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Sample records for grey pag neurons

  1. β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, M; Bagley, E E; Chieng, B C; Christie, M J

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance to the behavioural effects of morphine is blunted in β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, but opioid withdrawal is largely unaffected. The cellular mechanisms of tolerance have been studied in some neurons from β-arrestin-2 knockouts, but tolerance and withdrawal mechanisms have not been examined at the cellular level in periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons, which are crucial for central tolerance and withdrawal phenomena. μ-Opioid receptor (MOPr) inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (ICa ) was examined by patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated PAG neurons from wild-type and β-arrestin-2 knockout mice treated chronically with morphine (CMT) or vehicle. Opioid withdrawal-induced activation of GABA transporter type 1 (GAT-1) currents was determined using perforated patch recordings from PAG neurons in brain slices. MOPr inhibition of ICa in PAG neurons was unaffected by β-arrestin-2 deletion. CMT impaired coupling of MOPrs to ICa in PAG neurons from wild-type mice, but this cellular tolerance was not observed in neurons from CMT β-arrestin-2 knockouts. However, β-arrestin-2 knockouts displayed similar opioid-withdrawal-induced activation of GAT-1 currents as wild-type PAG neurons. In β-arrestin-2 knockout mice, the central neurons involved in the anti-nociceptive actions of opioids also fail to develop cellular tolerance to opioids following chronic morphine. The results also provide the first cellular physiological evidence that opioid withdrawal is not disrupted by β-arrestin-2 deletion. However, the unaffected basal sensitivity to opioids in PAG neurons provides further evidence that changes in basal MOPr sensitivity cannot account for the enhanced acute nociceptive response to morphine reported in β-arrestin-2 knockouts. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2. © 2014 The British

  2. Segmental and laminar organization of the spinal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the cat suggests the existence of at least five separate clusters of spino-PAG neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; Holstege, Gert

    2000-01-01

    The present retrograde tracing study in the cat describes the spinal cord projections to the periaqueductal gray (PAC), taking into account different regions of the PAG and all spinal segments. Results show that injecting different parts of the PAC leads to different laminar and segmental

  3. Involvement of TRPV1 channels in the periaqueductal grey on the modulation of innate fear responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Daniele C; Almeida-Santos, Ana F; Moreira, Fabricio A; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2015-04-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel (TRPV1) is expressed in the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG), a region of the brain related to aversive responses. TRPV1 antagonism in the dorsolateral PAG (dlPAG) induces anxiolytic-like effects in models based on conflict situations. No study, however, has investigated whether these receptors could contribute to fear responses to proximal threat. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that TRPV1 in the PAG could mediate fear response in rats exposed to a predator. We verified whether exposure to a live cat (a natural predator) would activate TRPV1-expressing neurons in the PAG. Double-staining immunohistochemistry was used as a technique to detect c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, and TRPV1 expression. We also investigated whether intra-dlPAG injections of the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (CPZ), would attenuate the behavioural consequences of predator exposure. Exposure to a cat increased c-Fos expression in TRPV1-positive neurons, mainly in the dorsal columns of the PAG, suggesting that TRPV1-expressing neurons are activated by threatening stimuli. Accordingly, local injection of CPZ inhibited the fear responses. These data support the hypothesis that TRPV1 channels mediate fear reactions in the dlPAG. This may have an implication for the development of TRPV1-antagonists as potential drugs for the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders.

  4. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance[Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quillin, Robert M [Radiation Control Division, Colorado Department of Health, Denver, CO (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  5. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quillin, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  6. Fos expression in the midbrain periaqueductal grey after trigeminovascular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoskin, KL; Bulmer, DCE; Lasalandra, M; Jonkman, A; Goadsby, PJ

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the periaqueductal grey (PAG) is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans have shown that the caudal ventrolateral midbrain, encompassing the ventrolateral PAG, has activations during

