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Sample records for greyhound dogs electronic

  1. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

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    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A deletion in the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1 gene in Greyhounds with polyneuropathy.

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    Cord Drögemüller

    Full Text Available The polyneuropathy of juvenile Greyhound show dogs shows clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT disease in humans. The pedigrees containing affected dogs suggest monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance and all affected dogs trace back to a single male. Here, we studied the neuropathology of this disease and identified a candidate causative mutation. Peripheral nerve biopsies from affected dogs were examined using semi-thin histology, nerve fibre teasing and electron microscopy. A severe chronic progressive mixed polyneuropathy was observed. Seven affected and 17 related control dogs were genotyped on the 50k canine SNP chip. This allowed us to localize the causative mutation to a 19.5 Mb interval on chromosome 13 by homozygosity mapping. The NDRG1 gene is located within this interval and NDRG1 mutations have been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom in humans (CMT4D. Therefore, we considered NDRG1 a positional and functional candidate gene and performed mutation analysis in affected and control Greyhounds. A 10 bp deletion in canine NDRG1 exon 15 (c.1080_1089delTCGCCTGGAC was perfectly associated with the polyneuropathy phenotype of Greyhound show dogs. The deletion causes a frame shift (p.Arg361SerfsX60 which alters several amino acids before a stop codon is encountered. A reduced level of NDRG1 transcript could be detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis demonstrated an absence of NDRG1 protein in peripheral nerve biopsy of an affected Greyhound. We thus have identified a candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy in Greyhounds and identified the first genetically characterized canine CMT model which offers an opportunity to gain further insights into the pathobiology and therapy of human NDRG1 associated CMT disease. Selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate polyneuropathy from Greyhound show dogs.

  3. Influence of endurance and sprinting exercise on plasma adiponectin, leptin and irisin concentrations in racing Greyhounds and sled dogs.

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    Bell, M A; Levine, C B; Downey, R L; Griffitts, C; Mann, S; Frye, C W; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of both short-term anaerobic exercise and long-term aerobic exercise on leptin, adiponectin and irisin concentrations in both sprint and endurance canine athletes. Prospective field trial repeated measures. The 25 racing Greyhounds were run over 400 m, with blood samples collected prior to exercise and at 10 min and 120 min after exercise. The 16 sled dogs were run an average of 3.5-5 h/day on 5 out of 8 days of stage stop racing competition, with assessment on days 0, 2 and 8. Baseline leptin concentrations were found to be lower than previously recorded values of domestic dogs, possibly because of a lower body fat content in athletes, with concentrations in sled dogs being slightly higher than those in Greyhounds. Baseline adiponectin concentrations in both groups of dogs, on average, were lower than most previously recorded values in domestic dogs; although unexpected, these findings may be attributed to differences in body fat content of the study population. Endurance exercise in sled dogs resulted in a persistent decrease in leptin that appears to be independent of race-associated weight loss, with no appreciable changes in adiponectin or irisin concentrations. The anaerobic exercise of Greyhounds produced no detectable changes in leptin and adiponectin concentrations; however, a significant rise in irisin 10 min post-exercise may be a compensatory mechanism for restoration of ATP homeostasis in skeletal muscle. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Computed tomographic method for measurement of inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in German Shepherd Dogs and Greyhounds.

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    Saunders, Fritha C; Cave, Nick J; Hartman, Karl M; Gee, Erica K; Worth, Andrew J; Bridges, Janis P; Hartman, Angela C

    2013-09-01

    To develop an in vivo CT method to measure inclination angles and motion of the sacroiliac joints in dogs of performance breeds. 10 German Shepherd Dogs and 12 Greyhounds without signs of lumbosacral region pain or neurologic problems. CT of the ilium and sacrum was performed in flexed, neutral, and extended hind limb positions. Lines were drawn on volume-rendered images acquired in the flexed and extended positions to measure motion of the ilia relative to the sacra. Inclination angles of the synovial and ligamentous components of the sacroiliac joints were measured on transverse-plane CT images acquired at cranial and caudal locations. Coefficients of variance of measurements were calculated to determine intraobserver variability. Coefficients of variance of measurements ranged from 0.17% to 2.45%. A significantly higher amount of sacroiliac joint rotational motion was detected for German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. The cranial synovial joint component had a significantly more sagittal orientation in German Shepherd Dogs versus Greyhounds. No significant differences were detected between breeds for x- or y-axis translational motion or caudal synovial or ligamentous joint component inclination angles. The small amounts of sacroiliac joint motion detected in this study may buffer high-frequency vibrations during movement of dogs. Differences detected between breeds may be associated with the predisposition of German Shepherd Dogs to develop lumbosacral region signs of pain, although the biological importance of this finding was not determined. Future studies are warranted to compare sacroiliac joint variables between German Shepherd Dogs with and without lumbosacral region signs of pain.

  5. Influence of the Environment on Body Temperature of Racing Greyhounds.

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    McNicholl, Jane; Howarth, Gordon S; Hazel, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Heat strain is a potential risk factor for racing greyhounds in hot climates. However, there have been limited studies into the incidence of heat strain (when excess heat causes physiological or pathological effects) in racing greyhounds. The aim of this study was to determine if heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, and, if so, whether environmental factors (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) or dog-related factors (e.g., sex, bodyweight, color) are associated with the risk of heat strain. A total of 229 greyhounds were included in over 46 race meetings and seven different race venues in South Australia, Australia. Rectal temperatures of dogs were measured pre- and postrace and urine samples collected for analysis of myoglobinuria. Ambient temperature at race times ranged between 11.0 and 40.8°C and relative humidity ranged from 17 to 92%. There was a mean increase in greyhound rectal temperature of 2.1°C (range 1.1-3.1°C). A small but significant association was present between ambient temperature and increase in rectal temperature (r (2) = 0.033, P = 0.007). The mean ambient temperature at race time, of dogs with postrace rectal temperature of or exceeding 41.5°C, was significantly greater than at race time of dogs with a postrace rectal temperature ≤41.5°C (31.2 vs. 27.3°C, respectively, P = 0.004). When the ambient temperature reached 38(o)C, over one-third (39%) of dogs had a rectal temperature >41.5°C. Over half of postrace urine samples were positive by Dipstick reading for hemoglobin/myoglobin, and of 77 urine samples positive for Dipstick readings, 95% were positive for myoglobin. However, urinary myoglobin levels were not associated with ambient temperature or postrace rectal temperatures. The mean increase in rectal temperature was greater in dark (black, blue, brindle) than light (fawn and white) colored greyhounds. The results suggest heat strain occurs in racing greyhounds, evidenced by postrace rectal

  6. The disposition and behavioral effects of methadone in Greyhounds.

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    KuKanich, Butch; Borum, Stacy L

    2008-05-01

    To determine the behavioral effects and pharmacokinetics of methadone in healthy Greyhounds. Prospective experimental study. Three male and three female healthy Greyhounds. Methadone hydrochloride, 0.5 mg kg(-1) IV (equivalent to 0.45 mg kg(-1) methadone base), was administered as an IV bolus. Trained observers subjectively assessed the behavioral effects of methadone. Blood samples were obtained at predetermined time points and plasma methadone concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic variables were estimated with computer software. Methadone was well tolerated by the dogs with panting and defecation observed as adverse effects. Mild sedation was present, but no vomiting, excitement, or dysphoria was observed. The elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and plasma clearance were 1.53 +/- 0.18 hours, 7.79 +/- 1.87 L kg(-1), and 56.04 +/- 9.36 mL minute(-1) kg(-1), respectively. Methadone was well tolerated by Greyhounds. The volume of distribution was larger than expected, with resultant lower plasma concentrations than expected. Higher doses may need to be administered to Greyhounds in comparison with non-Greyhound dogs in order to achieve similar plasma drug concentrations. A dosage of 1-1.5 mg kg(-1) every 3-4 hours is suggested for future studies of analgesic efficacy of methadone in Greyhounds.

  7. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

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    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  8. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race.

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    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  9. The nutritional requirements of exercising dogs.

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    Hill, R C

    1998-12-01

    The nutrient requirements of canine athletes are unique. Dogs have a greater capacity for fat oxidation than humans both at rest and during exercise. In dogs undertaking endurance exercise, such as sled dogs, high fat (>50% of energy) diets increase stamina and maximize energy production, and high protein (>30% of energy) diets prevent training-induced anemia. Nutrient requirements differ, however, for sprint racing dogs, such as greyhounds. Greyhounds run faster when fed moderately increased dietary fat but run more slowly when dietary protein is increased. Sled dogs have similar energy requirements to other breeds at rest in a thermoneutral environment ( approximately 550W0.75 kJ/d where W is body weight in kg) but may require as much as 4200W0.75 kJ/d during a race. The energy requirement of greyhounds in training, however, is only approximately 600W0.75 kJ/d. There is little information, however, concerning the vitamin, mineral or other nutrient requirements of athletic dogs; most sled dogs and greyhounds are fed "homemade" recipes. These recipes usually include raw meat and represent a health risk. More studies are required to improve the health and performance of working and racing dogs.

  10. Multiple tooth resorption in an Italian Greyhound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, P.; Schawalder, P.; Stich, H.

    2011-01-01

    An Italian greyhound was presented three times during a two-year period for dental prophylaxis due to periodontal disease. Clinical examination revealed lesions on several teeth. Radiographs revealed extensive resorptive root lesions. On histological examination, the presence of odontoclasts and signs of boney remodeling of the roots confirmed the resorptive nature of the lesions. Given the extent of the lesions, and poor prognosis with conservative treatment alone, teeth affected by the most severe resorption were extracted at each visit using a flap technique combined with alveolar vestibular osteotomy. Dental resorptive lesions are rarely detected in the dog but may be more frequent than previously thought. The routine use of dental radiographs can be used to reveal these lesions in the dog

  11. Performance of Pugs, German Shepherds, and Greyhounds (Canis lupus familiaris) on an odor-discrimination task.

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    Hall, Nathaniel J; Glenn, Kelsey; Smith, David W; Wynne, Clive D L

    2015-08-01

    Public opinion and the scientific literature alike reflect a widespread assumption that there are differences in behavior between dog breeds. Direct empirical behavioral assessments of such differences, however, are rare and have produced mixed results. One area where breed differences are often assumed is olfaction, where German Shepherds, hounds, and Labradors are commonly used for odor-detection work, whereas toy breeds and brachycephalic dogs, such as Pugs, are not. Choice of breed for scent detection work, however, may be driven more by historical choices than data. In this article we directly assessed the ability of German Shepherds, Pugs, and Greyhounds to acquire a simple olfactory discrimination, and their ability to maintain performance when the target odorant was diluted. Our results show that contrary to expectations, Pugs significantly outperformed the German Shepherds in acquiring the odor discrimination and maintaining performance when the odorant concentration was decreased. Nine of 10 Greyhounds did not complete acquisition training because they failed a motivation criterion. These results indicate that Pugs outperformed German Shepherds in the dimensions of olfaction assessed. Greyhounds showed a general failure to participate. Overall, our results highlight the importance of direct behavioral measurement of assumed behavioral breed differences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Clinical Description of Metastatic Cutaneous Hemangiosarcoma (HSA in a Greyhound Dog: Clinical Case Study

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    Romy Marie Weinborn Astudillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangiosarcoma (HSA is a type of cancer that has different clinical presentations and therefore different effects, since, depending on each case, different treatment options will exist. While in the case of cutaneous HSA the first line of treatment is always surgical removal of the tumor, metastatic foci should be sought and then perform chemotherapy, despite them having a low metastatic potential. Moreover, the low survival that exists in this type of cancer is a factor that should be communicated to those responsible for the pets, so that, with all available information, they can make a free and informed choice about the treatment they want for their pet, considering the financial commitment, survival time and quality of life associated with chemotherapy. This article describes the clinical case of a female greyhound dog of eight years of age that was brought to consultation for a skin tumor on the right hind limb in the distal tibia. She was diagnosed with noninvasive cutaneous HSA through histopathology, reason why the owners chose not to do the chemotherapy; however, 10 months later she presented recurrent skin lesions and a popliteal lymph node corresponding to hemangiosarcoma and hemangioma respectively, and three weeks later the patient developed cardiac tamponade due to a cardiac mass with associated spill, which resulted in her euthanasia.

  13. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

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    S. Gur

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine adenovirus (CAV type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11, and Akbash dogs (n = 17 and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15 in Eskisehir and Konya provinces. None ofthe dogs were previously vaccinated against CAV types. Indirect ELISA detected 88.2 %, 93.3 % and 100 % prevalences in Akbash, Greyhound and Kangal dogs, respectively. The remainder of the samples (n = 51 were collected at the Afyonkarahisar Municipality Shelter. Fourty-two of these dogs (82.3 % were detected as seropositive. In total, 82 of 94 dogs (87.2 % were found to be positive for CAV serum antibodies.

  14. A review of official data obtained from dog control records generated by the dog control service of county cork, Ireland during 2007

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    2012-01-01

    Background There are no peer reviewed data on dog control records from an official agency in Ireland. In order to address this, a total of 2,669 official dog control service records generated during 2007 by Cork County Council dog control service were reviewed. Results Over 70 percent of records related to unwanted dogs and dogs not under their owners control. Stray dogs were collected by the service regularly throughout the year but with notable increase in voluntary surrenders by owners from January through to April. The majority of dogs collected or surrendered were male (2:1 ratio), of medium size, described as having a friendly temperament and were not wearing a neck collar. The Crossbreed and Greyhound breeds were more frequently collected as strays, while Greyhounds and German Shepherds were more frequently voluntarily surrendered by their owner. Restricted breeds such as Pit Bull terriers, German Shepherds and Rottweilers were more frequently reported by members of the public for aggressive behaviour while the only restricted breed reported for biting or snapping was the German Shepherd. Conclusions Routine recording of dog control services in County Cork provide data on responsible dog ownership including the licensing of breeds, and surrender of owned dogs and the collection of stray dogs. Data capture and utilisation of dog control services by local authorities has potential to inform policy on responsible dog ownership and education programmes. PMID:22681751

  15. Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens 1, 4, and 7 in Podenco Ibicenco (Ibizan Hounds) from Ibiza Island

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    Proverbio, Daniela; Viñals Flórez, Luis Miguel; Serra Gómez de la Serna, Blanca; del Rosario Perlado Chamizo, Maria; Baggiani, Luciana; Perego, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens (DEA) 1, 4, and 7 in Ibizan hounds, to compare the results with the prevalence of DEA in Spanish greyhounds, and to determine the risk of sensitization following the first transfusion of blood not typed for DEA 1 and the probability of an acute hemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion using untyped DEA 1 blood. DEA 1, 4, and 7 status was determined in 92 Ibizan hounds. Results were compared with the previously reported prevalence in Spanish greyhounds. The risks of sensitization and of a hemolytic transfusion reaction were determined amongst Ibizan hounds and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds. The prevalence of DEA 1, 4, and 7 was 75%, 98.9%, and 25%, respectively. There was a significantly higher expression of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in Spanish greyhounds. The probability of sensitization of a recipient dog to DEA 1 with transfusions amongst Ibizan hounds was 18.5% and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds was 13.7%. The probability of an acute hemolytic reaction in each group was 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively. There is a higher prevalence of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in other sighthounds. PMID:27034890

  16. Prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens 1, 4, and 7 in Podenco Ibicenco (Ibizan Hounds from Ibiza Island

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    Eva Spada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigens (DEA 1, 4, and 7 in Ibizan hounds, to compare the results with the prevalence of DEA in Spanish greyhounds, and to determine the risk of sensitization following the first transfusion of blood not typed for DEA 1 and the probability of an acute hemolytic reaction following a second incompatible transfusion using untyped DEA 1 blood. DEA 1, 4, and 7 status was determined in 92 Ibizan hounds. Results were compared with the previously reported prevalence in Spanish greyhounds. The risks of sensitization and of a hemolytic transfusion reaction were determined amongst Ibizan hounds and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds. The prevalence of DEA 1, 4, and 7 was 75%, 98.9%, and 25%, respectively. There was a significantly higher expression of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in Spanish greyhounds. The probability of sensitization of a recipient dog to DEA 1 with transfusions amongst Ibizan hounds was 18.5% and between Ibizan hounds and Spanish greyhounds was 13.7%. The probability of an acute hemolytic reaction in each group was 3.5% and 1.9%, respectively. There is a higher prevalence of DEA 1 and 7 in Ibizan hounds than in other sighthounds.

  17. Comparative functional anatomy of the epaxial musculature of dogs (Canis familiaris) bred for sprinting vs. fighting.

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    Webster, Emma L; Hudson, Penny E; Channon, Sarah B

    2014-09-01

    The axial musculoskeletal system of quadrupedal mammals is not currently well understood despite its functional importance in terms of facilitating postural stability and locomotion. Here we examined the detailed architecture of the muscles of the vertebral column of two breeds of dog, the Staffordshire bull terrier (SBT) and the racing greyhound, which have been selectively bred for physical combat and high speed sprint performance, respectively. Dissections of the epaxial musculature of nine racing greyhounds and six SBTs were carried out; muscle mass, length, and fascicle lengths were measured and used to calculate muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and to estimate maximum muscle potential for force, work and power production. The longissimus dorsi muscle was found to have a high propensity for force production in both breeds of dog; however, when considered in combination with the iliocostalis lumborum muscle it showed enhanced potential for production of power and facilitating spinal extension during galloping gaits. This was particularly the case in the greyhound, where the m. longissimus dorsi and the m. iliocostalis lumborum were estimated to have the potential to augment hindlimb muscle power by ca. 12%. Breed differences were found within various other muscles of the axial musculoskeletal system, particularly in the cranial cervical muscles and also the deep muscles of the thorax which insert on the ribs. These may also highlight key functional adaptations between the two breeds of dog, which have been selectively bred for particular purposes. Additionally, in both breeds of dog, we illustrate specialisation of muscle function by spinal region, with differences in both mass and PCSA found between muscles at varying levels of the axial musculoskeletal system, and between muscle functional groups. © 2014 Anatomical Society.

  18. High speed galloping in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris): spatio-temporal and kinetic characteristics.

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    Hudson, Penny E; Corr, Sandra A; Wilson, Alan M

    2012-07-15

    The cheetah and racing greyhound are of a similar size and gross morphology and yet the cheetah is able to achieve a far higher top speed. We compared the kinematics and kinetics of galloping in the cheetah and greyhound to investigate how the cheetah can attain such remarkable maximum speeds. This also presented an opportunity to investigate some of the potential limits to maximum running speed in quadrupeds, which remain poorly understood. By combining force plate and high speed video data of galloping cheetahs and greyhounds, we show how the cheetah uses a lower stride frequency/longer stride length than the greyhound at any given speed. In some trials, the cheetahs used swing times as low as those of the greyhounds (0.2 s) so the cheetah has scope to use higher stride frequencies (up to 4.0 Hz), which may contribute to it having a higher top speed that the greyhound. Weight distribution between the animal's limbs varied with increasing speed. At high speed, the hindlimbs support the majority of the animal's body weight, with the cheetah supporting 70% of its body weight on its hindlimbs at 18 m s(-1); however, the greyhound hindlimbs support just 62% of its body weight. Supporting a greater proportion of body weight on a particular limb is likely to reduce the risk of slipping during propulsive efforts. Our results demonstrate several features of galloping and highlight differences between the cheetah and greyhound that may account for the cheetah's faster maximum speeds.

  19. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

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    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  20. Structure of Greyhound hemoglobin: origin of high oxygen affinity.

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    Bhatt, Veer S; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Harris, David R; Couto, C Guillermo; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of Greyhound hemoglobin (GrHb) determined to 1.9 Å resolution. GrHb was found to crystallize with an α₁β₁ dimer in the asymmetric unit and belongs to the R2 state. Oxygen-affinity measurements combined with the fact that GrHb crystallizes in the R2 state despite the high-salt conditions used for crystallization strongly indicate that GrHb can serve as a model high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) for higher mammals, especially humans. Structural analysis of GrHb and its comparison with the R2-state of human Hb revealed several regions that can potentially contribute to the high oxygen affinity of GrHb and serve to rationalize the additional stability of the R2-state of GrHb. A previously well studied hydrophobic cluster of bar-headed goose Hb near α119 was also incorporated in the comparison between GrHb and human Hb. Finally, a structural comparison with generic dog Hb and maned wolf Hb was conducted, revealing that in contrast to GrHb these structures belong to the R state of Hb and raising the intriguing possibility of an additional allosteric factor co-purifying with GrHb that can modulate its quaternary structure.

  1. The metabolism of anabolic-androgenic steroids in the greyhound.

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    McKinney, Andrew R; Cawley, Adam T; Young, E Bruce; Kerwick, Carmel M; Cunnington, Karen; Stewart, Rhiannon T; Ambrus, Joseph I; Willis, Anthony C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2013-04-01

    Effective control of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) in animal sports is essential in order to ensure both animal welfare and integrity. In order to better police their use in Australian and New Zealand greyhound racing, thorough metabolic studies have been carried out on a range of registered human and veterinary AASs available in the region. Canine metabolic data are presented for the AASs boldenone, danazol, ethylestrenol, mesterolone, methandriol, nandrolone and norethandrolone. The principal Phase I metabolic processes observed were the reduction of A-ring unsaturations and/or 3-ketones with either 3α,5β- or 3β,5α-stereochemistry, the oxidation of secondary 17β-hydroxyl groups and 16α-hydroxylation. The Phase II β-glucuronylation of sterol metabolites was extensive. The presented data have enabled the effective analysis of AASs and their metabolites in competition greyhound urine samples.

  2. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookings, C.H.; Ramsey, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available. (orig.) [de

  3. Traumatic lung injury attributed to tornadic activity-induced barometric pressure changes in two dogs.

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    Cichocki, Brandy N; Dugat, Danielle R; Snider, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old castrated male Italian Greyhound (dog 1) and an approximately 1-year-old female Labrador Retriever (dog 2) were evaluated because of respiratory distress 8 and 10 days, respectively, after a tornado. CLINICAL FINDINGS No obvious external injuries were identified auscultation revealed decreased bronchovesicular sounds in the affected hemithorax of both dogs. Clinicopathologic changes were mild, with evidence of inflammation in both dogs. Thoracic radiography of both dogs revealed pneumothorax and pleural effusion with effacement of the diaphragm; findings on CT included severe pulmonary atelectasis of affected lung lobes with normal bronchial tree configurtion and no evidence of diaphragmatic hernia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory thoracotomy of both dogs confirmed CT findings Pulmonary parenchymal damage consistent with a large rupture was found in both patients. A large hematoma was adhered to the ruptured lung lobe of dog 1. Grossly affected lung tissue was removed; histologic examination revealed atelectasis, pulmonary fib osis, thrombosis, and minimal (dog 1) to marked (dog 2) inflammation Microbial culture of lung tissue yielded no growth for dog 1 and Streptococcus spp and Escherichia coli susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for dog 2. Dog 1 had a recurrence of pneumothorax treated by drainage with a thoracostomy tube 1 month after surgery. Eighteen months after surgery, both dogs were reportedly doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Development of clinical signs after a tornado, together with clinical, diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histologic findings led to a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary barotrauma for both dogs. Long-term outcome for these dogs, treated at a referral hospital, was good.

  4. Breed distribution of the nt230(del4) MDR1 mutation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramer, Irina; Leidolf, Regina; Döring, Barbara; Klintzsch, Stefanie; Krämer, Eva-Maria; Yalcin, Ebru; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim

    2011-07-01

    A 4-bp deletion mutation associated with multiple drug sensitivity exists in the canine multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene. This mutation has been detected in more than 10 purebred dog breeds as well as in mixed breed dogs. To evaluate the breed distribution of this mutation in Germany, 7378 dogs were screened, including 6999 purebred and 379 mixed breed dogs. The study included dog breeds that show close genetic relationship or share breeding history with one of the predisposed breeds but in which the occurrence of the MDR1 mutation has not been reported. The breeds comprised Bearded Collies, Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Greyhound, Belgian Tervuren, Kelpie, Borzoi, Australian Cattle Dog and the Irish Wolfhound. The MDR1 mutation was not detected is any of these breeds, although it was found as expected in the Collie, Longhaired Whippet, Shetland Sheepdog, Miniature Australian Shepherd, Australian Shepherd, Wäller, White Swiss Shepherd, Old English Sheepdog and Border Collie with varying allelic frequencies for the mutant MDR1 allele of 59%, 45%, 30%, 24%, 22%, 17%, 14%, 4% and 1%, respectively. Allelic frequencies of 8% and 2% were determined in herding breed mixes and unclassified mixed breeds, respectively. Because of its widespread breed distribution and occurrence in many mixed breed dogs, it is difficult for veterinarians and dog owners to recognise whether MDR1-related drug sensitivity is relevant for an individual animal. This study provides a comprehensive overview of all affected dog breeds and many dog breeds that are probably unaffected on the basis of ∼15,000 worldwide MDR1 genotyping data. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs. An assessment of efficacyd and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookings, C H [Saint George' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine; Ramsey, J D [Saint George' s Hospital Medical School, London (UK). Toxicology Lab.

    1975-11-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available.

  6. Genome-wide analyses implicate 33 loci in heritable dog osteosarcoma, including regulatory variants near CDKN2A/B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Canine osteosarcoma is clinically nearly identical to the human disease, but is common and highly heritable, making genetic dissection feasible. Results Through genome-wide association analyses in three breeds (greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish wolfhounds), we identify 33 inherited risk loci explaining 55% to 85% of phenotype variance in each breed. The greyhound locus exhibiting the strongest association, located 150 kilobases upstream of the genes CDKN2A/B, is also the most rearranged locus in canine osteosarcoma tumors. The top germline candidate variant is found at a >90% frequency in Rottweilers and Irish wolfhounds, and alters an evolutionarily constrained element that we show has strong enhancer activity in human osteosarcoma cells. In all three breeds, osteosarcoma-associated loci and regions of reduced heterozygosity are enriched for genes in pathways connected to bone differentiation and growth. Several pathways, including one of genes regulated by miR124, are also enriched for somatic copy-number changes in tumors. Conclusions Mapping a complex cancer in multiple dog breeds reveals a polygenic spectrum of germline risk factors pointing to specific pathways as drivers of disease. PMID:24330828

  7. 76 FR 16034 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Exemption Renewal for Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    .... (Greyhound) regarding the placement of video event recorders at the top of the windshields on its buses... passenger behavior; and (3) enhanced collision review and analysis. The Agency believes that granting this... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Luke W. Loy, Vehicle and Roadside Operations Division, Office of Bus and...

  8. Hematology and biochemistry of aging-evidence of "anemia of the elderly" in old dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Lauren B; Pannone, Stephen C; Truelove, Matthew P; Olver, Christine S; Santangelo, Kelly S

    2017-03-01

    Effects of aging on hematologic and biochemical variables are well described in people. Anemia of the elderly is attributed to iron deficiency, anemia of chronic disease, chronic kidney disease, myelodysplasia, or idiopathic causes. Limited studies have examined these variables in aging dogs, but they have typically examined single breeds in research settings. The objective of this study was to identify differences in CBC and biochemistry values between adult and aged dogs of many breeds. Dogs presenting for wellness examinations and minor dental/elective surgeries that were otherwise clinically healthy were retrospectively identified. Dogs were categorized by age: adult (1-7.9 years), senior (8-11.9 years), and geriatric (12+ years). Standard CBC and biochemistry data were collated. Asian breeds, Greyhounds, and dogs with data indicating overt underlying disease were excluded. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare groups with statistical significance set at P ≤ .05. Hematocrit, MCV, and serum iron decreased with age, indicating possible iron-restricted erythropoiesis (IRE), due to iron deficiency or low-grade chronic inflammation. Total proteins, globulins, and platelet counts increased with age while albumin decreased, suggesting low-grade inflammation. Urea was increased in older dogs without a concurrent increase in creatinine, which points toward gastrointestinal bleeding or dehydration. Clinically healthy, aging dogs have changes in laboratory variables that indicate altered physiologies compared to younger adult animals, including evidence of IRE, inflammation, and potential gastrointestinal bleeding, suggesting a similar trend to that of elderly human beings. Future studies will examine markers of iron metabolism and inflammation in aging dogs. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Total skin electron therapy as treatment for epitheliotropic lymphoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Domenico; Kubicek, Lyndsay; Lu, Bo; Craft, William; Conway, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is an uncommon cutaneous neoplasm in dogs. Treatment options are limited. Total skin electron therapy (TSET) has been suggested as a possible therapy for canine MF. To describe the use of TSET as palliative treatment for MF in a dog. An adult dog, previously diagnosed with nonepidermolytic ichthyosis, was presented with generalized erythroderma, alopecia and erosions. Histopathology revealed a densely cellular, well-demarcated, unencapsulated infiltrate extending from the epidermis to the mid-dermis compatible with MF. The infiltrate exhibited epitheliotropism multifocally for the epidermis, infundibula and adnexa. Due to a lack of response to chemotherapy, TSET was elected. Six megavoltage electrons were delivered using a 21EX Varian linear accelerator. A dose of 6 Gy was delivered to the skin surface and a 100 cm skin to surface distance was used for dog setup. The treatment time for the cranial half treatment was 3 h. The treatment was divided in two sessions (cranial and caudal halves of the body) 15 days apart. Clinical and histopathological complete remission was achieved and the dog was kept in remission with no additional treatments for 19 months before relapse and development of Sézary syndrome. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case reporting the use of TSET for medically refractory canine MF with post treatment follow-up. This case suggests that the use of TSET may be an effective palliative treatment for canine MF. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. 78 FR 17749 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Exemption Renewal for Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... placement of video event recorders at the top of the windshields on its buses. Greyhound may continue to use... driving behaviors such as distracted driving and drowsiness; (2) enhanced monitoring of passenger behavior..., Office of Bus and Truck Standards and Operations, MC-PSV, (202) 366-1225, Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and histologic examination of pulmonary microvasculature in dogs with dirofilariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2002-11-01

    To characterize structural changes in pulmonary vessels of dogs with dirofilariosis. 8 dogs with dirofilariosis and 2 unaffected control dogs. Pulmonary artery pressure was measured in affected dogs, and dogs then were euthanatized. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine vascular corrosion casts of pulmonary vasculature. Tissue sections of pulmonary vasculature were evaluated by use of histologic examination. Pulmonary artery pressure was higher in dogs with severely affected pulmonary vessels. In tissue sections, dilatation, as well as lesions in the tunica intima and proliferative lesions resulting in constriction or obstruction, were frequently observed in branches of the pulmonary artery. Numerous dilated bronchial arteries were observed around affected pulmonary arteries. Hyperplastic venous sphincters were observed in small pulmonary veins and venules. In corrosion casts, affected pulmonary lobar arteries had dilatation, pruning, abnormal tapering, constriction, and obstruction. In small arteries and arterioles, surface structures representing aneurisms and edema were seen. Bronchial arteries were well developed and extremely dilated, and they formed numerous anastomoses with pulmonary arteries at all levels, from the pulmonary trunk to peripheral vessels. Capillaries in the lungs were dilated with little structural change. Small pulmonary veins and venules had irregular annular constrictions that were caused by hyperplastic smooth muscle cells of venous sphincters. Scanning electron microscopy of microvascular casts delineated links between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations in dogs with dirofilariosis. Results of scanning electron microscopy provided a structural explanation for the development of pulmonary circulatory disturbances and pulmonary hypertension in dogs affected by dirofilariosis.

  12. Bilateral axillary skin fold flaps used for dorsal thoracic skin wound closure in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Nevill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old greyhound-cross dog was presented with a large, chronic skin wound extending over the interscapular region. The substantial skin defect was closed by making use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps. It was possible to elevate the 2 skin flaps sufficiently to allow them to meet at the dorsal midline and thus facilitate complete closure of a large and awkwardly positioned wound. Small dorsal areas of the skin flaps underwent necrosis, but the resulting defects were closed without difficulty in a subsequent procedure. To the author's knowledge, this is the 1st clinical report of the use of bilateral axillary skin fold flaps in this fashion and describes an additional use of a versatile skin flap procedure.

  13. Effect of sucralfate on oral minocycline absorption in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuKanich, K; KuKanich, B; Harris, A; Heinrich, E

    2014-10-01

    Sucralfate and minocycline may be administered concurrently to dogs. The relative bioavailability of tetracyclines may be reduced if administered with sucralfate, but studies confirming these interactions in dogs are not available. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of oral minocycline in dogs (M), determined the effects of concurrent administration of sucralfate and minocycline (MS) on minocycline pharmacokinetics, determined the effects of delaying sucralfate administration by 2 h (MS+2) on minocycline pharmacokinetics, and established dosing recommendations based on pharmacodynamic indices. Oral minocycline (300 mg) and sucralfate suspension (1 g) were administered to five greyhounds in a randomized crossover design. Minocycline plasma concentrations were evaluated using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The maximum plasma concentration (CMAX ) and area under the curve (AUC) of minocycline were 1.15 μg/mL and 8.0 h* μg/mL, respectively. The CMAX and AUC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the MS group (CMAX  = 0.33 μg/mL, AUC 3.0 h*μg/mL) compared with M or MS+2 (CMAX = 0.97 μg/mL, AUC 10.3 h*μg/mL). Delaying sucralfate by 2 h did not decrease oral minocycline absorption, but concurrent administration significantly decreased minocycline absorption. A dose of 7.5 mg/kg p.o. q12 h achieves the pharmacodynamic index for a bacterial minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.25 μg/mL (AUC:MIC≥33.9). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Towards an electronic dog nose: surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Takeshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-05

    This review describes an "electronic dog nose" based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor and an antigen-antibody interaction for security and safety. We have concentrated on developing appropriate sensor surfaces for the SPR sensor for practical use. The review covers different surface fabrications, which all include variations of a self-assembled monolayer containing oligo(ethylene glycol), dendrimer, and hydrophilic polymer. We have carried out detection of explosives using the sensor surfaces. For the SPR sensor to detect explosives, the vapor or particles of the target substances have to be dissolved in a liquid. Therefore, we also review the development of sampling processes for explosives, and a protocol for the measurement of explosives on the SPR sensor in the field. Additionally, sensing elements, which have the potential to be applied for the electronic dog nose, are described.

  15. Towards an Electronic Dog Nose: Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor for Security and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Onodera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes an “electronic dog nose” based on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor and an antigen–antibody interaction for security and safety. We have concentrated on developing appropriate sensor surfaces for the SPR sensor for practical use. The review covers different surface fabrications, which all include variations of a self-assembled monolayer containing oligo(ethylene glycol, dendrimer, and hydrophilic polymer. We have carried out detection of explosives using the sensor surfaces. For the SPR sensor to detect explosives, the vapor or particles of the target substances have to be dissolved in a liquid. Therefore, we also review the development of sampling processes for explosives, and a protocol for the measurement of explosives on the SPR sensor in the field. Additionally, sensing elements, which have the potential to be applied for the electronic dog nose, are described.

  16. Characterisation of the main drivers of intra- and inter- breed variability in the plasma metabolome of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Amanda J; Beckmann, Manfred; Tailliart, Kathleen; Brown, Wendy Y; Draper, John; Allaway, David

    Dog breeds are a consequence of artificial selection for specific attributes. These closed genetic populations have metabolic and physiological characteristics that may be revealed by metabolomic analysis. To identify and characterise the drivers of metabolic differences in the fasted plasma metabolome and then determine metabolites differentiating breeds. Fasted plasma samples were collected from dogs maintained under two environmental conditions (controlled and client-owned at home). The former (n = 33) consisted of three breeds (Labrador Retriever, Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Schnauzer) fed a single diet batch, the latter (n = 96), client-owned dogs consisted of 9 breeds (Beagle, Chihuahua, Cocker Spaniel, Dachshund, Golden Retriever, Greyhound, German Shepherd, Labrador Retriever and Maltese) consuming various diets under differing feeding regimens. Triplicate samples were taken from Beagle (n = 10) and Labrador Retriever (n = 9) over 3 months. Non-targeted metabolite fingerprinting was performed using flow infusion electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry which was coupled with multivariate data analysis. Metadata factors including age, gender, sexual status, weight, diet and breed were investigated. Breed differences were identified in the plasma metabolome of dogs housed in a controlled environment. Triplicate samples from two breeds identified intra-individual variability, yet breed separation was still observed. The main drivers of variance in dogs maintained in the home environment were associated with breed and gender. Furthermore, metabolite signals were identified that discriminated between Labrador Retriever and Cocker Spaniels in both environments. Metabolite fingerprinting of plasma samples can be used to investigate breed differences in client-owned dogs, despite added variance of diet, sexual status and environment.

  17. 21 CFR 520.531 - Cythioate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... of body weight every third day or twice a week. (2) Indications for use. Dogs, for control of fleas. (3) Limitations. For oral use in dogs only. Do not use in greyhounds or in animals that are pregnant...

  18. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  19. Differential genetic regulation of canine hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengkui Zhou

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine hip dysplasia (HD is a common polygenic trait characterized by hip malformation that results in osteoarthritis (OA. The condition in dogs is very similar to developmental dysplasia of the human hip which also leads to OA.A total of 721 dogs, including both an association and linkage population, were genotyped. The association population included 8 pure breeds (Labrador retriever, Greyhounds, German Shepherd, Newfoundland, Golden retriever, Rottweiler, Border Collie and Bernese Mountain Dog. The linkage population included Labrador retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crosses. Of these, 366 dogs were genotyped at ∼22,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP loci and a targeted screen across 8 chromosomes with ∼3,300 SNPs was performed on 551 dogs (196 dogs were common to both sets. A mixed linear model approach was used to perform an association study on this combined association and linkage population. The study identified 4 susceptibility SNPs associated with HD and 2 SNPs associated with hip OA.The identified SNPs included those near known genes (PTPRD, PARD3B, and COL15A1 reported to be associated with, or expressed in, OA in humans. This suggested that the canine model could provide a unique opportunity to identify genes underlying natural HD and hip OA, which are common and debilitating conditions in both dogs and humans.

  20. Fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tiffany L; Agnew, Dalen; Rissi, Daniel R

    2018-04-01

    A fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation in the distal femur of a 9-y-old spayed female Greyhound dog is described. Grossly, the tumor consisted of a pale-white, firm-to-hard mass that replaced the medullary and cortical areas of the distal end of the right femur. Histologically, the mass was composed predominantly of spindle cells admixed with areas of mineralized and non-mineralized osteoid matrix that were surrounded by stellate osteoblasts and scattered multinucleate giant cells, consistent with the diagnosis of a fibroblastic osteosarcoma. In addition, well-demarcated clusters of neoplastic epithelioid cells and foci of squamous differentiation with keratin pearls were present throughout the neoplasm. The spindle cells, epithelioid cells, and areas of squamous differentiation expressed cytoplasmic immunostaining for osteocalcin and osteonectin. The spindle cells and epithelioid cells were also immunopositive for vimentin. Epithelioid cells also expressed occasional cytoplasmic immunostaining for pancytokeratin (PCK) Lu-5, and areas of squamous differentiation were immunoreactive for PCK Lu-5 and high molecular weight CK; these areas were inconsistently immunoreactive for CK 5-6 and immunonegative for low molecular weight CK. Foci of squamous differentiation were not located within blood or lymphatic vessels, given that no immunoreactivity for factor VIII-related antigen was observed around these areas. A thorough autopsy and an evaluation of the medical history excluded a primary carcinoma or other neoplasm elsewhere in the dog. The findings were consistent with a diagnosis of fibroblastic osteosarcoma with epithelioid and squamous differentiation.

  1. Comparisons of Native and Chimeric Shiga Toxins Indicate that the Binding Subunit Dictates Degree of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    feed lot cattle have been undertaken, such as dietary management, competitive colonization with probiotics , and antibiotics; however, the results of...greyhound model was developed to study glomerular lesions, as the dogs are naturally susceptible to idiopathic cutaneous and renal glomerular

  2. A comparison of two surgical approaches to the scapulohumeral joint in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R; Roush, J K

    1995-01-01

    Two scapulohumeral arthrotomy techniques were evaluated and compared in 10 normal, young adult greyhounds. A caudolateral approach with craniodorsal retraction of the teres minor muscle (no-tenotomy) and a craniolateral approach with tenotomy of the infraspinatus tendon were each performed unilaterally in 5 dogs. The dogs were evaluated using force plate gait analysis, lameness evaluation, radiography, and goniometry for 5 weeks and then euthanatized. Tenotomy sites and sections of the humeral articular cartilage were collected from shoulder joints that had been operated on and examined microscopically. The same surgical approach has then performed on the contralateral shoulder in the cadavers and exposure of the humeral articular cartilage was measured using planimetry. Peak vertical force applied to the operated limbs in the tenotomy group was significantly less than preoperative leads on day 3 and significantly less than the no-tenotomy group on days 21 and 28. The peak vertical force applied to the operated limbs in the no-tenotomy group was not significantly different from preoperative levels during the study. Scapulohumeral arthrotomy by tenotomy of the infraspinatus resulted in decreased range-of-motion and joint extension compared with joints operated on without tenotomies, but provided significantly greater exposure to the articular surface. Scapulohumeral arthrotomy with craniodorsal retraction of the teres minor muscle did not significantly alter goniometric measurements compared with unoperated joints. Both techniques resulted in similar subjective lameness scores and caused no gross microscopic or radiographic evidence of articular cartilage damage.

  3. Calcaneal Fractures in Non-Racing Dogs and Cats: Complications, Outcome, and Associated Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Karen L; Adams, Robert J; Woods, Samantha; Bruce, Mieghan

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of complications and describe the outcome associated with calcaneal fractures in non-racing dogs and in cats. Retrospective multicenter clinical cohort study. Medical records of client-owned dogs and cats (2004-2013). Medical records were searched and 50 animals with calcaneal fractures were included for analysis. Complications were recorded and an outcome score applied to each fracture. Associations between putative risk factors and both major complications, and final outcome scores were explored. Complications occurred in 27/50 fractures (61%) including 23 major and 4 minor complications. At final follow-up, 4 animals (10%) were sound, 27 (64%) had either intermittent or consistent mild weight-bearing lameness, 7 (17%) had moderate weight-bearing lameness, and 1 (2%) had severe weight-bearing lameness. Fractures managed using plates and screws had a lower risk of complications than fractures managed using pin and tension band wire, lag or positional screws or a combination of these techniques (Relative risk 0.16, 95% CI 0.02-1.02, P=.052). Non-sighthounds had reduced odds of a poorer outcome score than sighthounds (Odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.50, P=.005) and fractures with major complications had 13 times the odds of a poorer outcome score (Odds ratio 13.4, 95% CI 3.6-59.5, Pdogs and in cats, and a poorer outcome score was more likely in animals with complications. A more guarded prognosis should be given to owners of non-racing dogs or cats with calcaneal fractures than previously applied to racing Greyhounds with calcaneal fractures. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Related Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Wilson; Mausbach, Lisa; Littman, Meryl P; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Brown, Cathy A

    2018-03-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recently has been recognized as a common cause of proteinuria in dogs in general, and in Miniature Schnauzer dogs in particular. This study describes the morphologic features present in the kidneys of 8 related proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The FSGS, characterized by solidification of portions of the capillary tuft, affected 32% to 49% of examined glomeruli in these dogs. Synechiae, often accompanied by hyalinosis, were present in 13% to 54% of glomeruli and were more prevalent in older dogs. Seven of 8 dogs had arteriolar hyalinosis. Ultrastructurally, all dogs had evidence of a podocytopathy in the absence of electron-dense deposits, glomerular basement membrane splitting, or fibrils. All dogs had multifocal to extensive podocyte foot process effacement. Other podocyte changes included microvillous transformation, the presence of vacuoles or protein resorption droplets, cytoplasmic electron-dense aggregates, and occasional binucleation. Variable amounts of intraglomerular lipid were present in all dogs. All dogs were proteinuric, with measured values for the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ranging from 1.2 to 6.5. Azotemia was mild to absent and dogs were euthanatized at 5.1 to 14 years of age, in all cases due to nonrenal diseases. The underlying cause of FSGS in these Miniature Schnauzer dogs has yet to be determined, but contributors likely include genetic podocytopathy, lipid abnormalities, and glomerular hypertension.

