary, Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the UN in Geneva; Mr Prageeth Herath , Supporting staff, Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka. CERN: Mr Andrzej Charkiewicz, CMS Ressources Manager; Ms Sofia Intoudi, Legal Officer; Dr Rüdiger Voss, Senior Adviser, International Relations; Ms Charlotte Warakaulle, Director for International Relations
Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Salanti, Ali
into the level of drug pressure caused by SP use and presumably other antifolate drugs. In Sri Lanka, chloroquine (CQ) with primaquine (PQ) and SP with PQ is used as first and second line treatment, respectively, against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax infections. CQ/PQ is still efficacious...... against P. vivax infections, thus SP is rarely used and it is assumed that the prevalence of SNPs related to P. vivax SP resistance is low. However, this has not been assessed in Sri Lanka as in most other parts of Asia. This study describes the prevalence and distribution of SNPs related to P. vivax SP...... and 383, 553 and 585 of the Pvdhps gene by applying PCR followed by a hybridization step using sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) in an ELISA format. RESULTS: In the study period, the government of Sri Lanka recorded 2,149 P. vivax cases from the nine districts out of which, 454 (21...
Full Text Available It is imperative that Sri Lanka grasps the concepts of green jobs to meet the most vital but intricatechallenge of the 21st Century, which is the transformation to a sustainable and a low-carbon economy.Such a transformation or a paradigm shift, which can be gradual or rapid depending on the circumstances,will undoubtedly have a considerable positive effect on the way we produce and/or consume goods andservices. The speed at which this transformation would occur is likely to accelerate in the near future asthere is a trend of global transition from a traditional to a low-carbon economy, in order to attainsustainable economies. Such trends will help create an array of different forms of green jobs across manysectors, and most probably can become a catalyst for further development. The International LabourOrganization (ILO has defined green jobs as “Jobs created when they help in reducing the negativeenvironmental impacts ultimately leading to environmentally, economically and socially sustainableenterprises and economies”. Green jobs, in general, stand on two pillars: decent work and environmentalsustainability. Thus, green jobs can be defined as decent work that contributes to environmentalsustainability. In a broader sense decent work needs to address the core of international labour standardssuch as freedom of association and effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, eliminationof all forms of forced or compulsory labour, effective abolition of child labour, elimination ofdiscrimination in respect of employment and occupation, occupational health and safety, etc. whilstaligning to laws applicable to Sri Lanka. Environmental sustainability addresses issues such as effectivelycombating climate change, pollution prevention and control, conservation of eco-systems and biodiversityetc. (ILO, 2007.
In this paper, positive impacts of 3 Indian Navigational Satellite programmes (GAGAN, IRNSS and INSAT-MSS reporting system for the civilian applications over Sri Lanka are discussed. Other neighbouring countries covered under the footprint of Indian navigational satellite programmes can also employ these services for the location based applications productively.
Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun
Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Among all food and beverages-related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P food and beverages-focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. © 2015 APJPH.
Presidendivalimistest Sri Lankal. Uus president Mahinda Rajapaksa on valmis kohtuma tamilite mässu juhtidega ning arutama rahu taastamise võimalusi. Presidendi eesmärgid. Lisa: Pommirünnakud poliitikute vastu
Middelkoop, T B; Labadie, R P
This paper presents the results of an investigation of Asoka Aristha, an indigenous medicine used in rural Sri Lanka for menstrual disorders. This investigation was part of a broader evaluation of ayurvedic drugs aimed at establishing the botanic identity of drug ingredients, establishing possible modes of action, and identifying the chemical constituents responsible for the drug effects. It is projected that the results of this research can be used to standardize ayurvedic drugs and optimize the quality and production procedures. Asoka Aristha, a fermented potion composed largely of Asoka bark, is produced on a large scale by the state-owned Ayurvedic Drugs Corporation. It has been indicated for women in cases of menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, leukorrhea, primary amenorrhea, general menstrual disorders, and skin disorders. 3 types of experiments are projected to evaluate the biologic activity of Asoka Aristha: measurement of the occurrence of cornification of the uterus epithelium in hypophysectomized rats after administration of the drug to determine the estrogenic mode of action, in vitro measurement of the direct uterine activity of the drug to determinme the oxytocic effect, and testing of the inhibiting properties of the drug in prostaglandin synthetase enzyme reactions in vitro. Experiments carried out on rat uteri so far seem to rule out the mechanism based on oxytocic action. It is urged that clinical trials on the therapeutic effect of Asoka Aristha be carried out in Sri Lanka.
In Sri Lanka, Climate Change Mitigation Studies have received low priority and have been limited to an ADB-sponsored preliminary study followed by an initial assessment of some mitigation options in the energy and agricultural sectors, with technical assistance from the US Country Studies Program. The major focus was on options of the mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector. Owing to funding constraints, only the potential for reduction of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the various mitigation options were quantified; analysis of monetary costs and benefits or policy/programs for adoption of the options were not undertaken. For the non-energy sector, a very limited study on mitigation of methane emissions from rice fields was carried out. (au)
Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H; Samarakoon, Lal
Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka
Before commissioning any energy projects, conducting robust assessments of different options in terms of their economic and socio-environmental impacts is important for successful project implementation. Yet, there is currently a lack of tools that simultaneously assess sustainability impacts; instead, they are often investigated separately, which gives decision makers somehow disintegrated information. Thus the main objective of this study is to examine how to incorporate socio-environmental considerations into project assessment models. The multi-criteria analysis is applied to the case study of Sri Lankan hydropower projects as an illustrative example. The estimated quantitative relationship between economic, environmental and social impacts of hydropower development is presented in this study. Such estimation, using sustainability indicators of hydropower projects, enables us to understand marginal trade-offs among economic, environmental and social objectives of hydropower development. Hence, this would provide an overview of potential impacts of different scenarios that are designed to be implemented and indicate an optimum mix of hydropower generation. - Highlights: • This study provides an effective hydropower project evaluation method using the MCA. • The proposed tool shows the quantitative relationship explicitly. • Marginal trade-offs between sustainability objectives are presented
Full Text Available Purpose: The discussion of a cancer diagnosis and prognosis often is difficult. This study explored the expectations of Tamil-speaking patients with cancer and their families with respect to receiving their cancer diagnosis in northern Sri Lanka. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study used semistructured interviews. Results: Thematic analysis identified two major themes: communication and information seeking. The findings illustrate a discrepancy between patient preference for direct disclosure of the diagnosis and that of families. Ninety-five percent of patients wanted medical staff to disclose their cancer diagnosis, whereas only 45% of family members believed that the diagnosis should be disclosed to the patient rather than to the family. Conclusion: Although patients and their family members’ views and expectations of the disclosure of diagnosis and prognosis differ, a majority of patients want to be told directly about their diagnosis rather than to learn of it from a relative. The findings are similar to the literature on other ethnic groups from Sri Lanka and studies from English-speaking developed countries. Therefore, the main questions are how to educate families and physicians about the benefits of open disclosure to patients and how to change culture. Results of this study along with a previous study call for the development of strategies and guidelines to improve societal views, educate patients and families, and train health professionals in the area of breaking bad news and discussing prognosis in the Sri Lankan setting.