  7. Neuronal pathology in deep grey matter structures: a multimodal imaging analysis combining PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosque-Freeman, L.; Leroy, C.; Galanaud, D.; Sureau, F.; Assouad, R.; Tourbah, A.; Papeix, C.; Comtat, C.; Trebossen, R.; Lubetzki, C.; Delforge, J.; Bottlaender, M.; Stankoff, B. [Serv. Hosp. Frederic Joliot, Orsay (France)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: To assess neuronal damage in deep gray matter structures by positron emission tomography (PET) using [{sup 11}C]-flumazenil (FMZ), a specific central benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, and [{sup 18}F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which reflects neuronal metabolism. To compare results obtained by PET and those with multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Background: It is now accepted that neuronal injury plays a crucial role in the occurrence and progression of neurological disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). To date, available MRI techniques do not specifically assess neuronal damage, but early abnormalities, such as iron deposition or atrophy, have been described in deep gray matter structures. Whether those MRI modifications correspond to neuronal damage remains to be further investigated. Materials and methods: Nine healthy volunteers were compared to 10 progressive and 9 relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients. Each subject performed two PET examinations with [{sup 11}C]-FMZ and [{sup 18}F]-FDG, on a high resolution research tomograph dedicated to brain imaging (Siemens Medical Solution, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm). Deep gray matter regions were manually segmented on T1-weighted MR images with the mutual information algorithm (www.brainvisa.info), and co-registered with PET images. A multimodal MRI including T1 pre and post gadolinium, T2-proton density sequences, magnetization transfer, diffusion tensor, and protonic spectroscopy was also performed for each subject. Results: On PET with [{sup 11}C]-FMZ, there was a pronounced decrease in receptor density for RR patients in all deep gray matter structures investigated, whereas the density was unchanged or even increased in the same regions for progressive patients. Whether the different patterns between RR and progressive patients reflect distinct pathogenic mechanisms is currently investigated by comparing PET and multimodal MRI results. Conclusion: Combination of PET and multimodal MR imaging

  8. Sheep internal parasites on Rab and Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relja Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to determine which groups and species of internal parasites endanger the health of sheep on the islands of Rab and Pag. The research was carried out in 10 flocks on both islands taking the fresh dung out of 30% of the total number of sheep in each flock. It was ascertained that the gastrointestinal parasites and protozoa of Eimeria genus are present in most flocks on both islands. The presence of the fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum was ascertained in considerably larger number of flocks on the island of Rab than on the island of Pag. On the other hand, the presence of parasites of Moniezia and Nematodirus genus was ascertained in larger number of flocks on the island of Pag. In two flocks on Rab parasites of Protostrongylus genus were ascertained while on the island of Pag they were not found in any flock.

  9. Economic criteria for implementing PAGs for food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunger, Byron

    1989-01-01

    In the case of an airborne release from a nuclear power reactor, agricultural land in the fallout zone may be contaminated with radioactivity. If the foods produced from this land are sufficiently contaminated that they pose a risk to consumers, public authorities can intervene on the basis of Protective Action Guides (PAGs) to prevent their entry into commerce. The limiting factor for selecting the PAG is the protection of public health. Once an acceptable level of risk has been determined, economic considerations can be introduced to determine whether the benefits of a lower PAG justify the additional costs. This is an investigation into the costs and benefits of the interdiction of specific foods representative of the broad spectrum of those produced in the U.S

  10. Economic criteria for implementing PAGs for food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunger, Byron [Office of Radiation Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-09-01

    In the case of an airborne release from a nuclear power reactor, agricultural land in the fallout zone may be contaminated with radioactivity. If the foods produced from this land are sufficiently contaminated that they pose a risk to consumers, public authorities can intervene on the basis of Protective Action Guides (PAGs) to prevent their entry into commerce. The limiting factor for selecting the PAG is the protection of public health. Once an acceptable level of risk has been determined, economic considerations can be introduced to determine whether the benefits of a lower PAG justify the additional costs. This is an investigation into the costs and benefits of the interdiction of specific foods representative of the broad spectrum of those produced in the U.S.

  11. PAG - a multipurpose transmembrane adaptor protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdinka, Matouš; Hořejší, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 41 (2014), s. 4881-4892 ISSN 0950-9232 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PAG * adaptor protein * membrane raft Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.459, year: 2014

  12. Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C.; Li, Peng; Longhurst, John C.