  5. Effect of Sucralfate on the Relative Bioavailability of Enrofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in Healthy Fed Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KuKanich, K; KuKanich, B; Guess, S; Heinrich, E

    2016-01-01

    Sucralfate impairs absorption of ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones in humans, but no sucralfate-fluoroquinolone interaction has been reported in dogs. Veterinary formularies recommend avoiding concurrent administration of these medications, which might impact compliance, therapeutic success, and resistance selection from fluoroquinolones. To determine whether a drug interaction exists when sucralfate is administered to fed dogs concurrently with ciprofloxacin or enrofloxacin, and whether a 2 hour delay between fluoroquinolone and sucralfate affects fluoroquinolone absorption. Five healthy Greyhounds housed in a research colony. This was a randomized crossover study. Treatments included oral ciprofloxacin (C) or oral enrofloxacin (E) alone, each fluoroquinolone concurrently with an oral suspension of sucralfate (CS, ES), and sucralfate suspension 2 hours after each fluoroquinolone (C2S, E2S). Fluoroquinolone concentrations were evaluated using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Drug exposure of ciprofloxacin was highly variable (AUC 5.52-22.47 h μg/mL) compared to enrofloxacin (AUC 3.86-7.50 h μg/mL). The mean relative bioavailability for ciprofloxacin and concurrent sucralfate was 48% (range 8-143%) compared to ciprofloxacin alone. Relative bioavailability of ciprofloxacin improved to 87% (range 37-333%) when sucralfate was delayed by 2 hours. By contrast, relative bioavailability for enrofloxacin and concurrent sucralfate was 104% (94-115%). A possible clinically relevant drug interaction for the relative bioavailability of ciprofloxacin with sucralfate was found. No significant difference in bioavailability was documented for enrofloxacin with sucralfate. Further research is warranted in fasted dogs and clinical cases requiring enrofloxacin or other approved fluoroquinolones in combination with sucralfate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of the American

  6. Demographics of dogs, cats, and rabbits attending veterinary practices in Great Britain as recorded in their electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Noble, Peter-John M; Jones, Phil H; Menacere, Tarek; Buchan, Iain; Reynolds, Suzanna; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Everitt, Sally; Radford, Alan D

    2017-07-11

    Understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in animal populations must be underpinned by knowledge of animal demographics. For companion animals, these data have been difficult to collect because of the distributed nature of the companion animal veterinary industry. Here we describe key demographic features of a large veterinary-visiting pet population in Great Britain as recorded in electronic health records, and explore the association between a range of animal's characteristics and socioeconomic factors. Electronic health records were captured by the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), from 143 practices (329 sites) in Great Britain. Mixed logistic regression models were used to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and species and breed ownership, and preventative health care interventions. Dogs made up 64.8% of the veterinary-visiting population, with cats, rabbits and other species making up 30.3, 2.0 and 1.6% respectively. Compared to cats, dogs and rabbits were more likely to be purebred and younger. Neutering was more common in cats (77.0%) compared to dogs (57.1%) and rabbits (45.8%). The insurance and microchipping relative frequency was highest in dogs (27.9 and 53.1%, respectively). Dogs in the veterinary-visiting population belonging to owners living in least-deprived areas of Great Britain were more likely to be purebred, neutered, insured and microchipped. The same association was found for cats in England and for certain parameters in Wales and Scotland. The differences we observed within these populations are likely to impact on the clinical diseases observed within individual veterinary practices that care for them. Based on this descriptive study, there is an indication that the population structures of companion animals co-vary with human and environmental factors such as the predicted socioeconomic level linked to the owner's address. This 'co-demographic' information suggests that further

  7. Circovirus in tissues of dogs with vasculitis and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; McGraw, Sabrina; Zhu, Kevin; Leutenegger, Christian M; Marks, Stanley L; Kubiski, Steven; Gaffney, Patricia; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Wang, Chunlin; Delwart, Eric; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2013-04-01

    We characterized the complete genome of a novel dog circovirus (DogCV) from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, vasculitis, and granulomatous lymphadenitis. DogCV was detected by PCR in fecal samples from 19/168 (11.3%) dogs with diarrhea and 14/204 (6.9%) healthy dogs and in blood from 19/409 (3.3%) of dogs with thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, fever of unknown origin, or past tick bite. Co-infection with other canine pathogens was detected for 13/19 (68%) DogCV-positive dogs with diarrhea. DogCV capsid proteins from different dogs varied by up to 8%. In situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy detected DogCV in the lymph nodes and spleens of 4 dogs with vascular compromise and histiocytic inflammation. The detection of a circovirus in tissues of dogs expands the known tropism of these viruses to a second mammalian host. Our results indicate that circovirus, alone or in co-infection with other pathogens, might contribute to illness and death in dogs.

  8. Craniomandibular osteopathy in two Pyrenean mountain dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franch, J.; Cesari, J.R.; Font, J.

    1998-01-01

    Craniomandibular osteopathy was diagnosed in two Pyrenean mountain dogs with a history of mandibular swelling, pain, fever and, in dog 1, lameness. Radiographs demonstrated extensive, active new bone formation on the ventral aspect of the mandibular bodies of both dogs. Dog 2 responded well to treatment but dog 1 was euthanased owing to severe pain, dysphagia and unsuccessful treatment. The mandibles were examined by means of back-scattered scanning electron microscopy and a well arranged mineralised trabecular network of chondroid tissue and woven bone was observed. The mandibular cortical bone under the areas of periosteal proliferation was also affected, showing a looseness of the characteristic compact appearance of lamellar bone. This is the first report of craniomandibular osteopathy in this breed

  9. Evolution of canine and equine influenza (H3N8) viruses co-circulating between 2005 and 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivailler, Pierre; Perry, Ijeoma A.; Jang Yunho; Davis, C. Todd; Chen Limei; Dubovi, Edward J.; Donis, Ruben O.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza virus, subtype H3N8, was transmitted from horses to greyhound dogs in 2004 and subsequently spread to pet dog populations. The co-circulation of H3N8 viruses in dogs and horses makes bi-directional virus transmission between these animal species possible. To understand the dynamics of viral transmission, we performed virologic surveillance in dogs and horses between 2005 and 2008 in the United States. The genomes of influenza A H3N8 viruses isolated from 36 dogs and horses were sequenced to determine their origin and evolution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that H3N8 influenza viruses from horses and dogs were monophyletic and distinct. There was no evidence of canine influenza virus infection in horses with respiratory disease or new introductions of equine influenza viruses into dogs in the United States. Analysis of a limited number of equine influenza viruses suggested substantial separation in the transmission of viruses causing clinically apparent influenza in dogs and horses.

  10. Genetic analysis of possibly the oldest greyhound remains within the territory of the Czech Republic as a proof of a local elite presence at Chotěbuz-Podobora hillfort in the 8th–9th century AD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, H.; Bartoš, M.; Nývltová Fišáková, Miriam; Kouřil, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, 1-2 (2015), s. 17-24 ISSN 0036-5343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : greyhound * mtDNA * Control region * Great Moravia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  11. Functional anatomy of the footpad vasculature of dogs: scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Akiyama, Emi; Simazaki, Kanae; Oguri, Atsuko; Jitsumoto, Momoko; Fukuyama, Takaaki

    2011-12-01

    Dogs are well adapted to cold climates and they can stand, walk and run on snow and ice for long periods of time. In contrast to the body trunk, which has, dense fur, the paws are more exposed to the cold due to the lack of fur insulation. The extremities have a high surface area-to-volume ratio, so they lose heat very easily. We offer anatomical evidence for a heat-conserving structure associated with dog footpad vasculature. Methylmethacrylate vascular corrosion casts for scanning electron microscopy, Indian ink-injected whole-mount and histological specimens were each prepared, in a series of 16 limbs from four adult dogs. Vascular casts and Indian ink studies showed that abundant venules were arranged around the arteries supplying the pad surface and formed a vein-artery-vein triad, with the peri-arterial venous network intimately related to the arteries. In addition, numerous arteriovenous anastomoses and well-developed venous plexuses were found throughout the dermal vasculature. The triad forms a counter-current heat exchanger. When the footpad is exposed to a cold environment, the counter-current heat exchanger serves to prevent heat loss by recirculating heat back to the body core. Furthermore, the arteriovenous anastomoses shift blood flow, draining blood to the skin surface, and the venous plexuses retain warm blood in the pad surface. Hence, the appropriate temperature for the footpad can be maintained in cold environments. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. [Genetic analysis and estimation of genetic diversity in east-European breeds of swift hounds (Canis familiaris L.) based on the data of genomic studies using RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, S K; Illarionova, N A; Vasil'ev, V A; Shubkina, A V; Ryskov, A P

    2002-06-01

    The method of polymerase chain reaction with a set of arbitrary primers (RAPD-PCR) was used to describe genetic variation and to estimate genetic diversity in East-European swift hounds, Russian Psovyi and Hortyi Borzois. For comparison, swift hounds of two West-European breeds (Whippet and Greyhound) and single dogs of other breed groups (shepherd, terriers, mastiffs, and bird dogs) were examined. For all dog groups, their closest related species, the wolf Canis lupus, was used as an outgroup. Variation of RAPD markers was studied at several hierarchic levels: intra- and interfamily (for individual families of Russian Psovyi and Hortyi Borzois), intra- and interbreed (for ten dog breeds), and interspecific (C. familiaris-C. lupus). In total, 57 dogs and 4 wolfs were studied. Using RAPD-PCR with three primers, 93 DNA fragments with a length of 150-1500 bp were detected in several Borzoi families with known filiation. These fragments were found to be inherited as dominant markers and to be applicable for estimation of genetic differences between parents and their offspring and for comparison of individuals and families with different level of inbreeding. A high level of intra- and interbreed variation was found in Russian Psovyi and Hortyi Borzois. In these dog groups, genetic similarity indices varied in a range of 72.2 to 93.4% (parents-offspring) and 68.0 to 94.5 (sibs). Based on the patterns of RAPD markers obtained using six primers, a dendrogram of genetic similarity between the wolf and different dog breeds was constructed, and indices of intragroup diversity were calculated. All studied breeds were found to fall into two clusters, swift hounds (Borzoi-like dogs) and other dogs. Russian Borzois represent a very heterogeneous group, in which the Russian Psovyi Borzoi is closer to Greyhound than the Russian Hortyi Borzoi. All studied wolfs constituted a separate cluster. Significant differences were found between the wolf and dogs by the number of RAPD markers

  13. Systemic nocardiosis in a dog caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroksuz, Yesari; Gursoy, Nafia Canan; Karapinar, Tolga; Karabulut, Burak; Incili, Canan Akdeniz; Yerlikaya, Zeynep; Toraman, Zulal Asci; Timurkan, Mehmet Ozkan; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2017-01-21

    Systemic nocardiosis due to Nocardia cyriacigeorgica has not been reported in dogs. Light and electron microscopy, microbiological culture and molecular identification (PCR) were used to diagnose systemic nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a 3-month-old husky dog. The postmortem changes included multifocal to coalescing, sharply circumscribed pyogranulomatous inflammation and abscess formation in lungs, liver, myocardium, spleen, kidneys, brain, and hilar lymph nodes. The organism was isolated and sequencing of its 16S rRNA allowed its identification and speciation. Examination of the bacterial culture by scanning electron-microscope showed filamentous branching with fragmentation into widely bacillary and cocoid forms of the bacteria. There was no history of immunosupressive drug administration and infection by the immunosuppresive viral pathogens, canine distemper and parvovirus were excluded via PCR. N. cyriacigeorgica should be considered potential cause of systemic pyogranulomatous lesions in dogs. It is the first reported case of systemic nocardiosis due to N. cyriacigeorgica in a dog.

  14. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shih-Hung, E-mail: ncku309@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Kozak, Philip J., E-mail: philj@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Kim, Jessica, E-mail: jesskim820@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges, E-mail: georgesh@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Meade, Charles, E-mail: cmeade@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita, E-mail: anitag@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Patel, Reema, E-mail: rtpatel@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 315 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Robertson, Erle, E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, and Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Tumor Virology Program, University of Pennsylvania, 202A Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6076 (United States); and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  15. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle

    2012-01-01

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein–Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  16. [Electron microscopic detection rate of enteral viruses in diarrhea of dogs, cats, calves, swine and foals in the year 1988--electron microscopic study results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, U; Herbst, W; Krauss, H; Schliesser, T

    1989-12-01

    During 1988 fecal and gut samples of 641 dogs, 198 cats, 576 calves, 108 piglets and 64 foals with diarrhoea were investigated for virus infections by electron microscopy. In samples of dogs and cats parvovirus was detected at a proportion of 21.9% and 16.7%, respectively; rotavirus alone or together with coronavirus was found only in 0.3-1.5% of the specimens. In samples of calves rotavirus, as well as coronavirus dominated with a detection rate amounting to 17.4% and 26.6% respectively (including 4.5% of mixed infections); parvovirus was present in a ratio of 0.5%. Specimens of piglets mainly contained coronavirus (25.0%), and in lower percentages rotavirus (2.8%), rota- and coronaviruses (0.9%) and parvovirus (0.9%). In feces of foals rotavirus was detected in 6.3% and particles resembling picornavirus in 4.7% of cases. Not identifiable virus particles resembling corona-or picornaviruses were rarely found (between 0.6-2.5) also in specimens of the other animal species.

  17. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-03-01

    One hundred and thirty-one bronchial samples from 62 patients have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. Complete patient records including occupational and smoking histories, as well as possible exposure to radon, are obtained. In addition, one hundred and sixty-two mongol dog bronchi dissected from different lobes of 23 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. Ninety-four human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 532 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 240 micrographs of dog epithelium from 31 bronchial samples have been entered into COSAS. We have, using the COSAS planimetry program, established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. The data are being used to develop weighting factors for dosimetry and radon risk analysis. 26 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Public Perceptions of Service Dogs, Emotional Support Dogs, and Therapy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Hellyer, Peter; Cheung, Louana; Kogan, Lori

    2017-06-15

    As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media's focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.

  19. Isoniazid toxicosis in dogs: 137 cases (2004-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Dustin R; Lee, Justine A; Wismer, Tina A; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Murtaugh, Robert J

    2017-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To establish the minimum toxic dose of isoniazid in dogs, characterize the clinical signs and outcomes for dogs following isoniazid ingestion, and determine whether IV administration of pyridoxine to dogs with isoniazid toxicosis is protective against death. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 137 dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. PROCEDURES The electronic database of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center was reviewed from January 2004 through December 2014 to identify dogs with isoniazid toxicosis. For each dog identified, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, estimated dose of isoniazid ingested, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome. Follow-up communication with pet owners or primary care veterinarians was performed when necessary to obtain missing information. RESULTS Clinical signs of isoniazid toxicosis were observed in 134 of 137 (98%) dogs and included seizures (n = 104), CNS signs without seizures (94), and gastrointestinal (41), cardiovascular (19), urogenital (4), and respiratory (1) abnormalities. Of the 87 dogs for which the outcome was available, 61 survived, 18 died, and 8 were euthanized. Probability of survival was positively associated with body weight and IV administration of pyridoxine and negatively associated with dose of isoniazid ingested and presence of seizures. Dogs that received pyridoxine IV were 29 times as likely to survive as dogs that did not receive pyridoxine IV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated rapid diagnosis of isoniazid toxicosis and prompt treatment of affected dogs with pyridoxine and other supportive care were imperative for achieving a successful outcome.

  20. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  1. Injuries to Cyclists due to a Dog-Bicycle Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Randall T; Yaacoub, Alan P

    2018-05-01

     Both dogs and bicycles are common in our society and thus a dog-bicycle interaction resulting in an injury to a cyclist is possible. It was the purpose of this study to investigate such injuries.  The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data for the 10-year period from 2006 through 2015 associated with bicycles were accessed. Injuries involving dogs were identified and the mechanism of injury determined. Due to the stratified and weighted nature of the NEISS data, statistical analyses were performed with SUDAAN 10 software (RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States). A p  dogs were involved in 35,254 (0.67%) cases. The average age for those involved with a dog was 33.2 years and it was 25.5 years for those in which dogs were not involved. There were more females in the dog group (34.1 vs. 27.6%). Dog involvement increased from ages 0 to 14 years, then decreased until the age of 20 years and then progressively increased. Dog-associated injuries most frequently occurred away from home, involved the knee and distal lower extremity, 49.1% sustaining dog bites. Dog bites were more common in younger individuals. Four injury mechanisms (chased by a dog, hit/collided with a dog, swerved/tried to avoid a dog or riding with a dog) accounted for 97.5% of the injuries. Those chased by a dog were younger, more commonly released from the emergency department, had an injury involving the lower extremity and frequently sustained a bite. The most severe injuries were in those who swerved/tried to avoid a dog or hit a dog.  Approximately 1% of injuries to bicyclists are associated with dogs; one-half sustained a bite. Potential/proposed prevention strategies could be educational materials regarding bicycles and dogs to owners, dog restraint, student/parent education and educational materials in waiting rooms of veterinarians, paediatricians, family practice physicians and emergency rooms. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Effects of intraoperative electron irradiation in the dog on cell turnover in intact and surgically-anastomosed aorta and intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Morrow, B.M.; Travis, E.L.; Tepper, J.; Merkel, A.B.; Kranda, K.; Terrill, R.

    1983-01-01

    Adults dogs were subjected to laparotomy and intraoperative electron irradiation after division and reanastomosis of aorta or after construction of a blind loop of small intestine having a transverse suture line and an end-to-side anastomosis. Dogs received intraoperative irradiation of both intact and anastomosed aorta or intestine in doses of 0, 2000, 3000, or 4500 rad. Animals were sacrificed at seven days or three months following treatment. At 24 hours prior to sacrifice, dogs received 5 mCi tritiated thymidine intravenously. Irradiated and non-irradiated segments of aorta and small intestine, including intact and anastomotic regions, were analyzed for tritiated thymidine incorporation and were subjected to autoradiography. Incorporation studies showed diminution in tritiated thymidine uptake by irradiated portions of aorta and small intestine, in both intact and anastomotic regions. Autoradiograms revealed that irradiated areas of intact or anastomotic aorta or intestine had diminished labeling of stromal cells, suggesting a lowered cell proliferative capacity of irradiated tissue compared to non-irradiated portions. Inflammatory cells showed similar labeling indices in irradiated and non-irradiated tissues, both intact and surgically-manipulated, suggesting that irradiation does not significantly affect a subsequent local inflammatory response. Radiation-induced decreases in tritiated thymidine incoporation in irradiated aorta and small intestine were generally more marked at seven days than at three months following irradiation, suggesting that radiation-induced depression of cell turnover rates decreases with time

  4. Canine intrahepatic vasculature: is a functional anatomic model relevant to the dog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jon L; Mannion, Paddy; Ladlow, Jane F

    2015-01-01

    To clarify canine intrahepatic portal and hepatic venous system anatomy using corrosion casting and advanced imaging and to devise a novel functional anatomic model of the canine liver to investigate whether this could help guide the planning and surgical procedure of partial hepatic lobectomy and interventional radiological procedures. Prospective experimental study. Adult Greyhound cadavers (n = 8). Portal and hepatic vein corrosion casts of healthy livers were assessed using computed tomography (CT). The hepatic lobes have a consistent hilar hepatic and portal vein supply with some variation in the number of intrahepatic branches. For all specimens, 3 surgically resectable areas were identified in the left lateral lobe and 2 surgically resectable areas were identified in the right medial lobe as defined by a functional anatomic model. CT of detailed acrylic casts allowed complex intrahepatic vascular relationships to be investigated and compared with previous studies. Improving understanding of the intrahepatic vascular supply facilitates interpretation of advanced images in clinical patients, the planning and performance of surgical procedures, and may facilitate interventional vascular procedures, such as intravenous embolization of portosystemic shunts. Functional division of the canine liver similar to human models is possible. The left lateral and right medial lobes can be consistently divided into surgically resectable functional areas and partial lobectomies can be performed following a functional model; further study in clinically affected animals would be required to investigate the relevance of this functional model in the dog. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Construction of a dog training device with high frequency and high power pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud Trejos, Rafael Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is built to produce high frequency and high power sound. The device is used in training and control of dogs. Commercial ultrasonic devices used for dog training are analyzed. The best strategies and components of the design are determined from an electronic device to produce sounds in frequency from 15kHz to 50Khz. Effectiveness tests are performed to establish the adequate design of the ultrasonic electronic device. The test results are analyzed to find opportunities of improvement in the design or construction of the device [es

  6. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  7. Immotile cilia syndrome in an aged dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingsworth, C.R.; Slocombe, R.F.; Wilsman, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    An 11-year-old Dalmatian was examined and treated for bilateral nasal discharge and cough of 6 months' duration. Response to medical treatment and surgical intervention was unsatisfactory. Histologic examination of lung tissue revealed chronic severe catarrhal bronchitis and bronchiolitis with bronchiectasis. Histologic findings and barium sulfate bronchography indicated abnormal mucociliary clearance in the respiratory tract. Electron microscopy revealed abnormalities or deletions of outer and/or inner dynein arms in 26% of the ciliary profiles from the affected dog. Similar abnormalities were not found in 500 ciliary profiles from age- and gender-matched control dogs

  8. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of longevity represents a significant welfare opportunity for the domestic dog, given its unparalleled morphological diversity. Epidemiological research using electronic patient records (EPRs) collected from primary veterinary practices overcomes many inherent limitations of referral clinic, owner questionnaire and pet insurance data. Clinical health data from 102,609 owned dogs attending first opinion veterinary practices (n=86) in central and southeast England were analysed, focusing on 5095 confirmed deaths. Of deceased dogs with information available, 3961 (77.9%) were purebred, 2386 (47.0%) were female, 2528 (49.8%) were neutered and 1105 (21.7%) were insured. The overall median longevity was 12.0 years (IQR 8.9-14.2). The longest-lived breeds were the Miniature poodle, Bearded collie, Border collie and Miniature dachshund, while the shortest-lived were the Dogue de Bordeaux and Great Dane. The most frequently attributed causes of death were neoplastic, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The results of multivariable modelling indicated that longevity in crossbred dogs exceeded purebred dogs by 1.2 years (95% confidence interval 0.9-1.4; P<0.001) and that increasing bodyweight was negatively correlated with longevity. The current findings highlight major breed differences for longevity and support the concept of hybrid vigour in dogs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  11. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  12. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H; Hart, Lynette A

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers' mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog ( n  = 16), a volunteer's trained therapy dog or the interviewer's pet dog ( n  = 13/3), or no dog ( n  = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers' stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 ( p  therapy dog group as compared with the facility dog group ( p  therapy dog users than no dog users ( p  dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches.

  13. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs.

  14. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  15. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Walsh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers’ mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS. To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog (n = 16, a volunteer’s trained therapy dog or the interviewer’s pet dog (n = 13/3, or no dog (n = 198. Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers’ stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 (p < 0.038, and were significantly elevated for the therapy dog group as compared with the facility dog group (p < 0.035. All interviewing groups had elevated STSS scores; when compared with other healthcare groups that have been studied, sub-scores were especially high for Avoidance: a psychological coping mechanism to avoid dealing with a stressor. STSS scores differed among groups (p < 0.016, primarily due to Avoidance sub-scores (p < 0.009, reflecting higher Avoidance scores for therapy dog users than no dog users (p < 0.009. Facility dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported

  16. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers’ mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog (n = 16), a volunteer’s trained therapy dog or the interviewer’s pet dog (n = 13/3), or no dog (n = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers’ stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 (p pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches. PMID:29594160

  17. Inherited retinal dysplasia and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Bruce H; Storey, Eric S; McMillan, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to define the clinical syndrome of retinal dysplasia and persistent primary vitreous in Miniature Schnauzer dogs and determine the etiology. We examined 106 Miniature Schnauzers using a biomicroscope and indirect ophthalmoscope. The anterior and posterior segments of affected dogs were photographed. Four enucleated eyes were examined using routine light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A pedigree was constructed and related dogs were test-bred to define the mode of inheritance of this syndrome. Congenital retinal dysplasia was confirmed in 24 of 106 related Miniature Schnauzer dogs. Physical and postmortem examinations revealed that congenital abnormalities were limited to the eyes. Biomicroscopic, indirect ophthalmoscopic, and neuro-ophthalmic examinations confirmed that some of these dogs were blind secondary to bilateral retinal dysplasia and detachment (nonattachment) (n = 13), and the remainder had generalized retinal dysplasia (n = 11). Fifteen of these dogs were also diagnosed with unilateral (n = 9) or bilateral (n = 6) persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Nutritional, infectious, or toxic etiologies were not evident on physical, postmortem, light microscopic, or transmitting and scanning electron microscopic examination of four affected Miniature Schnauzers. We examined the pedigree and determined that an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance was most likely. Three test-bred litters including those from affected parents, carrier and affected parents, and carrier parents confirmed this mode of inheritance. This study confirms that retinal dysplasia and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous is a congenital abnormality that is inherited as an autosomal recessive condition in Miniature Schnauzers.

  18. Dog and owner characteristics affecting the dog-owner relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less...... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... (MDORS). Data were collected by inviting owners of dogs that had been tested on the Danish Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA) to answer an online questionnaire. We were able to match 421 owner answers with their dogs’ DMA test results. The questionnaire consisted of the 28 items of the MDORS, as well...

  19. Cellular morphometry of the bronchi of human and dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, E.S.

    1991-09-01

    One hundred and forty-seven bronchial samples (generations 3--6) from 66 patients (62 usable; 36 female, 26 male; median age 61) have been dissected by generation from fixed surgical lung specimens obtained after the removal of pathological lesions. In addition, one hundred and fifty-six mongol dog bronchi (generations 2--6) dissected from different lobes of 26 dog lungs have also been similarly prepared. One hundred and twenty-seven human samples have been completely processed for electron microscopy and have yielded 994 electron micrographs of which 655 have been entered into the Computerized Stereological Analysis System (COSAS) and been used for the measurement of the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface. Similarly 328 micrographs of dog epithelium from 33 bronchial samples have been used to measure the distances of basal and mucous cell nuclei to the epithelial free surface and have been entered into COSAS. Using the COSAS planimetry program, we continue to expand our established data bases which describe the volume density and nuclear numbers per electron micrograph for 5 cell types of the human bronchial epithelial lining of men and women, as well as smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers and similar parameters for the same 5 epithelial cell types of dog bronchi. Our micrographs of human bronchial epithelium have allowed us to analyze the recent suggestion that the DNA of lymphocytes may be subject to significant damage from Rn progeny while within the lung. Since the last progress report three papers have been submitted for publication. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Pet Dogs and Children's Health: Opportunities for Chronic Disease Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne M; Scribani, Melissa B; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul; Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Olson, Ardis L

    2015-11-25

    Positive associations between having a pet dog and adult health outcomes have been documented; however, little evidence exists regarding the benefits of pet dogs for young children. This study investigates the hypothesis that pet dogs are positively associated with healthy weight and mental health among children. This cross-sectional study accrued a consecutive sample of children over 18 months in a pediatric primary care setting. The study enrolled 643 children (mean age, 6.7 years); 96% were white, 45% were female, 56% were privately insured, and 58% had pet dogs in the home. Before an annual visit, parents of children aged 4 to 10 years completed the DartScreen, a comprehensive Web-based health risk screener administered using an electronic tablet. The screener domains were child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, mental health, and pet-related questions. Children with and children without pet dogs did not differ in BMI (P = .80), screen time of 2 hours or less (P = 0.99), or physical activity (P = .07). A lower percentage of children with dogs (12%) met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5) of 3 or more, compared with children without dogs (21%, P = .002). The mean SCARED-5 score was lower among children with dogs (1.13) compared with children without dogs (1.40; P = .01). This relationship was retained in multivariate analysis after controlling for several covariates. Having a pet dog in the home was associated with a decreased probability of childhood anxiety. Future studies need to establish whether this relationship is causal and, if so, how pet dogs alleviate childhood anxiety.

  1. Investigation into knowledge about dogs, dog ownership and the behavior of dog owners living in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brengelmann, Nathaly

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find out the level of knowledge of dog owners living in Germany; covering various aspects of dog handling, which personal and social circumstances have influence on this, and in which areas and which groups of people possible knowledge gaps exist. For this purpose, a multiple choice test was developed. This contained eight subject areas: “man-dog-relationship”, “puppy purchase and raising”, “learning behavior and training”, “dog behavior”, “keeping”, “dog and th...

  2. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Craigon

    Full Text Available A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles

  3. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  4. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  5. Pilot Study of Therapy Dog Visits for Inpatient Youth With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene; Dudzik, Christi; Foose-Foster, Jessica M; Eaton, Lauren; Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona

    This study assessed the feasibility of studying animal-assisted activities (AAA) in inpatient pediatric oncology and collected preliminary data on potential benefits of AAA for this population. Patients at a large pediatric hospital were identified using electronic medical records and approached with physician approval. Patients completed surveys before and after a therapy dog visit in their private hospital room. Data on infections were ascertained by electronic medical record review. Provider surveys were placed in provider common areas and distributed through a link in an e-mail. We summarized resultsusing descriptive statistics and estimated mean changes in pre- and postintervention distress and conducted hypothesis tests using the paired t test. The study population (mean age = 12.9 years) consisted of 9 females and 10 males. Following the therapy dog visit, patients had lower distress and significant decreases in worry, tiredness, fear, sadness, and pain. Providers were generally supportive of the intervention. Eight patients developed infections during the 14 days after the dog visit but none could be clearly attributed to the therapy dog visit. The study's primary limitation was that there was no control group. However, results support the feasibility of and need for future studies on AAA in pediatric oncology.

  6. Dog-walking behaviours affect gastrointestinal parasitism in park-attending dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anya F; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Kutz, Susan J; Massolo, Alessandro

    2014-09-04

    In urban parks, dogs, wildlife and humans can be sympatric, introducing the potential for inter- and intra-specific transmission of pathogens among hosts. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zoonotic and non-zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in dogs in Calgary city parks, and assess if dog-walking behaviour, park management, history of veterinary care, and dog demographics were associated with parasitism in dogs From June to September 2010, 645 questionnaires were administered to dog owners in nine city parks to determine behavioural and demographic factors, and corresponding feces from 355 dogs were collected. Dog feces were analyzed for helminth and some protozoan species using a modified sugar flotation technique and microscopic examination, a subsample was analyzed for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were conducted to determine associations among behaviours, demographics, and parasite prevalence and infection intensities Parasite prevalence was 50.2%. Giardia spp. (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (14.7%), and Cystoisospora spp. (16.8%) were the most prevalent parasites. Helminth prevalence was low (4.1%). Presence of Giardia spp. was more likely in intact and young dogs; and infection with any parasite and Giardia spp. intensity were both positively associated with dogs visiting multiple parks coupled with a high frequency of park use and off-leash activity, and with being intact and young. Cryptosporidium spp. intensity was associated with being intact and young, and having visited the veterinarian within the previous year Our results indicate a higher overall prevalence of protozoa in dogs than previously found in Calgary. The zoonotic potential of some parasites found in park-attending dogs may be of interest for public health. These results are relevant for informing park managers, the public health sector, and veterinarians.

  7. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  8. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  9. Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Connect With Us New & Noteworthy Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... healthy. Diseases The most common diseases associated with dogs that can cause human illness are: Campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter ...

  10. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  11. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  12. Improving guide dog team play with accessible dog toys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.; Neustaedter, C.

    2014-01-01

    People with vision impairment have been a longstanding well-recognized user group addressed in HCI. Despite the recent interest in studying sighted dog owners and their pets in HCI, there is a noticeable gap in the field with regards to research on visually impaired owners and their dogs (guide dog

  13. Pet Dogs and Children’s Health: Opportunities for Chronic Disease Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribani, Melissa B.; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul; Nagykaldi, Zsolt; Olson, Ardis L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Positive associations between having a pet dog and adult health outcomes have been documented; however, little evidence exists regarding the benefits of pet dogs for young children. This study investigates the hypothesis that pet dogs are positively associated with healthy weight and mental health among children. Methods This cross-sectional study accrued a consecutive sample of children over 18 months in a pediatric primary care setting. The study enrolled 643 children (mean age, 6.7 years); 96% were white, 45% were female, 56% were privately insured, and 58% had pet dogs in the home. Before an annual visit, parents of children aged 4 to 10 years completed the DartScreen, a comprehensive Web-based health risk screener administered using an electronic tablet. The screener domains were child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time, mental health, and pet-related questions. Results Children with and children without pet dogs did not differ in BMI (P = .80), screen time of 2 hours or less (P = 0.99), or physical activity (P = .07). A lower percentage of children with dogs (12%) met the clinical cut-off value of Screen for Child Anxiety and Related Disorders (SCARED-5) of 3 or more, compared with children without dogs (21%, P = .002). The mean SCARED-5 score was lower among children with dogs (1.13) compared with children without dogs (1.40; P = .01). This relationship was retained in multivariate analysis after controlling for several covariates. Conclusions Having a pet dog in the home was associated with a decreased probability of childhood anxiety. Future studies need to establish whether this relationship is causal and, if so, how pet dogs alleviate childhood anxiety. PMID:26605705

  14. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-09

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Comparison of P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs, dogs with chronic valvular disease and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicpoń Józef

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background P-wave dispersion (Pd is a new ECG index used in human cardiology and veterinary medicine. It is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum P-wave duration recorded from multiple different ECG leads. So far no studies were performed assessing the importance of P-wave dispersion in dogs. Methods The current study was aimed at determining proper value of Pd in healthy dogs (group I, dogs with chronic valvular disease (group II and dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction (group III. The tests were carried out in 53 healthy dogs, 23 dogs with chronic valvular disease and 12 dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction of various breeds, sexes and body weight from 1,5 to 80 kg, aged between 0,5 and 17 years, submitted to the ECG examination. ECG was acquired in dogs in a standing position with BTL SD-8 electrocardiographic device and analyzed once the recording was enlarged. P-wave duration was calculated in 9 ECG leads (I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, V1, V2, V4 from 5 cardiac cycles. Results The proper P-wave dispersion in healthy dogs was determined at up to 24 ms. P-wave dispersion was statistically significant increased (p Conclusions The P-wave dispersion is a constant index in healthy dogs, that is why it can be used for evaluating P wave change in dogs with chronic valvular disease and in dogs with disturbances of supraventricular conduction.

  16. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    three freely moving electrons. The value at room temperature is 3.1 k B; the electronic specific heat is missing! The next stage in the electronic theory of solids clears up ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find ...

  17. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

  18. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  19. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8- 6.2 mmol/l). Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 %) made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004). The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the "diabetes of injury" phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  20. Relationships between heart rate and age, bodyweight and breed in 10,849 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezzell, M J; Dennis, S G; Humm, K; Agee, L; Boswood, A

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate relationships between heart rate and clinical variables in healthy dogs and dogs examined at a referral hospital. Clinical data were extracted from the electronic patient records of a first opinion group (5000 healthy dogs) and a referral hospital (5849 dogs). Univariable and multi-variable general linear models were used to assess associations between heart rate and clinical characteristics. Separate multi-variable models were constructed for first opinion and referral populations. In healthy dogs, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (PChihuahuas. The mean difference in heart rate between a 5 and 55 kg dog was 10.5 beats per minute. In dogs presenting to a referral hospital, heart rate was negatively associated with bodyweight (P<0.001) and the following breeds; border collie, golden retriever, Labrador retriever, springer spaniel and West Highland white terrier and positively associated with age, admitting service (emergency and critical care, emergency first opinion and cardiology) and the following breeds; Cavalier King Charles spaniel, Staffordshire bull terrier and Yorkshire terrier. Bodyweight, age, breed and disease status all influence heart rate in dogs, although these factors account for a relatively small proportion of the overall variability in heart rate. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around

  2. A novel combination technique of cold crystalloid perfusion but not cold storage facilitates transplantation of canine hearts donated after circulatory death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Ou, Ruchong; Salamonsen, Robert; Marasco, Silvana; Zimmet, Adam; Byrne, Joshua; Cosic, Filip; Saxena, Pankaj; Esmore, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) represents a potential new source of hearts to increase the donor pool. We showed previously that DCD hearts in Greyhound dogs could be resuscitated and preserved by continuous cold crystalloid perfusion but not by cold static storage and could demonstrate excellent contractile and metabolic function on an in vitro system. In the current study, we demonstrate that resuscitated DCD hearts are transplantable. Donor Greyhound dogs (n = 12) were divided into perfusion (n = 8) and cold static storage (n = 4) groups. General anesthesia was induced and ventilation ceased for 30 minutes to achieve circulatory death. Donor cardiectomy was performed, and for 4 hours the heart was preserved by controlled reperfusion, followed by continuous cold perfusion with an oxygenated crystalloid perfusate or by static cold storage, after which orthotopic heart transplantation was performed. Recovery was assessed over 4 hours by hemodynamic monitoring. During cold perfusion, hearts showed continuous oxygen consumption and low lactate levels, indicating aerobic metabolism. The 8 dogs in the perfusion group were weaned off bypass, and 4 hours after bypass produced cardiac output of 4.73 ± 0.51 liters/min, left ventricular power of 7.63 ± 1.32 J/s, right ventricular power of 1.40 ± 0.43 J/s, and left ventricular fractional area shortening of 39.1% ± 5.2%, all comparable to pre-transplant values. In the cold storage group, 3 of 4 animals could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass, and the fourth exhibited low-level function. Cold crystalloid perfusion, but not cold static storage, can resuscitate and preserve the DCD donor heart in a canine model of heart transplantation, thus rendering it transplantable. Controlled reperfusion and cold crystalloid perfusion have potential for clinical application in DCD transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  4. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  5. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  7. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Schoeman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic, 8 were normoglycaemic and 11 were hyperglycaemic. No dogs showed hypoglycaemia at any other stage during the study period. The median blood glucose concentrations at each of the 10 collection points, excluding the 56-hour and 64-hour collection points, were in the hyperglycaemic range (5.8– 6.2 mmol/ . Puppies and thin dogs had significantly higher median plasma glucose concentrations than adult and fat dogs respectively (P < 0.05 for both. Fifteen dogs survived the 72-hour study period. Overall 13 dogs (81.3 % made a full recovery after treatment. Three of 4 dogs that presented in a collapsed state died, whereas all dogs admitted as merely depressed or alert survived (P = 0.004. The high incidence of hyperglycaemia can possibly be explained by the ’diabetes of injury“ phenomenon. However, hyperglycaemia in this group of dogs was marginal and potential benefits of insulin therapy are unlikely to outweigh the risk of adverse effects such as hypoglycaemia.

  8. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  9. The effect of interstitial 125I seeds implantation on intestinal wall: a pathological observation in experimental dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Houfa; Zhang Fenglian; Shen An; Cao Guiwen; Cui Xinjiang

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the radiation injury of the bowel wall due to the implantation of interstitial 125 I seeds in experimental dogs. Methods: A total of 12 healthy male dogs were randomly and equally divided into 3 experimental groups and 1 control group, with 3 dogs in each group.In the experimental groups, two 125 I seeds with the active radiation dose of 0.8mCi were symmetrically implanted under the serous membrane of the dog's small intestinal wall. The dogs were fed for 14 days (group A), for one month (group B) and for two months (group C) respectively when the animals were scheduled to be sacrificed. The dogs' general condition was observed till they were sacrificed. The seed-implanting intestinal segments were then removed and dyed with HE staining method for electronic microscopic exam. The histopathologic findings were recorded and the results were compared between four groups. Results: No obvious histopathological changes were found in the dog's bowel wall 14 days after the implantation. One month after the procedure cellular injury was observed under electronic microscope, and two months after the operation partial fibrosis of the intestinal wall appeared but no ulceration or perforation occurred. Conclusion: The implantation of 125 I seeds can cause reversible cellular injuries of the intestinal wall in experimental dogs, the degree of the damage reaches its peak at one month after the implant when the partial fibrosis of bowel wall becomes evident. However, the seeds do not cause any serious complications, such as ulceration or perforation. (authors)

  10. Dog ownership, dog walking, and leisure-time walking among Taiwanese metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Huang, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2018-04-04

    This study examined the prevalence of dog ownership and dog walking and its association with leisure-time walking among metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults. A telephone-based cross-sectional survey targeting Taiwanese older adults was conducted in November 2016. Data related to dog ownership, time spent dog walking (categorized as non-dog owner, non-dog walkers, and dog walkers), and sociodemographic variables were obtained from 1074 older adults. Adjusted binary logistic regression was then performed. In this sample, 12% of Taiwanese older adults owned a dog and 31% of them walked their dogs for an average of 232.13 min over 5.9 days/week (standard deviation = 2.03). Older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to own a dog (14.7% vs. 9.1%) but less likely to walk their dog (25.9% vs. 39.6%) than were those living in metropolitan areas. Compared with non-dog owners, only older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who were dog walkers achieved 150 min of leisure-time walking (odds ratio: 3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-8.77), after adjustment for potential confounders. Older Taiwanese adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who owned and walked their dogs were more likely to achieve health-enhancing levels of leisure-time walking. Tailored physical activity interventions for promoting dog walking should be developed for older adults who are dog owners living in nonmetropolitan areas and who do not engage in dog walking.

  11. 'Who's a good boy?!' Dogs prefer naturalistic dog-directed speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Alex; Slocombe, Katie

    2018-05-01

    Infant-directed speech (IDS) is a special speech register thought to aid language acquisition and improve affiliation in human infants. Although IDS shares some of its properties with dog-directed speech (DDS), it is unclear whether the production of DDS is functional, or simply an overgeneralisation of IDS within Western cultures. One recent study found that, while puppies attended more to a script read with DDS compared with adult-directed speech (ADS), adult dogs displayed no preference. In contrast, using naturalistic speech and a more ecologically valid set-up, we found that adult dogs attended to and showed more affiliative behaviour towards a speaker of DDS than of ADS. To explore whether this preference for DDS was modulated by the dog-specific words typically used in DDS, the acoustic features (prosody) of DDS or a combination of the two, we conducted a second experiment. Here the stimuli from experiment 1 were produced with reversed prosody, meaning the prosody and content of ADS and DDS were mismatched. The results revealed no significant effect of speech type, or content, suggesting that it is maybe the combination of the acoustic properties and the dog-related content of DDS that modulates the preference shown for naturalistic DDS. Overall, the results of this study suggest that naturalistic DDS, comprising of both dog-directed prosody and dog-relevant content words, improves dogs' attention and may strengthen the affiliative bond between humans and their pets.

  12. An Internet-based survey of risk factors for surgical gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan, Marko; Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Battaglia, Carmelo L; Otto, Cynthia M

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in a large number of privately owned dogs across a wide geographic area. Internet-based, cross-sectional study. 2,551 privately owned dogs. A questionnaire addressed dog-specific, management, environmental, and personality-associated risk factors for GDV in dogs. Respondents were recruited through the posting of the electronic link to the questionnaire on websites for dog owners; the information was also disseminated at meetings of dog owners and via newsletters, e-mail lists for dog owners and breeders, owner-oriented dog publications, and e-mails forwarded by participants. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Factors significantly associated with an increased risk of GDV were being fed dry kibble, anxiety, residence in the United Kingdom, being born in the 1990s, being a family pet, and spending at least 5 hours a day with the owner. Factors associated with a decreased risk of GDV were playing with other dogs and running the fence after meals, fish and egg dietary supplements, and spending equal time indoors and outdoors. A significant interaction between sex and neuter status was observed, with sexually intact females having the highest risk for GDV. In dogs with a high risk of GDV, regular moderate daily and postprandial activity appeared to be beneficial. Feeding only commercial dry dog food may not be the best choice for dogs at risk; however, supplements with fish or eggs may reduced this risk. The effect of neuter status on GDV risk requires further characterization.