de Silva, Amala; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Abeykoon, Palitha
With state-funded health care that is free at the point of delivery, a sound primary health-care policy and widespread health-care services, Sri Lanka seems a good example of universal health coverage. Yet, health transition and disparities in provision and financing threaten this situation. Sri Lanka did well on the Millennium Development Goal health indicators, but the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for health has a wider purview, which is to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". The gender gap in life expectancy and the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy make achievement of the health SDG more challenging. Although women and children do well overall, the comparative health disadvantage for men in Sri Lanka is a cause for concern. From a financing perspective, high out-of-pocket expenditure and high utilization of the private sector, even by those in the lowest income quintile, are concerns, as is the emerging "third tier", where some individuals accessing state health care that is free at the point of delivery actually bear some of the costs of drugs, investigations and surgery. This cost sharing is resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for individuals, and delays in and non-compliance with treatment. These concerns about provision and financing must be addressed, as health transition will intensify the morbidity burden and loss of well-being, and could derail plans to achieve the health SDG.
Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva
Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka
Little, Angela W.
In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…
Chen, L; Ding, X P; Wei, X; Li, L X
We investigated the molecular genetic mechanism of sex reversal by exploring the relationship between mutations in the sex-determining genes SRY, SOX9, and DAX1 with genetic sex reversal disease. Mutations in the three key genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing after karyotype analysis. The mutations detected were then aligned with a random sample of 100 normal sequences and the NCBI sequence database in order to confirm any new mutations. Furthermore, the copy number of SOX9 was measured by fluorescence quantitative PCR. Seven of the 10 male sex reversal patients (46, XX) contained an excess copy of the SRY gene, while one of the eight female sex reversal patients (46, XY) was lacking the SRY gene. Additionally, a new mutation (T-A, Asp24Lys) was detected in one female sex reversal patient (46, XY). No other mutation was detected in the analysis of SOX9 and DAX1, with the exception of an insertion mutation (c.35377791insG) found in the testicular-specific enhancer (TESCO) sequences in an SRY-positive female sex reversal patient (46, XY). Eight of the 18 sex reversal cases (44.4%) showed obvious connections with SRY gene translocations, mutations, or deletions, which was significantly higher than that reported previously (33.3%), indicating a need to further expand the range of sample collection. Overall, these results indicated that the main mechanism of sex reversal are not associated with mutations in the coding regions of SOX9 and DAX1 or copy number variations of SOX9, which is consistent with results of previous studies.
Rodrigo, E Shan S; Wimalaratne, Samantha R U; Marasinghe, Rohana B; Edirippulige, Sisira
We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS) for Public Health Midwives (PHMs) in Sri Lanka. We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 PHMs, which found that they spent most of their time managing health records. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was trialled by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area of the Ratnapura district of Sri Lanka. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, the PHMs all gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot system, they would like to continue using it to enhance their service and they wanted to see it expanded across the whole of Ratnapura district. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available Following the military defeat of LTTE terrorism in May 2009, the relationship between ethnic and religious groups in Sri Lanka became seriously fragmented as a result of intensified anti-minority sentiments and violence. Consequently, the ethnic Muslims (Moors became the major target in this conflict. The major objective of this study is to critically evaluate the nature and the impact of the anti-Muslim sentiments expressed and violence committed by the extreme nationalist forces during the process of ethnic reconciliation in post-war Sri Lanka. The findings of the study reveal that, with the end of civil war, Muslims have become “another other” and also the target of ethno-religious hatred and violence from the vigilante right-wing ethno-nationalist forces that claim to be protecting the Sinhala-Buddhist nation, race, and culture in Sri Lanka. These acts are perpetrated as part of their tactics aimed to consolidate a strong Sinhala-Buddhist nation—and motivated by the state. Furthermore, the recourse deficit and lack of autonomy within the organizational hierarchy of the Buddhist clergy have motivated the nationalist monks to engage in politics and promote a radical anti-minority rhetoric. This study recommends institutional and procedural reforms to guide and monitor the activities of religious organizations, parties, and movements, together with the teaching of religious tolerance, as the preconditions for ethnic reconciliation and ethnic harmony in post-war Sri Lanka. This study has used only secondary data, which are analyzed in a descriptive and interpretive manner.
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Rao, R.R.; Girishkumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.
cooler, low-salinity waters from the head Bay of Bengal (BoB) into the south-eastern AS. But due to a lack of any direct in situ measurements, it is not clear whether any part of this current that flows through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel (ISLC...
Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Stone, John; Smith, Patrick; Reiter, Jenifer
This paper discusses commissioning of NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.
The recent emergence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) has become a serious public health crisis in Sri Lanka. CKDu is slowly progressive, irreversible, and asymptomatic until late stages, and is not attributable to hypertension, diabetes, or other known aetiologies. In response to the scope and severity of the emerging CKDu health crisis, the Sri Lanka Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization initiated a collaborative research project from 2009 through 2012 to investigate CKDu prevalence and aetiology. The objective of this paper is to discuss the recently published findings of this investigation and present additional considerations and recommendations that may enhance subsequent investigations designed to identify and understand CKDu risk factors in Sri Lanka or other countries. PMID:25069485
Ronald Ravinesh Kumar
Full Text Available We use the sample from 1978 to 2014 for the paper (doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.05.005. The data on GDP at constant 2005 USD (US dollar, and the gross fixed capital formation at constant 2005 USD are extracted from the World Bank (2015. The labour stock which includes direct and indirect employment and the tourism receipts (in USD are sourced from the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (http://www.sltda.lk/statistics. Tourism receipts as a per cent of GDP is used to measure tourism demand. The capital stock data is computed using perpetual inventory method, where a depreciation rate of 8 per cent is assumed with the initial capital stock as 1.05 times the GDP of 1969 at constant 2005 USD. The output per worker and capital per worker is computed by dividing the GDP and capital stock by the labour stock, respectively. Keywords: Tourism demand analysis, Elasticity, Cointegration, Non-linear, Causality, Sri Lanka, Dataset
Dabrera, Thushani Marie Elizabeth; Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Fernando, M S Nilanthi; Kasturiaratchi, S T Kaushlya; Østbye, Truls
Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. Pockets of high endemicity remain in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, in spite of the fact that elimination has been achieved at the national level. In 2012, in a village in the Puttlam district, dermatologists reported an increase in individuals with leprosy. This village had been established in the 1990s for people displaced from Northern Sri Lanka during a civil war. A comprehensive household survey was conducted by district health officials from June to July 2012, and all household members present during the survey period were examined for leprosy lesions. Patients with suspected leprosy were referred to a dermatology clinic for clinical or pathological confirmation. The prevalence of leprosy was high (511 per 10 000 population). Household contact with another patient with leprosy increased the risk of leprosy (odds ratio = 6.69; P leprosy at bay in high-risk communities.