  13. Be your dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...

  14. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  15. “She’s a dog at the end of the day”: Guide dog owners’ perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigon, Peter J.; Hobson- West, Pru; England, Gary C. W.; Whelan, Chantelle; Lethbridge, Emma; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris) that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner’s typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog’s safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog’s behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners) obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog’s maturity and the dog’s behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles of the

  16. Pet dogs and child physical activity: the role of child-dog attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, A M; Scribani, M B; Krupa, N; Jenkins, P

    2017-10-01

    Dog ownership has been associated with increased physical activity in children which in turn may mitigate childhood obesity. To measure the association between child-dog attachment and child physical activity and screen time. Cross-sectional study including 370 children (ages 4-10) who had pet dogs in the home. Parents completed the DartScreen, a web-based screener, before a well-child visit. Screener domains included child body mass index (BMI), physical activity, screen time and dog-related questions. The Companion Animal Bonding Scale (CABS) was used to measure child attachment to the dog. Clinic nurses weighed and measured the children. Associations between CABS, BMI z-score, screen time and physical activity were estimated. CABS was strongly associated with time spent being active with the dog (F = 22.81, p dog is associated with increased child physical activity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  19. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  20. Home - DOG

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  1. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  2. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  3. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  4. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

    2012-12-07

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Demography and dog-human relationships of the dog population in Zimbabwean communal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R; Bingham, J

    2000-10-14

    Dogs are Zimbabwe's primary vector for rabies, and the majority live in communal lands (traditional agropastoralist rural areas). In 1994, a household questionnaire survey was conducted to provide baseline data on the demography and dog-human relationships of the dogs in the communal lands. The survey showed that all the dogs were owned, and there was no evidence of a feral population. They were unrestricted and semi-dependent on people. The numbers of dogs per capita varied little in each communal land, resulting in higher dog densities in communal lands with higher human densities, and indicating that people were not intolerant of dogs at higher densities. The population turnover was rapid: the life expectancy of the dogs was 1.1 years, the mean age 2.0 years, and 71.8 per cent died in their first year. The population was heavily skewed towards juveniles, with 40.8 per cent aged less than 12 months. Despite the high juvenile mortality, the population was growing by 6.52 per cent per annum. It was estimated that in 1994 there were 1.36 million dogs in communal lands.

  6. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) gene sequencing and mitochondrial evaluation in inherited retinal dysplasia in miniature schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bianca S; Forsyth, George W; Sandmeyer, Lynne S; Grahn, Bruce H

    2011-04-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal dysplasia in miniature schnauzer dogs and it has been proposed that affected dogs have altered mitochondrial numbers, size, and morphology. To test these hypotheses the Tfam gene of affected and normal miniature schnauzer dogs with retinal dysplasia was sequenced and lymphocyte mitochondria were quantified, measured, and the morphology was compared in normal and affected dogs using transmission electron microscopy. For Tfam sequencing, retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and whole blood samples were collected. Total RNA was isolated from the retina and RPE and reverse transcribed to make cDNA. Genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cell pellets obtained from the whole blood samples. The Tfam coding sequence, 5' promoter region, intron1 and the 3' non-coding sequence of normal and affected dogs were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloned and sequenced. For electron microscopy, lymphocytes from affected and normal dogs were photographed and the mitochondria within each cross-section were identified, quantified, and the mitochondrial area (μm²) per lymphocyte cross-section was calculated. Lastly, using a masked technique, mitochondrial morphology was compared between the 2 groups. Sequencing of the miniature schnauzer Tfam gene revealed no functional sequence variation between affected and normal dogs. Lymphocyte and mitochondrial area, mitochondrial quantification, and morphology assessment also revealed no significant difference between the 2 groups. Further investigation into other candidate genes or factors causing retinal dysplasia in the miniature schnauzer is warranted.

  7. Care of dogs and attitudes of dog owners in Port-au-Prince, the Republic of Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, William J; Gall, Melanie; Green, Dick; Eller, Warren S

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the first known study on dogs in Port-au-Prince. Interviews with 1,290 residents provided information on 1,804 dogs. More than 57.7% of homes kept dogs. Not all the dogs received vaccinations for rabies (41.6%), even though 28.2% of households had had a household member bitten by a dog. Although the "owned" dog population had decreased as a result of the earthquake in January 2010, the number of roaming dogs appeared to have been uninfluenced by the disaster. Given that 64.8% of dogs probably had access to the street and only 6.0% of the females were spayed, to humanely contain the dog population will require both confinement and neutering. Although roaming dogs were considered a nuisance by 63.3% of respondents, 42.6% of households fed dogs they did not own.

  8. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Splenitis in 33 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Zini, E; Auriemma, E; Castagnaro, M; Coppola, L M; Peano, A; Martella, V; Decaro, N; Kuhnert, P; Ferro, S

    2017-01-01

    Splenitis is uncommonly reported in dogs. Herein, the authors describe its prevalence, clinical findings and outcomes, histologic patterns, and causes. Splenic samples of dogs diagnosed with splenitis between 2005 and 2013 were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, green-Gram, Giemsa, periodic acid-Schiff, and Ziehl-Neelsen. Samples were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteria, fungi, and protozoa ( Leishmania infantum, Hepatozoon canis). Thirty-three of 660 splenic samples (5%) had splenitis. Clinical findings and outcomes were available in 19 dogs (58%); 49% had weakness, 33% had fever, and 84% survived. The most frequent inflammatory patterns included purulent splenitis (27%), pyogranulomatous splenitis (24%), and neutrophilic perisplenitis (15%). One dog had a putative diagnosis of primary splenitis; in 8 dogs, microorganisms were identified histologically or by PCR in the spleen without obvious comorbidities. Twenty-four dogs (73%) had concurrent diseases; a permissive role in the development of splenitis was suspected in 21 of these cases. Histologic examination identified the cause of splenitis in 10 dogs. Bacteria were identified by PCR in 23 cases, but the bacteria were confirmed histologically in only 6 of these. Leishmania was detected with PCR in 6 dogs. Leishmania was identified in 1 dog and H. canis in another histologically, but both were PCR negative. Fungi were identified in 8 spleens by PCR and in 1 by histology. This study suggests that splenitis is uncommon in dogs and is frequently associated with systemic diseases. Prognosis is favorable in most cases. Identification of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa in the spleens of affected dogs with PCR should be interpreted cautiously, because the findings are not confirmed histologically in many cases.

  10. Owned and Unowned Dog Population Estimation, Dog Management and Dog Bites to Inform Rabies Prevention and Response on Lombok Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustiana, Ana; Toribio, Jenny-Ann; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Suadnya, I. Wayan; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Ward, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Although Indonesia has been rabies-infected since at least the 1880s, some islands remain rabies-free, such as Lombok. However, due to its adjacency to rabies-infected islands such as Bali and Flores, there is considerable risk of a rabies incursion. As part of a rabies risk assessment project, surveys were conducted to estimate the size of the dog population and to describe dog management practices of households belonging to different ethnic groups. A photographic-recapture method was employed and the number of unowned dogs was estimated. A total of 400 dog owning households were interviewed, 300 at an urban site and 100 at a rural site. The majority of the interviewed households belonged to the Balinese ethnic group. Owned dogs were more likely male, and non-pedigree or local breed. These households kept their dogs either fully restricted, semi-free roaming or free-roaming but full restriction was reported only at the urban site. Dog bite cases were reported to be higher at the urban site, and commonly affected children/young adults to 20 years old and males. A higher number of unowned dogs was observed at the urban site than at the rural site. Data generated within these surveys can inform rabies risk assessment models to quantify the probability of rabies being released into Lombok and resulting in the infection of the local dog population. The information gained is critical for efforts to educate dog owners about rabies, as a component of preparedness to prevent the establishment of rabies should an incursion occur. PMID:25932916

  11. Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    OpenAIRE

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318...

  13. Retrospective analysis of necropsy reports suggestive of abuse in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Daniel C; Torres, Sheila M F; Wuenschmann, Arno

    2018-02-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify historical and necropsy findings suggestive of neglect or abuse of dogs and cats by retrospective analysis of necropsy reports from a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SAMPLE 119 necropsy reports of dogs and cats. PROCEDURES Necropsy reports from February 2001 to May 2012 were electronically searched to identify potential animal abuse or neglect cases. Cases were selected and categorized according to a previously proposed method for classification of animal abuse. Inclusion criteria included signs of neglect, nonaccidental injury (NAI; blunt-force or sharp-force trauma, gunshot, burns, drowning, asphyxiation, and suspicious intoxications), and sexual abuse. Poor preservation of cadavers, age abuse cases, determined on the basis of all necropsies performed in the study period, was 73 of 8,417 (0.87%) in dogs and 46 of 4,905 (0.94%) in cats. Neglect and NAI were commonly identified in cats; NAI was most commonly found in dogs. Gunshot and blunt-force trauma were the most common NAIs in dogs and cats, respectively. Pit bull-type dogs (29/73 [40%]) were overrepresented in several abuse categories. Most cats (29/46 [63%]) were domestic shorthair, but no breed association was found. Most (41/71 [58%]) affected animals with age data available were ≤ 2 years old. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Approximately 1% of dogs and cats necropsied in the study period had signs suggestive of abuse. Medical findings alone are not necessarily indicative of abuse, but some findings can increase the index of suspicion.

  14. Outcomes of dogs undergoing radiotherapy for treatment of oral malignant melanoma: 111 cases (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Mifumi; Mori, Takashi; Ito, Yusuke; Murakami, Mami; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma; Maruo, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of dogs with stage I, II, III, or IV oral malignant melanoma treated by various types of radiotherapy. Retrospective case series. 111 dogs. Medical records of dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated by radiotherapy (with or without adjunctive treatments) at a veterinary medical center between July 2006 and December 2012 were reviewed. Information regarding signalment, tumor location, disease stage, treatment protocols, adverse effects, and survival time were obtained from medical records and by telephone follow-up. Associations between variables of interest and outcome were analyzed. Dogs received orthovoltage x-ray (n = 68), megavoltage x-ray (39), or electron beam (4) radiotherapy. Adjunctive treatments included debulking surgery (n = 18), chemotherapy (39), or both (27). Median survival times for dogs with stage I, II, III, and IV melanoma were 758 days (n = 19), 278 days (24), 163 days (37), and 80 days (31), respectively, and differed significantly between dogs with stage I disease and those with all other disease stages. Among dogs with stage III melanoma, risk of death was significantly higher in those that received orthovoltage x-ray treatment than in those that received megavoltage x-ray treatment. Severe (primary or secondary) adverse effects were identified in 9 dogs. Median survival time was significantly longer for dogs with stage I oral malignant melanoma than for dogs with more advanced disease at the time of staging. The staging system used may be a useful tool for prognosis prediction in dogs undergoing similar treatment protocols for oral malignant melanomas.

  15. Canine distemper outbreak in pet store puppies linked to a high-volume dog breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Brant A; Miller, Myrna M; Grosdidier, Paul; Cavender, Jacqueline L; Montgomery, Donald L; Cornish, Todd E; Farr, Robert M; Driscoll, Michael; Maness, Lori J; Gray, Tangney; Petersen, Dana; Brown, William L; Logan, Jim; O'Toole, Donal

    2012-11-01

    Canine distemper is uncommon in the pet trade in the United States, in large part due to effective vaccines against Canine distemper virus (CDV). This is a report of CDV affecting 24 young dogs of multiple breeds shortly after sale by 2 pet stores in Wyoming during August-October 2010. Cases were diagnosed over 37 days. Diagnosis was established by a combination of fluorescent antibody staining, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, negative stain electron microscopy, and necropsy with histopathology. Viral hemagglutinin gene sequences were analyzed from 2 affected dogs and were identical (GenBank accession no. JF283477). Sequences were distinct from those in a contemporaneous unrelated case of CDV in a Wyoming dog (JF283476) that had no contact with the pet store dogs. The breeding property from which the puppies originated was quarantined by the Kansas Animal Health Department. Puppies intended for sale were tested for CDV. Canine distemper was diagnosed on site in November 2010. At that point 1,466 dogs were euthanized to eliminate dispersal of the disease through commercial channels. The investigation underscores the risks inherent in large-scale dog breeding when vaccination and biosecurity practices are suboptimal.

  16. Radiographic evaluation and statistical analysis of canine skull form: Dolichocephaly, mesocephaly and brachycephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regodon, S.; Robina, A.; Franco, A.; Vivo, J.M.; Lignereux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Cranio-encephalic morphology of three breeds of dogs (Greyhound, Pointer and Pekinese at the rate of 10 subjects, 5 males and 5 females, in each one) has been radiologically observed. Radiographic negatives in dorso-ventral and latero-lateral positions were taken and analyzed before and after the visualisation of the encephalic cavity using baryum sulfat. 18 cranio-encephalic measurements were chosen and interpreted statistically. The results showed that certain variables were more closely correlated with morphologic types of the cranium than others. We discuss the validity of the data applied for clinical diagnostic or osteo-archeology determinations

  17. Patient benefit of dog-assisted interventions in health care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Martina; Carlsson, Per; Sjödahl, Rune; Theodorsson, Elvar; Levin, Lars-Åke

    2017-07-10

    Dogs are the most common companion animal, and therefore not surprisingly a popular choice for animal-assisted interventions. Dog-assisted interventions are increasingly used in healthcare. The aim of the review was to conduct a systematic literature review of quantitative studies on dog-assisted interventions in healthcare, with the intention of assessing the effects and cost-effectiveness of the interventions for different categories of patients. A systematic review of the scientific literature reporting results of studies in healthcare, nursing home or home care settings, was conducted. The inclusion criteria applied for this review were: quantitative studies, inclusion of at least 20 study subjects, existence of a control and performed in healthcare settings including nursing homes and home care. The electronic databases PubMed, AMED, CINAHL and Scopus were searched from their inception date through January 2017, for published articles from peer-reviewed journals with full text in English. Eighteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and were judged to be of at least moderate quality, were included in the analysis. Three of them showed no effect. Fifteen showed at least one significant positive effect but in most studied outcome measures there was no significant treatment effect. Dog-assisted therapy had the greatest potential in treatment of psychiatric disorders among both young and adult patients. Dog-assisted activities had some positive effects on health, wellbeing, depression and quality of life for patients with severe cognitive disorders. Dog-assisted support had positive effects on stress and mood. The overall assessment of the included studies indicates minor to moderate effects of dog-assisted therapy in psychiatric conditions, as well as for dog-assisted activities in cognitive disorders and for dog-assisted support in different types of medical interventions. However, the majority of studied outcome measures showed no significant effect.

  18. Communication between domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans: dogs are good learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgier, Angel M; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Barrera, Gabriela; Mustaca, Alba E; Bentosela, Mariana

    2009-07-01

    Communication involves a wide range of behaviours that animals emit in their daily lives and can take place between different species, as is the case of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans. Dogs have shown to be successful at following human cues to solve the object choice task. The question is what are the mechanisms involved in these communicative abilities. This article presents a review of studies about the communicative capacities of domestic dogs emphasizing the ones that considered the effect of associative learning upon these skills. In addition, evidence about differences in dogs' performance in following physical or social cues is summarized and two studies where both signals compete are presented here. The obtained results suggest that the training of a colour cue reverses the dogs' preference for the social one. These results are discussed in light of the findings that gave importance to the learning effect, concluding that the dogs fundamentally follow those cues that allowed them to obtain reinforcers in their previous learning history.

  19. The search for the mdr1-1Δ mutation of the MDR1 gene in four canine breeds in Uruguay (preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Gagliardi B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study is to analyze the frequency of mdr1-1Δ mutation in German Shepherd, Doberman, Border Collie and Greyhound dog breeds in Uruguay. Materials and methods. A total of 95 animals from the four breeds mentioned above were studied. DNA was isolated from blood using potassium acetate with a subsequent degradation from RNA with RNAsaH. The concentration and quality of the DNA obtained was evaluated with a Nanodrop, ND-1000 spectrophotometer. To determine the presence or absence of the mdr1-1Δ mutation, DNA samples were sent to Gene Seek, Neogen Corporation of Chicago, United States, for genotyping. Results. In all 95 animals studied, the mdr1-1Δ mutation was not present. Conclusions. Based on the preliminary results obtained, other elements that may cause adverse drug reactions must be considered: unidentified mutations in other regions of the MDR1 gene; mutations in other genes involved in the transport of drugs from the same subfamily or another; mutations in enzymes involved in drug metabolism (e.g. Cytochrome P450. Moreover, especially with Border Collies and Greyhounds, it is advisable to increase the number of animals in the study.

  20. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. B-cell lymphoma with Mott cell differentiation in two young adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Nicole I; Nabity, Mary B; Hackendahl, Nicole; Buote, Melanie; Ward, Jennifer; Ginn, Pamela E; Vernau, William; Clapp, William L; Harvey, John W

    2009-03-01

    Two young adult dogs with gastrointestinal signs were each found to have an intra-abdominal mass based on physical examination and diagnostic imaging. On exploratory laparotomy, small intestinal masses and mesenteric lymphadenopathy were found in both dogs; a liver mass was also found in dog 1. Cytologic and histologic examination of intestinal and liver masses and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed 2 distinct lymphoid cell populations: lymphoblasts and atypical Mott cells. With Romanowsky stains, the atypical Mott cells contained many discrete, clear to pale blue cytoplasmic inclusions consistent with Russell bodies that were positive by immunohistochemistry for IgM and CD79a in both dogs and for IgG in dog 2. The Mott cells and occasional lymphoblasts stained strongly positive with periodic acid-Schiff. Using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in dog 1, 60% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and 85% of cells in an affected lymph node were positive for CD21, CD79a, IgM, and MCH II, indicative of B-cells. With electron microscopy, disorganized and dilated endoplasmic reticulum was seen in Mott cells in tumors from both dogs. Antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis of lymph node and intestinal masses indicated a clonal B-cell population. Based on cell morphology, tissue involvement, and evidence for clonal B-cell proliferation, we diagnosed neoplasms involving Mott cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second report of Mott cell tumors or, more appropriately, B-cell lymphoma with Mott cell differentiation, in dogs. More complete characterization of this neoplasm requires further investigation of additional cases. This lymphoproliferative disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis for canine gastrointestinal tumors.

  2. Cystic meningiomas in 2 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, R.S.; Kornegay, J.N.; Lane, S.B.; Thrall, D.L.; Page, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Two dogs with signs of forebrain disease had hypodense lesions on computed tomography evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the first dog showed a hypointense lesion on the T1-weighted scan and a hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted scanning. At surgery, both dogs had a primary cystic intracranial lesion, and the abnormal tissue adjacent to the cyst had histological features of meningioma. Each dog underwent whole brain irradiation after surgery, and 1 dog lived for 3 years after treatment. While uncommon, meningioma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with cystic intracranial lesions

  3. Human perception of fear in dogs varies according to experience with dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Wan

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of experience in humans' perception of emotion using canine visual signals, we asked adults with various levels of dog experience to interpret the emotions of dogs displayed in videos. The video stimuli had been pre-categorized by an expert panel of dog behavior professionals as showing examples of happy or fearful dog behavior. In a sample of 2,163 participants, the level of dog experience strongly predicted identification of fearful, but not of happy, emotional examples. The probability of selecting the "fearful" category to describe fearful examples increased with experience and ranged from.30 among those who had never lived with a dog to greater than.70 among dog professionals. In contrast, the probability of selecting the "happy" category to describe happy emotional examples varied little by experience, ranging from.90 to.93. In addition, the number of physical features of the dog that participants reported using for emotional interpretations increased with experience, and in particular, more-experienced respondents were more likely to attend to the ears. Lastly, more-experienced respondents provided lower difficulty and higher accuracy self-ratings than less-experienced respondents when interpreting both happy and fearful emotional examples. The human perception of emotion in other humans has previously been shown to be sensitive to individual differences in social experience, and the results of the current study extend the notion of experience-dependent processes from the intraspecific to the interspecific domain.

  4. Dogs and their human companions: the effect of familiarity on dog-human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerepesi, Andrea; Dóka, Antal; Miklósi, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    There are few quantitative examinations of the extent to which dogs discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar persons. In our study we have investigated whether dogs show differential behaviour towards humans of different degrees of familiarity (owner, familiar person, unfamiliar person). Dogs and humans were observed in eight test situations: (1) Three-way strange situation test, (2) Calling in from food, (3) Obedience test, (4) Walking away, (5) Threatening approach, (6) Playful interaction, (7) Food inhibition test and (8) Manipulation of the dog's body. Dogs distinguished between the owner and the two other test partners in those tests which involved separation from the owner (Test 1, 4), were aversive for the dog (Test 5) or involved playing interaction (Test 6). Our results revealed that the owner cannot be replaced by a familiar person in situations provoking elevated anxiety and fear. In contrasts, dogs did not discriminate between the owner and the familiar person in those tests that were based on obedient behaviour or behaviour towards an assertive person (Tests 2, 3, 7 and 8). Dogs' former training experience reduced the difference between their behaviour towards the owner and the familiar person in situations requiring obedience but it did not mask it totally. The dogs' behaviour towards each of the humans participating in the tests was consistent all over the test series. In summary, dogs discriminated between their owner and the unfamiliar person and always preferred the owner to the unfamiliar person. However, the discrimination between the owner and the familiar person is context-specific. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C M

    2015-02-01

    Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate

  6. Outcome following curative-intent surgery for oral melanoma in dogs: 70 cases (1998-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Joanne L; Selmic, Laura E; Worley, Deanna R; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Withrow, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome in terms of progression-free interval (PFI) and overall survival time (ST) after curative-intent resection of oral melanoma in dogs. Retrospective case series. 70 client-owned dogs. An electronic medical record search and review was performed for dogs that underwent curative-intent resection of oral melanoma (May 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011). Information gathered included signalment, oral location of tumor, staging results, type of surgery, type of adjuvant therapy, findings on histologic evaluation, and outcome. 36 (51.4%), 16 (22.9%), 13 (18.6%), and 1 (1.4%) of 70 dogs had tumors classified as stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively; tumor stage could not be determined for 4 (5.7%) dogs because of the lack of tumor size information. Fifty-one (72.9%) dogs had tumors completely excised. Twenty-nine (41.4%) dogs received adjuvant therapy. Median PFI and ST were 508 and 723 days, respectively. Thirty-two (45.7%) dogs had disease progression. Significant associations with PFI or ST were found for administration of adjuvant therapy, presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, higher tumor stage (III or IV), increased tumor size (> 3 cm), and sexually intact female dogs. Administration of adjuvant treatment was associated with a 130% increased hazard (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.0) of disease progression; the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis was associated with a 281% increased hazard (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.6) of death. Results indicated that dogs with oral melanoma can have a long PFI and ST after resection with wide margins.

  7. Social behaviour of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in a public off-leash dog park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Melissa S; Anderson, Rita E; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2018-03-13

    This study examines the activity budgets and social behaviours initiated and received by 69 focal dogs in an off-leash dog park for 400 s after entry, a time of high activity about which little is known. Using motivationally-neutral labels for social behaviour categories, we describe the frequency of behaviours, and correlations among them. We then examine these relationships in the context of proposed functions for some behaviours in dogs, in terms of information gathering and communication, including visual and tactile signalling. Time spent with other dogs decreased rapidly over the visit, and much of this early interaction involved greeting the park newcomer. Snout-muzzle contact behaviours were ubiquitous, while other behaviours were rarely observed, including aggressive behaviours. Correlations among certain non-contact behaviours initiated and received by focal dogs are consistent with their function as visual signals that may influence the continuation and form of social interactions, and their possible role in social mimicry (i.e., play bow and pull-rear away). Age, sex, and number of dogs present in the park influenced specific aspects of dogs' activity budgets, and a few behaviours. This ethological study provides fundamental data on dog social behaviour in dog parks, about which surprisingly little has been published. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dog walking is associated with a favorable risk profile independent of moderate to high volume of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentino, Cindy; Visek, Amanda J; McDonnell, Karen; DiPietro, Loretta

    2012-03-01

    An innovative strategy for helping people achieve recommended levels of daily physical activity is dog walking. We assessed differences in physical activity and risk indicators between dog owners who 1) walk their dog (n = 399) and 2) do not walk their dog (n = 137) and compared them with adults who do not own dogs (n = 380). Participants (39 ± 13 years) were recruited online and completed an electronic questionnaire. Healthy People 2010 risk indicators included physical activity, overweight status, tobacco use, nutrition behaviors, chronic conditions, depressive symptoms, and social support. Compared with dog walkers, those who did not own or walk their dog reported less physical activity (MET-min·week-1) and a higher body mass index (P dogs had significantly greater odds of self-reported diabetes [OR = 2.53; 95%CI (1.17-5.48)], hypertension [OR = 1.71; 95%CI (1.03-2.83)], hypercholesterolemia [OR = 1.72; 95%CI (1.06-2.81)], and depression [OR = 1.49; 95%CI (1.09-2.05)] compared with participants who regularly walked their dogs. Because of the health benefits associated with dog walking, this activity should be encouraged within communities as a method of promoting and sustaining a healthy lifestyle.

  9. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Phylogenetic Distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian Village Dog Y Chromosomes Illuminates Dog Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah K.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Jafarishorijeh, Sardar; Bannasch, Danika L.; Ahrens, Kristen D.; Wu, Jui-Te; Okon, Michaella; Sacks, Benjamin N.

    2011-01-01

    Modern genetic samples are commonly used to trace dog origins, which entails untested assumptions that village dogs reflect indigenous ancestry or that breed origins can be reliably traced to particular regions. We used high-resolution Y chromosome markers (SNP and STR) and mitochondrial DNA to analyze 495 village dogs/dingoes from the Middle East and Southeast Asia, along with 138 dogs from >35 modern breeds to 1) assess genetic divergence between Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dogs and their phylogenetic affinities to Australian dingoes and gray wolves (Canis lupus) and 2) compare the genetic affinities of modern breeds to regional indigenous village dog populations. The Y chromosome markers indicated that village dogs in the two regions corresponded to reciprocally monophyletic clades, reflecting several to many thousand years divergence, predating the Neolithic ages, and indicating long-indigenous roots to those regions. As expected, breeds of the Middle East and East Asia clustered within the respective regional village dog clade. Australian dingoes also clustered in the Southeast Asian clade. However, the European and American breeds clustered almost entirely within the Southeast Asian clade, even sharing many haplotypes, suggesting a substantial and recent influence of East Asian dogs in the creation of European breeds. Comparison to 818 published breed dog Y STR haplotypes confirmed this conclusion and indicated that some African breeds reflect another distinct patrilineal origin. The lower-resolution mtDNA marker consistently supported Y-chromosome results. Both marker types confirmed previous findings of higher genetic diversity in dogs from Southeast Asia than the Middle East. Our findings demonstrate the importance of village dogs as windows into the past and provide a reference against which ancient DNA can be used to further elucidate origins and spread of the domestic dog. PMID:22194840

  11. Accuracy of different temperature reading techniques and associated stress response in hospitalized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomart, Samantha B; Allerton, Fergus J W; Gommeren, Kris

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and associated induced stress response of axillary, auricular, and rectal thermometry in hospitalized dogs. Prospective observational study from October 2011 to February 2012. University veterinary teaching hospital. Two hundred fifty hospitalized dogs. All hospitalized dogs were considered eligible unless their condition precluded measurement at one of the designated sites. A veterinary auricular infrared device for auricular temperature (OT) and an electronic predictive thermometer for rectal temperature (RT) and axillary temperature (AT) were used for temperature measurements. All recordings were obtained by the same investigator in a randomized fashion. Heart rate was noted before and immediately after each measurement. Stress behaviors (eg, vocalization, lip licking, shaking, panting, defensive behavior) were also recorded and graded from 0 (lowest) to 4 (highest). Signalment, analgesic therapy, and length of hospitalization were recorded. RT measurements were associated with greatest increase in heart rate (P 0.05). AT and to a lesser extent OT are reliable, less stressful alternatives to estimate RT in dogs. Further studies are needed to evaluate these techniques in hyperthermic dogs, and to evaluate the use of AT and OT as monitoring tools in intensive care patients. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for mast cell tumours in dogs in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Stephanie Jw; Marlow, Stephanie; Church, David B; English, Kate; McGreevy, Paul D; Stell, Anneliese J; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan G; Brodbelt, David C

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell tumour (MCT) appears to be a frequent tumour type in dogs, though there is little published in relation to its frequency in dogs in the UK. The current study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for MCTs in dogs attending English primary-care veterinary practices. Electronic patient records from practices participating in the VetCompass animal surveillance project between July 2007 and June 2013 were searched for MCT diagnosis. Various search terms and standard diagnostic terms (VeNom codes) identified records containing MCT diagnoses, which were evaluated against clinical criteria for inclusion to the study. MCT prevalence for the entire dataset and specific breed types were calculated. Descriptive statistics characterised MCT cases and multivariable logistic regression methods evaluated risk factors for association with MCT (P Border Collie, West Highland White Terrier, Springer Spaniel and Cocker Spaniel had reduced odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. No association was found between MCT diagnosis and sex. This study highlights a clinically significant prevalence of MCT and identifies specific breed types with predisposition to MCT, potentially aiding veterinarian awareness and facilitating diagnosis.

  13. Food engorgement in 35 dogs (2009-2013) compared with 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Lisa; Reese, Shona; Hosgood, Giselle

    2017-11-25

    The clinical features and management of food engorgement (FE) in dogs have not been previously described. This retrospective observational study describes characteristics and outcome of 35 dogs with FE, and compares features on presentation to 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV). Cases were retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical findings and outcome. Gastric distension was measured by caudal gastric margin (CGM), level with lumbar vertebrae, on a lateral abdominal radiograph. Frequent characteristics of dogs with FE included tachycardia, tachypnoea, hyperproteinaemia, increased base excess (BE), mild hypernatraemia and hyperlactataemia. There was overlap in CGM between dogs with GDV (CGM range L3 to >L6) and dogs with FE (CGM range dogs with GDV, lactate concentration in dogs with FE was not associated with CGM or BE. Dogs with FE mostly received medical intervention consisting of fluid therapy and analgesia, and all dogs survived to discharge. In conclusion, dogs with FE frequently presented with acid-base and electrolyte derangements, including hyperlactataemia. While dogs with FE can have gastric distension as severe as that seen with GDV, outcome with supportive care only is excellent. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The association between dog ownership or dog walking and fitness or weight status in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, C; Boddy, L M; Stratton, G; German, A J; Gaskell, R M; Coyne, K P; Bundred, P; McCune, S; Dawson, S

    2017-12-01

    Health benefits of dog walking are established in adults: dog owners are on average more physically active, and those walking their dogs regularly have lower weight status than those who do not. However, there has been little research on children. This study aimed to examine the association between dog ownership or dog walking and childhood fitness or weight status. A survey of pet ownership and involvement in dog walking was combined with fitness and weight status measurements of 1021 9 to 10-year-old children in the Liverpool SportsLinx study. We found little evidence to support that children who live with, or walk with, dogs are any fitter or less likely to be obese than those who do not. This is an important finding, as it suggests that the activity that children currently do with dogs is not sufficient enough to impact weight status or fitness. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  15. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...

  16. Mitral stenosis in 15 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Ware, W.A.; Bonagura, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age

  17. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril’s ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership. PMID:28033397

  18. Highly Educated Men Establish Strong Emotional Links with Their Dogs: A Study with Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) in Committed Spanish Dog Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Bowen, Jonathan; Bulbena, Antoni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fatjó, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of the human-animal bond may be influenced by both owner-related and dog-related factors. A study was designed to explore the existence of different dog ownership patterns and their related factors. We created an on line questionnaire that included demographic questions about the dog and the owner, a Spanish version of the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) and a validated measure of satisfaction with life (Cantril's ladder). We collected 1140 valid responses from adult dog owners, who were recruited using the client databases of Spanish veterinary practices. We explored the presence of groups within the population using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the MDORS variables combined with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). Two groups were found; Group I having a higher level of emotional involvement with their dogs compared with Group II. Binary logistic regression was used to explore demographic factors that influenced group membership. Four variables were significantly associated with membership of Group I (pdog-ownership may be present within a population of owner-dog dyads, and that certain owner characteristics are associated with the type of owner-dog relationship. Future research could apply a similar approach to different types of sample population in order to identify specific patterns of dog-ownership.

  19. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.A.; Walter, M.C.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.; Bovee, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ureterocolonic anastomosis was evaluated in 13 clinically normal dogs. Urinary continence was maintained after surgery, and the procedure was completed without technique errors in all but 2 dogs. Three dogs died within 5 weeks (2 of undetermined causes and 1 of aspiration pneumonia and neurologic disease), and 1 dog was euthanatized 4 months after surgery because of neurologic signs. Two healthy dogs were euthanatized 3 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Five dogs were euthanatized 6 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances developed in 4 dogs at various postoperative intervals. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 2 dogs with neurologic signs was increased. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 5 dogs without neurologic signs was within normal limits. All 5 dogs, in which metabolic acidosis was diagnosed, had high normal or above normal serum chloride concentration. Serum urea nitrogen values were increased after surgery because of colonic absorption of urea. Serum creatinine concentration was increased in 1 dog 6 months after surgery. Individual kidney glomerular filtration rate was reduced in 38% (3/8) of the kidneys from 4 other dogs at 6 months after surgery. Of 5 dogs euthanatized at 3 to 4 months after surgery, 4 had bilateral pyelitis, and 1 had unilateral pyelonephritis. Six months after surgery, pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 40% (4/10) of the kidneys from 5 dogs. The ureterocolonic anastomosis procedure is a salvage procedure that should allow complete cystectomy. However, variable degress of metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and neurologic disease may result

  20. Naturally Occurring Adrenocortical Insufficiency--An Epidemiological Study Based on a Swedish-Insured Dog Population of 525,028 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J M; Tengvall, K; Bonnett, B N; Hedhammar, Å

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring adrenocortical insufficiency (NOAI) in dogs is considered an uncommon disease with good prognosis with hormonal replacement treatment. However, there are no epidemiological studies with estimates for the general dog population. To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of NOAI in a large population of insured dogs. Data were derived from 525,028 client-owned dogs insured by a Swedish insurance company representing 2,364,652 dog-years at risk (DYAR) during the period between 1995-2006. Retrospective cohort study. Incidence rates, prevalences, and relative risks for dogs with NOAI (AI with no previous claim for hypercortisolism), were calculated for the whole dog population, and for subgroups divided by breed and sex. Mortality rates were calculated and compared in dogs with NOAI and the remaining dogs overall. In total 534 dogs were identified with NOAI. The overall incidence was 2.3 cases per 10,000 DYAR. The relative risk of disease was significantly higher in the Portuguese Water Dog, Standard Poodle, Bearded Collie, Cairn Terrier, and Cocker Spaniel compared with other breeds combined. Female dogs overall were at higher risk of developing AI than male dogs (RR 1.85; 95% CI, 1.55-2.22; P dogs with NOAI than in dogs overall. The data supports the existence of breed-specific differences in incidence rates of NOAI in dogs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Dog ownership and dog walking to promote physical activity and health in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Jacqueline N

    2011-07-01

    Lack of physical activity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases and conditions and is associated with significant medical costs. Approximately half of adults and more than a third of adolescents and youth in the United States do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Effective population-level strategies are needed to promote activities that are practical, accessible, and sustainable and that can reach a large proportion of the population. Dog walking may be such a strategy. Walking is popular, easy, and sustainable and has a low risk of injury. Owning dogs confers many health benefits, and dog walking, in particular, can help promote physical activity and improve health. Physicians and other health care providers can play a unique and integral role in promoting physical activity among patients by recommending dog walking both to dog owners and to non-dog owners as a purposeful, enjoyable, and sustainable form of regular physical activity.

  2. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  3. The cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume: a comparative study between beagle dogs and mongrel dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sheng; Shi Haibin; Hu Weixing; Zu Qingquan; Lu Shanshan; Xu Xiaoquan; Sun Lei; Li Linsun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the differences of cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume between beagle and mongrel dogs by using angiography and MR scanning. Methods: A total of 40 dogs, including 20 beagle dogs (beagle group) and 20 mongrel dogs (mongrel group), were enrolled in this study. Under general anesthesia, all dogs were examined with cerebral angiography and MR scanning. The cerebrovascular structure was evaluated with angiography via selective catheterization of aortic arch, bilateral external cerebral arteries (ECA), maxillary arteries, internal cerebral arteries (ICA) and vertebral arteries separately. The diameters of the ICA, middle cerebral artery (MCA), rostral cerebral artery (RCA), the anastomosis channel ICA and ECA, and basilar artery (BA) were measured at the similar point of each dog. Meanwhile the volumes of the brain tissue were calculated in coronal T2 view of MR scanning. The statistical analysis was performed among the weight of dogs, the diameter of arteries and the volume of brain tissue. The differences in the diameters and brain tissue volume were compared between the two groups. Results: No obvious variations in the cerebrovascular structure and brain tissue volume were found in these dogs. One mongrel dog was excluded from this study because of the severe stenosis of ICA. The mean weight of 20 beagle dogs and 19 mongrel dogs was (12.81±1.29) kg and (12.85±1.12) kg, respectively. The diameters of the ICA, MCA, RCA, the anastomosis channel between ICA and ECA and BA in beagle group were (1.26±0.07) mm, (0.90±0.05) mm, (0.58±0.07) mm, (0.55±0.07) mm and (0.95±0.06) mm, respectively. These parameters in mongrel group were (1.27±0.07) mm, (0.92±0.05) mm, (0.59±0.06) mm, (0.67±0.07) mm and (0.94±0.05) mm, respectively. The volume of brain in two groups was (76232.33±5018.51) mm 3 and (71863.96±4626.87) mm 3 , respectively. There were no obvious correlation among the body weight, the cerebrovascular diameters and brain

  4. Beware of the dog? An observational study of dog-related musculoskeletal injury in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, H; Greenheld, N; Goddard, R

    2012-05-01

    Although owning a dog confers numerous health benefits, dogs can cause falls resulting in musculoskeletal injury and fractures. We conducted a prospective observational study over a two-month period to investigate the incidence and epidemiology of dog-related musculoskeletal injury. All patients attending the Emergency Department, trauma ward or fracture clinic were asked whether their injury was caused by a dog. Thirty-seven patients were identified. There were 26 fractures, 10 soft-tissue injuries and one head injury. Seventeen patients were admitted to the hospital and sixteen cases required an operation. Older people were statistically more likely to sustain a fracture (p=0.0003) or require hospital admission (p=0.02). Mechanisms of injury are discussed and can be classified into direct or indirectly caused by the dog. The most common injury mechanism was being pulled over by a dog on a lead. Injury avoidance strategies are discussed. We conclude that dogs are a potential hazard, particularly to the elderly and the morbidity associated with these injuries may offset the health benefits conferred by dog ownership. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. VARIABILITY IN THE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE PANCREAS IN HEALTHY DOGS COMPARED TO DOGS WITH HYPERADRENOCORTICISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, L Abbigail; Hilferty, Michael; Francis, Taylor; Steiner, Jörg M; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally, an unusually hyperechoic pancreas can be found in seemingly healthy dogs on ultrasound examination and the prevalence and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in healthy dogs and correlate these findings to weight, age, and body condition score (BCS). An additional objective was to describe the prevalence of a hyperechoic and/or heterogenous pancreas in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and compare this to the healthy dogs. Pancreata of 74 healthy dogs were evaluated prospectively and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were graded. Each dog's age, BCS, and weight were recorded. Dogs were screened for health by physical examination, serum chemistry panel, urine specific gravity, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity assay. Pancreatic images for 92 dogs having hyperadrenocorticism were also reviewed and pancreatic echogenicity and echotexture were recorded. The prevalence of pancreatic hyperechogenicity in normal dogs was 7% (5 of 74) and heterogeneity was 40% (30 of 74). No correlation existed between pancreatic echogenicity and weight, age, or BCS (P > 0.1 for all sets). A statistically significant increase in the proportion of dogs having a hyperechoic pancreas was found in the hyperadrenocorticism sample of dogs (40%, 37 of 92, P pancreas in these samples confounds interpretation of diseases such as chronic pancreatitis. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  7. Demyelinating polyneuropathy with focally folded myelin sheaths in a family of Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Couturier, Jérôme; Cauzinille, Laurent; Mizisin, Andrew P; Shelton, G Diane; Granger, Nicolas

    2008-12-15

    A spontaneous demyelinating polyneuropathy in two young Miniature Schnauzer dogs was characterized clinically, electrophysiologically and histopathologically. Both dogs were related and a third dog, belonging to the same family, had similar clinical signs. On presentation, clinical signs were restricted to respiratory dysfunction. Electrophysiological tests showed a dramatic decrease in both motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities. Microscopic examination of peripheral nerve biopsies (light and electron microscopy, teased nerve fibers), showed that this neuropathy was characterized by segmental demyelination and focally folded myelin sheaths. Various clinical syndromes associated with tomacula or focal thickening of the myelin sheath of the peripheral nerves have been described in humans and shown to be caused by gene mutations affecting the myelin proteins, such as the hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies or the demyelinating forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In animals, a tomaculous neuropathy has been reported in cattle and chickens but not in carnivores. Here we report a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy with tomacula in two Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

  8. Dogs with macroadenomas have lower body temperature and heart rate than dogs with microadenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchekroun, Ghita; Desquilbet, Loic; Herrtage, Michael E; Jeffery, Nick D; Rosenberg, Dan; Granger, Nicolas

    2017-09-01

    Pituitary macroadenomas compress the hypothalamus, which partly regulates heart rate and body temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heart rate and/or body temperature could aid in clinically differentiating dogs with macroadenomas from dogs with microadenomas (i.e. small non-compressive pituitary mass). Two groups of dogs diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (i.e. Cushing's disease) were included. Heart rate and body temperature were collected on initial presentation before any procedure. Dogs with macroadenoma had a significantly lower heart rate and body temperature (Pdogs with microadenoma. We suggest that the combined cut-off values of 84 beats per minutes and 38.3°C in dogs with Cushing's disease, especially with vague neurological signs (nine of 12 dogs=75%), might help to suspect the presence of a macroadenoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do dogs live in joint families? Understanding allo-parental care in free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of altruistic cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors, but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding biology of dogs. We conducted a five year long study on parental care of free-ranging dog...

  10. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  11. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  12. Sleep aid toxicosis in dogs: 317 cases (2004-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Adam R; Lee, Justine A; Hovda, Lynn R; Hardy, Brian T; Miyahara, Lee X; Martin, Elizabeth P; Whelan, Megan F

    2011-12-01

    To summarize the signalment, clinical signs observed, time to onset of clinical signs, duration of clinical signs, and the outcome in a large case series of nonbenzodiazepine sleep aid ingestions in dogs, including 2 sleep aids that have not been previously described in the veterinary literature. Retrospective study conducted between 2004 and 2010. An animal poison control center based out of Bloomington, MN. During this time frame, 453 cases were identified involving 467 dogs. Of these cases, 150 cases were excluded due to incomplete medical records, multipet households, or the inability to calculate a dose exposure. A total of 317 dogs with presumed sleep aid medication toxicosis were included. None. Records of dogs with sleep aid medication toxicosis identified by a review of an animal poison control center electronic database were evaluated. The most common sleep aid medications ingested were zolpidem (240/317 [75.7%]), eszopiclone (62/317 [19.5%]), and zaleplon (15/317 [4.7%]). Overall, clinical signs developed in 36% of patients (115/317), while 64% (202/317) remained asymptomatic. The most common organ systems affected and clinical signs seen involved the central nervous system (eg, agitation, sedation) and gastrointestinal tract (eg, anorexia, hypersalivation, vomiting). Overall, the prognosis for dogs with sleep aid medication toxicosis was excellent, and no fatalities were reported in this clinical population. As significant clinical signs can still be seen with ingestion, appropriate decontamination is warranted in asymptomatic patients via emesis or gastric lavage, followed by activated charcoal administration. Symptomatic patients should be hospitalized for monitoring and supportive care for a minimum of 12 hours or until clinical signs resolve. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  13. The Blue Dog: evaluation of an interactive software program to teach young children how to interact safely with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Davis, Aaron L; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Pre-post-randomized design evaluated The Blue Dog, a dog safety software program. 76 children aged 3.5-6 years completed 3 tasks to evaluate dog safety pre- and postintervention: (a) pictures (recognition of safe/risky behavior), (b) dollhouse (recall of safe behavior via simulated dollhouse scenarios), and (c) live dog (actual behavior with unfamiliar live dog). Following preintervention evaluation, children were randomly assigned to dog or fire safety conditions, each involving 3 weeks of home computer software use. Children using Blue Dog had greater change in recognition of risky dog situations than children learning fire safety. No between-group differences emerged in recall (dollhouse) or engagement (live-dog) in risky behavior. Families enjoyed using the software. Blue Dog taught children knowledge about safe engagement with dogs, but did not influence recall or implementation of safe behaviors. Dog bites represent a significant pediatric injury concern and continued development of effective interventions is needed.

  14. Quantified Dog: Supporting Dog Health through Persuasive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hanell, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    In collaboration with HappyTail, a Swedish company developing a mobile application for dog owners, this qualitative research study examines and identifies important factors, for developers or other stakeholders, to have in mind when developing mobile applications that aim to support dog health. According to behavioural scientists, there needs to be a bridge between health themed mobile applications and behavioural change theories in order to achieve desirable results. Therefore, literature on...

  15. From sniffer dogs to emerging sniffer devices for airport security: an opportunity to rethink privacy implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Matteo E

    2014-09-01

    Dogs are known for their incredible ability to detect odours, extracting them from a "complex" environment and recognising them. This makes sniffer dogs precious assets in a broad variety of security applications. However, their use is subject to some intrinsic restrictions. Dogs can only be trained to a limited set of applications, get tired after a relatively short period, and thus require a high turnover. This has sparked a drive over the past decade to develop artificial sniffer devices-generally known as "chemical sniffers" or "electronic noses"-able to complement and possibly replace dogs for some security applications. Such devices have been already deployed, or are intended to be deployed, at borders, airports and other critical installation security checkpoints. Similarly to dogs, they are adopted for detecting residual traces that indicate either the presence of, or recent contact with, substances like drugs and explosives. It goes without saying that, as with sniffer dogs, the use of artificial sniffer devices raises many sensitive issues. Adopting an ethical and legal perspective, the present paper discusses the privacy and data protection implications of the possible deployment of a hand-held body scanning sniffer for screening passengers at EU airport security checkpoints.

  16. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  17. Jealousy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  18. Evaluation of the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking (Dogs PAW) Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Ogata, Niwako; Cheng, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance, promotion of innovative population-level strategies that focus on incorporating moderate-intensity lifestyle PAs are needed. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking intervention, a 3-month, social cognitive theory (SCT), e-mail-based PA intervention. In a longitudinal, repeated-measures design, 49 dog owners were randomly assigned to a control (n = 25) or intervention group (n = 24). The intervention group received e-mail messages (twice weekly for 4 weeks and weekly for 8 weeks) designed to influence SCT constructs of self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and expectancies, and social support. At baseline and every 3 months through 1 year, participants completed self-reported questionnaires of individual, interpersonal, and PA variables. Linear mixed models were used to assess for significant differences in weekly minutes of dog walking and theoretical constructs between groups (intervention and control) across time. To test self-efficacy as a mediator of social support for dog walking, tests for mediation were conducted using the bootstrapping technique. With the exception of Month 9, participants in the intervention group accumulated significantly more weekly minutes of dog walking than the control group. On average, the intervention group accumulated 58.4 more minutes (SD = 18.1) of weekly dog walking than the control group (p dog walking. Results indicate that a simple SCT-based e-mail intervention is effective in increasing and maintaining an increase in dog walking among dog owners at 12-month follow-up. In light of these findings, it may be advantageous to design dog walking interventions that focus on increasing self-efficacy for dog walking by fostering social support.

  19. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cimarelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to Owner Warmth, Owner Social Support and Owner Control. Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in Owner Warmth and in Owner Social Support and higher in Owner Control than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in Owner Control scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in Owner Social Support scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs´ reaction to an unfamiliar woman’s threatening approach was associated with the owners’ interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in Owner Warmth, as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety.

  20. Dog Owners' Interaction Styles: Their Components and Associations with Reactions of Pet Dogs to a Social Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarelli, Giulia; Turcsán, Borbála; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Virányi, Zsófia

    2016-01-01

    The bond dogs develop with their owner received increased attention in the last years but no study aimed at characterizing the way in which owners interact with their dogs in their daily life and how this might influence dog behavior. In order to examine how dog owners interact with their dogs, we first analyzed the behavior of 220 dog owners in 8 different standardized situations involving the owner-dog dyad. We extracted 3 behavioral factors related to " Owner Warmth ," " Owner Social Support ," and " Owner Control ." Further, we investigated whether owner personality, gender and age are associated with these three factors. Results indicated that older owners scored lower in " Owner Warmth " and in " Owner Social Support " and higher in " Owner Control " than younger owners. Furthermore, owners scoring high in " Owner Control " scored lower in the personality trait Openness and owners scoring high in " Owner Social Support " scored lower in the personality trait Conscientiousness. Finally, we also analyzed whether the dogs' reaction to an unfamiliar woman's threatening approach was associated with the owners' interaction styles. Results showed that dogs that searched for proximity of their owners during the threatening situation had owners scoring higher in " Owner Warmth ," as compared to dogs that reacted more autonomously, approaching the unfamiliar experimenter. Analogies between dog-owner interaction styles and human parenting styles are discussed considering the implications of the present findings for human social psychology as well as the practical relevance for dog welfare and human safety.

  1. [Comparison of fluoride concentrations in human, dog, fox and raccoon dog bones from northwestern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewska-Komsa, Mirona

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the XXth there has been a constant increase in fluoride (F-) emissions into the environment, mainly due to the development of industry, the fluoridation of drinking water, and the widespread use of toothpaste containing fluoride. All these factors have resulted in an intensive accumulation of F- in the bodies of vertebrates, mainly in their bones. It is therefore reasonable to estimate the F- concentration in humans and other long-lived mammals. Accordingly, ecotoxicologists worldwide have looked for mammalian species that may serve as good bioindicators of environmental fluoride pollution. In contrast to ungulates, long-lived domestic mammals and wild carnivores have rarely been used for this purpose (including the dog, fox and raccoon dog). The main aims of this study were to: 1) investigate F- concentrations in bones obtained from humans, dog, fox and raccoon dog from northwestern Poland, 2) perform intra- and inter-specific comparisons of F- concentrations in the studied mammalian bones against the background of environmental and living conditions, 3) examine the relationship between concentrations of F- in bones and the age or age category of the studied mammals. The study material comprised bones of the hip joint obtained from 36 patients who underwent hip replacement in Szczecin, 43 dogs from Szczecin veterinary clinics, 32 foxes and 18 raccoon dogs provided by hunters, with the whole test material consisting of 129 samples. The indications of F- (using potentiometry with Thermo Orion ion-selective electrodes) were performed in triplicate. The F- concentration was expressed on a dry weight basis. Interspecific analysis showed that the largest number of differences in the concentrations of F- were between the fox and raccoon, and then between the dog and fox, and then between the dog and the wild canids (foxes and raccoon dogs together). Close statistically significant differences were also found between the samples from humans and the

  2. Differential mitochondrial DNA and gene expression in inherited retinal dysplasia in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, Greg D; Forsyth, George W; Kiehlbauch, Laura M; Sigfrid, Kristen N; Hanik, Heather L J; Quon, Anita; Loewen, Matthew E; Grahn, Bruce H

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the molecular basis of inherited retinal dysplasia in miniature Schnauzers. Retina and retinal pigment epithelial tissues were collected from canine subjects at the age of 3 weeks. Total RNA isolated from these tissues was reverse transcribed to make representative cDNA pools that were compared for differences in gene expression by using a subtractive hybridization technique referred to as representational difference analysis (RDA). Expression differences identified by RDA were confirmed and quantified by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Mitochondrial morphology from leukocytes and skeletal muscle of normal and affected miniature Schnauzers was examined by transmission electron microscopy. RDA screening of retinal pigment epithelial cDNA identified differences in mRNA transcript coding for two mitochondrial (mt) proteins--cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6--in affected dogs. Contrary to expectations, these identified sequences did not contain mutations. Based on the implication of mt-DNA-encoded proteins by the RDA experiments we used real-time PCR to compare the relative amounts of mt-DNA template in white blood cells from normal and affected dogs. White blood cells of affected dogs contained less than 30% of the normal amount of two specific mtDNA sequences, compared with the content of the nuclear-encoded glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA-3-PDH) reference gene. Retina and RPE tissue from affected dogs had reduced mRNA transcript levels for the two mitochondrial genes detected in the RDA experiment. Transcript levels for another mtDNA-encoded gene as well as the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial Tfam transcription factor were reduced in these tissues in affected dogs. Mitochondria from affected dogs were reduced in number and size and were unusually electron dense. Reduced levels of nuclear and mitochondrial transcripts in the retina and RPE of miniature Schnauzers affected with retinal dysplasia suggest that

  3. How to Know whether a Dog is Dangerous: Myth, Superstition and its Influence on the Human-dog Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kovačič

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between humans and dogs is complex and ambivalent. The dog was the first animal that Homo sapiens domesticated. This means that the human-dog relationship has lasted longer than any other human-animal relationships. Despite all this, mythological, symbolic and folkloristic traditions often depict dogs in a negative light and as a dangerous and threatening force from the underworld. Due to the belief that seeing an unknown dog can lead to misfortune, accident or even death, people were often afraid of dogs. People had to invent certain rules that could help them determine which dog was dangerous and which was not. Those rules had to change over time based on the fact that human-dog relationship is culturally and historically defined. The author analyses stories from in the Glasovi (Voices collection to show that, in the last few centuries in the territory of modern Slovenia, black dogs where most feared by humans. In contrast, nowadays the most feared dogs are those of the Pit Bull and some other breeds. Nevertheless, the folk superstitions and prejudice toward black dogs is still present in modern Western societies. In the English language “black dog” symbolizes depression. And some are still reluctant to adopt large black dogs from the animal shelters.

  4. Immunoglobulin G responses to Malassezia pachydermatis in healthy dogs and dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R; Lloyd, D H

    2002-04-20

    Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses of healthy dogs and dogs with Malasseziapachydermatis dermatitis were compared by Western immunoblotting. M pachydermatis CBS 1879 was disrupted mechanically and its proteins were separated and blotted on to nitrocellulose membranes before being incubated with sera from eight healthy beagles, eight Irish setters with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, 15 healthy basset hounds, and 30 dogs with Mpachydermatis-associated dermatitis, 20 of which were basset hounds. The mean (se) numbers of bands of immunoreactivity observed in the seborrhoeic basset hounds (10.7 [0.4]) and affected mixed-breed dogs (9.4 [0.9]) were significantly greater than in the beagles (3-0 [1.0]), Irish setters (5.5 [1.1]) and healthy basset hounds (5.6 [0.7]). The number of bands identified was correlated (r(s) = 0.76, P dogs were immunoreactive towards the 132, 66 and 50 to 54 kDa proteins and the affected dogs were also usually reactive towards the 219, 110, 71 and 42 kDa proteins.

  5. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  6. Buster-Jangle Shot Dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.

    1987-01-01

    Shot Dog of the Buster-Jangle Series used a device which had a high-explosive configuration virtually identical to that of the Nagasaki bomb, though with different fissionable components. Dog was detonated at a height of 431.9 m with the mean atmospheric conditions between burst and ground being dry air density 1.027 mg/cc and atmospheric moisture density 0.006 mg/cc. The ground was taken to be that of Nevada test site (NTS) area 9 with a water content of 8% by weight. The yield of the weapon was 21 kt. Results shown here for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog have been scaled from those calculated for Ranger Shot Fox. The design features and burst geometries of the two devices were deemed sufficiently similar to make this substitution in the absence of a radiation leakage spectrum calculated explicitly for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog. However, while the relative atmospheric contents of the two shots were very similar, Shot Fox took place in air of approximately 10% greater density than Shot Dog. Thus, scaled calculated results could not be obtained to compare with the three closest measurement points at Shot Dog

  7. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Recombinant rabies virus expressing dog GM-CSF is an efficacious oral rabies vaccine for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Songqin; Wang, Zhao; Ruan, Juncheng; Tang, Lijun; Jia, Ziming; Cui, Min; Zhao, Ling; Fu, Zhen F

    2015-11-17

    Developing efficacious oral rabies vaccines is an important step to increase immunization coverage for stray dogs, which are not accessible for parenteral vaccination. Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing cytokines/chemokines induces robust protective immune responses after oral immunization in mice by recruiting and activating dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells. To develop an effective oral rabies vaccine for dogs, a recombinant attenuated RABV expressing dog GM-CSF, designated as LBNSE-dGM-CSF was constructed and used for oral vaccination in a dog model. Significantly more DCs or B cells were activated in the peripheral blood of dogs vaccinated orally with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than those vaccinated with the parent virus LBNSE, particularly at 3 days post immunization (dpi). As a result, significantly higher levels of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) were detected in dogs immunized with LBNSE-dGM-CSF than with the parent virus. All the immunized dogs were protected against a lethal challenge with 4500 MICLD50 of wild-type RABV SXTYD01. LBNSE-dGM-CSF was found to replicate mainly in the tonsils after oral vaccination as detected by nested RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, our results indicate that LBNSE-dGM-CSF could be a promising oral rabies vaccine candidate for dogs.

  9. A survey of risk factors for digit injuries among dogs training and competing in agility events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, Debra C; Martucci, Katherine; Wenz, John R; Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Powers, Michelle; Cullen, Kimberley L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify potential risk factors for digit injuries in dogs training and competing in agility events. DESIGN Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. ANIMALS 1,081 dogs training or competing in agility events. PROCEDURES Data were collected for eligible animals via retrospective surveys distributed electronically to handlers of dogs participating in agility-related activities. Variables evaluated included demographic (handlers) and signalment (dogs) information, physical characteristics of dogs, and injury characteristics. A separate survey of dogs competing in similar agility-related activities but without digit injuries was also administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a model for assessment of risk factors. RESULTS Data were collected from 207 agility dogs with digit injuries and 874 agility dogs without digit injuries. Factors associated with significantly increased odds of injury included Border Collie breed (OR, 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 3.3), long nails (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.5), absence of front dewclaws (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6), and greater weight-to-height ratio (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0). Odds of injury decreased with increasing age of the dog (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results should be cautiously interpreted because of potential respondent and recall bias and lack of review of medical records. Nevertheless, results suggested that retaining healthy dewclaws, maintaining lean body mass, and trimming nails short for training and competition may decrease the likelihood of digit injuries. Research to investigate training practices, obstacle construction specifcations, and surface considerations for dogs competing in agility activities is indicated.

  10. Contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Woodroffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches--including no intervention--which are most appropriate for each pathogen.

  11. Contact with Domestic Dogs Increases Pathogen Exposure in Endangered African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, Rosie; Prager, Katherine C.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic) “reservoir” hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. Conclusions/Significance These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches – including no intervention – which are most appropriate for each pathogen. PMID:22238695

  12. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  13. Survey-based analysis of risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility training and competition events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kimberley L; Dickey, James P; Bent, Leah R; Thomason, Jeffrey J; Moëns, Noel M M

    2013-10-01

    To identify potential risk factors for agility-related injuries among dogs. Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. 3,801 privately owned dogs participating in agility training or trials. A retrospective electronic survey was used to investigate potential risk factors for injury among dogs participating in agility-related activities. Respondents were handlers recruited through member lists of large canine agility associations in Canada and the United Kingdom and through promotion on an agility blog site. Variables evaluated included demographic information for handlers and dogs, exposure variables (eg, frequency of agility practice and competition in the past year), and use of preventive measures intended to keep dogs fit for agility (warmup, cooldown, or conditioning exercises; alternative therapeutic treatments [eg, acupuncture, massage, or chiropractic care]; or dietary supplement products). Data were collected from 1,669 handlers of 3,801 agility dogs internationally; 1,209 (32%) dogs incurred ≥ 1 injury. Previous injury (OR, 100.5), ≤ 4 years of agility experience for dogs (OR, 1.5), use of alternative therapeutic treatments (OR, 1.5), and Border Collie breed (OR, 1.7) were associated with increased odds of injury. Handlers having 5 to 10 or > 10 years of experience (OR, 0.8 and 0.6, respectively) and dogs having > 4 years of experience in the sport (OR, 0.6) were associated with decreased odds of injury. Specific factors were associated with agility-related injuries in dogs. Educational prevention strategies should target at-risk populations in an effort to reduce potential injuries. Future research should focus on the biomechanical factors associated with agility-related injuries.

  14. Juvenile cellulitis in dogs: 15 cases (1979-1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S D; Rosychuk, R A; Stewart, L J; Cape, L; Hughes, B J

    1989-12-01

    The records of 15 dogs diagnosed as having juvenile cellulitis (juvenile pyoderma, puppy strangles) were evaluated for clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic results. Mandibular lymphadenopathy was observed in 14 dogs, and was not associated with skin lesions in 5 dogs. Edema, pustules, papules, or crusts were noticed periorally, periocularly, on the chin or muzzle, or in the ears of those dogs with skin lesions. Eight dogs were lethargic; fever and anorexia were inconsistent findings. Four dogs had signs of pain on manipulation of their joints. Complete blood counts revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia in 4 dogs, and normocytic, normochromic anemia in 6 dogs. Three dogs had suppurative lymphadenitis with many neutrophils. Cytology of the aspirate of pustules or abscesses in 6 dogs revealed many neutrophils without bacteria. Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp were isolated from draining lesions in 2 dogs. Intact abscesses and lymph nodes were negative for bacterial growth in 4 dogs. Three of these dogs were being administered antibiotics at the time of bacterial culturing. Cytology of the aspirates of joints in 3 of the 4 dogs with joint pain revealed suppurative arthritis with no bacteria, and the aspirates were negative for bacterial growth on culturing, although all 3 dogs were being administered antibiotics at the time of culturing. Of 12 dogs initially treated with antibiotics, only 4 (33%) responded favorably; the other 8 dogs were then given antibiotics and corticosteroids. Three dogs were initially given antibiotics and corticosteroids. All dogs treated concurrently with antibiotics and corticosteroids responded favorably. One of these dogs had a relapse after treatment was discontinued. The concurrent arthritis in 4 of the dogs resolved with treatment of the juvenile cellulitis and did not redevelop once the medication was discontinued. Concurrent treatment with antibiotics (cephalosporins) and prednisone (2.2 mg/kg of body weight/day) was the most

  15. Svetlana Suktueva, The Dog in Kalmyk Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Terbish, Baasanjav

    2015-01-01

    If a dog comes to your house, it is forbidden to chase it away or kill it. There is a belief that such dogs are the reincarnation of your ancestors. Such dogs should be fed and taken care of. The Kalmyks are superstitious about dogs. In Kalmykia there are three types of dog, (1) barg noha or watchdogs, (2) shurg noha or hounds, and (3) gavsh noha or mongrels. Watchdogs are considered to be helpers of herders. These dogs are also referred to as ‘dogs with 4 eyes’ (because they have spots abov...

  16. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Christley, Robert M; Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog-owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as "for the dog", however, owners represented their dog's needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of "happiness", but these were "contingent" on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the "significant other" of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing.

  18. Behavioral and physiological reactions in dogs to a veterinary examination: Owner-dog interactions improve canine well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoltova, Erika; Martineau, Michaël; Boissy, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve well-being of dogs during veterinary visits, we aimed to investigate the effect of human social interactions on behavior and physiology during routine examination. Firstly, we assessed the impact of a standardized veterinary examination on behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in dogs. Secondly, we examined whether the owner's tactile and verbal interactions with the dog influenced behavioral and physiological stress-associated parameters. A randomized within-subjects crossover design was used to examine behavior (n=33), rectal temperature (n=33), heart rate (HR) (n=18), maximal ocular surface temperature (max OST) (n=13) and salivary cortisol concentrations (n=10) in healthy privately owned pet dogs. The study consisted of two experimental conditions: a) "contact" - owner petting and talking to the dog during the examination; b) "non-contact" - owner present during the examination but not allowed to interact with the dog. Our findings showed that the veterinary examinations produced acute stress responses in dogs during both "contact" and "non-contact" conditions, with significant increases in lip licking, HR, and max OST. A significant decrease in attempts to jump off the examination table (p=0.002) was observed during the examination in the "contact" compared to the "non-contact" condition. In addition, interactions of owners showed an attenuating effect on HR (p=0.018) and max OST (p=0.011) in their dogs. The testing order (first vs. second visit) had no impact on behavioral and physiological parameters, suggesting that dogs did not habituate or sensitize to the examination procedure. Moreover, the duration of the owner-dog interactions had no significant impact on the behavioral and physiological responses of their dogs. This study demonstrates that owner-dog interactions improve the well-being of dogs during a veterinary examination. Future research may assist in further understanding the mechanisms associated with reducing

  19. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)

  20. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  1. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  2. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in the Brown Dog Tick and Domestic Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Batah Kunalan; Low, Van Lun; Tan, Tiong Kai; Vinnie-Siow, Wei Yin; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Morvarid, Akhavan Rezaei; Azman, Adzzie Shazleen; Yeong, Yze Shiuan; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2018-05-17

    Hepatozoon canis has been widely reported in dogs. Its prevalence in ticks, however, has not been well-established. Here we determine the occurrence of Hepatozoon DNA in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) sensu lato (s.l.) and domestic dogs from Peninsular Malaysia using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on amplification of the 18S ribosomal RNA coding sequence. Our results revealed a relatively low prevalence of H. canis DNA in both R. sanguineus s.l. (0.7%) and dogs (3.33%). This study represents the first report of H. canis DNA in R. sanguineus s.l. in Malaysia, highlighting the risk of this infection in dogs.

  3. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  4. Mandatory desexing of dogs: one step in the right direction to reduce the risk of dog bite? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onise, Katina; Hazel, Susan; Caraguel, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Preventing dog bites is an intractable problem given the complex dog bite injury environment. Desexing of dogs has the opportunity of creating a safer injury environment, given the potential links between desexing and behaviour change in dogs. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the evidence for desexing of dogs to reduce dog bite risk within a population health paradigm. Medline and CAB Abstracts were searched for studies that reported data on the association of dog neuter status with the risk of dog bite. All definitions of dog bite were included and all empirical studies were included in the review, limited to those published in English. Quality appraisal and data extraction were based on the 2013 evidence-based practice and critical appraisal tool from the University of Auckland. Five out of six observational studies, from four study populations found evidence that intact dogs were associated with an increased risk of dog bite compared with desexed dogs. The effect sizes ranged across the studies and given the heterogeneity of the studies no single effect size on the association between desexing and dog bite risk could be estimated. There is consistent evidence that desexing dogs is associated with a reduced risk of dog bite, although the studies reflect association and may not be causal. Although recent publications have suggested desexing is associated with health and behavioural costs in some breeds, population level evidence supports desexed dogs having a longer lifespan, and being less likely to wander with the added benefit of reducing unwanted litters. Thus, mandatory desexing presents a possible opportunity for prevention of dog bites expanding dog bite prevention beyond an education-only approach. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Assessment of tear film osmolarity using the TearLab™ osmometer in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Lionel; Park, Shin Ae; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J; Attar, Mayssa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of tear osmolarity measured using the TearLab ™ osmometer in normal dogs and to assess its diagnostic potential in dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Beagle dogs; six normal and five with KCS. Tear osmolarity and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) values were obtained at various times. Normal dogs were assessed for diurnal variation and repeatability and reproducibility of measurements. Dogs with KCS were evaluated before and after 5 months' topical twice-daily therapy with 2% cyclosporine. Mean ± SD tear osmolarity (mOsm/L) was significantly higher in normal dogs (337.4 ± 16.2) than in dogs with KCS before therapy (306.2 ± 18.0; P dogs, tear osmolarity readings were stable during the daytime (P = 0.99). Repeated measurements revealed high variability and typically poor-to-moderate repeatability and reproducibility, although this was improved by taking three successive measurements at each session. Considering combined data from all dogs, a positive correlation existed between STT-1 and tear osmolarity measurements (Pearson's correlation test, P = 0.04, r = 0.62). Canine tear osmolarity as determined by TearLab ™ osmometer was variable, required multiple readings to be informative, and differed from values reported for humans. Dogs with KCS had a lower tear osmolarity than did normal dogs, and this increased following cyclosporine therapy. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Renal function after prolonged hypotensive anesthesia and surgery in dogs with reduced renal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A; Rawlings, C A; Finco, D R; Crowell, W A

    1981-10-01

    The effect of prolonged hypotensive anesthesia and surgery on renal function was studied in 8 dogs with decreased renal mass. Renal mass was reduced by unilateral nephrectomy and ligation of 4 of the 6 terminal renal artery branches of the opposite kidney. One week after reduction in renal mass, the dogs were azotemic with a serum urea nitrogen (SUN) value of 65.8 +/- 11.5 mg/dl. Glomerular filtration rate, as estimated by 14C-inulin clearance, was 0.66 +/- 0.19 ml/kg of body weight/hour. A mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mm of Hg was maintained for 4 hours in dogs given 2.3 +/- 0.7% halothane. An exploratory laparotomy lasting 1 hour was performed. The day after the hypotensive episode, 3 dogs began vomiting, became dehydrated, and had SUN values greater than 100 mg/dl. The SUN values returned to base-line values after the dogs were rehydrated. Eight days after the hypotensive episode, 14C-inulin clearance decreased 15.2 +/- 8.2% (P less than 0.005) compared with base-line clearance values. Light microscopic and electron microscopic observations of the kidneys did not demonstrate acute renal failure. Prolonged hypotensive anesthesia can cause a decrease in renal function, and may cause prerenal uremia and/or acute renal failure.

  7. Pulmonary mineralization in four dogs with Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Ackerman, N.; Monce, K.

    1994-01-01

    The clinical and imaging features of four dogs with Cushing's syndrome and pulmonary mineralization are reviewed. Three dogs presented with a primary complaint of respiratory distress/dyspnea. Three dogs had pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome, while the remaining one dog had iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Each dog had clinical features typical for Cushing's syndrome. Two of the dogs were euthanized due to progressive hypoxemia. In each dog, the serum calcium, phosphorous, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were normal. A generalized increase in unstructured interstitial pulmonary opacity with diffuse mineralization was noted on thoracic radiographs of all dogs. In one dog, an ill-defined nodular interstitial pattern of mineralization was present. Delayed bone phase scintigraphy using 99m Technetium methylene diphosphonate documented generalized pulmonary uptake in two dogs. 99m Technetium labeled microaggregated albumin lung perfusion scans were normal in these two dogs. 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy can provide useful information in diagnosing pulmonary mineralization in Cushingoid dogs

  8. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  9. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  10. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research... dog(s); or (3) Any dog exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and period of providing...

  11. Assistance Dogs: Historic Patterns and Roles of Dogs Placed by ADI or IGDF Accredited Facilities and by Non-Accredited U.S. Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sandra; Yamamoto, Mariko; Thigpen, Abigail Paige; Garcia, Anaissa; Willits, Neil H; Hart, Lynette A

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' roles to support people with disabilities are increasing. Existing U.S. laws and regulations pertaining to the use of dogs for people with disabilities are only minimally enforced. Pushback legislation against some aspects of uses of assistance dogs currently is being passed or proposed in several states. Further, the U.S. Department of the Army and the Veterans' Administration support only dogs trained by an Assistance Dogs International (ADI) or International Guide Dog Federation (IGDF) accredited facility. Lacking a mandatory national process for screening the selection, training, and placement of assistance dogs with persons who have disabilities, the U.S. offers a creative but confusing opportunity for people to train their own dogs for any disability. While no U.S. surveillance system monitors assistance dogs, other countries generally have a legislated or regulatory process for approving assistance dogs or a cultural convention for obtaining dogs from accredited facilities. We conducted an online survey investigating current demographics of assistance dogs placed in 2013 and 2014 with persons who have disabilities, by facilities worldwide that are associated with ADI or IGDF and by some non-accredited U.S. facilities. Placement data from ADI and IGDF facilities revealed that in most countries aside from the U.S., guide dogs were by far the main type of assistance dog placed. In the U.S., there were about equal numbers of mobility and guide dogs placed, including many placed by large older facilities, along with smaller numbers of other types of assistance dogs. In non-accredited U.S. facilities, psychiatric dogs accounted for most placements. Dogs for families with an autistic child were increasing in all regions around the world. Of dog breeds placed, accredited facilities usually mentioned Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers, and sometimes, German Shepherd Dogs. The facilities bred their dogs in-house, or acquired them from certain breeders

  12. The response of guide dogs and pet dogs (Canis familiaris) to cues of human referential communication (pointing and gaze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittyerah, Miriam; Gaunet, Florence

    2009-03-01

    The study raises the question of whether guide dogs and pet dogs are expected to differ in response to cues of referential communication given by their owners; especially since guide dogs grow up among sighted humans, and while living with their blind owners, they still have interactions with several sighted people. Guide dogs and pet dogs were required to respond to point, point and gaze, gaze and control cues of referential communication given by their owners. Results indicate that the two groups of dogs do not differ from each other, revealing that the visual status of the owner is not a factor in the use of cues of referential communication. Both groups of dogs have higher frequencies of performance and faster latencies for the point and the point and gaze cues as compared to gaze cue only. However, responses to control cues are below chance performance for the guide dogs, whereas the pet dogs perform at chance. The below chance performance of the guide dogs may be explained by a tendency among them to go and stand by the owner. The study indicates that both groups of dogs respond similarly in normal daily dyadic interaction with their owners and the lower comprehension of the human gaze may be a less salient cue among dogs in comparison to the pointing gesture.

  13. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lead intoxication in dogs: risk assessment of feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgåsen, Helga R; Ørnsrud, Robin; Knutsen, Helle K; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2016-07-25

    Expanding lead-based bullets, commonly used for hunting of big game, produce a scattering of lead particles in the carcass around the wound channel. Trimmings around this channel, which are sometimes fed to dogs, may contain lead particles. The aim of this study was to assess potential health effects of feeding dogs such trimmings. Lead ingestion most commonly causes gastrointestinal and neurological clinical signs, although renal, skeletal, haematological, cardiovascular and biochemical effects have also been reported. Experimental data indicate that a daily dose of around 1 mg lead as lead acetate/kg body weight for ten days may be considered as a Lowest Observed Effect Level in dogs. Acute toxicity documentation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates 300 mg/kg body weight as the lowest dose of lead acetate causing death in dogs after oral ingestion. Our assessment suggests that dogs fed trimmings of lead-shot game may be affected by the amounts of lead present, and that even deadly exposure could occasionally occur. The intestinal absorption of lead from bullets was assumed to be 10-80 % of that of lead acetate, reflecting both the variability in particle size and uncertainty about the bioavailability of metallic lead in dogs. Despite data gaps, this study indicates that feeding dogs trimmings of lead-shot game may represent a risk of lead intoxication. More research is needed to assess the exact consequences, if lead-based bullets are still to be used. Meanwhile, we recommend that trimmings close to the wound channel should be made inaccessible to dogs, as well as to other domestic or wild animals.

  15. Response of the mediastinal and thoracic viscera of the dog to intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.; Pass, H.; DeLuca, A.; Tochner, Z.; Potter, D.; Terrill, R.; Sindelar, W.F.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    IORT may be a potentially useful adjunctive treatment combined with surgery and/or external beam irradiation in treating locally advanced lung and esophageal tumors. To begin investigation of this modality, the tolerance of intact mediastinal structures to IORT was studied using adult American Foxhounds (wt. 25-30 kg). Groups of six animals received IORT to doses of 20, 30, or 40 Gy to two separate intrathoracic ports, using 9 MeV electrons to treat a portion of the collapsed right upper lobe, and 12 MeV electrons to treat the mediastinal structures. A group of three dogs received thoracotomy with sham irradiation. Two dogs from each treatment dose group, as well as one sham-irradiated control, were sacrificed electively at 1, 3, and 12 months following IORT. There were no acute nor late IORT related mortalities. Post-operative weight loss was minimal (average 4.5% of pre-operative weight) for all dogs. Serial esophagrams showed no inflammation or ulceration. No cardiac nor pulmonary changes were noted clinically. At autopsy, the irradiated lung showed evidence of acute pneumonitis at 1 month with progressive fibrosis at 3 months and 1 year. Esophageal reactions were minimal, with only two dogs (one 30 Gy and one 40 Gy) demonstrating histologically confirmed esophagitis at 1 month. Tracheal changes were minimal. Cardiac damage was evident in the right atrial tissues. In several dogs, this cardiac damage ranged from myocardial vascular changes to frank ischemic necrosis noted at 1 and 3 months, and dense fibrosis at 1 year. The phrenic nerves showed normal function, but had evidence of perineural fibrosis. The large vessels demonstrated only mild histologic evidence of irradiation. The results of this large animal study suggest that intact mediastinal structures will tolerate small volume IORT to doses of 20 Gy without significant clinical sequellae. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Response of the mediastinal and thoracic viscera of the dog to intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.; Pass, H.; DeLuca, A.; Tochner, Z.; Potter, D.; Terrill, R.; Sindelar, W.F.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1987-03-01

    IORT may be a potentially useful adjunctive treatment combined with surgery and/or external beam irradiation in treating locally advanced lung and esophageal tumors. To begin investigation of this modality, the tolerance of intact mediastinal structures to IORT was studied using adult American Foxhounds (wt. 25-30 kg). Groups of six animals received IORT to doses of 20, 30, or 40 Gy to two separate intrathoracic ports, using 9 MeV electrons to treat a portion of the collapsed right upper lobe, and 12 MeV electrons to treat the mediastinal structures. A group of three dogs received thoracotomy with sham irradiation. Two dogs from each treatment dose group, as well as one sham-irradiated control, were sacrificed electively at 1, 3, and 12 months following IORT. There were no acute nor late IORT related mortalities. Post-operative weight loss was minimal (average 4.5% of pre-operative weight) for all dogs. Serial esophagrams showed no inflammation or ulceration. No cardiac nor pulmonary changes were noted clinically. At autopsy, the irradiated lung showed evidence of acute pneumonitis at 1 month with progressive fibrosis at 3 months and 1 year. Esophageal reactions were minimal, with only two dogs (one 30 Gy and one 40 Gy) demonstrating histologically confirmed esophagitis at 1 month. Tracheal changes were minimal. Cardiac damage was evident in the right atrial tissues. In several dogs, this cardiac damage ranged from myocardial vascular changes to frank ischemic necrosis noted at 1 and 3 months, and dense fibrosis at 1 year. The phrenic nerves showed normal function, but had evidence of perineural fibrosis. The large vessels demonstrated only mild histologic evidence of irradiation. The results of this large animal study suggest that intact mediastinal structures will tolerate small volume IORT to doses of 20 Gy without significant clinical sequellae. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Feasibility and repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing in normal dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, Jessica D.; Williams, Morika D.; Freire, Mila; Griffith, Emily H.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.

    2015-01-01

    Feasibility and inter-session repeatability of cold and mechanical quantitative sensory testing (QST) were assessed in 24 normal dogs. Cold thermal latencies were evaluated using a thermal probe (0 °C) applied to three pelvic limb sites. Mechanical thresholds were measured using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer (EVF) and a blunt-probed pressure algometer (PA) applied to the dorsal aspect of the metatarsus. All QST trials were performed with dogs in lateral recumbency. Collection of cold QST data was easy (feasible) in 19/24 (79%) dogs. However, only 18.4%, 18.9% and 13.2% of cold QST trials elicited a response at the medial tibia, third digital pad and plantar metatarsal regions, respectively. Collection of mechanical QST data was easy (feasible) in 20/24 (83%) dogs for both EVF and PA. At consecutive sampling times, approximately 2 weeks apart, the average EVF sensory thresholds were 414 ± 186 g and 379 ± 166 g, respectively, and the average PA sensory thresholds were 1089 ± 414 g and 1028 ± 331 g, respectively. There was no significant difference in inter-session or inter-limb threshold values for either mechanical QST device. The cold QST protocol in this study was achievable, but did not provide consistently quantifiable results. Both mechanical QST devices tested provided repeatable, reliable sensory threshold measurements in normal, client-owned dogs. These findings contribute to the validation of the EVF and PA as tools to obtain repeated QST data over time in dogs to assess somatosensory processing changes. PMID:24268475

  18. Protection of dogs against canine heartworm infection 28 days after four monthly treatments with Advantage Multi® for Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D; Grazette, Alyssa R; Basel, Chris; Wang, Yingying; Hostetler, Joseph A

    2016-01-08

    Monthly heartworm preventives are designed to protect dogs by killing heartworms acquired the month prior to their administration, and after treatment with most products, the drug levels rapidly dissipate to very low levels. Work with Advantage Multi® for Dogs (imidacloprid + moxidectin) topical solution showed protection against hookworm infection throughout the month after administration of several monthly doses suggesting that similar protection might occur with heartworms. This study assessed the amount of protection afforded to dogs by the administration of four monthly doses of Advantage Multi for Dogs prior to infection with third-stage heartworm larvae (Dirofilaria immitis) 28 days after the last (fourth) treatment. There were 16 purpose-bred mongrel dogs in the study that were divided into two groups, 8 control and 8 treated dogs. Dogs were housed in a manner preventing contact between animals and groups, and personal protective gear worn by staff minimised the chance spread of the topically applied product between runs. The dogs in the treated group received monthly applications of Advantage Multi for Dogs as per label instructions on Study Days 0, 28, 56, and 84. On Study Day 112, all 16 dogs received 50 third-stage larvae of D. immitis ("Missouri" isolate) via subcutaneous inoculation in the inguinal region. The study was terminated on Day 264, and the number of heartworms per dog was determined at necropsy. Moxidectin levels after 4 treatments 28 days apart were near steady state on Study Day 112 when the dogs were inoculated with D. immitis third-stage larvae. At necropsy, 152 days after infection, all the control dogs had adult worms in their pulmonary arteries (geometric mean = 33.9; range 25-41), and none of the dogs treated four times prior to infection, with the last treatment 30 days prior to infection, harbored worms at necropsy. The efficacy of prevention was 100% when the dogs were infected 28 days after the last monthly treatment

  19. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, "it would not happen to me." We also identified an attitude that bites were "just one of those things," which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury

  20. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  1. Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Working Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S F; Wong, J Y; Khor, K H; Roslan, M A; Abdul Rahman, M S; Bejo, S K; Radzi, R; Bahaman, A R

    2017-12-01

    Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries. The duration of immunity in vaccinated dogs for Leptospira can last up to 13 months; however, there is no full crossprotection between the different serovars. Five representative canine units from different government agencies in Malaysia (n = 96 dogs) were recruited in this study. For detection, the microscopic agglutination test was performed by incubating the serum from dogs with various serovars of leptospires, namely, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Australis, Bataviae, Javanica, Tarassovi, Hebdomadis, Lai, and Pyrogenes. The plasma obtained was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, for the detection of 16S rRNA, and lipL 32 genes of Leptospira. Out of the 96 dogs sampled, only 3 dogs were positive toward serovars, Australis, Bataviae, and Javanica, based on the cutoff point at 1:80. The seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in this population was 3.1% (n = 3/96). However, all 96 blood samples of working dogs tested negative for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Leptospira genes. The results revealed that, by vaccination alone, working dogs were not fully protected against leptospirosis and could pose a risk to dog handlers. A preventative and control protocol for leptospirosis is warranted, and its implementation should be monitored and improved accordingly from time to time, in order to maintain a healthy condition in both working dogs and their

  2. Self-disclosure with dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Wilday, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...

  3. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses ofvillage dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    tIn Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisationof village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developedcountries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responsestowards familiar and

  5. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  6. Vestibulovaginal stenosis in dogs: 18 cases (1987-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyles, A E; Vaden, S; Hardie, E M; Stone, E A

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate vestibulovaginal stenosis in dogs. Retrospective study. 18 dogs with vestibulovaginal stenosis diagnosed between January 1987 and June 1995. Signalment, results of physical examination, and diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. Mean age at initial examination was 4.6 years. Problems reported by the owners included signs of chronic urinary tract infection (6 dogs), urinary incontinence (4), failure to mate (4), signs of chronic vaginitis (2), and inappropriate urination (1). One dog did not have evidence of a clinical problem. Vestibulovaginal stenosis was detected by means of digital vaginal examination (18/18 dogs), vaginoscopy (17/17 dogs), and positive-contrast vaginography (9/10 dogs). Bacteria were isolated from the urine of 11 of 15 dogs. Twelve of 18 dogs were treated. Manual dilation (4 dogs) and T-shaped vaginoplasty (4) were less successful than vaginectomy (2) or resection of the stenotic area (3). Four of 6 dogs with signs of recurrent urinary tract infection underwent surgical correction, and none of these dogs subsequently had urinary tract infection. Three of 4 dogs with urinary incontinence responded to medical or surgical treatment for sphincter incompetence or for ectopic ureters. Surgical correction of vestibulovaginal stenosis is indicated in dogs that have mating difficulties or signs of recurrent urinary tract infection or chronic vaginitis, but stenosis is probably an incidental finding in most dogs with urinary incontinence. Vaginectomy and vaginal resection and anastomosis are the preferred surgical options.

  7. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested.

  8. Surgical treatment of pulmonic stenosis in dogs under cardiopulmonary bypass: outcome in nine dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, P; Sargent, J; Luis Fuentes, V; Brockman, D

    2018-01-01

    To describe the outcome for nine dogs with pulmonic stenosis treated by open patch grafting using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene under cardiopulmonary bypass. Data were collected from the hospital records of all dogs that had undergone right ventricular outflow tract grafting with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch under cardiopulmonary bypass between 2006 and 2012 for the treatment of pulmonic stenosis. Echocardiographic images were reviewed and the pressure gradient across the right ventricular outflow tract re-measured. Owners of dogs still alive at the time of writing were invited to return to the hospital for reassessment. Nine dogs met the inclusion criteria. Median pressure gradient preoperatively was 118 mmHg, (range 102 to 259 mmHg) reducing to a median of 20 mmHg (range 7 to 53 mmHg) at 48 hours postoperatively and 14 mmHg (range 10 to 70 mmHg), with a median percentage reduction of 89% (range 41 to 94%) at long-term follow-up. Eight of nine dogs survived surgery, with six of nine surviving to hospital discharge. Two dogs were still alive over 6 and 8 years postoperatively. No long-term deaths were believed to be attributable to pulmonic stenosis. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene patch grafting of the right ventricular outflow tract for treatment of severe pulmonic stenosis in dogs is feasible and can be an effective method to reduce the severity of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-31

    isolant. Inoculated dogs develo- ped signs of the disease which included fever , weight loss, lym- phodenopathy, corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of...in Alsatian dogs infected with E. canis, was not seen in thesedogs; however, 2 dogs devel- oped cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages at...included fever , weight loss, lymphadenopathy, - -- 19 corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of 3 dogs that died during the course of the study, one died with

  10. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  11. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  12. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  13. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  14. A survey of the dog population in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moazzem; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Marma, Aung Swi Prue; Hossain, Sohrab; Ali, Mohammad Azmat; Shamsuzzaman, Abul Khair Mohammad; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Globally, Bangladesh ranks third in the number of human deaths from rabies. Although dogs are the principal known transmitters of rabies and knowledge of dog populations is essential for effective national control and proper planning, dog control programs are scarce in Bangladesh. Our objective was to count dogs in a rural area to understand the dog population of the country. For this purpose we selected six unions of Raipura upazila in Narsingdi district. Dog counting was done by direct observation following accepted guidelines. We determined the mean density of the dog population in Bangladesh to be 14 dog/km(2) (95% CI 3.7, 24) and the human:dog ratio to be 120 (95% CI 55, 184). Our paper contribute to the literature which shows great variation in the human:dog ratio across regions of the developing world. The human:dog ratio depends on the area's human (as well as dog) population, whereas dog density per unit area indicates the true number of dogs. We propose that extrapolating from the human:dog ratios of other regions not be relied upon for estimating dog populations, unless the ratios can be supplemented by actual counts of dogs within the target area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High visual acuity revealed in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Olle; Milton, Ida; Andersson, Elin; Jensen, Per; Roth, Lina S V

    2017-01-01

    Humans have selectively bred and used dogs over a period of thousands of years, and more recently the dog has become an important model animal for studies in ethology, cognition and genetics. These broad interests warrant careful descriptions of the senses of dogs. Still there is little known about dog vision, especially what dogs can discriminate in different light conditions. We trained and tested whippets, pugs, and a Shetland sheepdog in a two-choice discrimination set-up and show that dogs can discriminate patterns with spatial frequencies between 5.5 and 19.5 cycle per degree (cpd) in the bright light condition (43 cd m-2). This is a higher spatial resolution than has been previously reported although the individual variation in our tests was large. Humans tested in the same set-up reached acuities corresponding to earlier studies, ranging between 32.1 and 44.2 cpd. In the dim light condition (0.0087 cd m-2) the acuity of dogs ranged between 1.8 and 3.5 cpd while in humans, between 5.9 and 9.9 cpd. Thus, humans make visual discrimination of objects from roughly a threefold distance compared to dogs in both bright and dim light.