Withanage, Gayan P; Viswakula, Sameera D; Nilmini Silva Gunawardena, Y I; Hapugoda, Menaka D
Dengue is one of the major health problems in Sri Lanka causing an enormous social and economic burden to the country. An accurate early warning system can enhance the efficiency of preventive measures. The aim of the study was to develop and validate a simple accurate forecasting model for the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Three time-series regression models were developed using monthly rainfall, rainy days, temperature, humidity, wind speed and retrospective dengue incidences over the period January 2012 to November 2015 for the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. Various lag times were analyzed to identify optimum forecasting periods including interactions of multiple lags. The models were validated using epidemiological data from December 2015 to November 2017. Prepared models were compared based on Akaike's information criterion, Bayesian information criterion and residual analysis. The selected model forecasted correctly with mean absolute errors of 0.07 and 0.22, and root mean squared errors of 0.09 and 0.28, for training and validation periods, respectively. There were no dengue epidemics observed in the district during the training period and nine outbreaks occurred during the forecasting period. The proposed model captured five outbreaks and correctly rejected 14 within the testing period of 24 months. The Pierce skill score of the model was 0.49, with a receiver operating characteristic of 86% and 92% sensitivity. The developed weather based forecasting model allows warnings of impending dengue outbreaks and epidemics in advance of one month with high accuracy. Depending upon climatic factors, the previous month's dengue cases had a significant effect on the dengue incidences of the current month. The simple, precise and understandable forecasting model developed could be used to manage limited public health resources effectively for patient management, vector surveillance and intervention programmes in the district.
Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad
Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of
Romualdo Atibagos Mabuan
Full Text Available Newspaper commentaries constitute a part of media discourse, which is a significant area of inquiry in intercultural rhetoric analysis. Through conducting a contrastive textual analysis of newspaper commentaries culled from the English newspapers in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, this paper explored the notions of genre and micro-genre on the 2015 papal visit in the two countries. To set a tertium comparationisin examining the genre-newspaper commentaries on the papal visit, the timeframe was set during the two-week duration of the visit. To investigate the micro-genres employed by the writers, two sets of 15 newspaper commentaries on the visit respectively in the Philippines and Sri Lanka were selected and analyzed. Findings revealed that both Filipino and Sinhalese writers in English newspaper commentaries tended to employ the micro-genre of “media explanatory exposition” more often than other micro-genres, and in terms of rhetorical structures, both of these writers tended to show variation, dynamism, and individuality. Implications for ESL (English as a second language and EFL (English as a foreign language teaching are provided in the light of these findings.
In fact, under the new competitive pressures in Urban Cooperative Banks (UCBs) to enhance their overall efficiency pose serious challenges. Since the operational efficiency of the UCB is crucial in ensuring adequate and timely flow of credit to urban and semi-urban people for diverse purposes, intensive observation on their performance deserves serious consideration. In this context, present study examined management of resources of the Sri Lakshminarayana Cooperative Urban Bank Ltd. (SLNCUB)...
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (Commission) mission is to oversee America`s natural gas and oil pipeline transportation, electric utility, and hydroelectric power industries to ensure that consumers receive adequate energy supplies at just and reasonable rates. To carry out this mission, the Commission issues regulations covering the accounting, reporting, and rate-making requirements of the regulated utility companies. The Commission`s Office of Chief Accountant performs financial related audits at companies to ensure compliance with these regulations. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the office of Chief Accountant`s audit performance. Specifically, the objectives were to determine if the most appropriate audit approach was used and if a quality assurance process was in place to ensure reports were accurate and supported by the working papers.
Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith
This thesis investigates the structural changes in the agrarian society in Western parts of Sri Lanka as seen in the mid and late eighteenth century in the context of the encounter with the Dutch United East India Company (VOC) administration. It attempts to understand the developments in the period
Lanarolle W.D.G*, Jeewandara V.K., Amadoru R.S., Wijayarathna E.K.B. and Randike H.M.
The structure of the body of human depends on many factors. Hence the sizes and size charts for garments need to be developed for a specific nation/human group. This paper presents a size chart developed for socks for school boys in Sri Lanka. The foot and leg measurements of 2650 school boys in six different provinces of the country is used in the analysis in order to get a reasonable sample size as the foot and leg measurements may have many influences. Correlation between different f...
Dileepa Senajith Ediriweera
Full Text Available There is a paucity of robust epidemiological data on snakebite, and data available from hospitals and localized or time-limited surveys have major limitations. No study has investigated the incidence of snakebite across a whole country. We undertook a community-based national survey and model based geostatistics to determine incidence, envenoming, mortality and geographical pattern of snakebite in Sri Lanka.The survey was designed to sample a population distributed equally among the nine provinces of the country. The number of data collection clusters was divided among districts in proportion to their population. Within districts clusters were randomly selected. Population based incidence of snakebite and significant envenoming were estimated. Model-based geostatistics was used to develop snakebite risk maps for Sri Lanka. 1118 of the total of 14022 GN divisions with a population of 165665 (0.8%of the country's population were surveyed. The crude overall community incidence of snakebite, envenoming and mortality were 398 (95% CI: 356-441, 151 (130-173 and 2.3 (0.2-4.4 per 100000 population, respectively. Risk maps showed wide variation in incidence within the country, and snakebite hotspots and cold spots were determined by considering the probability of exceeding the national incidence.This study provides community based incidence rates of snakebite and envenoming for Sri Lanka. The within-country spatial variation of bites can inform healthcare decision making and highlights the limitations associated with estimates of incidence from hospital data or localized surveys. Our methods are replicable, and these models can be adapted to other geographic regions after re-estimating spatial covariance parameters for the particular region.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify non-cognitive and socio-demographic characteristics determining academic success of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates. Methods A retrospective study among 90 recently graduated students of the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. Students were stratified into two equal groups; ‘High-achievers’ (honours degree at the final MBBS examination and ‘Low-achievers’ (repeated one or more subjects at the same examination. A revised version of the Non-cognitive Questionnaire (NQ with additional socio-demographic data was the study instrument. Academic performance indicator was performance at the final MBBS examinations. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed using the dichotomous variable ‘Honours degree at final MBBS’ as the dependant factor. Results Males were 56.7%. Mean age ± SD was 26.4 ± 0.9 years. ‘High-achievers’ were significantly younger than ‘Low-achievers’. Significant proportion of ‘High-achievers’ were from the Western province and selected to university from Colombo district. A significant majority of ‘High-achievers’ entered medical school from their first attempt at GCE A/L examination and obtained ‘Distinctions’ at the GCE A/L English subject. ‘High-achievers’ demonstrated a significantly higher mean score for the following domains of NQ; Positive self-concept and confidence, realistic self-appraisal, leadership, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity. The binary logistic regression indicates that age, being selected to university from Colombo district, residency in Western province, entering university from GCE A/L first attempt, obtaining a ‘Distinction’ for GCE A/L English subject, higher number of patient-oriented case discussions, positive self-concept and confidence, leadership qualities, preference of long range goals and academic familiarity all significantly increased the odds of
Manjula Madhuwanthi; Ashuboda Marasinghe; Shusaku Nomura
This study examines a model to evaluate the probability of choosing the mode of public transport with finding most significant aspects related to the characteristic of the journey, characteristic of the traveler and the personal behavior of the traveler. The study area was focused on eleven Divisional Secretariat Divisions of the Colombo Metropolitan Area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka. This area has the most economically advanced functions as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The cu...