  16. High visual acuity revealed in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle Lind

    Full Text Available Humans have selectively bred and used dogs over a period of thousands of years, and more recently the dog has become an important model animal for studies in ethology, cognition and genetics. These broad interests warrant careful descriptions of the senses of dogs. Still there is little known about dog vision, especially what dogs can discriminate in different light conditions. We trained and tested whippets, pugs, and a Shetland sheepdog in a two-choice discrimination set-up and show that dogs can discriminate patterns with spatial frequencies between 5.5 and 19.5 cycle per degree (cpd in the bright light condition (43 cd m-2. This is a higher spatial resolution than has been previously reported although the individual variation in our tests was large. Humans tested in the same set-up reached acuities corresponding to earlier studies, ranging between 32.1 and 44.2 cpd. In the dim light condition (0.0087 cd m-2 the acuity of dogs ranged between 1.8 and 3.5 cpd while in humans, between 5.9 and 9.9 cpd. Thus, humans make visual discrimination of objects from roughly a threefold distance compared to dogs in both bright and dim light.

  17. Social referencing in dog-owner dyads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Marshall-Pescini, S

    2012-03-01

    Social referencing is the seeking of information from another individual to form one's own understanding and guide action. In this study, adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving their owner and a potentially scary object. Dogs received either a positive or negative message from the owner. The aim was to evaluate the presence of referential looking to the owner, behavioural regulation based on the owner's (vocal and facial) emotional message and observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most dogs (83%) looked referentially to the owner after looking at the strange object, thus they appear to seek information about the environment from the human, but little differences were found between dogs in the positive and negative groups as regards behavioural regulation: possible explanations for this are discussed. Finally, a strong effect of observational conditioning was found with dogs in the positive group moving closer to the fan and dogs in the negative group moving away, both mirroring their owner's behaviour. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment and social learning.

  18. Endogenous Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Aggression in Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. MacLean

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior in dogs poses public health and animal welfare concerns, however the biological mechanisms regulating dog aggression are not well understood. We investigated the relationships between endogenous plasma oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP—neuropeptides that have been linked to affiliative and aggressive behavior in other mammalian species—and aggression in domestic dogs. We first validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs for the measurement of free (unbound and total (free + bound OT and AVP in dog plasma. In Experiment 1 we evaluated behavioral and neuroendocrine differences between a population of pet dogs with a history of chronic aggression toward conspecifics and a matched control group. Dogs with a history of aggression exhibited more aggressive behavior during simulated encounters with conspecifics, and had lower free, but higher total plasma AVP than matched controls, but there were no group differences for OT. In Experiment 2 we compared OT and AVP concentrations between pet dogs and a population of assistance dogs that have been bred for affiliative and non-aggressive temperaments, and investigated neuroendocrine predictors of individual differences in social behavior within the assistance dog population. Compared to pet dogs, assistance dogs had higher free and total OT, but there were no differences in either measure for AVP. Within the assistance dog population, dogs who behaved more aggressively toward a threatening stranger had higher total AVP than dogs who did not. Collectively these data suggest that endogenous OT and AVP may play critical roles in shaping dog social behavior, including aspects of both affiliation and aggression.

  19. Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis Among Dogs Living in a Municipal Dog and Cat Shelter in Edirne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzbeyaz, Ayşe; Şakru, Nermin; Töz, Seray

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniosis among dogs that live in the town center due to a lack of data on the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Edirne. In the present study, 37 dogs living in a municipal dog and cat shelter in Edirne were screened for leishmaniosis by the ındirect fluorescent antibody test. All samples were found to be seronegative. Our study is a preliminary study for Edirne. We wish to perform a large-scale seroepidemiological study with a larger number of dogs from different regions and identify Phlebotomus species.

  20. I Walk My Dog Because It Makes Me Happy: A Qualitative Study to Understand Why Dogs Motivate Walking and Improved Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, Garry; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dog walking is a popular everyday physical activity. Dog owners are generally more active than non-owners, but some rarely walk with their dog. The strength of the dog–owner relationship is known to be correlated with dog walking, and this qualitative study investigates why. Twenty-six interviews were combined with autoethnography of dog walking experiences. Dog walking was constructed as “for the dog”, however, owners represented their dog’s needs in a way which aligned with their own. Central to the construction of need was perceptions of dog personality and behaviour. Owners reported deriving positive outcomes from dog walking, most notably, feelings of “happiness”, but these were “contingent” on the perception that their dogs were enjoying the experience. Owner physical activity and social interaction were secondary bonuses but rarely motivating. Perceptions and beliefs of owners about dog walking were continually negotiated, depending on how the needs of the owner and dog were constructed at that time. Complex social interactions with the “significant other” of a pet can strongly motivate human health behaviour. Potential interventions to promote dog walking need to account for this complexity and the effect of the dog-owner relationship on owner mental wellbeing. PMID:28825614

  1. DOG-SPOT database for comprehensive management of dog genetic research data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutter Nathan B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research laboratories studying the genetics of companion animals have no database tools specifically designed to aid in the management of the many kinds of data that are generated, stored and analyzed. We have developed a relational database, "DOG-SPOT," to provide such a tool. Implemented in MS-Access, the database is easy to extend or customize to suit a lab's particular needs. With DOG-SPOT a lab can manage data relating to dogs, breeds, samples, biomaterials, phenotypes, owners, communications, amplicons, sequences, markers, genotypes and personnel. Such an integrated data structure helps ensure high quality data entry and makes it easy to track physical stocks of biomaterials and oligonucleotides.

  2. Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils in 14 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcoran, B.M.; Thoday, K.L.; Henfrey, J.I.; Simpson, J.W.; Burnie, A.G.; Mooney, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophils was diagnosed in 14 dogs, whose age ranged from three months to 13 years. The predominant clinical sign was coughing. Dyspnoea, tachypnoea and pruritus were also observed. An absolute circulating eosinophilia was seen in eight dogs and basophilia in five dogs. Thoracic radiographic changes were variable and were not diagnostic. Bronchoscopic evidence of mild to severe bronchitis was present in 12 dogs. Abnormal numbers of eosinophils were found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples and, or, bronchial washings in all 14 cases, but no significant bacteria were recovered. Respiratory compliance was measured in five dogs and was abnormal in three. Faecal examination for helminth parasites was carried out in four cases, a large ascarid burden being identified in one. Intradermal skin testing was carried out in three dogs but was negative in all cases. Complete remission of signs was achieved with prednisolone in 12 cases with six dogs requiring continuous or repeated treatment. Three dogs died as a direct consequence of progression of the disease

  3. Roaming of dogs in remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia and potential interaction between community and wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombara, C; Dürr, S; Gongora, J; Ward, M P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the roaming of Indigenous community dogs and potential interaction with wild dogs and dingoes. Cross-sectional survey and longitudinal follow-up study. Six remote Indigenous communities in Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land in northern Australia were selected. Hair samples were collected from community dogs and microsatellite DNA analyses were used to determine hybrid (>10% dingo DNA) status. Dogs were fitted with GPS collars and home range (ha) was estimated during monitoring periods of up to 3 days. In Cape York Peninsula, 6% of the 35 dogs sampled were dingo hybrids, whereas in Arnhem Land 41% of the 29 dogs sampled were hybrids. The median extended home range was estimated to be 4.54 ha (interquartile range, 3.40 - 7.71). Seven community dogs were identified with an estimated home range > 20 ha and home ranges included the bushland surrounding communities. No significant difference in home ranges was detected between hybrid and non-hybrid dogs. Study results provide some evidence (dingo hybridisation, bushland forays) of the potential interaction between domestic and wild dogs in northern Australia. The nature of this interaction needs further investigation to determine its role in disease transmission; for example, in the case of a rabies incursion in this region. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Testing the social dog hypothesis: are dogs also more skilled than chimpanzees in non-communicative social tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2009-07-01

    Relative to non-human primates, domestic dogs possess a number of social skills that seem exceptional-particularly in solving problems involving cooperation and communication with humans. However, the degree to which dogs' unusual skills are contextually specialized is still unclear. Here, we presented dogs with a social problem that did not require them to use cooperative-communicative cues and compared their performance to that of chimpanzees to assess the extent of dogs' capabilities relative to those of non-human primates. We tested the abilities of dogs and chimpanzees to inhibit previously learned responses by using a social and a non-social version of a reversal learning task. In contrast to previous findings in cooperative-communicative social tasks, dogs were not more skilled on the social task than the non-social task, while chimpanzees were significantly better in the social paradigm. Chimpanzees were able to inhibit their prior learning better and more quickly in the social paradigm than they were in the non-social paradigm, while dogs took more time to inhibit what they had learned in both versions of the task. These results suggest that the dogs' sophisticated social skills in using human social cues may be relatively specialized as a result of domestication.

  5. Quantitative survey radiographic evaluation of the lumbosacral spine of normal dogs and dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattoon, J.S.; Koblik, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Survey radiographic studies of the lumbosacral region for 93 normal dogs and for 26 dogs with confirmed degenerative lumbosacral stenosis were reviewed. Normal dogs were divided into 9 groups based on age and body weight. For normal dogs, increasing age and body weight were associated with a decreased ability to extend the lumbosacral joint and with increased incidence and severity of spondylosis. Transitional lumbosacral vertebrae and evidence of lumbosacral disc space collapse were very infrequent findings, and the pivot point for lumbosacral motion was consistently centered over the lumbosacral disc space. Relative to an age/weight matched sub-population of normal dogs, dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis had similar mean normalized lumbosacral vertebral canal height, larger mean neutral lumbosacral angle, decreased extension of the lumbosacral joint, increased flexion of the lumbosacral joint, reduced lumbosacral range of motion, increased lumbosacral dynamic malalignment, higher incidence and severity of spondylosis, higher incidence of transitional vertebrae, and higher incidence of lumbosacral disc space collapse. A logistic model based strictly on radiographic parameters was able to discriminate normal from affected dogs with an overall accuracy rate of 86%

  6. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  7. Current trends in dog-human communication:do dogs inform?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, Juliane; Piotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs are especially skillful at understanding human forms of communication. Evidence suggests that dogs’ skills in this domain might be an adaptation to life with humans and the result of selection processes during domestication. One question that has sparked a lot of research in recent years is to what extent dogs’ communication is in any way comparable to that of human infants. Here, we discuss recent research that has examined the extent to which dogs communicate to inform others....

  8. Miastenia gravis diagnostic in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Suraniti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Miastenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disease caused by auto antibodies. Early Clinical and biochemical diagnosis and treatment is demanded in the assurementof quality and time of life in all dogs. In this study we describe the conventional diagnosis methods and therapy in 32 dogs with suspected myasthenia gravis and propose the administration of bromide of piridostigmin as another use full diagnosis method in dogs.

  9. [Primary hyperparathyroidism in the dog. Diagnosis, therapy and postoperative management in 19 dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jores, K; Kessler, M

    2011-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of diagnosis and outcome in 20 dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism. In 20 dogs primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed and 19 patients were treated via parathyroidectomy, 10 additionally with partial thyroidectomy. Medical records of the dogs were reviewed for signalment, clinical features, laboratory findings and results of histopathologic examination. In some cases postsurgical rehabilitation of calcium metabolism required substitution with calcium and vitamin D preparations. Mean age of the dogs was 11.5 years. The most common clinical signs comprised polydipsia, polyuria, reduced activity, and stiff gait. Laboratory findings were moderate to extensive hypercalcaemia, low or low-normal serum phosphorus concentrations and normal or increased serum parathyroid hormone concentrations. None of the dogs had an elevated parathyroid hormone-related polypeptide level. Histological examination revealed 11 adenomas, six carcinomas and two glandular hyperplasias. Postsurgical management of calcium homeostasis was challenging in some cases. Tumours of the parathyroid gland can be easily treated by parathyroidectomy and usually have a good prognosis. With careful interpretation of laboratory findings of a patient presenting with hypercalcaemia and ruling out other causes of hypercalcaemia diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism can be easily achieved and successfully treated byparathyroidectomy.

  10. Laser lithotripsy for removal of uroliths in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Larry G.; Lulich, Jody P.

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: This study evaluated the ability to fragment and remove naturally occurring uroliths in dogs using a holmium: YAG laser. Methods: Twenty four dogs with naturally occurring uroliths including 10 spayed females and 14 neutered males. The dogs were 8.7 +/- 2.8 years old and weighed 13.7 +/- 8.0 kg. All dogs had bladder stones and 5 male dogs also had urethral stones. In female dogs, cystoscopy was performed using a rigid cystoscope with sheath diameter of 14 to 19 french. Cystoscopy was performed in males dogs using a 7.5 french diameter pediatric ureteroscope. Uroliths were fragmented using a 20 watt Holmium: YAG laser and the fragments were removed by basket extraction and voiding urohydropropulsion. Results: Average laser parameters for urolith fragmentation were 0.7 Joules at 8 Hertz (range: 0.5 to 1.3 Joules at 5 to 13 Hertz). All urolith fragments were successfully removed in all 10 female dogs and 11 of 14 male dogs. In one male dog, the urethra was too small to allow passage of the ureteroscope. In one of the male dogs, the urethral stones were successfully removed by laser lithotripsy, but removal of the bladder stones was performed by cystotomy. There was one complication of urethral perforation during attempts to pass an access sheath transurethrally in a dog with extensive proliferative urethritis. Conclusions: Laser lithotripsy is a safe and effective method of removing bladder and urethral stones in dogs provided the dog is large enough to permit transurethral passage of a cystoscope or ureteroscope.

  11. Spinal epidural empyema in two dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, C.W.; Kortz, G.D.; Bailey, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive, diffuse, epidural spinal cord compression was visualized myelographically in two dogs presented for rapid development of nonambulatory tetraparesis and paraplegia, respectively. Purulent fluid containing bacterial organisms was aspirated percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance from the epidural space of each dog. One dog responded poorly to aggressive medical therapy, which included installation of an epidural lavage and drainage system. Both dogs were euthanized due to the severe nature of their disorder and the poor prognosis. Spinal epidural empyema (i.e., abscess) is a rare condition in humans and has not been reported previously in the veterinary literature. Spinal epidural empyema should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with painful myelopathies, especially when accompanied by fever

  12. Myocardial remodeling and bioelectric changes in tachycardia-induced heart failure in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, B.; Wang, B.N.; Chen, D.N.; Luo, Z.G. [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, HeFei, Anhui Province (China)

    2013-09-06

    In this study, electrical and structural remodeling of ventricles was examined in tachycardia-induced heart failure (HF). We studied two groups of weight-matched adult male mongrel dogs: a sham-operated control group (n=5) and a pacing group (n=5) that underwent ventricular pacing at 230 bpm for 3 weeks. Clinical symptoms of congestive HF were observed in both groups. Their hemodynamic parameters were determined and the severity of the HF was evaluated by M-mode echocardiography. Changes in heart morphology were observed by scanning electron and light microscopy. Ventricular action potential duration (APD), as well as the 50 and 90% APD were measured in both groups. All dogs exhibited clinical symptoms of congestive HF after rapid right ventricular pacing for 3 weeks. These data indicate that rapid, right ventricular pacing produces a useful experimental model of low-output HF in dogs, characterized by biventricular pump dysfunction, biventricular cardiac dilation, and non-ischemic impairment of left ventricular contractility. Electrical and structural myocardial remodeling play an essential role in congestive HF progression, and should thus be prevented.

  13. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

  14. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  15. Cuttable plate fixation for small breed dogs with radius and ulna fractures: Retrospective study of 31 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Gwyneth K; Moens, Noel M M

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study evaluated complication rates for radius and ulna fractures in small breed dogs in which 1.5 mm to 2.7 mm cuttable bone plates were used for internal fixation. The medical records of all cases from 2004 to 2011 that were presented to our clinic were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: dogs with body weight dogs met the inclusion criteria. Of 25 dogs that were available for follow-up, all achieved union, minor complications occurred in 9, and major complications occurred in 8. External coaptation was responsible for complications in 8 cases and the need for coaptation needs to be investigated. Excluding minor complications, 32% of patients required at least 1 additional surgery or additional hospitalization. All but 2 of the dogs returned to full function. The 1.5 mm straight plate was successfully used in all dogs with a body weight of 0.9 to 2.6 kg.

  16. Gallbladder Agenesis in 17 Dogs: 2006-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Sakai, M; Hayakawa, S; Sakamoto, Y; Kagawa, Y; Kutara, K; Teshima, K; Asano, K; Watari, T

    2018-01-01

    Gallbladder agenesis (GBA) is extremely rare in dogs. To describe the history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of dogs with GBA. Seventeen client-owned dogs with GBA. Medical records from 2006 through 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Dogs were included when GBA was suspected on abdominal ultrasonography and confirmed by gross evaluation. Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological data, diagnostic imaging, histopathology, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Dogs were of 6 different breeds, and Chihuahuas (10 of 17) were most common. Median age at presentation was 1.9 (range, 0.7-7.4) years. Clinical signs included vomiting (5 of 17), anorexia (2 of 17), ascites (2 of 17), diarrhea (1 of 17), lethargy (1 of 17), and seizures (1 of 17). All dogs had increased serum activity of at least 1 liver enzyme, most commonly alanine aminotransferase (15 of 17). Fifteen dogs underwent computed tomography (CT) cholangiography; common bile duct (CBD) dilatation was confirmed in 12, without evidence of bile duct obstruction. Gross evaluation confirmed malformation of the liver lobes in 14 of 17 dogs and acquired portosystemic collaterals in 5 of 17. Ductal plate malformation was confirmed histologically in 16 of 17 dogs. During follow-up (range, 4-3,379 days), 16 of 17 dogs remained alive. Dogs with GBA exhibit clinicopathological signs of hepatobiliary injury and hepatic histopathological changes consistent with a ductal plate abnormality. Computed tomography cholangiography was superior to ultrasound examination in identifying accompanying nonobstructive CBD distention. Computed tomography cholangiography combined with laparoscopic liver biopsy is the preferable approach to characterize the full disease spectrum accompanying GBA in dogs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  18. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of exposure to Leptospira serovars in veterinary staff and dog owners in contact with infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmettler, Reto; Schweighauser, Ariane; Bigler, Susanne; Grooters, Amy M; Francey, Thierry

    2011-01-15

    To assess patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars in veterinary professional staff and dog owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis and to contrast these patterns in people with those observed in dogs. Cross-sectional study. Human subjects consisted of 91 people (50 veterinarians, 19 technical staff, 9 administrative personnel, and 13 dog owners) exposed to dogs with leptospirosis. Canine subjects consisted of 52 dogs with naturally occurring leptospirosis admitted to the University of Bern Vetsuisse Faculty Small Animal Clinic in 2007 and 2008. People were tested for seroreactivity to regionally prevalent Leptospira serovars by use of a complement fixation test. A questionnaire designed to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity was used to collect demographic information from each study participant. Dogs were tested for seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars by use of a microscopic agglutination test. On the basis of microscopic agglutination test results, infected dogs were seropositive for antibodies against Leptospira serovars as follows (in descending order): Bratislava (43/52 [83%]), Australis (43/52 [83%]), Grippotyphosa (18/52 [35%]), Pomona (12/52 [23%]), Autumnalis (6/52 [12%]), Icterohemorrhagiae (4/52 [8%]), Tarassovi (2/52 [4%]), and Canicola (1/52 [2%]). All 91 people were seronegative for antibodies against Leptospira serovars. Therefore, statistical evaluation of risk factors and comparison of patterns of seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars between human and canine subjects were limited to theoretical risks. Seroreactivity to Leptospira serovars among veterinary staff adhering to standard hygiene protocols and pet owners exposed to dogs with acute leptospirosis was uncommon.

  20. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Thirty-six of the exposed dogs and 7 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest activity levels died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas and three with pulmonary carcinomas and one with hepatic hemangiosarcoma that all appear related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on 10 surviving exposed dogs and six surviving unexposed dogs

  1. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  2. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and

  3. 36 CFR 262.11 - Impounding of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Impounding of dogs. 262.11... ENFORCEMENT SUPPORT ACTIVITIES Impoundments and Removals § 262.11 Impounding of dogs. Any dog found running at large in a part of the National Forest System, which has been closed to dogs running at large, may be...

  4. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  5. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Merola

    Full Text Available Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  6. Best of friends? Investigating the dog-human relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are commonly referred to as man's best friend, but the main focus of this thesis was to investigate how the dog experiences the relationship. The first part of the thesis dealt with methodology currently used to assess the dog-human relationship: the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS). In one experiment, possible associations between the dog's bond to its owner (using the SSP) and the strength of the owner's relationship to the dog (...

  7. Cerebral metabolism in dogs assessed by 18F-FDG PET. A pilot study to understand physiological changes in behavioral disorders in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irimajiri, Mami; Jaeger, C.B.; Luescher, A.U.; Miller, M.A.; Hutchins, G.D.; Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction. (author)

  8. Intramural intestinal hematoma causing obstruction in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Carpenter, J

    1984-01-15

    Intramural hematoma of the intestine caused intestinal obstruction in three dogs. Two dogs were examined because of vomiting and anorexia of several weeks' duration. In one of these, an intramural hematoma of the duodenum was associated with chronic pancreatitis. A cause was not found in the second dog. The third dog, which had clinical and radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation, was found at surgery to have hemoperitoneum associated with a ruptured intramural intestinal hematoma. In 1 dog, the hematoma was evacuated through a serosal incision. In the other 2 dogs, the problem was resolved by resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by anastomosis. All 3 dogs recovered without complications.

  9. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: 13 cases (1972-1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingeroth, J.M.; Prata, R.G.; Patnaik, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Medical records of 13 dogs with spinal meningiomas were reviewed. Breed predilections were not found. Males outnumbered females 9 to 4, and most of the dogs were middle-aged. All dogs had motor deficits of various degrees, and approximately half of the dogs had clinical signs of mild to moderate spinal pain. The remainder had histories of clinical signs suggestive of chronic discomfort. There was a prolonged (greater than 3 months) delay between the onset of signs and diagnosis, except in 3 dogs. The neurologic courses usually were progressive. Results of noncontrast spinal radiography were normal in 10 dogs; in 3 dogs, the lamina appeared scalloped. Results of myelography contributed to the correct diagnosis in 10 of 12 dogs; however, in 2 dogs, intradural/extramedullary tumors were thought to be intramedullary lesions. A preponderance of cervical meningiomas was found, accounting for 10 of 13 tumors. Lumbar meningiomas were found in the remaining 3 dogs. Surgery was performed in 9 of the dogs, six of which improved after surgery. Poor results were correlated with tumors that involved spinal cord segments of an intumescence, ventrally located tumors, iatrogenic trauma, and tumor invasion into adjacent neural parenchyma. Four of 13 spinal meningiomas were found to be invasive into the spinal cord itself

  10. Spinal meningiomas in dogs: 13 cases (1972-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingeroth, J. M.; Prata, R. G.; Patnaik, A. K.

    1987-09-15

    Medical records of 13 dogs with spinal meningiomas were reviewed. Breed predilections were not found. Males outnumbered females 9 to 4, and most of the dogs were middle-aged. All dogs had motor deficits of various degrees, and approximately half of the dogs had clinical signs of mild to moderate spinal pain. The remainder had histories of clinical signs suggestive of chronic discomfort. There was a prolonged (greater than 3 months) delay between the onset of signs and diagnosis, except in 3 dogs. The neurologic courses usually were progressive. Results of noncontrast spinal radiography were normal in 10 dogs; in 3 dogs, the lamina appeared scalloped. Results of myelography contributed to the correct diagnosis in 10 of 12 dogs; however, in 2 dogs, intradural/extramedullary tumors were thought to be intramedullary lesions. A preponderance of cervical meningiomas was found, accounting for 10 of 13 tumors. Lumbar meningiomas were found in the remaining 3 dogs. Surgery was performed in 9 of the dogs, six of which improved after surgery. Poor results were correlated with tumors that involved spinal cord segments of an intumescence, ventrally located tumors, iatrogenic trauma, and tumor invasion into adjacent neural parenchyma. Four of 13 spinal meningiomas were found to be invasive into the spinal cord itself.

  11. What do dogs know about hidden objects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca; Zentall, Thomas R

    2009-07-01

    Previous research has found that dogs will search accurately for an invisibly displaced object when the task is simplified and contextual ambiguity is eliminated [Doré, F.Y., Fiset, S., Goulet, S., Dumas, M.-C., Gagnon, S., 1996. Search behavior in cats and dogs: interspecific differences in working memory and spatial cognition. Animal Learning & Behavior 24, 142-149; Miller, H., Gipson, C., Vaughan, A., Rayburn-Reeves, R., Zentall, T.R., 2009. Object permanence in dogs: invisible displacement in a rotation task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16 (1), 150-155]. For example, when an object is placed inside an occluder, one of which was attached to each end of a beam that could be rotated 90 degrees , dogs search inside of the appropriate occluder. The current research confirmed this finding and tested the possibility that the dogs were using a perceptual/conditioning mechanism (i.e., their gaze was drawn to the occluder as the object was placed inside and they continued looking at it as it rotated). The test was done by introducing a delay between the displacement of the object and the initiation of the dogs' search. In Experiment 1, during the delay, a barrier was placed between the dog and the apparatus. In Experiment 2, the lights were turned off during the delay. The search accuracy for some dogs was strongly affected by the delay, however, search accuracy for other dogs was not affected. These results suggest that although a perceptual/conditioning mechanism may be involved for some dogs, it cannot account for the performance of others. It is likely that these other dogs showed true object permanence.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Rebekah H.; Atkins, Charisma Y.; Gambhir, Manoj; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Kahn, Emily B.; Dyer, Jessie L.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Dog rabies annually causes 24,000–70,000 deaths globally. We built a spreadsheet tool, RabiesEcon, to aid public health officials to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa. Methods RabiesEcon uses a mathematical model of dog-dog and dog-human rabies transmission to estimate dog rabies cases averted, the cost per human rabies death averted and cost per year of life gained (YLG) due to dog vaccination programs (US 2015 dollars). We used an East African human population of 1 million (approximately 2/3 living in urban setting, 1/3 rural). We considered, using data from the literature, three vaccination options; no vaccination, annual vaccination of 50% of dogs and 20% of dogs vaccinated semi-annually. We assessed 2 transmission scenarios: low (1.2 dogs infected per infectious dog) and high (1.7 dogs infected). We also examined the impact of annually vaccinating 70% of all dogs (World Health Organization recommendation for dog rabies elimination). Results Without dog vaccination, over 10 years there would a total of be approximately 44,000–65,000 rabid dogs and 2,100–2,900 human deaths. Annually vaccinating 50% of dogs results in 10-year reductions of 97% and 75% in rabid dogs (low and high transmissions scenarios, respectively), approximately 2,000–1,600 human deaths averted, and an undiscounted cost-effectiveness of $451-$385 per life saved. Semi-annual vaccination of 20% of dogs results in in 10-year reductions of 94% and 78% in rabid dogs, and approximately 2,000–1,900 human deaths averted, and cost $404-$305 per life saved. In the low transmission scenario, vaccinating either 50% or 70% of dogs eliminated dog rabies. Results were most sensitive to dog birth rate and the initial rate of dog-to-dog transmission (Ro). Conclusions Dog rabies vaccination programs can control, and potentially eliminate, dog rabies. The frequency and coverage of vaccination programs, along with the level of dog rabies

  13. Parasites of sheep herding dogs in central Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans

  14. An Infectious Disease and Mortality Survey in a Population of Free-Ranging African Wild Dogs and Sympatric Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flacke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease can cause declines in wildlife populations and significantly threaten their survival. Recent expansion of human and domestic animal populations has made wildlife more susceptible to transmission of pathogens from domestic animal hosts. We conducted a pathogen surveillance and mortality survey for the population of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, from January 2006–February 2007. Samples were obtained from 24 wild dogs for canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV serological testing. Data were collected on the presence of CDV, CPV, and rabies virus in the KZN domestic dog (Canis familiaris population from 2004–06. The presence of these pathogens was confirmed in domestic dogs throughout KZN. Wild dogs exhibited 0% and 4.2% prevalence for CDV and CPV antibodies, respectively. In 2006 the largest wild dog pack in KZN was reduced from 26 individuals to a single animal; disease due to rabies virus was considered the most probable cause. This study provides evidence that CDV, CPV and rabies are potential threats to African wild dog conservation in KZN. The most economical and practical way to protect wild dogs from canine pathogens may be via vaccination of sympatric domestic dogs; however, such programmes are currently limited.

  15. Health care of hunting dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...

  16. "Like owner, like dog": correlation between the owner's attachment profile and the owner-dog bond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Siniscalchi

    Full Text Available During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studying human infants: Ainsworth's "strange situation". The findings represented the first evidence for the presence of a correlation between the owners' attachment profile and the owner-dog attachment bond throughout procedure and behavioural analyses involving controlled observations.

  17. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  18. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  19. Epidemiology, clinical management, and outcomes of dogs involved in road traffic accidents in the United Kingdom (2009-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Georgina L; Brodbelt, David; Church, David; Humm, Karen; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for road traffic accidents (RTA) in dogs and describe the management and outcome of these dogs attending primary-care veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Primary-care veterinary practices in the United Kingdom. The study population included 199,464 dogs attending 115 primary-care clinics across the United Kingdom. Electronic patient records of dogs attending practices participating in the VetCompass Programme were assessed against selection criteria used to define RTA cases. Cases identified as RTAs were identified and manually verified to calculate prevalence. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to evaluate associations between risk factors and RTA. The prevalence of RTA was 0.41%. Of the RTA cases, 615 (74.9%) were purebred, 322 (39.2%) were female, and 285 (54.8%) were insured. The median age at RTA was 2.5 years. After accounting for the effects of other factors, younger dogs had increased odds of an RTA event: dogs aged under 3 years showed 2.9 times the odds and dogs aged between 6-9 years showed 1.8 times the odds of an RTA event compared with dogs aged over 14 years. Males had 1.4 times the odds of an RTA event compared with females. Overall, 22.9% of cases died from a cause associated with RTA. Of dogs with information available, 34.0% underwent diagnostic imaging, 29.4% received intravenous fluid-therapy, 71.1% received pain relief, 46.0% were hospitalized, and 15.6% had surgery performed under general anesthetic. This study identified important demographic factors associated with RTA in dogs, notably being young and male. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2018.

  20. Prevalence of lateral ventricle asymmetry in brain MRI studies of neurologically normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Mauro; De Risio, Luisa; Newton, Richard; Dennis, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetry of the cerebral lateral ventricles is a common finding in cross-sectional imaging of otherwise normal canine brains and has been assumed to be incidental. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare the prevalence of ventricular asymmetry in brain MRI studies of normal dogs and dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Brain MRI archives were searched for 100 neurologically normal dogs (Group 1) and 100 dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (Group 2). For each dog, asymmetry of the lateral ventricles was subjectively classified as absent, mild, moderate, and severe based on a consensus of two observers who were unaware of group status. Ventricular areas were measured from transverse T1W images at the level of the interthalamic adhesion. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the ratio of the larger to smaller ventricular transverse area. There was excellent agreement between subjective assessments of ventricular asymmetry and quantitative assessments using asymmetry ratios (k = 0.995). The prevalence of asymmetry was 38% in Group 1 dogs and 44% in Group 2 dogs. Assymmetry was scored as mild in the majority of Group 2 dogs. There was no significant association between presence/absence and degree of ventricular asymmetry vs. dog group, age, gender, or skull conformation. Findings from the current study supported previously published assumptions that asymmetry of the lateral cerebral ventricles is an incidental finding in MRI studies of the canine brain. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  2. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  3. Free-Roaming Dog Population Estimation and Status of the Dog Population Management and Rabies Control Program in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; Ahmed, Rubaiya; Debnath, Nitish C.; Ahmed, Garba; Yamage, Mat

    2015-01-01

    Beginning January 2012, a humane method of dog population management using a Catch-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) program was implemented in Dhaka City, Bangladesh as part of the national rabies control program. To enable this program, the size and distribution of the free-roaming dog population needed to be estimated. We present the results of a dog population survey and a pilot assessment of the CNVR program coverage in Dhaka City. Free-roaming dog population surveys were undertaken in 18 wards of Dhaka City on consecutive days using mark-resight methods. Data was analyzed using Lincoln-Petersen index-Chapman correction methods. The CNVR program was assessed over the two years (2012–2013) whilst the coverage of the CNVR program was assessed by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched (processed dogs) via dog population surveys. The free-roaming dog population was estimated to be 1,242 (95 % CI: 1205–1278) in the 18 sampled wards and 18,585 dogs in Dhaka City (52 dogs/km2) with an estimated human-to-free-roaming dog ratio of 828:1. During the two year CNVR program, a total of 6,665 dogs (3,357 male and 3,308 female) were neutered and vaccinated against rabies in 29 of the 92 city wards. A pilot population survey indicated a mean CNVR coverage of 60.6% (range 19.2–79.3%) with only eight wards achieving > 70% coverage. Given that the coverage in many neighborhoods was below the WHO-recommended threshold level of 70% for rabies eradications and since the CNVR program takes considerable time to implement throughout the entire Dhaka City area, a mass dog vaccination program in the non-CNVR coverage area is recommended to create herd immunity. The findings from this study are expected to guide dog population management and the rabies control program in Dhaka City and elsewhere in Bangladesh. PMID:25978406

  4. Aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis preceding radiation-induced leukemia in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Poole, C.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Six of nine decedent beagles exposed continuously to 2.5 R*/22 hour day of whole-body 60Co gamma-radiation died with myeloproliferative diseases: three cases of myelogenous leukemia and one each of monocytic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythremic myelosis. The three dogs that died with myelogenous leukemia had micromegakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts in the peripheral blood during the preleukemic phase when myeloblasts were not observed in the peripheral blood or in increased numbers in the bone marrow. In this study we have examined the megakaryocytes during the preleukemic period by a combination of light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic abnormalities seen by light microscopy included mononucleated and binucleated forms, many with cytoplasmic blebs. The small mononuclear forms in the bone marrow tended to form clusters. Ultrastructural features included a paucity of both specific alpha granules and dense granules. The micromegakaryocytes showed dysgenesis of the demarcation membrane system. This membrane system appeared disorganized with a few dilated round, oval, or rarely, elongated vesicles and showed no evidence of platelet formation. The cells also had a paucity of endoplasmic reticulum, few mitochrondria, and sparse glycogen accumulations. The scarcity of cytoplasmic organelles gave a pale immature appearance to the cytoplasm. By scanning electron microscopy, the sponge-like surface of large mature megakaryocytes from unirradiated marrow contrasted with the characteristically smooth, topographically featureless surfaces of the micromegakaryocytes from preleukemic dogs

  5. Aberrant megakaryocytopoiesis preceding radiation-induced leukemia in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Poole, C.M.; Fritz, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Six of nine decedent beagles exposed continuously to 2.5 R/22 hour day of whole-body 60 Co γ-radiation died with myeloproliferative diseases: three cases of myelogenous leukemia and one each of monocytic leukemia, erythroleukemia, and erythremic myelosis. The three dogs that died with myelogenous leukemia had micromegakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts in the peripheral blood during the preleukemic phase when myeloblasts were not observed in the peripheral blood or in increased numbers in the bone marrow. In this study we have examined the megakaryocytes during the preleukemic period by a combination of light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. Morphologic abnormalities seen by light microscopy included mononucleated and binucleated forms, many with cytoplasmic blebs. The small mononuclear forms in the bone marrow tended to form clusters. Ultrastructural features included a paucity of both specific α granules and dense granules. The micromegakaryocytes showed dysgenesis of the demarcation membrane system. This membrane system appeared disorganized with a few dilated round, oval, or rarely, elongated vesicles and showed no evidence of platelet formation. The cells also had a paucity of endoplasmic reticulum, few mitochrondria, and sparse glycogen accumulations. The scarcity of cytoplasmic organelles gave a pale immature appearance to the cytoplasm. By scanning electron microscopy, the sponge-like surface of large mature megakaryocytes from unirradiated marrow contrasted with the characteristically smooth, topographically featureless surfaces of the micromegakaryocytes from preleukemic dogs

  6. "Not just a dog": an attachment perspective on relationships with assistance dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim

    2011-09-01

    We explored individuals' relationships with an assistance dog from an attachment-theory perspective. We used both inductive and deductive thematic methods to analyze semi-structured interviews with 25 participants who had lost an assistance dog to retirement or death. Analyses revealed attachment processes of safe haven, secure base, and separation anxiety. Although attachment dynamics were an important feature of these relationships, caregiving was equally important. When confronted with the loss of their dog, almost all participants experienced intense grief. Most grief responses were consistent with the loss of a caregiving relationship. Findings suggest that grief is a natural response to the loss of a beloved companion who fulfilled fundamental needs for attachment and caregiving.

  7. "Like Owner, Like Dog": Correlation between the Owner's Attachment Profile and the Owner-Dog Bond

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Stipo, Carlo; Quaranta, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    During recent years, several studies have revealed that human-dog relationships are based on a well-established and complex bond. There is now evidence suggesting that the dog-human affectional bond can be characterized as an "attachment". The present study investigated possible association between the owners' attachment profile assessed throughout a new semi-projective test (the 9 Attachment Profile) and the owner-dog attachment bond evaluated using a modified version of those used in studyi...

  8. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  9. Functional MRI in awake unrestrained dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S Berns

    Full Text Available Because of dogs' prolonged evolution with humans, many of the canine cognitive skills are thought to represent a selection of traits that make dogs particularly sensitive to human cues. But how does the dog mind actually work? To develop a methodology to answer this question, we trained two dogs to remain motionless for the duration required to collect quality fMRI images by using positive reinforcement without sedation or physical restraints. The task was designed to determine which brain circuits differentially respond to human hand signals denoting the presence or absence of a food reward. Head motion within trials was less than 1 mm. Consistent with prior reinforcement learning literature, we observed caudate activation in both dogs in response to the hand signal denoting reward versus no-reward.

  10. High hepatitis E virus antibody positive rates in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, M Y; Gao, H; Yan, X X; Qu, W J; Sun, Y K; Fu, G W; Yan, Y L

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HEV infection among dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west region of China. A total of 4,490 dog serum samples and 2,206 relative practitioner serum samples were collected from 18 pet hospitals and dog farms in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou province, and the anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected by ELISA. The results showed that the total positive rate of anti-HEV antibodies was 36.55% with the highest rate in city stray dogs, and the differences in distinct species and growth phases were significant. The positive rate of anti-HEV antibody in veterinarian and farm staff-related practitioners was significantly higher than the general population. The finding of the present survey suggested that high HEV seroprevalence in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in the south-west area of China poses a significant public health concern. It is urgent to improve integrated strategies to detect, prevent and control HEV infection in dogs and humans exposed to dogs in this area. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Behavioural responses of dogs to asymmetrical tail wagging of a robotic dog replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artelle, K A; Dumoulin, L K; Reimchen, T E

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that bilateral asymmetry in the amplitude of tail wagging of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) is associated with approach (right wag) versus withdrawal (left wag) motivation and may be the by-product of hemispheric dominance. We consider whether such asymmetry in motion of the tail, a crucial appendage in intra-specific communication in all canids, provides visual information to a conspecific leading to differential behaviour. To evaluate this, we experimentally investigated the approach behaviour of free-ranging dogs to the asymmetric tail wagging of a life-size robotic dog replica. Our data, involving 452 separate interactions, showed a significantly greater proportion of dogs approaching the model continuously without stopping when the tail wagged to the left, compared with a right wag, which was more likely to yield stops. While the results indicate that laterality of a wagging tail provides behavioural information to conspecifics, the responses are not readily integrated into the predicted behaviour based on hemispheric dominance.

  13. Sand impaction of the small intestine in eight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, A D; McGhite, A; Schaaf, O R; Read, R

    2010-01-01

    To describe signalment, clinical findings, imaging and treatment of intestinal sand impaction in the dog. Medical records of dogs with radiographic evidence of small intestinal sand impaction were reviewed. Sand impaction resulting in small intestinal obstruction was diagnosed in eight dogs. All dogs presented with signs of vomiting. Other clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy and abdominal pain. Radiographs confirmed the presence of radio-opaque material consistent with sand causing distension of the terminal small intestine in all dogs. Four dogs were treated surgically for their impaction and four dogs were managed medically. Seven of the eight dogs survived. Both medical and surgical management of intestinal sand impaction in the dog can be effective and both afford a good prognosis for recovery.

  14. Vitamin D Receptor Expression in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, A.G.; Milne, E.; Drummond, D.; Smith, S.; Handel, I.; Mellanby, R.J.

    2018-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non‐skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog. Objectives To define which non‐skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine. Animals Thirteen non‐skeletal tissues were collected prospectively from 6 control dogs. Thirty‐five dogs diagnosed with a chronic enteropathy (CE) and 24 control dogs were prospectively enrolled and duodenal biopsies were evaluated for VDR expression. Methods Prospective; blinded assessment of canine intestinal VDR. Dogs with CE were included once other identifiable causes of intestinal disease were excluded. Age matched controls were included with no intestinal clinical signs. VDR expression was assessed immunohistochemically in all samples, using a Rat IgG VDR monoclonal antibody. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also used for duodenal biopsies. Results VDR expression as assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was highest in the kidney, duodenum, skin, ileum and spleen, and weak in the colon, heart, lymph node, liver, lung, and ovary. Gastric and testicular tissue did not express the VDR. There was no statistical difference in duodenal VDR expression between the 24 healthy dogs and 34 dogs with CE when quantified by either qPCR (P = 0.87) or IHC (P = 0.099). Conclusions and Clinical Importance The lack of down regulation of VDR expression in inflamed intestine contrasts with previous studies in humans. Our findings support future studies to investigate whether vitamin D and its analogues can be used to modulate intestinal inflammation in the dog. PMID:29469965

  15. So Your Child Wants a Dog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-27

    Our question this week is from a mom whose child is begging to get a dog. She's concerned that having a dog is unsafe because she's heard so much in the news about dog bites.  Created: 4/27/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing.   Date Released: 4/27/2009.

  16. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. [41 FR 49488, Nov. 9, 1976. Redesignated at...

  17. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  18. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  19. Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka-Woszuk, J; Salamon, S; Gorna, A; Switonski, M

    2013-04-01

    Coat colour variation is determined by many genes, one of which is the melanocortin receptor type 1 (MC1R) gene. In this study, we examined the whole coding sequence of this gene in four species belonging to the Canidae family (dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog). Although the comparative analysis of the obtained nucleotide sequences revealed a high conservation, which varied between 97.9 and 99.1%, we altogether identified 22 SNPs (10 in dogs, six in farmed red foxes, two in wild red foxes, three in arctic foxes and one in Chinese raccoon dog). Among them, seven appeared to be novel: one silent in the dog, three missense and one silent in the red fox, one in the 3'-flanking region in the arctic fox and one silent in the Chinese raccoon dog. In dogs and red foxes, the SNPs segregated as 10 and four haplotypes, respectively. Taking into consideration the published reports and results of this study, the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog (9) and red fox (7). © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Lymphangiosarcoma of dogs : a review : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma in dogs, an extremely rare tumour with only 16 cases reported in the literature, is reviewed. Lymphangiosarcoma in humans, also very rare, and known in post-mastectomy, chronically-lymphoedematous patients as 'Stewart-Treves' syndrome, is briefly outlined, as well as the various other causes of lymphoedema, both primary and secondary, which usually precede malignancy. Comparisons between human and canine lymphoedema are made when such references were found. The genetic links to primary lymphoedema and the manifestation thereof in humans are mentioned. Lymphangiosarcoma in the majority of human and canine patients is an aggressively malignant tumour with few patients surviving despite various attempted treatments. The tumour most commonly arises in the subcutaneous tissues and rapidly invades underlying tissues and may spread widely internally via haematogenous and lymphatic routes, with frequent pleural and chest involvement. The tumour has been reported mostly in medium- to large-breed dogs, in slightly more males than females, and in an age-range of 8 weeks to 13 years, with more cases aged 5 years and older. Methods of diagnosis, with the variations encountered, including routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, tissue culture characteristics and endothelial expression of glycocongugates, are discussed.

  1. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi per kilogram body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi per kilogram body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Forty-three of the exposed dogs and 11 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three dogs died with pulmonary carcinomas and one dog died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma; these cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on three surviving exposed dogs and one surviving unexposed dog

  2. Quantifying center of pressure variability in chondrodystrophoid dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, S R; Davis, L M; Gorney, A M; Dohse, C S; Williams, K D; Lim, J-H; Pfitzner, W G; Laber, E; Sawicki, G S; Olby, N J

    2017-08-01

    The center of pressure (COP) position reflects a combination of proprioceptive, motor and mechanical function. As such, it can be used to quantify and characterize neurologic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the movement of COP and its variability in healthy chondrodystrophoid dogs while walking to provide a baseline for comparison to dogs with spinal cord injury due to acute intervertebral disc herniations. Fifteen healthy adult chondrodystrophoid dogs were walked on an instrumented treadmill that recorded the location of each dog's COP as it walked. Center of pressure (COP) was referenced from an anatomical marker on the dogs' back. The root mean squared (RMS) values of changes in COP location in the sagittal (y) and horizontal (x) directions were calculated to determine the range of COP variability. Three dogs would not walk on the treadmill. One dog was too small to collect interpretable data. From the remaining 11 dogs, 206 trials were analyzed. Mean RMS for change in COPx per trial was 0.0138 (standard deviation, SD 0.0047) and for COPy was 0.0185 (SD 0.0071). Walking speed but not limb length had a significant effect on COP RMS. Repeat measurements in six dogs had high test retest consistency in the x and fair consistency in the y direction. In conclusion, COP variability can be measured consistently in dogs, and a range of COP variability for normal chondrodystrophoid dogs has been determined to provide a baseline for future studies on dogs with spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  4. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  5. Owner perceived differences between mixed-breed and purebred dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Studies about the behaviours of mixed-breed dogs are rare, although mixed-breeds represent the majority of the world's dog population. We have conducted two surveys to investigate the behavioural, demographic, and dog keeping differences between purebred and mixed-breed companion dogs. Questionnaire data were collected on a large sample of dogs living in Germany (N = 7,700 purebred dogs representing more than 200 breeds, and N = 7,691 mixed-breeds). We found that according to their owners, mixed-breeds were (1) less calm, (2) less sociable toward other dogs, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dog keeping factors differed between purebred and mixed-breed dogs, and two factors showed considerable (> 10%) differences: neutering was more frequent among mixed-breeds, and they were acquired at older ages than purebreds (p dog keeping factors, we found that mixed-breeds were (1) more trainable than purebreds, (2) less calm, and (3) showed more problematic behaviour than purebreds (p dogs, mixed-breeds represent a special group with characteristic behavioural traits.

  6. Intramyocardial arterial narrowing in dogs with subaortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, T; Jönsson, L; Pedersen, H D

    2004-09-01

    Earlier studies have described intramyocardial arterial narrowing based on hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the vessel wall in dogs with subaortic stenosis (SAS). In theory, such changes might increase the risk of sudden death, as they seem to do in heart disease in other species. This retrospective pathological study describes and quantifies intramyocardial arterial narrowing in 44 dogs with naturally occurring SAS and in eight control dogs. The majority of the dogs with SAS died suddenly (n=27); nine had died or been euthanased with signs of heart failure and eight were euthanased without clinical signs. Dogs with SAS had significantly narrower intramyocardial arteries (Pdogs. Male dogs and those with more severe hypertrophy had more vessel narrowing (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively), whereas dogs with dilated hearts had slightly less pronounced arterial thickening (P=0.01). Arterial narrowing was not related to age, but fibrosis increased with age (P=0.047). Dogs that died suddenly did not have a greater number of arterial changes than other dogs with SAS. This study suggests that most dogs with SAS have intramyocardial arterial narrowing and that the risk of dying suddenly is not significantly related to the overall degree of vessel obliteration.

  7. Neoplasms in young dogs after irradiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Williams, J.S.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Lee, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the lifetime effects of irradiation during development, 1680 beagle dogs were given single, whole body exposures to 60Co gamma radiation at one of 6 pre- or postnatal ages. Four groups of 120 dogs each (480 or 29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at early prenatal times, 8 or 28 days postcoitus (dpc). Four groups of 120 dogs each (29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy in the perinatal period at 55 dpc or 2 days postpartum (dpp). Groups of 120 and 240 dogs (21%) received 0.83 Gy at later postnatal times, 70 or 365 dpp, respectively. A group of 360 dogs (21%) were sham-irradiated. The youngest dogs are now 12 years old. Through 4 years of age, 20 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed. Five malignancies and one benign tumor were seen in the first two years, including the only fatal malignancies which occurred in 4 perinatally irradiated dogs. Up to two years of age, the other non-fatal malignancy and benign tumor were found in dogs irradiated at 365 dpp and 55 dpc. The remaining 14 neoplasms, 12 benign and 2 non-fatal malignant, were diagnosed between two and four years of age. Respective numbers of these benign and non-fatal malignant tumors found in control, perinatally irradiated, and all other irradiated dogs were 2 and 0; 5 and 1; and 5 and 1. Eight of the benign lesions were minute papillomas of the eyelids which were more frequent in the perinatally irradiated dogs. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of the malignancies seen in the first four years of life occurred in the 29% of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. Sixty-seven percent (8 of 12) of all neoplasms, excluding eyelid papillomas, also occurred in perinatally irradiated dogs. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation

  8. Mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Ingrid O; DeClementi, Camille; Guenther, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) toxicosis in a dog, including case management and successful outcome. A dog presented for vomiting, hematochezia, bradycardia, weakness, and ataxia, which did not improve with supportive treatment. Mountain laurel ingestion was identified as cause of clinical signs after gastrotomy was performed to remove stomach contents. Supportive treatment was continued and the dog made a full recovery. This report details a case of mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog, including management strategies and outcome, which has not been previously published in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  9. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... FDA Consumer Health Information Your 9-year old dog has been drinking a lot more lately and ...

  10. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Dog population and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    of dog movements constitute a great public health risk to human populations in terms of dog bites and rabies outbreaks. Keywords: Dog, Ecology, Nigeria, Rabies, Vaccination. Introduction. Dog population dynamics have major impacts on the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. An understanding of the domestic dog ...

  11. Runne-Beana: Dog Herds Ethnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrdene Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Saami society in Lapland (now often called Saapmi, particularly the seasonally-nomadic reindeer-breeding sector, is predicated upon mobility and autonomy of its actors. Runne-Beana, a talented reindeer-herding dog, exhibited both mobility and autonomy when allocating to himself a peripatetic ethnographer, on the first day of five years of doctoral dissertation fieldwork in arctic Norway in 1972. That family’s and the wider community’s reactions to Runne-Beana’s behavior, and mine, highlight the tensions when mobility and autonomy compound with ideologies of ownership and control. At the same time, his companionship profoundly shaped all field relationships, engendering an understanding of dog culture as it is manifest in the herder/herding dog/reindeer triad and in the interpenetration of assumptions concerning child/dog enculturation.

  12. Lung lobe torsion in dogs: 22 cases (1981-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neath, P J; Brockman, D J; King, L G

    2000-10-01

    To identify breed disposition, postoperative complications, and outcome in dogs with lung lobe torsion. Retrospective study. 22 client-owned dogs. Information on signalment; history; clinical findings; results of clinicopathologic testing, diagnostic imaging, and pleural fluid analysis; surgical treatment; intra- and postoperative complications; histologic findings; and outcome were obtained from medical records. All 22 dogs had pleural effusion; dyspnea was the most common reason for examination. Fifteen dogs were large deep-chested breeds; 5 were toy breeds. Afghan Hounds were overrepresented, compared with the hospital population. One dog was euthanatized without treatment; the remaining dogs underwent exploratory thoracotomy and lung lobectomy. Eleven dogs recovered from surgery without complications, but 3 of these later died of thoracic disease. Four dogs survived to discharge but had clinically important complications within 2 months, including chylothorax, mediastinal mesothelioma, gastric dilatation, and a second lung lobe torsion. Six dogs died or were euthanatized within 2 weeks after surgery because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, septic shock, pneumothorax, or chylothorax. Chylothorax was diagnosed in 8 of the 22 dogs, including 4 Afghan Hounds. Results suggest that lung lobe torsion is rare in dogs and develops most frequently in large deep-chested dogs, particularly Afghan Hounds. Other predisposing causes were not identified, but an association with chylothorax was evident, especially in Afghan Hounds. Prognosis for dogs with lung lobe torsion was fair to guarded.

  13. Faecal microbiota in lean and obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Stefanie; German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Dowd, Scot E; Steiner, Jörg M; Heilmann, Romy M; Grant, Ryan W; Swanson, Kelly S; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2013-05-01

    Previous work has shown obesity to be associated with changes in intestinal microbiota. While obesity is common in dogs, limited information is available about the role of the intestinal microbiota. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alterations in the intestinal microbiota may be associated with canine obesity. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR, we evaluated the composition of the faecal microbiota in 22 lean and 21 obese pet dogs, as well as in five research dogs fed ad libitum and four research dogs serving as lean controls. Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla. The phylum Actinobacteria and the genus Roseburia were significantly more abundant in the obese pet dogs. The order Clostridiales significantly increased under ad libitum feeding in the research dogs. Canine intestinal microbiota is highly diverse and shows considerable interindividual variation. In the pet dogs, influence on the intestinal microbiota besides body condition, like age, breed, diet or lifestyle, might have masked the effect of obesity. The study population of research dogs was small, and further work is required before the role of the intestinal microbiota in canine obesity is clarified. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  15. Breed-Predispositions to Cancer in Pedigree Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a common problem in dogs and although all breeds of dog and crossbred dogs may be affected, it is notable that some breeds of pedigree dogs appear to be at increased risk of certain types of cancer suggesting underlying genetic predisposition to cancer susceptibility. Although the aetiology of most cancers is likely to be multifactorial, the limited genetic diversity seen in purebred dogs facilitates genetic linkage or association studies on relatively small populations as compared to humans, and by using newly developed resources, genome-wide association studies in dog breeds are proving to be a powerful tool for unravelling complex disorders. This paper will review the literature on canine breed susceptibility to histiocytic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, haemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumours, lymphoma, melanoma, and mammary tumours including the recent advances in knowledge through molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and genome wide association studies. PMID:23738139

  16. When dogs look back: inhibition of independent problem-solving behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) compared with wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R

    2015-09-01

    Domestic dogs have been recognized for their social sensitivity and aptitude in human-guided tasks. For example, prior studies have demonstrated that dogs look to humans when confronted with an unsolvable task; an action often interpreted as soliciting necessary help. Conversely, wolves persist on such tasks. While dogs' 'looking back' behaviour has been used as an example of socio-cognitive advancement, an alternative explanation is that pet dogs show less persistence on independent tasks more generally. In this study, pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves were given up to three opportunities to open a solvable puzzle box: when subjects were with a neutral human caretaker, alone and when encouraged by the human. Wolves were more persistent and more successful on this task than dogs, with 80% average success rate for wolves versus a 5% average success rate for dogs in both the human-in and alone conditions. Dogs showed increased contact with the puzzle box during the encouragement condition, but only a moderate increase in problem-solving success. Social sensitivity appears to play an important role in pet and shelter dogs' willingness to engage in problem-solving behaviour, which could suggest generalized dependence on, or deference to, human action. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Losey

    Full Text Available Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  18. Craniomandibular trauma and tooth loss in northern dogs and wolves: implications for the archaeological study of dog husbandry and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Robert J; Jessup, Erin; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological dog remains from many areas clearly show that these animals suffered tooth fractures, tooth loss, trauma, and dental defects during their lives. Relatively little research has explored the meanings of these patterns, particularly for ancient dog remains from small-scale societies of the North. One limiting issue is the lack of comparative data on dental health and experiences of trauma among northern wolves and dogs. This paper examines tooth loss, tooth fracture, enamel hypoplasia, and cranial trauma in a large sample of historic dog and wolf remains from North America and Northern Russia. The data indicate that the dogs more commonly experienced tooth loss and tooth fracture than the wolves, despite reportedly being fed mostly soft foods such as blubber and fish. The higher rates observed in the dogs likely is a result of food stress and self-provisioning through scavenging. The ability to self-provision was likely important for the long-term history of dog use in the north. Dogs also more commonly experienced cranial fractures than wolves, particularly depression fractures on their frontal bones, which were likely the result of blows from humans. Hypoplastic lesions are rare in both wolves and dogs, and probably result from multiple causes, including food stress, disease, and trauma.

  19. Filarial infections in domestic dogs in Lusaka, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott......'s concentration methods revealed microfilariae in 16 (5.9%) of the dogs. PCR confirmed that most of these dogs had Acanthocheilonema reconditum infection. Ten (4.0%) of the examined dogs were positive for Dirofilaria immitis circulating antigen (by DiroCHEK(®) test), but D. immitis microfilariae were...... not identified in any of the dogs and the status of this infection remains unclear. Further studies are needed to explore the occurrence of filariae in Zambian dogs and the zoonotic potential for humans....

  20. Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  1. Energy requirements for racing endurance sled dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, John P.; Yazwinski, Molly; Milizio, Justin G.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sled dogs have unique dietary energy requirements. At present, there is disparity in the literature regarding energy expenditure and thus energy requirements of these dogs. We sought to further elucidate energy requirements for endurance sled dogs under field conditions. Three sled dog teams completing the 2011 Yukon Quest volunteered to provide diet history. Nutritional content was evaluated and a mock meal was analysed for each team. Race data were obtained from www.yukonquest.com...

  2. Preparation of Nanosilver and Nanogold Based on Dog Rose Aqueous Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Pulit, Jolanta; Banach, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a process of obtaining nanosilver and nanogold based on chemical reduction using substances contained in the aqueous extract of dog rose (Rosa canina). The resulting products were subjected to spectrophotometric analysis (UV-Vis), and testing of the nanoparticles’ size and suspension stability was carried out by measuring the electrokinetic potential, ζ, via dynamic light scattering (DLS). Solid samples were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained data ...

  3. Aseptic loosening of the femoral implant after cemented total hip arthroplasty in dogs: 11 cases in 10 dogs (1991-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.R.; Egger, E.L.; Schwarz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Objective-To determine clinical signs, radiographic findings, results of surgical management, and potential causes of aseptic loosening of the femoral implant (ALFI) in dogs that have undergone cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design-Retrospective study. Animals-11 cases of ALFI in 10 dogs. Procedure-Medical records of all dogs undergoing THA revision surgery were reviewed. Only dogs with ALFI were included. The prosthesis and cement were removed by creating a longitudinal osteotomy of the cranial femoral cortex. Postoperative radiographs of all dogs that underwent THA during the study period were reviewed. Results-The most common clinical sign was intermittent, subtle. or non-weight-bearing lameness. On radiographs obtained after THA, contact of the distal stem tip with cortical endosteum was evident in all dogs. Radiographic changes at the time of diagnosis of ALFI included asymmetric periosteal reaction along the femoral diaphysis, radiolucent lines between the prosthesis and cement, altered implant position, and femoral fracture. Surgical revision yielded good or excellent results in 9 cases. In 1 dog. the implant became infected; in another, aseptic loosening recurred. Aseptic loosening was significantly more common in dogs in which there was contact between the distal stem tip and cortical endosteum than in dogs in which there was no contact. Clinical Implications-ALFI is an uncommon, but important, complication of THA, and radiography is warranted in dogs with clinical signs of ALFI. Initial centering of the prosthetic stem within the femoral shaft may reduce the incidence of ALFI

  4. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-07

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin.

  5. Unleashing their potential: a critical realist scoping review of the influence of dogs on physical activity for dog-owners and non-owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Ann M; Rock, Melanie J

    2011-05-21

    Dog-owners tend to be more physically active than non-owners; however, dogs have also been shown to inhibit physical activity for non-owners, under some circumstances. We conducted a scoping review to identify studies pertaining to the influence of dogs on physical activity for both dog-owners and non-owners, and adopted a critical realist orientation to draw inferences about the positive and negative impact of dogs via their affect on physical and social environments. We identified 35 studies from disparate literatures for review. These studies confirm that dog and owner behaviors affect shared physical and social environments in ways that may influence physical activity patterns, not only among dog-owners but also among non-owners. The direction of influence appears to be most positive in neighborhoods exhibiting high levels of social cohesion, socioeconomic status, perceived safety, dominant culture, or all of these. In disadvantaged neighborhoods, the health of women as well as older adults may be disproportionately affected by dog and owner behavior. While dogs have the potential to increase physical activity for both dog-owners and non-owners, the presence or absence of dogs will not have a standard effect across the physical and social environments of all neighborhoods. Dogs' contributions to shared environments in ways that support physical activity for all must be leveraged. Thus, specific contextual factors must be considered in relation to dogs when planning neighborhood-level interventions designed to support physical activity. We suggest this population health topic merits further investigation.

  6. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracellular magnesium concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebchuk, T N; Hauptman, J G; Braselton, W E; Walshaw, R

    2000-11-01

    To quantify and compare intracellular magnesium concentrations (Mgi) in clinically normal dogs (control dogs) and dogs that have gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV dogs) and to determine whether there is a difference in Mgi and serum magnesium concentrations (Mgs) between GDV dogs with and without cardiac arrhythmias. 41 control dogs and 21 GDV dogs. Rectus abdominis muscle specimens were obtained from control and GDV dogs for determination of Mgi. Blood samples were obtained from GDV dogs for determination of Mgs, and dogs were monitored for 48 hours for cardiac arrhythmias. Muscle specimens were frozen at -40 C, oven dried at 95 C, and digested with concentrated nitric acid. Multielemental analyses were performed by simultaneous/sequential inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy with fixed-cross flow nebulization. The Mg, was standardized to sulfur content to correct for the amount of fat and fascia in the muscle specimen. Mean (+/- SEM) values were recorded in parts per million (ppm). Results-There were no significant differences in Mgi between control (627 +/- 11.1 ppm) and GDV (597 +/- 20.5 ppm) dogs, in Mgi between GDV dogs with (590 +/- 34 ppm) and without (584 +/- 29 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias, and in Mgs between GDV dogs with (1.77 +/- 0.26 ppm) and without (1.51 +/- 0.09 ppm) cardiac arrhythmias. There was no correlation between Mgs and Mgi (R2 = 0.0001). Results indicate that Mg depletion is not pathophysiologically important in dogs with GDV and does not play a role in the cardiac arrhythmias detected in these patients.

  8. 44 CFR 15.13 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and other animals. 15.13 Section 15.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.13 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs...

  9. 36 CFR 520.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 520.11 Section 520.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION RULES AND REGULATIONS... Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the...

  10. CONCENTRATION OF ESTRADIOL IN DOGS (BITCHES IN SPRINGTIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Hajdarević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measuring of estradiol level in the peripheral blood in dog is important for the precise estrus detection. In proestrus, estradiol dominates. In estrus, however, estradiol progressively decreases while progesterone and LH increase, the latter shortly and abruptly. The research of Feldman and Nelson (7 indicates that the beginning of the sexual cycle of the female dog is the result of complex interaction of the environment, general health condition, condition of the ovaries, condition of the uterus, animal age, and some unidentified factors. Estradiol level in the peripheral circulation is starting to rise before the beginning of the proestrus, and during the proestrus the female dog is under the influence of estradiol (4. Our research included 30 female dogs on the territory of Tuzla Municipality, in the springtime. The female dogs were divided in three groups according to the breeding and living conditions: group A (female dogs living in the house environment; group B (female dogs living in the shelter; group C (female stray dogs. For the researched groups, estradiol level varied between 6,265 pg\\ml and 69,734 pg\\ml over the springtime. Of importance is the results can be applied in the evaluation of estrus in the female dogs, and when considering factors crucial for their sustainable reproduction potential.Key words: dogs, estradiol, spring

  11. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  12. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

    2009-11-01

    One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100

  13. Variations in cell morphology in the canine cruciate ligament complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K D; Vaughan-Thomas, A; Spiller, D G; Clegg, P D; Innes, J F; Comerford, E J

    2012-08-01

    Cell morphology may reflect the mechanical environment of tissues and influence tissue physiology and response to injury. Normal cruciate ligaments (CLs) from disease-free stifle joints were harvested from dog breeds with a high (Labrador retriever) and low (Greyhound) risk of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture. Antibodies against the cytoskeletal components vimentin and alpha tubulin were used to analyse cell morphology; nuclei were stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, and images were collected using conventional and confocal microscopy. Both cranial and caudal CLs contained cells of heterogenous morphologies. Cells were arranged between collagen bundles and frequently had cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes were long (type A cells), others were shorter, thicker and more branched (type B cells), and some had no processes (type C cells). Processes were frequently shown to contact other cells, extending longitudinally and transversely through the CLs. Cells with longer processes had fusiform nuclei, and those with no processes had rounded nuclei and were more frequent in the mid-substance of both CLs. Cells with long processes were more commonly noted in the CLs of the Greyhound. As contact between cells may facilitate direct communication, variances in cell morphology between breeds at a differing risk of CCL rupture may reflect differences in CL physiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 36 CFR 504.10 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 504... GOVERNING SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 504.10 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the premises for other than official purposes. ...

  15. 31 CFR 407.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 407.11 Section 407.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET... TREASURY ANNEX § 407.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not...

  16. 4 CFR 25.12 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dogs and other animals. 25.12 Section 25.12 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES CONDUCT IN THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE BUILDING AND ON ITS GROUNDS § 25.12 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing eye dogs or...

  17. Odor Perception by Dogs: Evaluating Two Training Approaches for Odor Learning of Sniffer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Johnen, Dorothea; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Becker, Roland; Schallschmidt, Kristin; Nehls, Irene

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a standardized experimental set-up with various combinations of herbs as odor sources was designed. Two training approaches for sniffer dogs were compared; first, training with a pure reference odor, and second, training with a variety of odor mixtures with the target odor as a common denominator. The ability of the dogs to identify the target odor in a new context was tested. Six different herbs (basil, St. John's wort, dandelion, marjoram, parsley, ribwort) were chosen to produce reference materials in various mixtures with (positive) and without (negative) chamomile as the target odor source. The dogs were trained to show 1 of 2 different behaviors, 1 for the positive, and 1 for the negative sample as a yes/no task. Tests were double blind with one sample presented at a time. In both training approaches, dogs were able to detect chamomile as the target odor in any presented mixture with an average sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 84%. Dogs trained with odor mixture containing the target odor had more correct indications in the transfer task. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dispelling dog dogma: an investigation of heterochrony in dogs using 3D geometric morphometric analysis of skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Abby Grace

    2011-01-01

    Heterochrony is an evolutionary mechanism that generates diversity via perturbations of the rate or timing of development that requires very little genetic innovation. As such, heterochrony is thought to be a common evolutionary mechanism in the generation of diversity. Previous research has suggested that dogs evolved via heterochrony and are paedomorphic wolves. This study uses three-dimensional landmark-based coordinate data to investigate heterochronic patterns within the skull morphology of the domestic dog. A total of 677 adult dogs representing 106 different breeds were measured and compared with an ontogenetic series of 401 wolves. Geometric morphometric analysis reveals that the cranial shape of none of the modern breeds of dogs resembles the cranial shapes of adult or juvenile wolves. In addition, investigations of regional heterochrony in the face and neurocranium also reject the hypothesis of heterochrony. Throughout wolf cranial development the position of the face and the neurocranium remain in the same plane. Dogs, however, have a de novo cranial flexion in which the palate is tilted dorsally in brachycephalic and mesaticephalic breeds or tilted ventrally in dolichocephalic and down-face breeds. Dogs have evolved very rapidly into an incredibly morphologically diverse species with very little genetic variation. However, the genetic alterations to dog cranial development that have produced this vast range of phylogenetically novel skull shapes do not coincide with the expectations of the heterochronic model. Dogs are not paedomorphic wolves. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genome sequencing highlights the dynamic early history of dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam H Freedman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify genetic changes underlying dog domestication and reconstruct their early evolutionary history, we generated high-quality genome sequences from three gray wolves, one from each of the three putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog lineages (Basenji and Dingo and a golden jackal as an outgroup. Analysis of these sequences supports a demographic model in which dogs and wolves diverged through a dynamic process involving population bottlenecks in both lineages and post-divergence gene flow. In dogs, the domestication bottleneck involved at least a 16-fold reduction in population size, a much more severe bottleneck than estimated previously. A sharp bottleneck in wolves occurred soon after their divergence from dogs, implying that the pool of diversity from which dogs arose was substantially larger than represented by modern wolf populations. We narrow the plausible range for the date of initial dog domestication to an interval spanning 11-16 thousand years ago, predating the rise of agriculture. In light of this finding, we expand upon previous work regarding the increase in copy number of the amylase gene (AMY2B in dogs, which is believed to have aided digestion of starch in agricultural refuse. We find standing variation for amylase copy number variation in wolves and little or no copy number increase in the Dingo and Husky lineages. In conjunction with the estimated timing of dog origins, these results provide additional support to archaeological finds, suggesting the earliest dogs arose alongside hunter-gathers rather than agriculturists. Regarding the geographic origin of dogs, we find that, surprisingly, none of the extant wolf lineages from putative domestication centers is more closely related to dogs, and, instead, the sampled wolves form a sister monophyletic clade. This result, in combination with dog-wolf admixture during the process of domestication, suggests that a re-evaluation of past hypotheses regarding dog

  20. Isolation and sequence analysis of a canine distemper virus from a raccoon dog in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuening; Wang, Jianke; Zhang, Miao; Zhao, Jianjun; Shao, Xiqun; Ma, Zengjun; Zhao, Hang; Lin, Peng; Wu, Hua

    2015-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen not only in raccoon dogs but also in a variety of carnivorous animals, including domesticated animals, particularly if they have not been vaccinated. In this study, a wild-type strain of CDV was isolated from lung tissue from a raccoon dog kept at a fur farm in Jilin Province, China. Cytopathic effects typical of CDV infection were observed after three blind passages in Vero cells, yielding a virus titer of 10(4.6) TCID50/mL. Virus identification was carried out by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and genome sequencing. The results showed that the isolated virus, termed the SY strain, corresponded to the Asia-1 genotype of CDV and has a genome of 15,690 nucleotides. This represents the first complete nucleotide sequence of a CDV strain circulating in raccoon dogs in China.

  1. Metazoan parasites of dogs in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAdam, I; Gudan, D; Timbs, D V; Urquhart, H R; Sewell, M M

    1984-02-01

    The parasites which occurred most frequently in 175 owned or stray dogs in Sabah were Ancylostoma spp. present in 68% of the animals. Dirofilaria immitis occurred in 70% of the adult dogs but neither D. immitis nor Spirocerca lupi were present in puppies under four months of age. The latter attained a prevalence of 30% in the adults. In contrast Toxocara canis occurred in 81% of the puppies but infrequently in older dogs. Dipylidium caninum was moderately prevalent (15 to 25%) in dogs of all ages. Ticks were the most common arthropod parasite being present on 26% of the dogs and were mainly Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Demodectic and sarcoptic mange were confirmed and fleas and lice were also recovered.

  2. Nasca classification of hemivertebra in five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besalti Omer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Five dogs, four small mixed breed and a Doberman Pinscher, presented in our clinic with hemivertebra. Complete physical, radiological and neurological examinations were done and the spinal deformities were characterized in accord with the Nasca classification used in human medicine. Two dogs had multiple hemivertebrae (round, oval or wedge-shaped: Type 3 in the thoracic region; one dog had an individual surplus half vertebral body (Type 1 plus a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2b in the lumbar region; one dog had multiple hemivertebrae which were fused on one side (Type 4a in the thoracic region; and one dog had a wedge-shaped hemivertebra (Type 2a in the cervical region.

  3. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age harboured significantly (pcaninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination, there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog.

  5. Dog leucocyte antigen class II diversity and relationships among indigenous dogs of the island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runstadler, J A; Angles, J M; Pedersen, N C

    2006-11-01

    The genetic polymorphism at the dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II loci DQA1, DQB1 and DRB1 was studied in a large genetically diverse population of feral and wild-type dogs from the large island nations of Indonesia (Bali), Australia and New Guinea (Bali street dog, dingo and New Guinea singing dog, respectively). Sequence-based typing (SBT) of the hypervariable region of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 alleles was used to determine genetic diversity. No new DQA1 alleles were recognized among the three dog populations, but five novel DLA-DRB1 and 2 novel DLA-DQB1 allele sequences were detected. Additional unknown alleles were postulated to exist in Bali street dogs, as indicated by the large percentage of individuals (15%-33%) that had indeterminate DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 alleles by SBT. All three groups of dogs possessed alleles that were relatively uncommon in conventional purebreds. The New Guinea singing dog and dingo shared alleles that were not present in the Bali street dogs. These findings suggested that the dingo was more closely related to indigenous dogs from New Guinea. Feral dog populations, in particular large ones such as that of Bali, show genetic diversity that existed prior to phenotypic selection for breeds originating from their respective regions. This diversity needs to be identified and maintained in the face of progressive Westernization. These populations deserve further study as potential model populations for the evolution of major histocompatibility complex alleles, for the study of canine genetic diversity, for the development of dog breeds and for studies on the comigration of ancestral human and dog populations.

  6. Simultaneous double-contrast cystography and cystometry in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, M.B.; Barber, D.L.; Barsanti, J.A.; Crowell, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Double-contrast cystograms and cystometrograms were performed simultaneously in each of six male and six female dogs with normal urinalyses. The dogs were sedated with oxymorphone and acepromazine. Detrusor reflex occurred in 11 of 12 dogs. After bladder infusion of 0.88 ml/kg of positive-contrast medium, there was mucosal irregularity in eight of 12 dogs and bladder shape distortion in 12 of 12 dogs. Bladder distortion decreased with progressive infusion of CO 2 , and mucosal irregularity was eliminated after infusion of 50–100 ml CO 2 . The bladder neck in all dogs was initially located within the pelvic canal. In ten of 12 dogs, the bladder neck was cranially displaced when the bladder was fully distended. Bladder wall thickness was approximately 1 mm circumferentially at all degrees of distention. There was no discernible difference between bladder shape prior to and at initiation of contraction. It was concluded that radiographic determination of a normal urinary bladder can be made without complete bladder distention and that cystograms and cystometrograms can be routinely performed simultaneously in dogs in which both procedures are required

  7. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E

    2002-03-01

    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  8. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  9. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  10. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) - Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Danielle; Bender, Scott; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals.

  11. Registrations of Assistance Dogs in California for Identification Tags: 1999-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confirm whether the dog is an adequately trained assistance dog or not, as neither the handlers nor the dogs are required to carry any particular certification or identification. Therefore, unqualified assistance dogs and incidents such as dog bites by assistance dogs sometimes are problems in the U.S. A governmental oversight system could reduce problems, but no information is available about the current uses of assistance dogs in the U.S. We aimed to investigate the current demographics of registered assistance dogs and the evolving patterns in uses of dogs during 1999-2012 in California. We acquired data on assistance dogs registered by animal control facilities throughout California. We used descriptive statistics to describe the uses of these assistance dogs. The number of assistance dogs sharply increased, especially service dogs, in the past decade. Dogs with small body sizes, and new types of service dogs, such as service dogs for psychiatric and medical assistance, strongly contributed to the increase. The Assistance Dog Identification tags sometimes were mistakenly issued to dogs not fitting the definition of assistance dogs under the law, such as emotional support animals and some cats; this reveals errors in the California governmental registering system. Seemingly inappropriate dogs also were registered, such as those registered for the first time at older than 10 years of age. This study reveals a prevalence of misuse and misunderstanding of regulations and legislation on assistance dogs in California.

  12. Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S

    2015-03-01

    The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum.

  13. Increasing communication between a man and a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present the first results we have concerning our ongoing work on a robotic system embedded on a dog to enrich communication. Two problems are addressed here: How to keep control of a dog when the human does not see it? For dog trained to do some specific activities in particular situation, how to detect this activity? We present here results on controlling the dog by an embedded voice and a real-time recognition of some activities of the dog : walk, s...

  14. Glomerular Lesions in Proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Lees, G E; Brown, C A; Cianciolo, R E

    2017-05-01

    Miniature Schnauzer dogs are predisposed to idiopathic hypertriglyerceridemia, which increases risk for diseases such as pancreatitis and gallbladder mucocele. Recently, elevated triglyceride concentrations have been associated with proteinuria in this breed, although it is difficult to determine which abnormality is primary. Retrospective review of renal tissue from 27 proteinuric Miniature Schnauzers revealed that 20 dogs had ultrastructural evidence of osmophilic globules consistent with lipid in glomerular tufts. Seven of these dogs had lipid thromboemboli in glomerular capillary loops that distorted their shape and compressed circulating erythrocytes. Triglyceride concentrations were reported in 6 of these 7 dogs, and all were hypertriglyceridemic. In addition, glomerular lipidosis (defined as accumulation of foam cells within peripheral capillary loops) was identified in a single dog. The remaining 12 dogs had smaller amounts of lipid that could only be identified ultrastructurally. Neither signalment data nor clinicopathologic parameters (serum albumin, serum creatinine, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and blood pressure) differed among the various types of lipid lesions. During the time course of this study, all dogs diagnosed with glomerular lipid thromboemboli were Miniature Schnauzers, underscoring the importance of recognizing these clear spaces within capillary loops as lipid.

  15. Augmented collar for assistance dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present briefly our reflexion on how to communicate with a dog using embedded devices. We also present the prototype collar we made in order to improve the communication between an assistance dog and his disabled master.

  16. Craniological parameters of Yugoslav shepherd dog sharplanina

    OpenAIRE

    UROŠEVIĆ, Milivoje M.; DROBNJAK, Darko; STOJIĆ, Petar; UROŠEVIĆ, Milan B.

    2017-01-01

    Yugoslav Shepherd Dog Sharplanina is among the oldest dog breeds on the Balkan Peninsula. Since ancient times, dogs of this breed have been bred in the mountainous regions in the southeast of the former Yugoslavia, primarily in the Shara Mountain, based on which the breed was named the Yugoslav Shepherd Dog Sharplanina. Today, according to the FCI classification the breed belongs to Group 2. Countries of origin of this breed are Macedonia and Serbia. The goal of this paper is to evaluate and ...

  17. 31 CFR 91.11 - Dogs and other animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dogs and other animals. 91.11 Section... CONDUCT IN OR ON THE BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.11 Dogs and other animals. Dogs and other animals, except seeing-eye dogs, shall not be brought upon the property for other than official...

  18. [Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis in the dog].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, C; Eule, C; Welle, M; Kohn, B

    2011-04-01

    Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis is a rare immune-mediated skin disease in young dogs. History, signalment, diagnostics, treatment, and outcome in 10 dogs are described. The age ranged from 8 - 36 weeks. The lymph nodes were enlarged in all dogs, especially the mandibular and prescapular lymph nodes. Systemic signs including fever were present in 8 dogs. Seven dogs suffered from blepharitis and painful edema of the muzzle with hemorrhagic discharge, pustules and papules. Cytology of pustules and lymph node aspirates revealed a pyogranulomatous inflammation. In 7 cases the diagnosis of juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis was confirmed by histology. Nine dogs were treated with prednisolone (0.5 - 1.25 mg/kg BID), H2-receptor antagonists and analgetics; all dogs were treated with antibiotics. Four dogs were treated with eye ointment containing antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The prednisolone dosage was tapered over 3 - 8 weeks. One dog had a relapse.

  19. Characterisation of antimicrobial usage in cats and dogs attending UK primary care companion animal veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, E L; O'Neill, D; Summers, J; Mateus, A; Church, D; Redmond, L; Brodbelt, D

    2016-11-12

    There is scant evidence describing antimicrobial (AM) usage in companion animal primary care veterinary practices in the UK. The use of AMs in dogs and cats was quantified using data extracted from 374 veterinary practices participating in VetCompass. The frequency and quantity of systemic antibiotic usage was described.Overall, 25 per cent of 963,463 dogs and 21 per cent of 594,812 cats seen at veterinary practices received at least one AM over a two-year period (2012-2014) and 42 per cent of these animals were given repeated AMs. The main agents used were aminopenicillin types and cephalosporins. Of the AM events, 60 per cent in dogs and 81 per cent in cats were AMs classified as critically important (CIAs) to human health by the World Health Organisation. CIAs of highest importance (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, third-generation cephalosporins) accounted for just over 6 per cent and 34 per cent of AMs in dogs and cats, respectively. The total quantity of AMs used within the study population was estimated to be 1473 kg for dogs and 58 kg for cats.This study has identified a high frequency of AM usage in companion animal practice and for certain agents classified as of critical importance in human medicine. The study highlights the usefulness of veterinary practice electronic health records for studying AM usage. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Evaluation of the Live Biotherapeutic Product, Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli 2-12, in Healthy Dogs and Dogs with Clinical Recurrent UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, G; Sykes, J E; Klumpp, D J; Schaeffer, A J; Antaki, E M; Byrne, B A; Yaggie, R E; Westropp, J L

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging problem. To investigate the safety and efficacy of a live biotherapeutic product, ASB E. coli 2-12 for UTI treatment. Six healthy research dogs; nine client-owned dogs with recurrent UTI. Prospective noncontrolled clinical trial. For safety data, research dogs were sedated, a urinary catheter was inserted into the bladder; 10 10 CFU/mL of ASB E. coli 2-12 was instilled. Urine was cultured on days 1, 3, and 8 post-instillation and dogs were observed for lower urinary tract signs (LUTS). For client-owned dogs, ASB E. coli 2-12 was instilled similarly and urine cultures analyzed on days 1, 7, and 14 days postinstillation. No LUTS were noted in any of the 6 research dogs after ASB E. coli 2-12 infusion. Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) studies confirmed the bacterial strains isolated matched that ASB E. coli 2-12 strain. Four of the nine client-owned dogs had complete or nearly complete clinical cures by day 14. Of these four dogs, 3 also had microbiologic cures at day 14; one of these dogs had subclinical bacteriuria (in addition to ASB E. coli 2-12). Three of these four dogs had ASB E. coli 2-12 isolated from their urine at day 14. With the exception of mild, temporary, self-limiting, hyporexia in two dogs on the day of biotherapeutic administration, there were no major adverse effects. These results suggest ASB E. coli 2-12 is safe and should be investigated in a larger controlled study evaluating clinical UTI in dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Pemphigus foliaceus in dogs: a review of 37 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, P J; Stannard, A A; Ardans, A A; Griffin, C E

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-seven dogs with pemphigus foliaceus were seen over a span of 9 years in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Four breeds of dogs (Bearded Collie, Akita, Newfoundland, Schipperke) were at significant elevated risk when compared with both the dermatology canine case population and the hospital canine population. The mean age of onset was 4.2 years. The dorsal part of the muzzle was the most common site of initial involvement in over 50% of the dogs, and lesions of the head were seen first in 81% of the dogs. Disease progression was gradual (greater than 3 months) in 73% of the dogs. Somewhat bilaterally symmetric scaling, crusting, and alopecia were seen in all of the dogs. Vesicles, pustules, and bullae were not seen commonly, but target lesions with peripheral collarettes were seen frequently. Most dogs had characteristic footpad lesions, with erythematous swelling at the pad margins, cracking, and villous hypertrophy. Generalized exfoliative dermatitis was seen in dogs with widespread disease. Pruritus was noted in less than one half of the dogs. Typical histopathologic findings included subcorneal and intragranular cell layer epidermal pustules, or intrafollicular pustules with prominent acantholysis. Direct immunofluorescence in an intercellular pattern was noted in 76% of the dogs tested and indirect immunofluorescence was noted in 75% of a much smaller sample. Thirty-nine percent of the dogs responded to corticosteroid therapy alone, and 50% and 55% responded, respectively, to prednisone and cytotoxic drugs, and to prednisone with aurothioglucose. Aurothioglucose was successful alone in 27% of the dogs. One-year survival was achieved in 53% of the dogs.

  2. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie M; Kidney, Beverly A; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Myers, Sherry L; Jackson, Marion L

    2011-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker for inflammation in people and dogs. In people, an association between CRP concentration and atherosclerosis has been reported. Atherosclerosis is rare in dogs, but the Miniature Schnauzer breed may be at increased risk for developing this vascular disease. It is not known if CRP concentrations in Miniature Schnauzer dogs differ from those in other dog breeds. Our objectives were to validate an automated human CRP assay for measuring CRP in dogs and compare CRP concentrations in healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs with those in non-Miniature Schnauzer breeds. Sera from 37 non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs with inflammatory disease were pooled and used to validate a human CRP immunoturbidimetric assay for measuring canine CRP. Blood was collected from 20 healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs and 41 healthy dogs of other breeds. Median serum CRP concentration of healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs was compared with that of healthy non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The human CRP assay measured CRP reliably with linearity between 0 and 20 mg/L. CRP concentration for healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs (median 4.0 mg/L, minimum-maximum 0-18.2 mg/L) was significantly higher than for the healthy non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs (median 0.1 mg/L, minimum-maximum 0-10.7 mg/L); 17 of the 20 Miniature Schnauzer dogs had values that overlapped with those of the non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs. Median CRP concentration of Miniature Schnauzer dogs was slightly higher than that of other breeds of dogs. A relationship between higher CRP concentration in Miniature Schnauzer dogs and idiopathic hyperlipidemia, pancreatitis, and possible increased risk for atherosclerosis remains to be determined. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Preparation and determination of desethylamiodarone in dog lung by HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liu Xue; Ying, Yang Chuan; Lei, Zheng; Chen, Guo Rui

    2011-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the preparation and determination of desethylamiodarone in dog lung by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with amiodarone as a standard. The selected dog was orally given amiodarone, then executed and the active metabolite desethylamiodirone in lung tissue was isolated, concentrated and purified by Waters C18 column (25 mm x 250 mm, 10 microm) with mobile phase of acetonitrile-100 mmol/L acetic acid containing 15 mmol/L diethylamine (55:45 v/v) at a flow rate of 10.0 mL/min. Hypersil ODS2 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm 5 microm) was used to analyze amiodarone and desethylamiodarone, with the same mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 237.5 nm. Atmosperic pressure electronic spray ionization (AP-ESI) and ion mass spectral (m/z) of 618.1(M + H) were selected to validate desethylamiodarone. The f(i) of desethylamiodarone and amiodarone were 1.04 +/- 0.02 and 1.020 +/- 0.01, respectively. It indicated that desethylamiodarone can be separated and purified by preparational HPLC after Mass Spectrometry (MS) validation and quantified according to f(i) of amiodarone indirectly. The proposed method enables the preparation and determination of desethylamiodarone in dog lung successfully.