This study is a sociological analysis of popular participation in local level development activities in Tegashena village in the Matara District, Sri Lanka. Social, economic, political and administrative factors that influence this process are identified.
The study discusses how the
Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong
The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 86 W·h·kg -1 at 150 W·kg -1 , and 48 W·h·kg -1 at a high-power density of 7.4 kW·kg -1 . This high-performance LIC based on PVG and GPC is believed to be promising for practical applications, due to its low-cost raw materials and industrially feasible production.
Wellapuli, Nimali; Ekanayake, Lilani
To determine the impact of chronic periodontitis on oral health-related quality of life in Sri Lankan adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,400 participants, 35-60 years of age, residing in the Colombo district of Sri Lanka. Data were collected using two interviewer-administered questionnaires and an oral examination. The prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts increased with the increase in severity of chronic periodontitis. The most commonly experienced impacts were within the domain of physical pain. The adjusted Poisson regression model indicated that chronic periodontitis was significantly associated with the prevalence of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 48% and 69% higher in those with moderate and severe periodontitis, respectively, compared with those with no/mild periodontitis. Oral health-related quality of life deteriorates with the increase in severity of chronic periodontitis. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana; Dissanayake, Devani Sakunthala; Abeywardena, Gihan Sajiwa
Even though the concept of burnout has been widely explored across the globe, the evidence base on burnout among high school students in the South Asian context is scanty. Against the backdrop of ever-increasing educational demands and expectations, the present study was designed to determine the prevalence and correlates of burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 872 grade thirteen students in 15 government schools in an educational zone, Kegalle district, Sri Lanka selected by a stratified cluster sampling technique. The validated Sinhala version of the 15-item Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) was used to assess burnout. The adjusted prevalence of burnout was computed based on the clinically validated cut-off values using the "exhaustion + 1" criterion. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between burnout and selected correlates identified at bivariate analysis at p value less than 0.05. The response rate was 91.3% (n = 796). The adjusted prevalence of burnout among grade thirteen students was 28.8% (95% CI = 25.0-32.7%). Multivariable analysis elicited a multitude of statistically significant associations with burnout when controlled for other factors included in the model (p burnout, whereas having to encounter disturbances while studying and being subjected to bullying at school emerged as statistically significant positive associations with burnout. The burnout prevalence among grade thirteen students in the selected educational zone, Sri Lanka is high. Most of the significant correlates of burnout are directly related to the academic endeavours. It is recommended to strengthen the counseling services at the school level to rectify the problems related to burnout among collegiate cycle students in Sri Lanka.
Pakkeer-Jaufar, Pakkeer Cadermohideen
This study sought to identify those organizational health factors that might have overriding influence on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. This study involved 752 students, 33 science teachers, and 10 principals from two different districts, Ampara and Colombo, in Sri Lanka. Ten Tamil medium, secondary level, public schools were selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using four types of instruments: a questionnaire for pupils; interview schedules for science teachers and principals; checklists for classroom/school facilities, science laboratory facilities, and science practicals; and a science achievement test. The analysis focused on the collective perceptions of students, science teachers, and principals. Regression and path analyses were used as major analysis techniques, and the qualitative data provided by science teachers and principals were considered for a crosschecking of the quantitative inferences. The researcher found teacher affiliation, academic emphasis, and instructional leadership of the principal, in descending order, were the overriding influential factors on the achievement level of students in science in Sri Lankan secondary schools. At the same time a similar descending order was found in their mean values and qualities. The researcher concluded that increasing the quality of the organizational health factors in Sri Lankan secondary schools would result in improved better achievement in science. The findings further indicate that instructional leadership of the principal had both direct and indirect effects on students' achievement in science when academic emphasis and teacher affiliation were taken into account. In addition, the resource support of the principal did not make any difference in students' science achievement and the findings stress the availability of the resources for individual students instead of assuming the general facilities of the school are available to all
Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.
Agampodi Thilini C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breastfeeding up to the completion of the sixth month of age is the national infant feeding recommendation for Sri Lanka. The objective of the present study was to collect data on exclusive breastfeeding up to six months and to describe the association between exclusive breastfeeding and selected socio-demographic factors. Methods A clinic based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka in June 2006. Mothers with infants aged 4 to 12 months, attending the 19 child welfare clinics in the area were included in the study. Infants with specific feeding problems (cleft lip and palate and primary lactose intolerance were excluded. Cluster sampling technique was used and consecutive infants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. A total of 219 mothers participated in the study. The statistical tests used were survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional Hazard model. Results All 219 mothers had initiated breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was four months (95% CI 3.75, 4.25. The rates of exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months were 61.6% (135/219 and 15.5% (24/155 respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that the Muslim ethnicity (p = 0.004, lower levels of parental education (p Conclusion The rate of breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding up to the fourth month is very high in Medical Officer of Health area, Beruwala, Sri Lanka. However exclusive breastfeeding up to six months is still low and the prevalence of inappropriate feeding practices is high.
Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia
Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.
Hareschandra Bandula Jayaneththi
Full Text Available An exotic catfish was recorded at Madampa Lake in Southwest coastal zone of Sri Lanka during an ichthyofaunal survey carried out from 1st of April 2009 to 20th August 2010. The species is identified as Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, which has been described as a potentially problematic species on native fishes in some neighbouring countries of the region. This species naturally occurs in the Mekong River in South-East Asia. The observation of P. hypophthalmus is a novel record in wild habitats of Sri Lanka, where its introduction is probably an accidental release from the ornamental fish trade, but no substantial information is detected as a proof of invasion or a naturalisation of the current population.
Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Hewage, Suwin; Lekamwattage, Manura; Athukorale, Manjula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Murray, Joanna; Prince, Martin
Abstract Background Approval of the research proposal by an ethical review committee from both sponsoring and host countries is a generally agreed requirement in externally sponsored research. However, capacity for ethics review is not universal. Aim of this study was to identify opinions and views of the members serving in ethical review and ethics committees in Sri Lanka on informed consent, essential components in the information leaflet and the consent form. Methods We obtained ethical ap...
Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael
OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the ...
Perera, E A Ramani; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T
Suicidal behaviour among youth is a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prevention of youth suicides using effective, feasible and culturally acceptable methods is invaluable in this regard, however research in this area is grossly lacking. This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of problem solving counselling as a therapeutic intervention in prevention of youth suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. This control trial study was based on hospital admissions with suicidal attempts in a sub-urban hospital in Sri Lanka. The study was carried out at Base Hospital Homagama. A sample of 124 was recruited using convenience sampling method and divided into two groups, experimental and control. Control group was offered routine care and experimental group received four sessions of problem solving counselling over one month. Outcome of both groups was measured, six months after the initial screening, using the visual analogue scale. Individualized outcome measures on problem solving counselling showed that problem solving ability among the subjects in the experimental group had improved after four counselling sessions and suicidal behaviour has been reduced. The results are statistically significant. This Study confirms that problem solving counselling is an effective therapeutic tool in management of youth suicidal behaviour in hospital setting in a developing country.
Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio
Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.
Sathiakumar Nalini; Wickremasinghe Ananda R; Nandasena Yatagama
Abstract Background Air pollution is increasingly documented as a threat to public health in most developing countries. Evaluation of current air quality levels, regulatory standards and scientific literature on outdoor and indoor air pollution, and health effects are important to identify the burden, develop and implement interventions and to fill knowledge gaps in Sri Lanka. Methods PUBMED and Medline databases, local journals and conference proceedings were searched for epidemiologic studi...
Desa, Maria Ana; Ismaiel, Mohammad; Suresh, Yenne; Krishna, Kolluru Sree
The ocean floor in the Bay of Bengal has evolved after the breakup of India from Antarctica since the Early Cretaceous. Recent geophysical investigations including updated satellite derived gravity map postulated two phases for the tectonic evolution of the Bay of Bengal, the first phase of spreading occurred in the NW-SE direction forming its Western Basin, while the second phase occurred in the N-S direction resulting in its Eastern Basin. Lack of magnetic data along the spreading direction in the Western Basin prompted us to acquire new magnetic data along four tracks (totaling ∼3000 km) to validate the previously identified magnetic anomaly picks. Comparison of the synthetic seafloor spreading model with the observed magnetic anomalies confirmed the presence of Mesozoic anomalies M12n to M0 in the Western Basin. Further, the model suggests that this spreading between India and Antarctica took place with half-spreading rates of 2.7-4.5 cm/yr. The trend of the fracture zones in the Western Basin with respect to that of the Southeastern Continental Margin of India (SCMI) suggests that SCMI is an oblique transform margin with 37° obliquity. Further, the SCMI consists of two oblique transform segments separated by a small rift segment. The strike-slip motion along the SCMI is bounded by the rift segments of the Northeastern Continental Margin of India and the southern margin of Sri Lanka. The margin configuration and fracture zones inferred in its conjugate Western Enderby Basin, East Antarctica helped in inferring three spreading corridors off the SCMI in the Western Basin of the Bay of Bengal. Detailed grid reconstruction models traced the oblique strike-slip motion off the SCMI since M12n time. The strike-slip motion along the short northern transform segment ended by M11n time. The longer transform segment, found east of Sri Lanka lost its obliquity and became a pure oceanic transform fault by M0 time. The eastward propagation of the Africa
... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission March 2, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will hold...
An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ΔZ/ΔH and ΔD/ΔH ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ΔZ/ΔH ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ΔZ/ΔH ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)
Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee
In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.
Key words: Anthropology, emic, environment, etic, gender, health, livelihoods, Muthurajawela, nature-conservation, survival strategies, Sri Lanka, wetland.The objective of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of how poor people living in a sensitive wetland ecosystem
Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry
Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This paper analyzes the interplay of policy dilemma in the areas of food security, agricultural subsidies, energy consumption, and the environment in the 'glocalization' process of Sri Lanka. It demonstrates that the domestic agricultural and food sector is intricately interconnected with the global economy and world market forces. While this paper gives a primary focus on domestic rice production and wheat import policies, it further examines the environmental consequences and public health issues that are associated with the process of 'glocalization' as part of globalization. This 'glocalization' has led to a series of intended and unintended externalities for Sri Lanka whose economic integration is irreversibly linked to agricultural and subsidy policies of other food exporting and producing countries of Asia and the United States. (author)
This paper examines the patterns of food consumption in Sri Lanka from 1985 to 2009 using the food disappearance data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Trends in per capita daily calorie, protein and fat supply have been examined. The study finds that grain food products are the main source of calories and protein, while fat-calories were mainly sourced from non-grain vegetable products and animal food products. Calories derived from protein were less than the recommended in...
Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D.
Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religi...
Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S
Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind.
Ponniah, G; Reardon, G
This article assesses the impact of technological changes on women's employment in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The findings of the research initiated by UN University Institute for New Technologies were used to determine how globalization and technological change alter women's role in the society and the economy in two comparable yet contrasting economies. In Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the manufacturing and service sectors have grown as a result of the globalization strategies of the two governments. The use of new technologies in work processes has been a function of the countries' participation in global trade, and high levels of foreign direct investment have been the source of much job creation. In both countries, a large proportion of the new industrial workforce consists of women. However, while creating new employment opportunities and improving pay and conditions for some women, jobs tend to be based on flexible, short-term forms of employment with serious health and safety risks. Furthermore, technological advancement like automation increases the number of unemployed "unskilled" workers. Lastly, these two countries seem unaware of the implications of new technology, which makes them vulnerable and weak participants in the global market. Therefore, awareness can be enhanced by a greater exposure to technology through work experience and good quality training.
This study focuses on the ways youth in the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora in Canada, Britain, and the United States construct their ethnic identity when proficiency in their heritage language is limited. Though these youth claim only rudimentary proficiency in Tamil and identify English as their dominant language, they are nonetheless able to claim…
Rossi, Elena; Radi, Orietta; De Lorenzi, Lisa; Vetro, Annalisa; Groppetti, Debora; Bigliardi, Enrico; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia; Rota, Ada; Camerino, Giovanna; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Parma, Pietro
Sexual development in mammals is based on a complicated and delicate network of genes and hormones that have to collaborate in a precise manner. The dark side of this pathway is represented by pathological conditions, wherein sexual development does not occur properly either in the XX and the XY background. Among them a conundrum is represented by the XX individuals with at least a partial testis differentiation even in absence of SRY. This particular condition is present in various mammals including the dog. Seven dogs characterized by XX karyotype, absence of SRY gene, and testicular tissue development were analysed by Array-CGH. In two cases the array-CGH analysis detected an interstitial heterozygous duplication of chromosome 9. The duplication contained the SOX9 coding region. In this work we provide for the first time a causative mutation for the XXSR condition in the dog. Moreover this report supports the idea that the dog represents a good animal model for the study of XXSR condition caused by abnormalities in the SOX9 locus.