  4. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 20 dogs (2012 to 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenster, M; Hoerauf, A; Vieth, M

    2017-05-01

    To describe the clinical features of canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. A search of our medical records produced 20 dogs with clinical signs attributable to oesophageal disease, hyper-regeneratory oesophagopathy and no other oesophageal disorders. The clinical, endoscopic and histological findings of the dogs were analysed. The 3-year incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was 0·9% of our referral dog population. Main clinical signs were regurgitation, discomfort or pain (each, 20/20 dogs) and ptyalism (18/20 dogs). Oesophagoscopy showed no (5/20 dogs) or minimal (13/20 dogs) mucosal lesions. In oesophageal mucosal biopsy specimens, there were hyperplastic changes of the basal cell layer (13/20 dogs), stromal papillae (14/20 dogs) and entire epithelium (9/20 dogs). Eleven dogs received omeprazole or pantoprazole and regurgitation and ptyalism improved in eight and pain diminished in six of these dogs within three to six weeks. Our findings suggest that canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a more common clinical problem than hitherto suspected. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J.; Tuke, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to analyze dog and cat advertisements on a popular online trading website in Australia in February 2016. A total of 2640 ads for dogs and 2093 ads for cats were classified as being relinquished on Gumtree. A total of 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads were for free animals. The median age was 1.42 years in dogs and 0.9 years in cats. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. In comparison to pets from animal shelters advertised on PetRescue, there were more purebred dogs on Gumtree, although the common breeds were similar. Fifteen people who had relinquished a dog or cat on Gumtree were interviewed. They used Gumtree because they believed shelters were full, they wanted to see/interview the new owner, or because they originally got the animal on Gumtree and it works. These results shed light on a hitherto under-studied population of relinquished dogs and cats. Abstract While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4); and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat

  6. Can f 1 levels in hair and homes of different dog breeds: Lack of evidence to describe any dog breed as hypoallergenic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredegoor, D.W.; Willemse, T.; Chapman, M.D.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Krop, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Certain dog breeds are described and marketed as being "hypoallergenic" on the basis of anecdotal reports that these dogs are better tolerated by patients allergic to dogs. OBJECTIVE These observations were investigated by comparing Can f 1 (major dog [Canis familiaris] allergen) levels

  7. Radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs part II: Comparison of stress-radiographic positioning techniques in dogs with hip dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duangdaun Kaenkangploo; Phiwipha Kamonrat; Marissak Kalpravidh

    2002-01-01

    Two stress-radiographic positioning techniques for evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with hip dysplasia were compared with the standard technique. Forty, healthy, large breed dogs were divided into two groups of 20 dogs. Group 1 had normal hips. Group 2 were dogs with mild to moderated grade of hip dysplasia according to the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) standard. Dogs were anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency before 3 radiographic techniques, standard hip-extended, 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques, were taken. For the 60 deg stress technique, hind legs were extended in parallel to each other at 60 deg to the table top and femoral heads were manually pushed craniodorsally during exposure. For the 90 deg stress technique, femurs were positioned perpendicular to the table top, stifles were 90 deg flexed and adducted and femoral heads were manually pushed in a craniodorsal direction during exposure. Subluxation index (SI) and dorsolateral subluxation score (DLS score) of coxofemoral joints were assessed from radiographs. The SI of normal dogs from standard, 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques were 0.15, 0.20 and 0.23 and of dysplastic dogs were 0.34, 0.40 and 0.41 respectively. The degress of subluxation assessed from the two stress technique radiographs were significantly greater (p0.05) than those shown on the standard technique radiographs in both groups of dogs. DLS scores of normal dogs from standard, 60 deg and 90 deg stress techniques were 65.1, 64.3 and 61.0 percent and of dysplastic dogs were 55.4, 53.6 and 47.6 percent respectively. Mean of DLS scores assessed from the 90 deg radiographs was significantly lower (p0.05) than those assessed from radiographs of other two teachniques in both groups of dogs. The findings suggested that the 90 deg stress technique is more efficient than the standard and 60 deg stress techniques for radiographic evaluation of coxofemoral joint laxity in dogs with mild hip dysplasia and early

  8. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  10. Does Dog Walking Predict Physical Activity Participation: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) identify characteristics associated with dog owners who walk their dog, (2) describe the frequency and duration of walking the dog, and (3) determine whether dog owners who walk their dog participate in more physical activity than dog owners who do not walk their dog and non-dog owners. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study setting was nationwide. Adults (n = 4010) participating in the 2005 ConsumerStyles mail-panel survey were the study subjects. Measures used were demographic, physical activity, dog ownership, and dog walking questions from the 2005 ConsumerStyles mail-panel survey. Chi-square tests and analyses of variance were conducted to examine participant characteristics associated with dog walking and to describe the frequency and duration of dog walking. Analysis of covariance was used to determine whether dog owners who walk their dog participate in more physical activity than dog owners who do not walk their dog and non-dog owners. Among dog owners, 42% reported some dog walking in a typical week. Dog owners walked their dog an average 4.3 ± 0.1 times and 128.8 ± 5.6 minutes per week. There were no significant differences in weekly minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity across the dog-ownership and dog walking groups. Most dog owners did not walk their dog. Dog owners were not more active than non-dog owners, except when considering the activity obtained via dog walking. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The prevalence of Dirofilaria repens in cats, healthy dogs and dogs with concurrent babesiosis in an expansion zone in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Rodo, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Tołkacz, Katarzyna; Welc-Faleciak, Renata

    2016-09-05

    Dirofilaria repens is a mosquito-transmitted, filarial nematode parasitizing dogs, cats and other carnivores. Recently, this parasite has spread in central Europe, including Poland. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of D. repens in cats and dogs in different regions of the country and to investigate the occurrence and consequences of co-infection with another fast-spreading vector-borne parasite, Babesia canis. In the period 2013-2015, 147 blood samples from cats from central Poland and 257 blood samples from dogs from central, northern, southern and western Poland were collected. Prevalence of D. repens was determined by amplification and sequencing of the 12S rDNA gene fragment. Among dogs, 94 samples originated from clinically healthy dogs from central Poland (Masovia) and 58 samples originated from dogs that were infected with B. canis. Prevalence of D. repens was compared between these two groups of dogs. For the first time D. repens was identified in a cat from central Europe (0.7 % [95 % CL: 0-4.1 %]). The DNA of the filarial endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia was detected in two cats (1.4 % [95 % CL: 0-5.5 %]). In dogs, the parasite was detected only in samples from central Poland (Masovia) (local prevalence = 38 % [95 % CL: 25.9-51.8 %]). Prevalence of D. repens was significantly higher in dogs with babesiosis (90 % [95 % CL: 81.6-94.5 %]). Co-infections of D. repens and B. canis were confirmed by sequencing in 30 dogs with babesiosis, but no co-infections were identified in healthy dogs from Masovia. Statistical analyses of blood parameters revealed that dogs with co-infections suffered more severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, but presented milder changes in biochemical parameters (i.e. less elevated concentration of alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and serum urea) suggesting lower risk of hepatic or renal failure in comparison to dogs infected only with B. canis. These findings are important due to the spread of

  12. Dog obesity: can dog caregivers' (owners') feeding and exercise intentions and behaviors be predicted from attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlf, Vanessa I; Toukhsati, Samia; Coleman, Grahame J; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2010-01-01

    Dog obesity is a common nutritional disorder affecting up to 40% of the companion animal (pet) dog population in Australia and other developed nations. A clear understanding of factors determining relevant caregiver (owner) behaviors underpins effective treatment for this disorder. The theory of planned behavior can be used to understand factors contributing to human behavior. This article describes research informed by this theory. The research examined relationships between owners' behavioral beliefs and barriers, normative beliefs and perceptions of control, owners' feeding and exercise behaviors toward their dogs, and the body condition scores (BCSs) of dogs. The study recruited a sample of 182 dog and owner dyads. The researcher independently assessed BCSs. Owners completed a questionnaire measuring relevant feeding and exercise beliefs and behaviors. This revealed significant correlations between many psychological variables and BCSs and between psychological variables and specific owner behaviors: for example, the relationship of low levels of intentions to feed appropriately to ambivalent beliefs toward feeding appropriately and low perceived control. Careful consideration of the specific variables identified will permit the development of more effective interventions.

  13. Evaluation of learning curves for ovariohysterectomy of dogs and cats and castration of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lynetta J; Ferguson, Nancy; Fellenstein, Carol; Johnson, Ron; Constable, Peter D

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To define learning curves for fourth-year veterinary students performing ovariohysterectomy procedures in dogs and cats and castration in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective study. SAMPLE 3,196 ovariohysterectomies or castrations performed in dogs and cats by 88 veterinary students during a spay-neuter surgery and animal shelter rotation (n = 3,056) or by 1 experienced general practitioner (n = 140). PROCEDURES Data collected from medical records included patient signalment, type and duration of procedure, and sequence (by date and time) of the procedure within a list of procedures of the same type generated for each student. For each procedure type, geometric mean surgery time and 95% confidence intervals were determined for each number of surgeries completed by ≥ 10 students. Median surgery times for the same procedure types were determined for the experienced practitioner. The learning curve for each procedure was modeled with nonlinear (3-factor exponential equation with a nonzero asymptote) and linear regression. For each procedure, the asymptote (optimal surgery time) for students was compared with the experienced practitioner's median surgery time. RESULTS 2,945 surgeries (mean, 33/student) performed by ≥ 10 students were analyzed. Surgery time decreased in a nonlinear manner as student experience increased for castration of adult or pediatric dogs and ovariohysterectomy of pediatric dogs and adult or pediatric cats. Surgery time decreased in a linear manner as experience increased for ovariohysterectomy of adult dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study to map surgery times for common surgical procedures consecutively performed by veterinary students. Results clearly indicated the value of repetition to improve surgical skills (as measured by surgery time) during a 3-week period.

  14. A Qualitative Investigation of the Significance of Companion Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Nandini; Haney, Colleen J

    2015-09-01

    Using a qualitative design, the purpose of this study was to examine how people describe their relationship with their dog and what they do that suggest this bond represents a meaningful relationship. Dog owners (N = 27) aged 19 years and older were invited to participate in one of seven focus group discussions. A qualitative content analysis revealed the presence of three themes: (a) the impact of dogs on interpersonal relationships, (b) dogs as subjective beings, and (c) psychological and health benefits of dogs. The second theme reflects the personal agency of dogs and their unique contributions to the human-dog relationship. These themes are discussed in light of the current research in the field. The findings suggest implications for counseling research and practice in improving the health and well-being of dog owners. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Greger; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Perri, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The dog was the first domesticated animal but it remains uncertain when the domestication process began and whether it occurred just once or multiple times across the Northern Hemisphere. To ascertain the value of modern genetic data to elucidate the origins of dog domestication, we analyzed 49......,024 autosomal SNPs in 1,375 dogs (representing 35 breeds) and 19 wolves. After combining our data with previously published data, we contrasted the genetic signatures of 121 breeds with a worldwide archeological assessment of the earliest dog remains. Correlating the earliest archeological dogs......, and New Guinea Singing Dogs) come from regions outside the natural range of Canis lupus (the dog's wild ancestor) and where dogs were introduced more than 10,000 y after domestication. These results demonstrate that the unifying characteristic among all genetically distinct so-called ancient breeds...

  16. Canine Distemper Viral Inclusions in Blood Cells of Four Vaccinated Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Bruce G.; Adams, Pamela S.; Cornell, William D.; Elkins, A. Darrel

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of canine distemper were detected by the presence of numerous cytoplasmic inclusions in various circulating blood cells. Fluorescent antibody techniques and electron microscopy confirmed the identity of the viral inclusions. The cases occurred in the same geographic area and within a short time span. All four dogs had been vaccinated against canine distemper, but stress or other factors may have compromised their immune status. The possibility of an unusually virulent virus strain ...

  17. Effect of different types of classical music played at a veterinary hospital on dog behavior and owner satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Whitney J; Bain, Melissa

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of different types of classical music played during a veterinary visit on dog behavior and owner satisfaction. DESIGN Prospective randomized controlled study. ANIMALS 74 dogs examined at a veterinary teaching hospital. PROCEDURES Dogs examined for a wellness visit, presurgical health evaluation, or nonurgent illness were exposed to 1 of 3 treatments (modified classical music, the same music in its original format, and no music [control]) while in the examination room. Owners completed a standardized survey regarding the dog's behavior and their satisfaction with the visit. Clinicians completed a separate standardized survey regarding the dog's behavior. Information regarding monetary charges, procedures performed, diagnoses, and physiologic variables was obtained from the electronic medical record after the appointment. RESULTS Owners rated their dog's anxiety level in the waiting room greater than that in the examination room regardless of treatment. Mean anxiety and aggression scores of dogs during the physical examination as rated by owners were significantly greater than those assigned by clinicians. Visit satisfaction for owners exposed to original classical music was significantly greater than that for owners not exposed to music. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested placing a pet and its owner into an examination room instead of a waiting room immediately after clinic arrival may ameliorate pet anxiety during the veterinary visit. Playing classical music at a low volume can be a simple and cost-effective way to improve owner satisfaction with the veterinary visit. Further research is necessary to determine the effects of music on pet anxiety.

  18. Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Angela L; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-10-15

    Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic

  19. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, G; Intorre, L; Franquelo, C; Cristòfol, C; Pérez, B; Martí, G; Arboix, M

    1998-11-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) after IV and IM administration in dogs. 6 healthy 2- to 3-year-old male Beagles. IN a crossover design study, 3 dogs were given TAP IV, and 3 dogs were given TAP IM, each at a dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight. Three weeks later, the same dogs were given a second dose by the opposite route. At preestablished times after TAP administration, blood samples were collected through a catheter placed in the cephalic vein, and TAP concentration was determined by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Kinetics of TAP administered IV were fitted by a biexponential equation with a rapid first disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short (1.7+/-0.3 hours), volume of distribution at steady state was 0.66+/-0.05 L/kg, and plasma clearance was 5.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg. After IM administration, absorption was rapid. Peak plasma concentration (25.1+/-10.3 microg/ml) was reached about 45 minutes after drug administration. The apparent elimination half-life after IM administration (5.6+/-4.6 hours) was longer than that after IV administration probably because of the slow absorption rate from the muscle. Mean bioavailability after IM administration was 96+/-7%. The pharmacokinetic profile of TAP in dogs suggests that it may be therapeutically useful against susceptible microorganisms involved in the most common infections in dogs, such as tracheobronchitis, enterocolitis, mastitis, and urinary tract infections.

  1. 85 STUDIES ON DOG POPULATION IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA (I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of dog population in some residential areas of Makurdi, Nigeria, was investigated ... owned dogs kept them as house guards and/or security alert; only 18.8% of dog owners kept them as .... potential health risk to dogs and humans.

  2. Gentamicin-attenuated Leishmania infantum: a clinicopathological study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Hamid; Molaei, Mohammad M; Afshar, Reza Malekpour; Kamiabi, Hosein; Burchmore, Richard; Hagan, Paul; Phillips, R Stephen

    2009-05-15

    The clinicopathological changes following infection with an attenuated line of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum H-line) were evaluated in mixed breed dogs. Two groups of dogs were infected intravenously (i.v.) or intradermally (i.d.) with L. infantum H-line and two control groups were infected i.v. or i.d. with L. infantum wild-type (L. infantum WT). None of the dogs, which were infected i.v. or i.d. with L. infantum H-line, showed any abnormalities during the observation period. In contrast, two out of three dogs, which were infected i.v. with L. infantum WT, developed clinical signs of disease. In addition, no histopathological changes were seen in the liver and spleen of the dogs infected with the attenuated line of parasite, whereas the histopathological changes in the two dogs infected i.v. with L. infantum WT were severe in form and manifested by infiltration of high numbers of inflammatory cells. No promastigotes were found in cultures set up from spleens and livers of dogs infected with L. infantum H-line at 12 months post-infection, whereas promastigotes were seen in the spleen and liver cultures from 2 dogs infected i.v. with L. infantum WT. Serum levels of total IgG anti-Leishmania antibody were raised in all dogs. The antibody level in the serum of dogs infected i.v. with L. infantum WT was higher than that in dogs infected with L. infantum H-line. These results show no clinicopathological abnormalities in the dogs infected with gentamicin-attenuated L. infantum H-line. Moreover, L. infantum H-line induced IgG anti-Leishmania antibody in the dogs.

  3. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  4. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  5. Prevalence of ectoparasites in dogs of Shimoga, Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J

    2017-03-01

    A study was carried out to ascertain the status of ecto-parasites infesting dogs of Shimoga region. A total of 120 dogs with the history of skin problems presented to the local hospitals and local pet clinics of Shimoga region were screened for different ecto-parasites. The ticks, fleas and lice were collected, processed and identified. The skin scrapings were also collected from the affected dogs and processed for identification of mites. Out of 120 dogs examined, 59 (49.1 %) had harboured ecto-parasites. Among 59 infested pet dogs, 22 (37.28 %) positive for Fleas, 18 (30.5 %) for ticks, 09 (15.2 %) for Lice, 07 (11.8 %) for Sarcoptic mange and 03 (5.0 %) were for Demodectic mange conditions. The two species of fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides canis 13 (59 %) and Ctenocephalides felis 9 (41 %). The ticks and lice species were identified as Riphicephalus sanguineus and Trichodectus canis respectively. The mite species infecting dogs were identified as Sarcoptes scabeii and Demodex canis based on the morphological character. The Prevalence of ectoparasites was more in stray and adults dogs compared to pet dogs and puppies respectively.

  6. Tumor thrombus formation in two dogs with insulinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrook, Lydia E; Kudnig, Simon T

    2012-10-15

    A 9-year-old sexually intact male Staffordshire Bull Terrier and a 9-year-old neutered male Boxer were evaluated for intermittent neurologic signs including muscle tremors, ataxia, episodic collapse, disorientation, and seizures. Both dogs had low blood glucose and high serum insulin concentrations. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were unremarkable for both dogs. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass that extended from the body of the pancreas into the pancreaticoduodenal vein in each dog. Marginal resection of pancreatic masses was performed, and tumor thrombi were removed via venotomy in both dogs. Histologic evaluation indicated the masses were pancreatic islet cell tumors with tumor thrombi. Clinical signs resolved following surgical resection of tumors and tumor thrombi, and the dogs were euglycemic during the follow-up period (17 and 45 months after surgery). Although gross tumor thrombus formation has been identified in humans with insulinomas, tumor thrombi have not been previously reported for dogs with insulinomas. Surgical removal of tumor thrombi via venotomy seemed to be well tolerated by the dogs. Tumor thrombus formation did not seem to adversely affect prognosis for the 2 dogs of this report.

  7. Dog handlers' and dogs' emotional and cortisol secretion responses associated with animal-assisted therapy sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Kirchengast, S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated 13 dog handlers and 18 companion dogs (Canis familiaris) working as teams in nonhuman animal-assisted service. The handlers described in questionnaires what emotions they chose to associate with their daily life and therapeutic work. They described their emotional condition

  8. Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Soumyaranjan; Panda, S. K.; Acharya, A. P.; Senapati, S.; Behera, M.; Behera, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart o...

  9. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  10. REVIEW: DOG, MASTER, AND RELATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Caihua Dorji (Tshe dpal rdo rje ཚེ་དཔལ་རྡོ་རྗེ། Caihuan Duojie 才还多杰

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stag 'bum rgyal (b. 1966 is from a herding family in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. A member of the China Writers' Association and the Standing Committee of Mtsho lho Writers' Association, Stag 'bum rgyal teaches the Tibetan language at Mang ra Nationalities Middle School. He graduated from Mtsho lho Nationalities Normal School in 1986 and began his teaching career in the same year. Later in 1988, he attended a training program at Northwest Nationalities University and earned a graduation certificate. Stag 'bum rgyal has published more than sixty short stories, novellas, and novels since 1980s. Among his novellas, Sgo khyi 'The Watch Dog', Khyi rgan 'The Old Dog', h+'a pa gsos pa'i zin bris 'The Story of Dog Adoption', Mi tshe'i glu dbyangs 'The Song of Life', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives' have been translated into Chinese and published in such magazines as Xizang Wenxue 'Tibet Literature', Minzu Wenxue 'Nationalities Literature', and Qinghai Hu 'Qinghai Lake'. Rnam shes 'The Soul', Rgud 'Degeneration', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives', won the Sbrang char Literature Prize in 1999, 2003, and 2006, respectively. ..........

  11. [Spontaneous models of human diseases in dogs: ichthyoses as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Catherine; Grall, Anaïs; Guaguere, Éric; Thomas, Anne; Galibert, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Ichthyoses encompass a heterogeneous group of genodermatoses characterized by abnormal desquamation over the entire body due to defects of the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and desquamation, which occur in the upper layer of the epidermis. Even though in humans more than 40 genes have already been identified, the genetic causes of several forms remain unknown and are difficult to identify in Humans. Strikingly, several purebred dogs are also affected by specific forms of ichthyoses. In the Golden retriever dog breed, an autosomal recessive form of ichthyosis, resembling human autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, has recently been diagnosed with a high incidence. We first characterized the disease occurring in the golden retriever breed and collected cases and controls. A genome-wide association study on 40 unrelated Golden retriever dogs, using the canine 49.000 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) array (Affymetrix v2), followed by statistical analyses and candidate gene sequencing, allowed to identify the causal mutation in the lipase coding PNPLA1 gene (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein). Screening for alterations in the human ortholog gene in 10 autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses families, for which no genetic cause has been identified thus far, allowed to identify two recessive mutations in the PNPLA1 protein in two families. This collaborative work between "human" and "canine" geneticists, practicians, histopathologists, biochemists and electron microscopy experts not only allowed to identify, in humans, an eighth gene for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, but also allowed to highlight the function of this as-yet-unknown skin specific lipase in the lipid metabolism of the skin barrier. For veterinary medicine and breeding practices, a genetic test has been developed. These findings illustrate the importance of the discovery of relevant human orthologous canine genetic diseases, whose causes can be tracked

  12. Dog Theft: A Case for Tougher Sentencing Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren K.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The Sentencing Council (England and Wales) currently considers dogs to be “property”. This means that if someone steals a dog, they may be punished in the same way as someone who steals a non-living object, like a mobile phone or a piece of furniture. This review argues that losing a dog is very different to losing a non-living object, and that many people consider their dog to be a friend or a family member, not just a “possession”. The review concludes that that people who steal dogs should be punished in a way that reflects the emotional harm that can be caused to victims of dog theft. Abstract Dogs, and other companion animals, are currently classed as “property” in theft sentencing legislation for England and Wales. This means that offenders who steal dogs are given similar sentences to those that steal inanimate objects. This review presents the argument that the penalty for dog theft should be more severe than for the theft of non-living property. Evidence of the unique bond between dogs and humans, and discussion of the implications of labelling a living being as mere “property” are used to support this argument. The review concludes that the Sentencing Council’s guidelines should be amended so that offences involving the theft of a companion animal are deemed to be a Category 2 offence or above. The review further proposes that “theft of a companion animal” should be listed in the Sentencing Council’s guidelines as an aggravating factor. PMID:29786637

  13. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Brizio Di; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Eight dry dog food samples available in the US market were evaluated by pet owners. In this study, consumers evaluated overall liking, aroma, and appearance liking of the products. Consumers were also asked to predict their purchase intent, their dog’s liking, and cost of the samples. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Overall liking clusters were not related to income, age, gender, or education, indicating that general consumer demographics do not appear to play a main role in individual consumer acceptance of dog food products. PMID:26480043

  14. Pulmonary artery dissection in eight dogs with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Simpson, Elaine M; López-Alvarez, Jordi; Thomas, William P; Bright, Janice M; Eason, Bryan D; Rush, John E; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Green, Henry W; Cunningham, Suzanne M; Visser, Lance C; Kent, Agnieszka M; Schober, Karsten E

    2015-06-01

    To describe a series of dogs with pulmonary artery dissection and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Eight dogs. Retrospective case series. Pulmonary artery dissection was diagnosed in 8 dogs, 3 were Weimaraners. Four dogs presented in left-sided congestive heart failure, 4 presented for murmur evaluation and without clinical signs, and 1 presented in right-sided congestive heart failure. In 7 dogs the dissection was first documented concurrent with a diagnosis of uncorrected PDA. In the other dog, with pulmonary valve stenosis and PDA, the dissection was observed on autopsy examination 17 months after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and ductal closure. Median age at presentation for the 7 dogs with antemortem diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection was 3.5 years (range, 1.5-4 years). Three dogs had the PDA surgically ligated, 2 dogs did not undergo PDA closure, 1 dog failed transcatheter occlusion of the PDA with subsequent surgical ligation, 1 dog underwent successful transcatheter device occlusion of the PDA, and 1 dog had the PDA closed by transcatheter coil delivery 17 months prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary artery dissection. The 2 dogs that did not have the PDA closed died 1 and 3 years after diagnosis due to heart failure. Pulmonary artery dissection is a potential complication of PDA in dogs, the Weimaraner breed may be at increased risk, presentation is often in mature dogs, and closure of the PDA can be performed and appears to improve outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  16. Bucking the trend in wolf-dog hybridization: first evidence from europe of hybridization between female dogs and male wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindrikson, Maris; Männil, Peep; Ozolins, Janis; Krzywinski, Andrzej; Saarma, Urmas

    2012-01-01

    Studies on hybridization have proved critical for understanding key evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptation. However, from the perspective of conservation, hybridization poses a concern, as it can threaten the integrity and fitness of many wild species, including canids. As a result of habitat fragmentation and extensive hunting pressure, gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations have declined dramatically in Europe and elsewhere during recent centuries. Small and fragmented populations have persisted, but often only in the presence of large numbers of dogs, which increase the potential for hybridization and introgression to deleteriously affect wolf populations. Here, we demonstrate hybridization between wolf and dog populations in Estonia and Latvia, and the role of both genders in the hybridization process, using combined analysis of maternal, paternal and biparental genetic markers. Eight animals exhibiting unusual external characteristics for wolves - six from Estonia and two from Latvia - proved to be wolf-dog hybrids. However, one of the hybridization events was extraordinary. Previous field observations and genetic studies have indicated that mating between wolves and dogs is sexually asymmetrical, occurring predominantly between female wolves and male dogs. While this was also the case among the Estonian hybrids, our data revealed the existence of dog mitochondrial genomes in the Latvian hybrids and, together with Y chromosome and autosomal microsatellite data, thus provided the first evidence from Europe of mating between male wolves and female dogs. We discuss patterns of sexual asymmetry in wolf-dog hybridization.

  17. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91 Y/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases

  18. Age-related changes in the propensity of dogs to bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, L L McV; Kass, P H; Chomel, B B; Hart, L A

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective cohort study was aimed at describing the effects of age at acquisition, age, and duration of ownership of dogs on the risk of (1) bites during play and (2) non-play bites to humans. Data were collected on 110 dogs that had bitten during play with a person, 161 dogs that had bitten outside of play and 951 non-biting dogs from veterinary clients in Kingston (KGN), Jamaica and San Francisco (SF), USA. Modified Poisson regression was employed to model the relationships of both types of bites to each variable separately. Effects of the variables on dog bite risk (1) during and (2) outside of play with the dog, differed from each other and by type of bite. Effects varied with the dog's age and age-related associations were strongest in dogs younger than 1 year old. Ages at acquisition of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were substantially lower than those at risk for non-play bites. Ages and durations of ownership of dogs at highest risk for bites during play were also lower than those of dogs at highest risk for non-play bites. The propensity of a dog to bite changes as it ages and relationships between dog bites occurring during and outside of play and the dog's age at acquisition, current age, and duration of ownership, differ from each other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  20. Association between obesity and reduced body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, G; Giudice, E; Fazio, F; Refinetti, R

    2011-08-01

    Industrialized nations are currently experiencing an obesity epidemic, the causes of which are not fully known. One possible mechanism of enhanced energy efficiency that has received almost no attention is a reduction in the metabolic cost of homeothermy, which could be achieved by a modest lowering of body core temperature. We evaluated the potential of this obesity-inducing mechanism in a canine model of the metabolic syndrome. We compared the rectal temperature of lean dogs and obese dogs by (a) conducting cross-sectional measurements in 287 dogs of many breeds varying greatly in body size, (b) conducting longitudinal measurements in individual dogs over 7-10 years and (c) tracking rectal temperature of lean and obese dogs at 3-h intervals for 48 consecutive hours in the laboratory. We found that larger dogs have lower rectal temperatures than smaller dogs and that, for the same body mass, obese dogs have lower rectal temperatures than lean dogs. The results were consistent in the cross-sectional, longitudinal and around-the-clock measurements. These findings document an association between obesity and reduced body temperature in dogs and support the hypothesis that obesity in this and other species of homeotherms may result from an increase in metabolic efficiency achieved by a regulated lowering of body temperature.

  1. The relationships between morphological features and social signalling behaviours in juvenile dogs: the effect of early experience with dogs of different morphotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerswell, Keven J; Butler, Kym L; Bennett, Pauleen; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2010-09-01

    Research on dog communication has tended to focus on breed differences and the use of lupine signals by the domestic dog. However, the relationship between morphological change and communication has received little empirical study. The link between morphology and behavioural selection in a canid undergoing domestication, the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes), has been well documented. Therefore, it is reasonable to propose a similar link may be present in another canid species that has undergone domestication, namely the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Inter-morphotype interactions (587 interactions) of 115 juvenile dogs aged 8-20 weeks from over 30 breeds and various hybrids, enrolled in veterinary "Puppy Socialisation Classes", were video taped. Each signal that could be sent, was recorded, and the sending and the intended receiving dog identified. The frequencies with which a dog sent each category of signal, and the frequency with which each category of signal was directed at the dog (elicited), were calculated. The relationship between these frequencies and the morphology of the dog was then studied using generalized linear models. Overall morphology of the dog was not related to either the sending or eliciting of any social signaling behaviours (social signals). However, snout length was related to both the signals sent by a dog, and especially the signals that were directed to a dog (elicited). Relationships to eye cover and coat length were also found. Possible explanations for the results are discussed, and avenues for further research are indicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Minocycline pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaland, Marit Gaastra; Guardabassi, Luca; Papich, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although minocycline is not licensed for use in dogs, this tetracycline has therapeutic potential against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish rational dosage recommendations for minocycline use in dogs....... Specific objectives were to generate and analyse minocycline pharmacokinetic (PK) data on plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) concentrations, plasma protein binding and pharmacodynamic (PD) data on antimicrobial activity against S. pseudintermedius. ANIMALS: Six healthy dogs from a research colony were...... used in this study. METHODS: Dogs were administered 5 mg/kg intravenously and 10 mg/kg orally (p.o.) of minocycline hydrochloride in separate crossover experiments. In vivo drug concentrations in plasma and in ISF collected by ultrafiltration were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography...

  3. Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels in Dog Owners and Their Dogs Are Associated with Behavioral Patterns: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Petersson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that dog–owner interaction results in increasing oxytocin levels in owners and dogs, decreasing cortisol levels in owners but increasing cortisol levels in dogs. The present study aimed to further investigate whether oxytocin and cortisol levels in the previously tested owners and dogs were associated with their behaviors during the interaction experiment. Ten female volunteer dog–owners and their male Labrador dogs participated in a 60 min interaction experiment with interaction taking place during 0–3 min and blood samples for analysis of oxytocin and cortisol were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The entire experiment was videotaped and the following variables were noted; the different types (stroking, scratching, patting and activating touch, i.e., scratching and patting combined as well as the frequency of touch applied by the owner, the number of times the owner touched her dog, the dog’s positions and time spent in each position. Correlations were analyzed between the behavioral variables and basal oxytocin levels, maximum oxytocin levels, delta oxytocin levels, basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels at 15 min. Owners with low oxytocin levels before and during the interaction touched their dogs more frequently (0 min: Rs = -0.683, p = 0.042; oxytocin maximum: Rs = -0.783, p = 0.013. The lower the dogs’ oxytocin levels during the interaction, the more stroking they received (Rs = -0.717, p = 0.041. The more frequently activating touch was applied by the owner, the higher the dogs’ cortisol levels became (15 min: Rs = 0.661, p = 0.038. The higher the owners’ maximum oxytocin level the fewer position changes the dogs made (Rs = -0.817, p = 0.007 and the shorter time they spent sitting (Rs = -0.786, p = 0.036, whereas the higher the owners’ basal cortisol levels, the longer time the dogs spent standing (0 min: Rs = 0.683, p = 0.041. In conclusion, oxytocin and cortisol levels, both in

  4. Personality traits in companion dogs-Results from the VIDOPET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcsán, Borbála; Wallis, Lisa; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike; Müller, Corsin A; Huber, Ludwig; Riemer, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    Individual behavioural differences in pet dogs are of great interest from a basic and applied research perspective. Most existing dog personality tests have specific (practical) goals in mind and so focused only on a limited aspect of dogs' personality, such as identifying problematic (aggressive or fearful) behaviours, assessing suitability as working dogs, or improving the results of adoption. Here we aimed to create a comprehensive test of personality in pet dogs that goes beyond traditional practical evaluations by exposing pet dogs to a range of situations they might encounter in everyday life. The Vienna Dog Personality Test (VIDOPET) consists of 15 subtests and was performed on 217 pet dogs. A two-step data reduction procedure (principal component analysis on each subtest followed by an exploratory factor analysis on the subtest components) yielded five factors: Sociability-obedience, Activity-independence, Novelty seeking, Problem orientation, and Frustration tolerance. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and validity measures demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-observer reliability and adequate internal consistency of all factors. Moreover the test showed good temporal consistency when re-testing a subsample of dogs after an average of 3.8 years-a considerably longer test-retest interval than assessed for any other dog personality test, to our knowledge. The construct validity of the test was investigated by analysing the correlations between the results of video coding and video rating methods and the owners' assessment via a dog personality questionnaire. The results demonstrated good convergent as well as discriminant validity. To conclude, the VIDOPET is not only a highly reliable and valid tool for measuring dog personality, but also the first test to show consistent behavioural traits related to problem solving ability and frustration tolerance in pet dogs.

  5. Tourists' Perceptions of the Free-Roaming Dog Population in Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Magnus; Hill, Kate E; Farnworth, Mark J; Bolwell, Charlotte F; Bridges, Janis; Acke, Els

    2014-09-29

    A study was undertaken to establish how visiting tourists to Samoa perceived free-roaming dogs (Canis familiaris) and their management, additionally some factors that influence their perceptions were assessed. Questionnaires were administered to 281 tourists across Samoa over 5 weeks. Free-roaming dogs were seen by 98.2% (n = 269/274) of respondents, with 64.9% (n = 137/211) reporting that their presence had a negative effect on overall holiday experience. Respondents staying in the Apia (capital city) area were more likely to consider dogs a problem (p < 0.0001), and there was a significant association between whether the respondent owned a dog and if they thought dogs were a nuisance in Samoa (p < 0.003). Forty-four percent (20/89) of non-dog owners agreed that dogs were a nuisance compared to 22% (80/182) of dog owners. The majority felt that dogs required better control and management in Samoa (81%, n = 222) and that there were too many "stray" dogs (67.9%, n = 188). More respondents were negatively affected by the dogs' presence (64.9%, 137/211), and felt that the dogs made their holiday worse, than respondents that felt the dogs' presence improved their holiday experience (35.1%, 74/211). Most respondents stated that the dogs had a low impact (one to three; 68%, 187/275) on their stay in Samoa, whilst 24% (65/275) and 8% (23/275) stated they had a medium or high impact, respectively, on their stay. Respondents showed strong support for humane population management. Free-roaming dogs present a complex problem for Samoa and for its tourism industry in particular. The findings of this study further support the need for more discussion and action about the provision of veterinary services and population management for dogs in Samoa. It also provides information complementing an earlier study of the attitudes of local Samoans.

  6. Dog rivalry impacts following behavior in a decision-making task involving food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Suchak, Malini

    2017-07-01

    Dogs learn a great deal from humans and other dogs. Previous studies of socially influenced learning between dogs have typically used a highly trained demonstrator dog who is unfamiliar to the observer. Because of this, it is unknown how dynamics between familiar dogs may influence their likelihood of learning from each other. In this study, we tested dogs living together in two-dog households on whether individual dogs' rivalry scores were associated with performance on a local enhancement task. Specifically, we wanted to know whether dog rivalry impacted whether an observer dog would approach a plate from which a demonstrator dog had eaten all available food, or whether the observer dog would approach the adjacent plate that still contained food. Dog rivalry scores were calculated using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire and indicated each dog's tendency to engage aggressively with the other household dog. Low-rivalry dogs were more likely to approach the empty plate than high-rivalry dogs when the observer dog was allowed to approach the plates immediately after the demonstrator had moved out of sight. This difference between low- and high-rivalry dogs disappeared, however, when observer dogs had to wait 5 s before approaching the plates. The same pattern was observed during a control condition when a human removed the food from a plate. Compared to low-rivalry dogs, high-rivalry dogs may pay less attention to other dogs due to a low tolerance for having other dogs in close proximity.

  7. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  8. Response of canine esophagus to intraoperative electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelar, W.F.; Hoekstra, H.J.; Kinsella, T.J.; Barnes, M.; DeLuca, A.M.; Tochner, Z.; Pass, H.I.; Kranda, K.C.; Terrill, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Tolerance of esophagus to intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) was investigated in dogs. Thirteen adult foxhounds were subjected to right thoractomy, mobilization of the intrathoracic esophagus, and IORT to a 6 cm full-thickness esophageal segment using 9 MeV electrons at doses of 0, 2,000, or 3,000 cGy. Dogs were followed clinically and were evaluated at regular intervals after treatment with fiberoptic esophagoscopy, barium swallows, and postmortem histologic evaluations. One sham-irradiated control dog showed no abnormalities during follow-up of 24 months. Seven dogs receiving 2,000 cGy IORT showed transient mild dysphagia and mild esophagitis, but no clinically or pathologically significant complications. Five dogs receiving 3,000 cGy demonstrated severe ulcerative esophagitis within 6 weeks of treatment which progressed to chronic ulcerative esophagitis with stricture formation by 9 months following IORT. One 3,000 cGy dog died at 13 months from an esophageal perforation. On the basis of a pilot experience using 13 experimental animals, it was concluded that intact canine esophagus tolerates IORT well to doses of 2,000 cGy, but doses of 3,000 cGy pose serious and potentially lethal risks. The clinical application of IORT to the treatment of human intrathoracic neoplasms requiring esophageal irradiation should be approached with caution, particularly at doses exceeding 2,000 cGy

  9. An investigation of mechanical nociceptive thresholds in dogs with hind limb joint pain compared to healthy control dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L K; Whay, H R; Murrell, J C

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of osteoarthritis (OA) on somatosensory processing in dogs using mechanical threshold testing. A pressure algometer was used to measure mechanical thresholds in 27 dogs with presumed hind limb osteoarthritis and 28 healthy dogs. Mechanical thresholds were measured at the stifles, radii and sternum, and were correlated with scores from an owner questionnaire and a clinical checklist, a scoring system that quantified clinical signs of osteoarthritis. The effects of age and bodyweight on mechanical thresholds were also investigated. Multiple regression models indicated that, when bodyweight was taken into account, dogs with presumed osteoarthritis had lower mechanical thresholds at the stifles than control dogs, but not at other sites. Non-parametric correlations showed that clinical checklist scores and questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with mechanical thresholds at the stifles. The results suggest that mechanical threshold testing using a pressure algometer can detect primary, and possibly secondary, hyperalgesia in dogs with presumed osteoarthritis. This suggests that the mechanical threshold testing protocol used in this study might facilitate assessment of somatosensory changes associated with disease progression or response to treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Simmons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1 logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2 factors impacting dog selection; (3 medical requirements; (4 partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5 perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements.

  11. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma do not differ from those of age- and weight-matched control dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Jennifer L; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine; Hauck, Marlene L

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D concentrations show an inverse correlation with incidence of certain tumors in people and dogs. Additionally, human osteosarcoma has been associated with dysregulation of vitamin D-dependent pathways. The study objective was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 in 20 dogs with osteosarcoma to age- and weight-matched control dogs. We hypothesized that dogs with osteosarcoma would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D than control dogs. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentrations for dogs with osteosarcoma and matched-controls were 34.95 ng/mL and 33.85 ng/mL, respectively (P = 0.784). Based on these data, 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency might not be important in the pathogenesis of canine osteosarcoma. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Dogs can discriminate human smiling faces from blank expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Murai, Kensuke; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2011-07-01

    Dogs have a unique ability to understand visual cues from humans. We investigated whether dogs can discriminate between human facial expressions. Photographs of human faces were used to test nine pet dogs in two-choice discrimination tasks. The training phases involved each dog learning to discriminate between a set of photographs of their owner's smiling and blank face. Of the nine dogs, five fulfilled these criteria and were selected for test sessions. In the test phase, 10 sets of photographs of the owner's smiling and blank face, which had previously not been seen by the dog, were presented. The dogs selected the owner's smiling face significantly more often than expected by chance. In subsequent tests, 10 sets of smiling and blank face photographs of 20 persons unfamiliar to the dogs were presented (10 males and 10 females). There was no statistical difference between the accuracy in the case of the owners and that in the case of unfamiliar persons with the same gender as the owner. However, the accuracy was significantly lower in the case of unfamiliar persons of the opposite gender to that of the owner, than with the owners themselves. These results suggest that dogs can learn to discriminate human smiling faces from blank faces by looking at photographs. Although it remains unclear whether dogs have human-like systems for visual processing of human facial expressions, the ability to learn to discriminate human facial expressions may have helped dogs adapt to human society.

  13. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs. XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Benjamin, S.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight were placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-one of the exposed dogs have died and two of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Seven 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2000 to 3341 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one, a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma and one with a malignant lymphoma. One dog died of renal failure 2660 days after exposure, one control dog died of empyema and another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  14. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Thoracoscopic lung lobectomy for treatment of lung tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Jennifer L; Monnet, Eric; Twedt, David C; Dernell, William S

    2005-01-01

    To report use of thoracoscopic lung lobectomy (TLL) for treatment of lung tumors (LT) in dogs. Retrospective study. Nine dogs. Dogs that had TLL for tumor removal were included. Using general anesthesia and 1-lung ventilation, TLL was performed using a 30-60 mm endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis stapler. If the visual field was obscured, lobe resection was completed via thoracotomy. Metastatic and primary LT were resected by thoracoscopic lobectomy in 9 dogs (6 male, 3 female; mean (+/-SD) weight, 29+/-7 kg; mean age, 10.7+/-1.9 years). Six dogs had a solitary mass and 3 dogs had 2 masses within a single lobe. The left caudal lobe was removed in 3 dogs. In 5 dogs, TLL was used alone whereas conversion to thoracotomy was required in 4 dogs because of poor visibility. There were 7 metastatic LT and 2 primary LT. Mean duration of thoracoscopic surgery was 108.8+/-30.3 minutes compared with 150.75+/-55.4 minutes in dogs requiring conversion to thoracotomy. Mean hospitalization was 3.1+/-1.3 days. Provided the visual field is not obscured, TLL can be performed effectively in dogs. Dogs with metastatic or primary LTs should be considered for TLL, particularly for small masses positioned away from the hilus in the left caudal lung lobe.

  16. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  17. 9 CFR 113.40 - Dog safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dog safety tests. 113.40 Section 113... Procedures § 113.40 Dog safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in dogs. Serials which are not found to be satisfactory when tested pursuant to the...