Full Text Available Sexual development in mammals is based on a complicated and delicate network of genes and hormones that have to collaborate in a precise manner. The dark side of this pathway is represented by pathological conditions, wherein sexual development does not occur properly either in the XX and the XY background. Among them a conundrum is represented by the XX individuals with at least a partial testis differentiation even in absence of SRY. This particular condition is present in various mammals including the dog. Seven dogs characterized by XX karyotype, absence of SRY gene, and testicular tissue development were analysed by Array-CGH. In two cases the array-CGH analysis detected an interstitial heterozygous duplication of chromosome 9. The duplication contained the SOX9 coding region. In this work we provide for the first time a causative mutation for the XXSR condition in the dog. Moreover this report supports the idea that the dog represents a good animal model for the study of XXSR condition caused by abnormalities in the SOX9 locus.
Price, Benjamin Wills; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh
The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows.
Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.
Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to
Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S
Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments.
Full Text Available We conducted a bird survey in the Sabaragamuwa University premises in southeastern Sri Lanka between 2001 and 2004. We recorded 145 bird species, representing 17 orders and 51 families from the campus. The birdlife included Red-faced Malkoha, a globally Vulnerable species and four Near Threatened taxa. The university premises suffer from severe habitat alteration largely owing to fire, filling-up of aquatic habitats, resource over-extraction, improper waste management, invasion by exotic species and livestock grazing. Several conservation measures, including habitat management strategies such as restoration of riparian vegetation, and wetlands, increasing plant diversity in home gardens and prevention of secondary successions in grasslands are recommended to protect the campus environment and to conserve its avifaunal diversity.
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha; Siribaddana, Sisira; Vidanapathirana, Puwalani; Jayasekara, Buddhini; Weerawarna, Sulochana; Pannala, Gayani; Adikari, Anushka; Jayaweera, Kaushalya; Pieris, Sharika; Sumathipala, Athula
Nearly one-in-ten Sri Lankans are employed abroad as International migrant workers (IMW). Very little is known about the mental health of adult members in families left-behind. This study aimed to explore the impact of economic migration on mental health (common mental disorders) of left-behind families in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional survey using multistage sampling was conducted in six districts (representing 62% of outbound IMW population) of Sri Lanka. Spouses and non-spouse caregivers (those providing substantial care for children) from families of economic migrants were recruited. Adult mental health was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Demographic, socio-economic, migration-specific and health utilization information were gathered. A total of 410 IMW families were recruited (response rate: 95.1%). Both spouse and a non-spouse caregiver were recruited for 55 families with a total of 277 spouses and 188 caregivers included. Poor general health, current diagnosed illness and healthcare visit frequency was higher in the non-spouse caregiver group. Overall prevalence of common mental disorder (CMD; Depression, somatoform disorder, anxiety) was 20.7% (95%CI 16.9-24.3) with 14.4% (95%CI 10.3-18.6) among spouses and 29.8% (95%CI 23.2-36.4) among non-spouse caregivers. Prevalence of depression (25.5%; 95%CI 19.2-31.8) and somatoform disorder 11.7% (95%CI 7.0-16.3) was higher in non-spouse caregiver group. When adjusted for age and gender, non-returning IMW in family, primary education and low in-bound remittance frequency was associated with CMD for spouses while no education, poor general health and increased healthcare visits was significantly associated in the non-spouse caregiver group. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to explore specific mental health outcomes among adult left-behind family members of IMW through standardized diagnostic instruments in Sri Lanka and in South Asian region. Negative impact of economic migration is
Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Dengue Virus Transmission by Blood Stem Cell Donor after Travel to Sri Lanka; Germany, 2013. Created: 9/22/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 10/8/2014.
Dewmini Danushika Illeperuma, Thashika Rupasinghe
A demand forecasting methodology for a stationery company in Sri Lanka is being investigated. Different forecasting methods available are looked at including judgemental methods, quantitative methods and Artificial Intelligence methods. Importance of using a combination of methods available instead of using a single method is emphasised by the literature.
Kannathasan, Selvam; Murugananthan, Arumugam; Kumanan, Thirunavukarasu; de Silva, Nilanthi Renuka; Rajeshkannan, Nadarajah; Haque, Rashidul; Iddawela, Devika
Background Clinically diagnosed amoebic liver abscess (ALA) caused by Entamoeba histolytica has been an important public health problem in Jaffna district, northern Sri Lanka for last three decades. In order to draw up a control strategy for elimination of this condition, knowledge of its epidemiology and factors associated with this condition in the local context is vital. Methods All clinically diagnosed ALA patients admitted to the Teaching Hospital, Jaffna during the study period were inc...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... business meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: June 20...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... business meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: March 15...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... business meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: March 21...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: September 19, 2013...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... meeting are contained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this notice. DATES: December 14, 2012...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: December 12, 2013...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... business meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: September 20...
de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Samarasekara, Keshinie; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Rajapakse, Senaka
Migration of medical professionals is a long recognized problem in Sri Lanka, but it has not been studied in depth. Undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Sri Lanka is state sponsored, and loss of trained personnel is a loss of investment. This study assessed the intention to migrate among medical students and newly passed out graduates from the largest medical school in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo in September 2013 with the participation of first and fourth year medical students and pre-intern medical graduates. Data was collected using a self administered, pre-tested questionnaire that collected data on socio-demographic details, intention to migrate and factors influencing a decision for or against migration. There were 374 respondents, 162 from first year (females; 104, 64.2%), 159 from fourth year (females; 85, 53.5%) and 53 pre interns (females; 22, 41.5%). Of the entire sample, 89 (23.8%) had already decided to migrate while another 121 (32.3%) were not sure of their decision. The most cited reasons for migration were a perceived better quality of life, better earnings and more training opportunities in the host country. There were no socio-demographic characteristics that had a significant association with the intention to migrate, indicating that it is a highly individualized decision. The rate of intention to migrate in this sample is low when compared to international studies from Africa and South Asia, but is still significant. The core reasons which prompt doctors to migrate should be addressed by a multipronged approach to prevent brain drain.
Bandara, Ruwanthi; Medagama, Arjuna; Munasinghe, Ruwan; Dinamithra, Nandana; Subasinghe, Amila; Herath, Jayantha; Ratnayake, Mahesh; Imbulpitiya, Buddhini; Sulaiman, Ameena
Sri Lanka is a developing country with a high rate of cardiovascular mortality. It is still largely dependent on thrombolysis for primary management of acute myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to present current data on the presentation, management, and outcomes of acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at a tertiary-care hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty-one patients with acute STEMI presenting to a teaching hospital in Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, were included in this observational study. Median interval between symptom onset and hospital presentation was 60 min (mean 212 min). Thrombolysis was performed in 73% of patients. The most common single reason for not performing thrombolysis was delayed presentation. Median door-to-needle time was 64 min (mean, 98 min). Only 16.9% of patients received thrombolysis within 30 min, and none underwent primary PCI. Over 98% of patients received aspirin, clopidogrel, and a statin on admission. Intravenous and oral beta blockers were rarely used. Follow-up data were available for 93.8% of patients at 1 year. One-year mortality rate was 12.3%. Coronary intervention was performed in only 7.3% of patients post infarction. Late presentation to hospital remains a critical factor in thrombolysis of STEMI patients in Sri Lanka. Thrombolysis was not performed within 30 min of admission in the majority of patients. First-contact physicians should receive further training on effective thrombolysis, and there is an urgent need to explore the ways in which PCI and post-infarction interventions can be incorporated into treatment protocols.
Fernando, Mario; Caputi, Peter; Ashbury, Fred
This study examines the effects of 13 psychological and physical health conditions on work productivity. One hundred fifty-two staff at the headquarters of a Sri Lankan multinational firm completed a questionnaire asking whether they experienced 13 health conditions common in workplaces, and about their related absenteeism and presenteeism. Most respondents (85.5%) reported absenteeism, presenteeism, or both. Among those reporting a health condition, 57.6% reported losing days due to absenteeism, and 69.5% reported losing additional days to presenteeism. Among those caring for a sick adult or child, 57.3% reported losing days due to absenteeism, and 36.5% reported losing additional days due to presenteeism. Overall productivity loss was 10.43 days each year, 3.95% of employee capacity, equating to about Sri Lanka Rupees 8 million (US$54,421) for all headquarters employees. The health conditions' effects on productivity significantly increased employee costs.
political leadership , interparty alliances, and legislatures by which society constitutes itself politically to select and monitor democratic government... democratically elected civilian leadership .” Matei, “New Conceptualization,” 31. Young posits expertise, essential duties, responsibility, and corporateness as...CONFLICT RECONSTRUCTION: IMPLICATION FOR DEMOCRATIZATION IN SRI LANKA by Don Kapila Sarath Kumara Dolage December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Anshu
Worldwide private tutoring is documented extensively, but its impact is unclear. I estimate the impact of tutoring on performance to assess the degree to which tutoring is a vehicle of educational stratification in Sri Lanka. I find that on average, five months of tutoring has no impact on Year 5 students' exam scores. I produce suggestive…
Economic development has brought about, the decline in contribution of the agricultural sector to the economy of Sri Lanka, and, consistent with this economic transformation, the structure of employment also changed. Thus, as labor migrates away from agriculture, the productivity, for those who remain in the land, needs to increase significantly. This report examines the constraints to pro...
... SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on... meeting are contained in the Supplementary Information section of this notice. DATES: June 7, 2012, at 9...
27 mars 2013 ... Le vétérinaire et chercheur souligne que l'engagement grandissant du Sri Lanka à assurer un suivi de la santé de la faune met aussi en relief le principe plus général selon lequel, pour garantir notre propre bien-être, nous devons porter attention aux animaux du milieu environnant. Pour le Canada, cela ...
Bryja, Josef; Konečný, A.
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2003), s. 269-274 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1316; GA ČR GP206/02/P068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : sex identification * Sry gene * rodents Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2003 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/52/3/269-274.pdf
Iman F. Gaballah
Conclusion: The SRY gene detection method for sex determination is quick and simple, requiring only one PCR reaction. It corroborates the results obtained from anatomical measurements and further confirms the sex of the femur bone in question.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is recognized as a metabolic disorder largely seen in urbanized populations. The purpose of this study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD in a rural, physically active, economically deprived population in Sri Lanka. Methods By visiting individual households in the community, 35-64 year old adults resident in two selected estates in the Nuwara Eliya District of Sri Lanka, were invited to participate in the study. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were made on all participants. Blood samples were obtained for the assay of fasting glucose, serum lipids, serum insulin and alanine aminotransferase. NAFLD was diagnosed on established ultrasound criteria for fatty liver in the absence of hepatitis B and C markers and high alcohol consumption. Results Of those invited, 403 (65% participated in the study. Almost all participants were either Indian or Sri Lankan Tamils and 53% were females. Prevalence of NAFLD was 18% in this population. Twice as many males were diagnosed as having NAFLD compared to females. Male sex, high BMI, high waist circumference, high diastolic blood pressure and high plasma glucose levels were significant predictors of NAFLD. Conclusion Nearly one in five people in this predominantly Indian Tamil, rural, physically active, economically deprived population had NAFLD. The condition was associated with constituent features of the metabolic syndrome. These results support studies reporting ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and suggest that genetic factors may also play a role in determining disease risk.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The internet is a relatively new medium of disseminating health information. Studies on Internet usage for health information are mainly done in developed countries and very few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Methods The Internet usage of patients who were attending specialist clinics in Teaching Hospital Karapitiya and Southern Hospital in Galle, Sri Lanka was investigated. The study was carried out on the following specialities; General Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery and Cardiothoracic surgery. Information was collected using an investigator-administered questionnaire while patients were waiting for a consultation. Results Three hundred and fifty five patients (or guardians in the Pediatric clinic participated in the study. One hundred seventy two (48.3% participants have heard about the Internet. There was a relationship between awareness of the Internet and age, educational level and the clinic attended. There was no difference of awareness depending on the gender or the hospital. Only three participants (0.97% have used the Internet to find information about their disease conditions. Close relatives searched the Internet about the conditions of two participants. Altogether, the Internet was used to search information on the disease condition of five participants (1.4%. Conclusion Very low usage of the Internet for health information retrieval in this study is probably due to low awareness of the Internet and low educational level. This low usage of Internet and the associated reasons shown in this study can be generalized to Sri Lanka and probably to other low-income countries that have lower educational level than Sri Lanka.
Full Text Available University library administrators in Sri Lanka have begun to search for alternative ways to satisfy their clientele on the basis of service quality. This article aims at providing a theoretical model to facilitate the identification of service quality attributes and domains that may be used to predict customer satisfaction from a service quality perspective. The effectiveness of existing service quality models such as LibQUAL, SERVQUAL and SERVPREF have been questioned. In that regard, this study developed a theoretical model for academic libraries in Sri Lanka based on the disconfirmation and performance-only paradigms. These perspectives were considered by researchers to be the core mechanism to develop service quality/customer satisfaction models. The attributes and domain identification of service quality was carried out with a stratified sample of 263 participants selected from postgraduate and undergraduate students and academic staff members from the faculties of Arts in four universities in Sri Lanka. The study established that responsiveness, supportiveness, building environment, collection and access, furniture and facilities, technology, Web services and service delivery were quality domains which can be used to predict customer satisfaction. The theoretical model is unique in its domain structure compared to the existing models. The model needs to be statistically tested to make it valid and parsimonious.