  18. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) — Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Danielle; Bender, Scott; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals. PMID:20885846

  19. Primary hypoparathyroidism in dogs: a retrospective study of 17 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, N J; Bond, K A; Robertson, I D; Parry, B W; Irwin, P J

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the clinico-pathological findings, response to treatment and prevalence of complications in dogs with primary hypoparathyroidism. Retrospective study of 17 dogs presenting to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Clinical Centre and Murdoch University Veterinary Hospital over a 15 year period (1990 to 2004). Case records were evaluated for signalment, body weight, diet type, historical and clinical findings, serum total calcium, phosphate, albumin and parathyroid hormone concentrations, urinary fractional excretion ratios of calcium and phosphate, electrocardiogram (ECG) results, treatments administered, outcome and period of follow-up. The most common breeds identified were St Bernard (three dogs), Chihuahua (two dogs), German Shepherd (two dogs) and Jack Russell Terrier (two dogs). Three dogs were cross bred. Seizures, muscle tremors and fasciculations, stiff gait, tetany, muscle cramping, behavioural change and hyperventilation were the most common clinical signs. Vomiting, inappetence, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, hyperthermia, facial pruritus, ataxia, weakness, cataracts, and circling also occurred with less frequency. The mean duration of observed clinical signs preceding diagnosis was 33 days (median 13 days, range 1 to 173 days). All dogs had marked hypocalcaemia with normal or mildly increased serum albumin concentrations. Mean phosphate concentrations were significantly higher in inappetent dogs (P = 0.049). Mean serum calcium concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with cataracts compared to those without (P = 0.046). There were no other significant relationships between serum calcium or phosphate concentrations and the clinical presentation or outcome. No significant correlations were identified between the presence of a particular clinical sign and the duration of clinical signs. ECGs were obtained in four dogs and all exhibited QT interval prolongation due to a ST-segment prolongation. Sixteen of 17 dogs were treated successfully

  20. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4; and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. For cat owners: they had originally got the cat on Gumtree (n = 2; they use Gumtree for other things, and it works (n = 2, and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of unwanted dogs and cats.

  1. Infectious diseases in dogs rescued during dogfighting investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, S H; Levy, J K; Kirk, S K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Shuster, J J; Liu, J; Chandrashekar, R

    2016-05-01

    Dogs used for dogfighting often receive minimal preventive health care, and the potential for spread of infectious diseases is high. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of infectious diseases in dogs rescued from fighting operations to guide medical protocols for their immediate and long-term care. A total of 269 pit bull-type dogs were seized in a multi-state investigation. Fleas were present on most dogs, but few ticks were observed. Testing performed at intake included packed cell volume (PCV), serology and PCR for vector-borne pathogens, and fecal analysis. The most common infections were Babesia gibsoni (39%), 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum' (32%), Mycoplasma haemocanis (30%), Dirofilaria immitis (12%), and Ancylostoma (23%). Anemia was associated with B. gibsoni infection (63% of infected dogs, odds ratio = 2.5, P dogs from dogfighting cases should include broad-spectrum internal and external parasiticides and monitoring for anemia. Dogfighting case responders should be prepared for mass screening and treatment of B. gibsoni and heartworm infections and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of infectious and zoonotic diseases in the shelter and following adoption. Former fighting dogs and dogs with possible dog bite scars should not be used as blood donors due to the risk of vector-borne pathogens that can escape detection and for which curative treatment is difficult to document. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiosynoviorthesis as a therapy of osteoarthritis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, Christian; Meyer, C.

    2010-01-01

    In human medicine radiosynorviorthesis (RSO) is anestablished form of therapy in chronic inflammatory or active degenerative joint disease. Chronic lameness in dogs as a result of joint disease is a common problem. This study was carried out to establish the role of RSO in chronic inflammatory or active degenerative joint disease in dogs. In 33 dogs with 51 joints with ostearthritis RSO was performed. Before treatment a classification of 4 grades of lameness was determined in each dog. 4 weeks and 7 months later a new assessment considering this classification was performed to determine the change of lameness grade. Improvement of lameness was found in 43-75%. of joints, the improvement was dependent on grade of synovitic activity before therapy. There were no side effects observed. The dogs with distinct effusion and the dogs which responded well to intraarticulary steroid injection before-hand, showed the best results. In these dogs RSO lead to obvious prolonged lamefree intervalls and a marked reduction of pain medication and therefore to a better quality of life. (orig.)

  3. Brief communication: DNA from early Holocene American dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Raul Y; Belknap, Samuel L; Sobolik, Kristin D; Ingraham, Robert C; Cleeland, Lauren M; Lewis, Cecil M

    2011-08-01

    We present the oldest genetically identified dog in the Americas, directly dated to 9,260 ± 170 Cal. B.P. The DNA was extracted from an occipital condyle imbedded in a human paleofecal sample from Hinds Cave in southwest Texas. A 368 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial genome control region was sequenced. These data were analyzed with comparable data, which included other ancient dogs and extant dogs, wolves and coyotes from around the world. Compiled with published data, our results characterize ancient American dogs within clades rooted by Eurasian wolves. In the Americas, these data provide no evidence of local interbreeding with wolves. This is a departure from the genetic pattern in other areas of the world where interbreeding with local wolf populations is apparent. Our discovery of domestic dog bone in a human paleofecal sample provides the earliest direct evidence for human consumption of dogs in the New World. These data support the hypothesis that dogs were a food source for early Paleoamericans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Dog ownership and health-related physical activity among Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai

    2009-07-01

    Dog ownership appears to have associated health benefits as a result of increased physical activity through dog walking. This study examined the association between dog ownership and health-related physical activity among Japanese adults. Male and female respondents to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey were divided into the following groups: dog owner (DOG), nondog pet owner (NDOG), and nonpet owner (NPOG). Moderate and vigorous physical activity amount (MVPA), walking amount (Walking), and sedentary behavior time (SB) were estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analysis were used. The differences in MVPA, Walking, and SB were statistically significant among the three groups. DOG had a significantly greater amount of MVPA than NDOG and NPOG. DOG also had a significantly greater amount of Walking and less SB time than NPOG, and DOG was 1.5 times more likely to meet the physical activity recommendation than NDOG and NPOG. The dog owners had higher physical activity levels than owners of other kinds of pets and those without any pets, suggesting that dogs may play a major role in promoting physical activity. However, only 30% of the dog owners met the recommended criteria for physical activity.

  5. Nocardiosis: an overview and additional report of 28 cases in cattle and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Márcio Garcia; Salerno,Tatiana; Mattos-Guaraldi,Ana Luiza de; Camello,Thereza Cristina Ferreira; Langoni,Hélio; Siqueira,Amanda Keller; Paes,Antonio Carlos; Fernandes,Marta Catarina; Lara,Gustavo Henrique Batista

    2008-01-01

    Phenotypic characteristics, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological features of 28 Nocardia strains isolated from 19 cases of bovine mastitis, eight cutaneous-subcutaneous lesions and one case of pneumonia in dogs were evaluated. Microbiological, biochemical, cytological and scanning electron microscopy methods were used in diagnosis. Nocardia asteroides type IV, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum,Nocardia nova (type III) and Nocardia farcinica (type V) were isolated from bo...

  6. Intranasal tumors in dogs: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, S.K.; Lewis, D.D.; Hosgood, G.

    1996-01-01

    Intranasal tumors are rare in dogs and occur mostly in middle-aged and old dogs. The malignant behavior of these tumors is reflected more by their tendency to invade local tissue than by a tendency to produce distant metastasis. Distant metastasis may, however, become more important as success in treatment of the initial lesion improves. The history and clinical signs (sneezing, nasal discharge, and facial deformity) of intranasal tumor in dogs often reflect intranasal disease but are usually nonspecific. Diagnostics should include at least the minimum data base, high-detail radiographs of the nasal cavity obtained while the dog is anesthetized, and biopsy of nasal cavity tissue. Radiotherapy with or without aggressive cytoreduction is the only treatment that significantly extends survival of these dogs. Ortho-voltage, megavoltage, or brachytherapy (implantation of (192)lridium) has been used

  7. The prairie dog as a keystone species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Miller, Brian J.; Reading, Richard P.; Clark, Timothy W.; Hoogland, John L.

    2006-01-01

    The prairie dog has a pronounced impact on its grassland ecosystem (King 1955; Uresk and Bjugstad 1983; Miller et al. 1994; Society for Conservation Biology 1994; Wuerthner 1997; Johnsgard 2005). They maintain short vegetation by their grazing and by selective removal of tall plants and shrubs; provide shelter, foraging grounds, and nesting habitat for a diverse array of animals; serve as prey for many predators; and alter soil chemistry.Do these impacts mean that the prairie dog is a keystone species? To investigate, we first scrutinize the definition for a keystone species. We then document both vertebrates and invertebrates that associate with prairie dogs and their colony-sites. We examine ecosystem processes at colony-sites, and then assess whether the prairie dog is a legitimate keystone species. Finally, we explore the implications of keystone status for the conservation of prairie dogs.

  8. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified

  9. Relationships between dog ownership and physical activity in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Volpe, Stella L; Howard, Barbara V; Stefanick, Marcia L; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2015-01-01

    Positive associations between dog ownership and physical activity in older adults have been previously reported. The objective of this study was to examine cross-sectional associations between dog ownership and physical activity measures in a well-characterized, diverse sample of postmenopausal women. Analyses included 36,984 dog owners (mean age: 61.5years), and 115,645 non-dog owners (mean age: 63.9years) enrolled in a clinical trial or the observational study of the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998. Logistic regression models were used to test for associations between dog ownership and physical activity, adjusted for potential confounders. Owning a dog was associated with a higher likelihood of walking ≥150min/wk (Odds Ratio, 1.14; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.10-1.17) and a lower likelihood of being sedentary ≥8h/day (Odds Ratio, 0.86; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.83-0.89) as compared to not owning a dog. However, dog owners were less likely to meet ≥7.5MET-h/wk of total physical activity as compared to non-dog owners (Odds Ratio, 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval, 1.00-1.07). Dog ownership is associated with increased physical activity in older women, particularly among women living alone. Health promotion efforts aimed at older adults should highlight the benefits of regular dog walking for both dog owners and non-dog owners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration in dogs: breed distribution of 495 canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Amanda R; van der Woerdt, Alexandra; Gaarder, James E; Sapienza, John S; Hernandez-Merino, Elena; Abrams, Kenneth; Church, Melanie L; La Croix, Noelle

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe breed, age, gender, and weight distribution of dogs affected with sudden acquired retinal degeneration (SARD) and to investigate whether SARD is more common in small breed dogs. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with SARD confirmed by an electroretinogram were reviewed. Breed, age, gender, and weight were recorded when available. The same data were obtained for dogs with SARD described in the veterinary literature. Three hundred and two dogs were included from the ophthalmology practices and 193 dogs from the veterinary literature. Sixty breeds were present in the study. Mixed-breed dogs were the most common at 108 dogs (21.8%), followed by the Dachshund (68, 13.7%), Chinese Pug (44, 8.9%), Miniature Schnauzer (39, 7.9%), Maltese (23, 4.6%), Cocker Spaniel (22, 4.4%), Bichon Frise (18, 3.6%), Beagle (16, 3.2%), Brittany (15, 3.0%), and Pomeranian (10, 2.0%). Fifty other breeds were represented by 1-9 dogs each. The median age was 9 years (range = 10 months-16 years). The weight was known for 197 dogs. About 60.9% of dogs were less than 25 pounds, 31.5% were between 25 and 50 pounds, and 7.6% were greater than 50 pounds. Gender was recorded in 393 dogs: 217 female dogs and 176 male dogs. As previously reported, SARD is most common in middle-aged to older dogs. Smaller dogs of less than 25 pounds appear overrepresented, while large/giant breed dogs of greater than 50 pounds are infrequently diagnosed. In this study, there was no statistical significance between female and male dogs. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  11. Urethral prolapse in dogs: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jennifer G; Tobias, Karen M; Smith, Laura

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the signalment, clinical signs, treatment, and outcome of dogs with urethral prolapse and identify risk factors associated with prolapse or treatment. Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 48) with urethral prolapse. Medical records (May 1995-June 2010) from 2 referral centers were reviewed. Retrieved data included signalment, clinical signs, laboratory findings, treatment, complications, results of long-term follow-up. Records from Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) were evaluated to determine odds ratios. Odds ratio for urethral prolapse in English bulldogs compared to all breeds was 366.99 (95% CI: 265.83, 506.65). Of 48 affected dogs, 46 had either resection and anastomosis (43 dogs) or urethropexy (3 dogs). The most common early postoperative complication was hemorrhage (39%); postoperative hemorrhage was less common when a simple continuous pattern was used for resection and anastomosis. Prolapse recurred in 57% of dogs available for long-term follow-up; recurrence was less common in dogs that were administered postoperative butorphanol or acepromazine. Gender was not associated with urethral prolapse or postoperative complications. Urethral prolapse occurs most commonly in English bulldogs. Postoperative hemorrhage and prolapse recurrence may be reduced with use of a simple continuous pattern for urethral anastomosis and by administration of postoperative sedation, respectively. Castration status did not appear to affect prolapse development or outcome. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. Efficacy and safety of selamectin against Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs and Otodectes cynotis on dogs and cats presented as veterinary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, R H; Clemence, R G; Thomas, C A; Behan, S; Boy, M G; Watson, P; Benchaoui, H A; Clements, P J; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    A series of randomized, controlled and masked field studies was conducted in veterinary patients to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin, a novel avermectin, in the treatment of naturally occurring Sarcoptes scabiei infestations on dogs and Otodectes cynotis infestations on dogs and cats. A total of 342 dogs and 237 cats participated in these studies, which were conducted at 40 veterinary practices in the USA and Europe. Animals were randomly assigned to treatment with selamectin or a positive-control product (existing approved products). Selamectin was administered as a unit dose providing a minimum of 6mgkg(-1) (range: 6-12mgkg(-1)) in a topical preparation applied to the skin in a single spot on day 0 (O. cynotis in cats, n=144), or on days 0 and 30 (O. cynotis and S. scabiei in dogs, n=83 and n=122, respectively). The presence of parasites was assessed before treatment and at 30 days (for all studies) and 60 days (for O. cynotis and S. scabiei dog studies) after first treatment. The animals were also evaluated clinically at each assessment period. Based on skin scrapings, the efficacy of selamectin against S. scabiei infestations on dogs was >95% by day 30, and 100% by day 60. Against O. cynotis, selamectin eliminated mites in 94-100% of cats by day 30, and in 90% of dogs by day 60. The positive-control products achieved similar results. Thus, selamectin was safe and effective against ear mites in dogs and cats and sarcoptic mange in dogs when used in field (veterinary patient) studies in dogs and cats of a wide variety of ages and breeds.

  13. Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley E; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Ryan E; Evenson, Kelly R; Mayer, Joni A; Thorpe, Roland J, Jr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to non-dog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was ...

  14. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  15. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke R van Herwijnen

    Full Text Available Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a

  16. The existence of parenting styles in the owner-dog relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwijnen, Ineke R van; van der Borg, Joanne A M; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne

    2018-01-01

    Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent to child and owner to dog relationships, we determined the extent to which parenting styles exist in the owner to dog relationship using the existing Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire for the parent-child relationship and an adapted version for dog owners. Items on the parenting of children/dogs were rated for applicability on a five-point Likert scale by 518 Dutch dog owning parents. Principal Component Analyses grouped parenting propensities into styles, with some marked differences between the findings for children and dogs. Dog-directed items grouped into an authoritarian-correction orientated style, incorporating variation in demandingness and focussing on correcting a dog for behaviour verbally/physically, and in two styles based on authoritative items. An authoritative-intrinsic value orientated style reflected variation in mainly responsiveness and oriented on the assumed needs and emotions of the animal. A second authoritative-item based style, captured variations in demandingness and responsiveness. We labelled this style authoritative-training orientated, as it orientated on manners in teaching a dog how to behave in social situations. Thus, we defined dog-directed parenting styles and constructed a Dog-Directed Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire along the lines of the existing theoretical framework on parenting styles. We did not find a dog-directed parenting style of being permissive or uninvolved, which we attribute to a study population of devoted dog owners and our findings should be interpreted with this specific study population in mind. We found evidence of dog-directed parenting styles and provide a fundament for determining

  17. Registrations of Assistance Dogs in California for Identification Tags: 1999–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Lopez, Mayllynne T.; Hart, Lynette A.

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are filling a growing number of roles supporting people with various disabilities, leading to a chaotic situation in the U.S. Although the federal laws allow public access with working dogs only for people with disabilities, no governmental enforcement or management system for such dogs exists. Furthermore, there is no substantive way to confirm whether the dog is an adequately trained assistance dog or not, as neither the handlers nor the dogs are required to carry any particular certification or identification. Therefore, unqualified assistance dogs and incidents such as dog bites by assistance dogs sometimes are problems in the U.S. A governmental oversight system could reduce problems, but no information is available about the current uses of assistance dogs in the U.S. We aimed to investigate the current demographics of registered assistance dogs and the evolving patterns in uses of dogs during 1999–2012 in California. We acquired data on assistance dogs registered by animal control facilities throughout California. We used descriptive statistics to describe the uses of these assistance dogs. The number of assistance dogs sharply increased, especially service dogs, in the past decade. Dogs with small body sizes, and new types of service dogs, such as service dogs for psychiatric and medical assistance, strongly contributed to the increase. The Assistance Dog Identification tags sometimes were mistakenly issued to dogs not fitting the definition of assistance dogs under the law, such as emotional support animals and some cats; this reveals errors in the California governmental registering system. Seemingly inappropriate dogs also were registered, such as those registered for the first time at older than 10 years of age. This study reveals a prevalence of misuse and misunderstanding of regulations and legislation on assistance dogs in California. PMID:26287610

  18. Evaluation of Complete Blood Count Indices (NLR, PLR, MPV/PLT, and PLCRi) in Healthy Dogs, Dogs With Periodontitis, and Dogs With Oropharyngeal Tumors as Potential Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejec, Ana; Butinar, Janos; Gawor, Jerzy; Petelin, Milan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess complete blood count (CBC) indices of dogs with periodontitis (PD; n = 73) and dogs with oropharyngeal tumors (OT; n = 92) in comparison to CBC indices of healthy dogs (HD; n = 71). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume to platelet ratio, and platelet large cell ratio index (PLCRi) were evaluated as biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response provoked by PD and OT. Results of multivariable polytomous logistic regression analysis indicated no significant associations between CBC indices and PD. Both NLR and PLCRi were significantly higher in dogs with OT when compared to HD and dogs with PD and could, therefore, indicate a tumor-associated systemic inflammatory response. Additional studies of CBC indices, along with other biomarkers of systemic inflammatory response, are recommended to validate them as reliable indicators of clinical disease activity.

  19. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  20. Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N

    1999-08-01

    Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment.

  1. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF THE ACTIVITY OF A DOG

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe ,; Duhaut , Dominique

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces our preliminary work with assistance dogs. Even when dogs are very well trained some problems may occur in practice, typical examples are dog escaping or running after a cat. Our long term objective is to take advantage of the technology to increase the safety of the dog and its owner. Our first work focuses on the activity classification of the dog. This paper presents preliminary results for recognizing four types of activity: walk, run, lay and...

  2. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-07-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

  3. Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar YA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be­tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec­tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area."nMethods: During the survey, 160 gastrointestinal tracts of dogs killed for meat selected by simple sampling technique were collected and examined for helminths in Kaduna metropolis, latitude 100 50I  N and longitude 70 50I E."nResults: Of the helminths found, Dipylidium caninum (75.0%, Taenia hydatigena (43.8%, Diphyllobothrium latum (6.3%, Ancylostoma caninum (6.3% and Toxocara canis (6.3% were the most common. Female dogs were more likely of contacting intestinal helminths than male dogs (RR = 1.125. Higher mean worm burden was recorded for dogs infected by T. hydatigena and D. caninum than dogs infected by T. canis, D. latum or A. caninum."nConclusion: The presence of these parasites in dogs examined indicates a potential public health problem in Kaduna me­tropolis. Mass enlightenment of dog keepers on the need for periodic veterinary care and restriction of stray dogs through legislation formulation and enforcement are recommended as possible control measures.

  4. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension in dogs: 33 cases (1982-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, S E; Johnson, S E; Cullen, J M

    2001-02-01

    To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings, and outcome in dogs with idiopathic intrahepatic portal hypertension. Retrospective study. 33 dogs. Medical records of dogs with portal hypertension of intra-abdominal origin were reviewed. Dogs with intra-abdominal portal hypertension of vascular causes or with hepatic histopathologic changes consistent with severe diffuse hepatobiliary disease were excluded. History and results of physical examination, clinicopathologic tests, diagnostic imaging studies, histologic examination, and treatment were summarized. Outcome was determined in 26 dogs. Dogs were referred most often because of ascites, intermittent vomiting or diarrhea, and polydipsia of several months' duration. Microcytosis, high serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase activities, hepatic dysfunction, urine specific gravity anastomoses were the major findings of diagnostic imaging. Hepatic histopathologic changes were consistent with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension and were indistinguishable from those of dogs with surgically created portocaval anastomosis. Outcome was determined for 19 dogs released from hospital; 13 dogs remained healthy with mostly palliative treatment for periods of 5 months to 9 years. The clinical signs, clinicopathologic test results, portal pressure, and gross appearance of the liver of dogs with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension may be identical to those of dogs with cirrhosis; therefore liver biopsy is crucial. Because the prognosis for idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension is generally favorable, owners of affected dogs should be discouraged from choosing euthanasia.

  5. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and cardia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gory, Guillaume; Rault, Delphine N; Gatel, Laure; Dally, Claire; Belli, Patrick; Couturier, Laurent; Cauvin, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for regurgitation and vomiting in dogs include diseases of the gastroesophageal junction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and gastric cardia in normal dogs and dogs with clinical disease involving this region. A total of 126 dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and six dogs with clinical diseases involving the gastroesophageal junction were included. For seven euthanized dogs, ultrasonographic features were also compared with gross pathology and histopathology. Cardial and abdominal esophageal wall thicknesses were measured ultrasonographically for all normal dogs and effects of weight, sex, age, and stomach filling were tested. Five layers could be identified in normal esophageal and cardial walls. The inner esophageal layer was echogenic, corresponding to the cornified mucosa and glandular portion of the submucosa. The cardia was characterized by a thick muscularis, and a transitional zone between echogenic esophageal and hypoechoic gastric mucosal layers. Mean (±SD) cardial wall thicknesses for normal dogs were 7.6 mm (±1.6), 9.7 mm (±1.8), 10.8 mm (±1.6), 13.3 mm (±2.5) for dogs in the dog weight group. Ultrasonography assisted diagnosis in all six clinically affected dogs. Findings supported the use of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected gastroesophageal disease. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  6. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  7. Metabolizable energy intake of client-owned adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thes, M; Koeber, N; Fritz, J; Wendel, F; Dillitzer, N; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2016-10-01

    A post hoc analysis of the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of privately owned pet dogs from the authors' nutrition consultation practice (Years 2007-2011) was carried out to identify if current ME recommendations are suitable for pet dogs. Data on 586 adult dogs were available (median age 5.5, median deviation from ideal weight 0.0), 55 of them were healthy; the others had various diseases. For ration calculation, a standardized questionnaire and the software diet-check Munich(™) was used. ME was predicted according to NRC (2006). Data were evaluated for the factors disease, breed, size, age, gender and type of feeding. The mean ME intake of all adult dogs amounted to 0.410 ± 0.121 MJ/kg metabolic body weight (BW(0.75) ) (n = 586). There was no effect of size and disease. Overweight dogs ate 0.360 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) , and underweight dogs ate 0.494 ± 0.159 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . Older dogs (>7 years, n = 149, 0.389 ± 0.105 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ) had a lower ME intake than younger ones (n = 313, 0.419 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) ), and intact males had a higher ME intake than the others (p Hounds, German Boxers, English foxhounds, Rhodesian Ridgebacks and Flat-Coated Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.473 ± 0.121 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The following breeds were below average: Dachshunds, Bichons, West highland White Terrier, Collies except Bearded Collies, Airedale Terriers, American Staffordshire terriers and Golden Retrievers with a mean ME intake of 0.343 ± 0.096 MJ/kg BW(0.75) . The mean maintenance energy requirements of pet dogs are similar to that of kennel dogs which do not exercise very much. These results suggest that opportunity and stimulus to exercise provided for pet dogs are lower than for kennel dogs. Lower activity in pet dogs may reduce part of potential effects of breed, medical history and age groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Koskela, Aija; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria V

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human populations with different social experiences: family and kennel dogs; dog experts and non-experts. Dogs' gazing behaviour was similar to humans: both species gazed longer at the actors in social interaction than in non-social images. However, humans gazed longer at the actors in dog than human social interaction images, whereas dogs gazed longer at the actors in human than dog social interaction images. Both species also made more saccades between actors in images representing non-conspecifics, which could indicate that processing social interaction of non-conspecifics may be more demanding. Dog experts and non-experts viewed the images very similarly. Kennel dogs viewed images less than family dogs, but otherwise their gazing behaviour did not differ, indicating that the basic processing of social stimuli remains similar regardless of social experiences.

  9. Cholesterol concentrations in lipoprotein fractions separated by anion-exchange-high-performance liquid chromatography in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Hitomi; Mori, Akihiro; Hirowatari, Yuji; Takoura, Toshie; Manita, Daisuke; Takahashi, Tomoya; Shono, Saori; Onozawa, Eri; Mizutani, Hisashi; Miki, Yohei; Itabashi, Yukiko; Sako, Toshinori

    2017-10-01

    Anion-exchange (AEX)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for measurement of cholesterol can be used to separate serum lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein (HDL); low-density lipoprotein (LDL); intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL); very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)) in humans. However, AEX-HPLC has not been applied in veterinary practice. We had three objectives: (i) the validation of AEX-HPLC methods including the correlation of serum cholesterol concentration in lipoprotein fraction measured by AEX-HPLC and gel permeation-HPLC (GP-HPLC) in healthy dogs and those with hypercholesterolemia was investigated; (ii) the reference intervals of lipoprotein fractions measured by AEX-HPLC from healthy dogs (n=40) was established; (iii) lipoprotein fractions from the serum of healthy dogs (n=12) and dogs with hypercholesterolemia (n=23) were compared. Analytic reproducibility and precision of AEX-HPLC were acceptable. Positive correlation between serum concentrations of total cholesterol (Total-Chol), HDL cholesterol (HDL-Chol), LDL cholesterol (LDL-Chol)+IDL cholesterol (IDL-Chol), and VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-Chol) was noted for AEX-HPLC and GP-HPLC in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. Reference intervals measured by AEX-HPLC for serum concentrations of Total-Chol, HDL-Chol, and LDL-Chol were determined to be 2.97-9.32, 2.79-6.57, 0.16-3.28mmol/L (2.5-97.5% interval), respectively. Furthermore, there was significant difference in lipoprotein profiles between healthy and dogs with hypercholesterolemia. These results suggest that AEX-HPLC can be used to evaluate lipoprotein profiles in dogs and could be a new useful indicator of hyperlipidemia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perioperative mortality in cats and dogs undergoing spay or castration at a high-volume clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Bard, K M; Tucker, S J; Diskant, P D; Dingman, P A

    2017-06-01

    High volume spay-neuter (spay-castration) clinics have been established to improve population control of cats and dogs to reduce the number of animals admitted to and euthanazed in animal shelters. The rise in the number of spay-neuter clinics in the USA has been accompanied by concern about the quality of animal care provided in high volume facilities, which focus on minimally invasive, time saving techniques, high throughput and simultaneous management of multiple animals under various stages of anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine perioperative mortality for cats and dogs in a high volume spay-neuter clinic in the USA. Electronic medical records and a written mortality log were used to collect data for 71,557 cats and 42,349 dogs undergoing spay-neuter surgery from 2010 to 2016 at a single high volume clinic in Florida. Perioperative mortality was defined as deaths occurring in the 24h period starting with the administration of the first sedation or anesthetic drugs. Perioperative mortality was reported for 34 cats and four dogs for an overall mortality of 3.3 animals/10,000 surgeries (0.03%). The risk of mortality was more than twice as high for females (0.05%) as for males (0.02%) (P=0.008) and five times as high for cats (0.05%) as for dogs (0.009%) (P=0.0007). High volume spay-neuter surgery was associated with a lower mortality rate than that previously reported in low volume clinics, approaching that achieved in human surgery. This is likely to be due to the young, healthy population of dogs and cats, and the continuous refinement of techniques based on experience and the skills and proficiency of teams that specialize in a limited spectrum of procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supraspinatus Tendinopathy in 327 Dogs: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman O Canapp

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report clinical findings and treatments for dogs with supraspinatus tendinopathy (ST.Background: ST is a term used to describe tears, calcifying tendinopathy, tendinosis and/or injuries in and around the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle, and is a cause of forelimb lameness, especially in sporting and performance dogs.Evidentiary value: This is a retrospective study of 327 dogs diagnosed with ST.Methods: Medical records (2006 to 2013 were reviewed for history, signalment, prior treatments, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging and arthroscopic findings, concurrent shoulder and elbow pathologies, and treatments performed.Results: Dogs aged 4 months to 14 years (average 6.5 years; median 6 years were diagnosed with ST. Performance and sporting dogs were 39.4% of the population, with 58.1% of them being agility dogs. Pain was elicited on palpation of the supraspinatus tendon in 49.3% of dogs. Shoulder radiographs in 283 dogs showed mineralisation in 13% of cases. MRI of the shoulder was performed in 31 cases and revealed findings indicative of ST, including hyperintensity of signal on T1 weighted image (or “spin-lattice” and Short T1 Inversion Recovery (STIR sequences of the supraspinatus tendon at its insertion on the greater tubercle and mineralisation of the supraspinatus tendon. Common ultrasonographic findings included increased tendon size (76%, irregular fibre pattern (74%, and non-homogeneous echogenicity (92.5%. The most common findings on shoulder arthroscopy were supraspinatus bulge (82.2% and subscapularis pathology (62.4%. Elbow pathology was recorded in 54.5% of dogs. Treatment outcomes showed 74.6% of dogs failed to respond to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and 40.8% failed to respond to rehabilitation. Conclusions: These findings suggest concurrent shoulder and/or elbow pathology is not uncommon in dogs with ST. Further, ST often fails to respond to NSAID therapy and rehabilitation

  12. Treatment of 5 dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia using Romiplostim

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, Barbara; Bal, G?rkan; Chirek, Aleksandra; Rehbein, Sina; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in dogs is analogous to that in humans. Romiplostim, a novel thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonist, is currently used for the treatment of refractory ITP in humans, but not in dogs. Here, we describe the response to romiplostim in five dogs with refractory ITP. Five dogs with severe and refractory ITP (three primary and two secondary) received romiplostim subcutaneously. Four dogs were administered 3?5??g/kg and one dog received 10?13??g/kg body weig...

  13. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Rebar, A.H.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being continued to provide information that will aid in assessing the biological consequences of nuclear accidents in which 91 Y or other radionuclides that produce a similar radiation dose pattern may be released. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 64 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight was placed in four groups with mean lung burdens of 310, 180, 75 and 40 μCi/kg body weight. These dogs and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. An additional group of four dogs with a mean initial 91 Y body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight was placed in a sacrifice study. Twenty-six of the exposed dogs and four of the control dogs have died. Eleven dogs within the highest activity level groups died or were euthanized at 12 to 33 days after inhalation of 91 Y with changes related to severe bone marrow damage and associated pancytopenia. Two dogs died approximately one year after 91 Y inhalation with convulsive seizures that were presumed to be unrelated to the 91 Y exposure. Nine 91 Y-exposed dogs died or were euthanized due to neoplasms 2012 to 4115 days after exposure. Three dogs had nasal squamous cell carcinomas, one had a bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, one a mast cell sarcoma, one a mammary adenocarcinoma, one a malignant lymphoma, one a melanosarcoma in the mouth and one heart base tumor. Two dogs died of renal failure 2663 and 4086 days after exposure. One dog died with autoimmune hemolytic anemia 3888 days after exposure and one died with congestive heart failure 4042 days after inhalation exposure. One control dog died of empyema, another control dog died with a mammary adenocarcinoma, one died with congestive heart failure and one with malabsorption syndrome. Serial observations are continuing on all surviving dogs

  14. Sensitization to cat and dog allergen molecules in childhood and prediction of symptoms of cat and dog allergy in adolescence: A BAMSE/MeDALL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnoj, Anna; Hamsten, Carl; Wadén, Konrad; Lupinek, Christian; Andersson, Niklas; Kull, Inger; Curin, Mirela; Anto, Josep; Bousquet, Jean; Valenta, Rudolf; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    Sensitization to individual cat and dog allergen molecules can contribute differently to development of allergy to these animals. We sought to investigate the association between sensitization patterns to cat and dog allergen molecules during childhood and symptoms to these furry animals up to age 16 years. Data from 779 randomly collected children from the Barn/Children Allergy/Asthma Milieu Stockholm Epidemiologic birth cohort at 4, 8, and 16 years were used. IgE levels to cat and dog were determined by using ImmunoCAP, and levels to allergen molecules were determined by using an allergen chip based on ISAC technology (Mechanisms for the Development of Allergy chip). Allergy was defined as reported rhinitis, conjunctivitis, or asthma at exposure to cat or dog. Cross-sectionally, IgE to Fel d 1 and cat extract had similar positive predictive values for cat allergy. IgE to Can f 1 showed a higher positive predictive value for dog allergy than dog extract IgE. Sensitizations to Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in childhood were significantly associated with symptoms to cat or dog at age 16 years. Polysensitization to 3 or more allergen molecules from cat or dog was a better longitudinal predictor of cat or dog symptoms than results of IgE tests with cat or dog allergen extract, respectively. Cross-sectionally, cat/dog-polysensitized children had higher IgE levels and more frequent symptoms to cat and dog than monosensitized children. Sensitization to Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in childhood and polysensitization to either cat or dog allergen molecules predict cat and dog allergy cross-sectionally and longitudinally significantly better than IgE to cat or dog extract. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    developing a social tool set that makes it very successful in interacting and communicating with humans. Human evolution has similarly resulted in the development of complex social cognition in humans. This enables humans to form bonded relationships, besides pair-bonding, and it seems that humans are also...... of this thesis was to attain a better understanding of some of the factors related to the inter-action between humans and dogs. This aim was addressed by focusing on dog personality and hu-man social skills in relation to human-dog interaction. Two studies investigated dog personality and how it a) affects...... the relationship with the owner, and b) is affected by human breeding goals. Two studies investigated how human social skills affect the communication and interaction between hu-man and dog. As part of these studies it was also investigated how experience with dogs interacts with human social skills, perception...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.S.; Lertora, J.J.; Brookins, J.; Rice, J.C.; Fisher, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin in intact and anephric dogs by use of unlabeled crude native erythropoietin (nEp) and iodine 125-labeled purified recombinant erythropoietin (rEp) given by intravenous infusion for 15 minutes. Sephadex G-75 gel filtration was used to confirm that the 125I-rEp molecule remained iodinated in dog plasma during the 24-hour period of these studies. The plasma disappearance of erythropoietin conformed to a biexponential equation for both nEp and 125I-rEp, with the central compartment being larger than the peripheral compartment. The mean distribution half-life of 75.3 +/- 21.2 minutes for nEp was significantly (p less than 0.05) longer than that of 125I-rEp (23.7 +/- 5.0 minutes) in intact dogs. The intercompartmental clearance (CIic) for nEp (0.018 +/- 0.006 L/kg/hr) was significantly smaller than that of 125I-rEp (0.068 +/- 0.018 L/kg/hr) in intact dogs (p less than 0.05). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, elimination half-life, and elimination clearance (CIe) for nEp and rEp in intact dogs. The mean elimination half-life for 125I-rEp in intact dogs (9.0 +/- 0.6 hours) and anephric dogs (13.8 +/- 1.4 hours) was significantly different (p less than 0.05). The CIe for 125I-rEp in anephric dogs (0.008 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr) was significantly (p less than 0.05) smaller than that of 125I-rEp in intact dogs (0.011 +/- 0.001 L/kg/hr). There were no significant differences in apparent volume of distribution, distribution half-life, and CIic for 125I-rEp in intact and anephric dogs

  17. Understanding how dogs encourage and motivate walking: cross-sectional findings from RESIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Westgarth

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people live with dogs but not all walk with them regularly. This study examines the demographic and behavioural factors that contribute towards owners reporting having a strong sense of encouragement and motivation to walk provided by their dogs, which we call ‘the Lassie effect’. Methods Data was collected from 629 dog owners participating in the RESIDE cross-sectional survey in Perth, Western Australia. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with two separate outcome survey items ‘Dog encouragement to walk’ (how often dog encouraged me to go walking in last month and ‘Dog motivation to walk’ (Having a dog makes me walk more. Results Owning a larger dog; having an increased level of attachment to dog; knowing dog enjoys going for a walk; believing walking keeps dog healthy; and having high social support from family to go walking, were positively associated with both outcomes ‘dog encouragement to walk’ and ‘dog motivation to walk’. Conversely, reporting the presence of children at home; that the child is the main person who walks with the dog; and perceiving dog-specific barriers to walking with dog daily; were negatively associated with both outcomes. In addition, ‘Dog motivation to walk’ only was positively associated with a belief walking reduces barking, and negatively with owning a dog that is overweight or a dog that is too old/sick. Reporting that the spouse/partner is main person who walks with the dog was also negatively associated with ‘dog motivation to walk’, as was increased perceived access to public open spaces with dog-supportive features. Conclusions There are both dog and owner factors that are associated with an owner’s sense of encouragement, and motivation to walk the dog, which in turn has been found to be associated with dog waking behaviour. These factors may be targeted in future interventions to increase and maintain physical activity

  18. Environmental Factors Associated with Success Rates of Australian Stock Herding Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Elizabeth R.; Early, Jonathan B.; Wade, Claire M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace. PMID:25136828

  19. Environmental factors associated with success rates of Australian stock herding dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnott

    Full Text Available This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of the dog at acquisition, electric collar use, hypothetical maximum treatment expenditure and the conscientiousness score of the owner's personality. These findings serve as a guide to direct further research into ways of optimising herding dog performance and welfare. They emphasise the importance of not only examining the genetic predispositions of the working dog but also the impact the handler can have on a dog's success in the workplace.

  20. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry, and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 were studied in Beagle dogs. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg (0.52-48 MBq/kg) body weight and 12 control dogs were observed during their life spans. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi 91 Y/kg (6.7 MBq/kg) body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. All 46 of the exposed dogs and all 12 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Of the dogs dying of late-occurring effects, three died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three died with pulmonary carcinomas, and one died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma. These cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. 1 reference, 1 figure, 3 tables

  1. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, F.J.M.; Kass, P.H.; Terpak, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in dogs.Sample Population-Prospective series of 226 dogs referred for dental treatment without previous full-mouth radiographic views being available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of dogs presented for dental treatment, full-mouth radiographic views were obtained prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from the radiographs, and unexpected radiographic findings. The importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision-making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all dogs. Selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 41.7 and 27.8% of dogs, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 30.5%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 24.3% of dogs, yielded additional or clinically essential information in 50.0 and 22.6%, respectively, and were considered of no value in 3.1%. Older dogs derived more benefit from full-mouth radiography than did younger dogs. Incidental findings were more common in larger dogs. Clinical Relevance-Diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new canine patients referred for dental treatment is high, and the routine use of such radiographs is justifiable

  2. Chronic gastric instability and presumed incomplete volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, J K; Yool, D A; Reed, N; Ridyard, A E; Chandler, M L; Simpson, J W

    2011-12-01

    Chronic gastric volvulus in dogs results in long-standing gastrointestinal signs unlike those of acute gastric dilatation and volvulus. This report describes chronic gastric volvulus in seven dogs. The majority of dogs presented with weight loss, chronic vomiting, lethargy and abdominal pain. A combination of radiographic, ultrasonographic and endoscopic imaging indicated altered positioning of gastric landmarks. Dynamic changes were identified in some cases. Exploratory coeliotomy and surgical gastropexy were performed in all dogs. Clinical signs improved or resolved in six of seven dogs postoperatively. Chronic gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition in dogs, but should be considered as a differential in cases presenting with the above clinical signs. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs' sensitivity to human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Monique A R; Dorey, Nicole R; Wynne, Clive D L

    2010-05-01

    Over the last two decades increasing evidence for an acute sensitivity to human gestures and attentional states in domestic dogs has led to a burgeoning of research into the social cognition of this highly familiar yet previously under-studied animal. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) have been shown to be more successful than their closest relative (and wild progenitor) the wolf, and than man's closest relative, the chimpanzee, on tests of sensitivity to human social cues, such as following points to a container holding hidden food. The "Domestication Hypothesis" asserts that during domestication dogs evolved an inherent sensitivity to human gestures that their non-domesticated counterparts do not share. According to this view, sensitivity to human cues is present in dogs at an early age and shows little evidence of acquisition during ontogeny. A closer look at the findings of research on canine domestication, socialization, and conditioning, brings the assumptions of this hypothesis into question. We propose the Two Stage Hypothesis, according to which the sensitivity of an individual animal to human actions depends on acceptance of humans as social companions, and conditioning to follow human limbs. This offers a more parsimonious explanation for the domestic dog's sensitivity to human gestures, without requiring the use of additional mechanisms. We outline how tests of this new hypothesis open directions for future study that offer promise of a deeper understanding of mankind's oldest companion.

  4. Pyrophosphate scan of the temporarily ischemized dog myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubicek, J.; Kafka, P.; Veverkova, O.

    1981-12-01

    In 9 dogs a transient myocardial ischemia was provoked using complete occlusion of the ramus interventricularis anterior of the left coronary artery. The occlusion was removed after 5, 10 or 15 min. Four hrs after removal of the occlusion a scan of the myocardium was carried out using sup(99m)Tc-labelled pyrophosphate. In 7 out of 9 dogs under study the scan was markedly positive, in 2 dogs negative. ECG demonstrated ischemic changes practically in all dogs; the changes became normal after removal of the occlusion, namely in 5 to 35 min. The histological examination of the tissue demonstrated in all 9 dogs only a slight impairment of the myocardium.

  5. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Ultrasonographic findings in 14 dogs with ectopic ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Gregory, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate ultrasonography as an alternative to contrast radiographyfor diagnosis of ectopic ureter in dogs, ultrasonography of the urinary tract was performed prospectively in a series of urinary incontinent dogs anesthetized for contrast radiography, Fourteen dogs had ectopic ureter based ore surgical, necropsy or unequivocal contrast radiographic findings, There were eight females and six males of a variety of breeds; five were Labrador retrievers, Mean (range) age at the time ofdiagnosis was 1.2 (0.2-4) years for females and 3.5 (0.3-5) for males(p < 0.05). Ectopic ureters were unilateral in five dogs (2 left; 3 right) find bilateral in nine dogs. Both ultrasound images and contrastradiographs were positive for 21 (91%) ectopic ureters; the same two ectopic ureters were not defected using either modality, The termination of each of the five normal ureters was visible on ultrasound images; two (40%) were visible on radiographs, Other ultrasonographic findings included dilatation of the ectopic ureter and/or ipsilateral renal pelvis ill ten (43%) instances, evidence of pyelonephritis in two dogs(with enlargement of the contralateral kidney in one dog), and urethral diverticuli in one dog, Ultrasonography is a practical diagnostic Best for ectopic ureter in clogs. In this series these was close correlation between the ultrasonographic and contrast radiographic findings for each ectopic meter, but ultrasonography enabled more accurate determination of normal ureteral anatomy

  7. Dog as an animal model for neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, M; Li, J S; Elhilali, M

    1994-01-01

    The dog provides an important model to study the effect of neural stimulation of different parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A multitude of experiments on neurostimulation and neuromodulation to ensure bladder evacuation have been conducted on dogs. The present article reviews the most prominent contributions in the English literature related to neurostimulation using the dog as an experimental model. The various modes of stimulation using dogs as a model and the rationale for their use as well as their shortcomings will be examined. The prominent anatomic features in the neural control of the bladder and the technical aspects involved in neurostimulation of the canine bladder will be reviewed.

  8. Suspected carprofen toxicosis caused by coprophagia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Rae G; Messenger, Kristen M; Vaden, Shelly L

    2013-09-01

    A 1-year-old spayed female m