Rajapakse, R P V J; Iwagami, M; Wickramasinghe, S; Walker, S M; Agatsuma, T
Bivitellobilharzia nairi was first recorded from an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus) in Berlin. Infections with this parasite have become increasingly important in E. maximus maximus populations in Sri Lanka. The present work is the first morphological description of this schistosome from Sri Lanka. A number of adult worms were recovered from a dead Asian elephant near the elephant orphanage, Pinnawala, in Sri Lanka. The observed clinical features of the infected elephant included emaciation, subventral oedema and anaemia. Post-mortem results indicated that the liver was enlarged and adult schistosomes were found in the blood vessels of the liver parenchyma. The total number of worms recovered from a portion of the liver was 129,870, which is an average of 22 worms per 100 g of liver. The present study uses both light microscopic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques for the morphological and topographical characterization of this parasite and to permit comparison with other species of schistosomes. Morphologically, these worms correspond very well to the description of B. nairi by Dutt & Srivastava (1955). Moreover, it is clear that B. nairi is a distinctive species easily differentiated from other schistosomes. The SEM study of the tegument of male worms shows that the surface of B. nairi is smoother than in other schistosomes.
Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.
We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.
Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.
Full Text Available Human capital is a paramount important part of todays business world. For any company to achieve its corporate strategies it is important to have motivated committed workforce within the company. Therefore keep employees satisfy is a necessity for any organization. Otherwise they may leave the company as there are lots of job opportunities remain in this modern business world. This study focus on how reward system of an organization impact on employee turnover intention. This study empirically evaluated five independent variables remuneration cash incentives work life balance supervisor support and employee recognition and their relationship to the turnover intention of non-executives in the logistics industry of Sri Lanka. The sample consists of 97 non-executive staff in the logistics industry of Sri Lanka. The data collection was done by using a self-administrated structured questionnaire. The results indicated that remuneration cash incentives work life balance supervisor support and employee recognition variables were negatively and significantly correlated with turnover intention. And those relationships were strong. Results of regressing the reward system on turnover intention showed that reward system is a powerful predictor of labour turnover in logistics industry of Sri Lanka. The research findings give evidence that better financial and non-financial rewards have strong impact on employee turnover intention. Therefore to reduce employees high intention to leave the company the management needs to develop well balanced reward system in both financial and non-financial aspects.
Sayanthooran, Saravanabavan; Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika N; Gunerathne, Lishanthe; Abeysekera, Tilak
In Sri Lanka, there exists chronic kidney disease of both known (CKD) and unknown etiologies (CKDu). Identification of novel biomarkers that are customized to the specific causative factors would lead to early diagnosis and clearer prognosis of the diseases. This study aimed to find genetic biomarkers in blood to distinguish and identify CKDu from CKD as well as healthy populations from CKDu endemic and non-endemic areas of Sri Lanka. The expression patterns of a selected panel of 12 potential genetic biomarkers were analyzed in blood using RT-qPCR. Fold changes of gene expressions in early and late stages of CKD and CKDu patients, and an apparently healthy population of a CKDu endemic area, Girandurukotte (GH) were calculated relative to apparently healthy volunteers from a CKDu non-endemic area, Kandy (KH) of Sri Lanka, using the comparative CT method. Significant differences were observed between KH and early stage CKDu for both the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1; p = 0.012) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM1; p = 0.003) genes, and KH and late stage CKD and CKDu for the glutathione-S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1; p CKDu (p CKDu, whereas these genes in addition with FN1, IGFBP3 and KLK1 could be used to monitor progression of CKDu. The regulation of these genes has to be studied on larger populations to validate their efficiency for further clinical use.
Mohammed Abdul, Khaja Shameem; Eakanayake, Eakanayake M. D. V.; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Jayasumana, Channa; Asanthi, Hewa Bandulage; Perera, Hettiarachigae S. D.; Chaminda, Gamage G. Tushara; Chandana, Ediriweera P. S.; Siribaddana, Sisira H.
Chronic Kidney Disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) is an emerging epidemic among farming communities in rural Sri Lanka. Victims do not exhibit common causative factors, however, histopathological studies revealed that CKDu is a tubulointerstitial disease. Urine albumin or albumin-creatinine ratio is still being used as a traditional diagnostic tool to identify CKDu, but accuracy and prevalence data generated are questionable. Urinary biomarkers have been used in similar nephropathy and are widely recognised for their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in determining CKDu and early renal injury. However, these biomarkers have never been used in diagnosing CKDu in Sri Lanka. Male farmers (n = 1734) were recruited from 4 regions in Sri Lanka i.e. Matara and Nuwara Eliya (farming locations with no CKDu prevalence) and two CKDu emerging locations from Hambantota District in Southern Sri Lanka; Angunakolapelessa (EL1) and Bandagiriya (EL2). Albuminuria (ACR ≥ 30mg/g); serum creatinine based estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); creatinine normalized urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured. Fourteen new CKDu cases (18%) from EL1 and nine CKDu cases (9%) from EL2 were recognized for the first time from EL1, EL2 locations, which were previously considered as non-endemic of the disease and associated with persistent albuminuria (ACR ≥ 30mg/g Cr). No CKDu cases were identified in non-endemic study locations in Matara (CM) and Nuwara Eliya (CN). Analysis of urinary biomarkers showed urinary KIM-1 and NGAL were significantly higher in new CKDu cases in EL1 and EL2. However, we also reported significantly higher KIM-1 and NGAL in apparently healthy farmers in EL 1 and EL 2 with comparison to both control groups. These observations may indicate possible early renal damage in absence of persistent albuminuria and potential capabilities of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL in early detection of renal injury
Pallagae Mangala C S De Silva
Full Text Available Chronic Kidney Disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu is an emerging epidemic among farming communities in rural Sri Lanka. Victims do not exhibit common causative factors, however, histopathological studies revealed that CKDu is a tubulointerstitial disease. Urine albumin or albumin-creatinine ratio is still being used as a traditional diagnostic tool to identify CKDu, but accuracy and prevalence data generated are questionable. Urinary biomarkers have been used in similar nephropathy and are widely recognised for their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in determining CKDu and early renal injury. However, these biomarkers have never been used in diagnosing CKDu in Sri Lanka. Male farmers (n = 1734 were recruited from 4 regions in Sri Lanka i.e. Matara and Nuwara Eliya (farming locations with no CKDu prevalence and two CKDu emerging locations from Hambantota District in Southern Sri Lanka; Angunakolapelessa (EL1 and Bandagiriya (EL2. Albuminuria (ACR ≥ 30mg/g; serum creatinine based estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; creatinine normalized urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL were measured. Fourteen new CKDu cases (18% from EL1 and nine CKDu cases (9% from EL2 were recognized for the first time from EL1, EL2 locations, which were previously considered as non-endemic of the disease and associated with persistent albuminuria (ACR ≥ 30mg/g Cr. No CKDu cases were identified in non-endemic study locations in Matara (CM and Nuwara Eliya (CN. Analysis of urinary biomarkers showed urinary KIM-1 and NGAL were significantly higher in new CKDu cases in EL1 and EL2. However, we also reported significantly higher KIM-1 and NGAL in apparently healthy farmers in EL 1 and EL 2 with comparison to both control groups. These observations may indicate possible early renal damage in absence of persistent albuminuria and potential capabilities of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL in early detection of renal