    2009-01-01

    A long-loop pathway, involving the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG), and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM), is essential in electroacupuncture (EA) attenuation of sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular reflex responses. The ARC provides excitatory input to the vlPAG, which, in turn, inhibits neuronal activity in the rVLM. Although previous studies have shown that endocannabinoid CB1 receptor activation modulates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in the dorsolateral PAG in stress-induced analgesia, an important role for endocannabinoids in the vlPAG has not yet been observed. We recently have shown (Fu LW, Longhurst JC. J Appl Physiol; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.91648.2008) that EA reduces the local vlPAG concentration of GABA, but not glutamate, as measured with high-performance liquid chromatography from extracellular samples collected by microdialysis. We, therefore, hypothesized that, during EA, endocannabinoids, acting through CB1 receptors, presynaptically inhibit GABA release to disinhibit the vlPAG and ultimately modulate excitatory reflex blood pressure responses. Rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented to measure heart rate and blood pressure. Gastric distention-induced blood pressure responses of 18 ± 5 mmHg were reduced to 6 ± 1 mmHg by 30 min of low-current, low-frequency EA applied bilaterally at pericardial P 5–6 acupoints overlying the median nerves. Like EA, microinjection of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1 nmol, 50 nl) into the vlPAG to increase endocannabinoids locally reduced the gastric distention cardiovascular reflex response from 21 ± 5 to 3 ± 4 mmHg. This inhibition was reversed by pretreatment with the GABAA antagonist gabazine (27 mM, 50 nl), suggesting that endocannabinoids exert their action through a GABAergic receptor mechanism in the vlPAG. The EA-related inhibition from 18 ± 3 to 8 ± 2 mmHg was reversed to 14

  13. Hypocretin-2 saporin lesions of the ventrolateral periaquaductal gray (vlPAG increase REM sleep in hypocretin knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satvinder Kaur

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago the sleep disorder narcolepsy was linked to the neuropeptide hypocretin (HCRT, also known as orexin. This disorder is characterized by excessive day time sleepiness, inappropriate triggering of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep and cataplexy, which is a sudden loss of muscle tone during waking. It is still not known how HCRT regulates REM sleep or muscle tone since HCRT neurons are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus while REM sleep and muscle atonia are generated from the brainstem. To identify a potential neuronal circuit, the neurotoxin hypocretin-2-saporin (HCRT2-SAP was used to lesion neurons in the ventral lateral periaquaductal gray (vlPAG. The first experiment utilized hypocretin knock-out (HCRT-ko mice with the expectation that deletion of both HCRT and its target neurons would exacerbate narcoleptic symptoms. Indeed, HCRT-ko mice (n = 8 given the neurotoxin HCRT2-SAP (16.5 ng/23nl/sec each side in the vlPAG had levels of REM sleep and sleep fragmentation that were considerably higher compared to HCRT-ko given saline (+39%; n = 7 or wildtype mice (+177%; n = 9. However, cataplexy attacks did not increase, nor were levels of wake or non-REM sleep changed. Experiment 2 determined the effects in mice where HCRT was present but the downstream target neurons in the vlPAG were deleted by the neurotoxin. This experiment utilized an FVB-transgenic strain of mice where eGFP identifies GABA neurons. We verified this and also determined that eGFP neurons were immunopositive for the HCRT-2 receptor. vlPAG lesions in these mice increased REM sleep (+79% versus saline controls and it was significantly correlated (r = 0.89 with loss of eGFP neurons. These results identify the vlPAG as one site that loses its inhibitory control over REM sleep, but does not cause cataplexy, as a result of hypocretin deficiency.

  14. Progesterone Withdrawal-Evoked Plasticity of Neural Function in the Female Periaqueductal Grey Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Lovick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclical changes in production of neuroactive steroids during the oestrous cycle induce significant changes in GABAA receptor expression in female rats. In the periaqueductal grey (PAG matter, upregulation of α4β1δ GABAA receptors occurs as progesterone levels fall during late dioestrus (LD or during withdrawal from an exogenous progesterone dosing regime. The new receptors are likely to be extrasynaptically located on the GABAergic interneurone population and to mediate tonic currents. Electrophysiological studies showed that when α4β1δ GABAA receptor expression was increased, the excitability of the output neurones in the PAG increased, due to a decrease in the level of ongoing inhibitory tone from the GABAergic interneurones. The functional consequences in terms of nociceptive processing were investigated in conscious rats. Baseline tail flick latencies were similar in all rats. However, acute exposure to mild vibration stress evoked hyperalgesia in rats in LD and after progesterone withdrawal, in line with the upregulation of α4β1δ GABAA receptor expression.

  15. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  16. Studying electron-PAG interactions using electron-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Ostrander, Jonathan; Schad, Jonathon; Rebeyev, Eliran; Neisser, Mark; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Denbeaux, Gregory; Brainard, Robert L.

    2016-03-01

    In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 92 eV photons are used to expose photoresists. Typical EUV resists are organic-based and chemically amplified using photoacid generators (PAGs). Upon exposure, PAGs produce acids which catalyze reactions that result in changes in solubility. In EUV lithography, photo- and secondary electrons (energies of 10- 80 eV) play a large role in PAG acid-production. Several mechanisms for electron-PAG interactions (e.g. electron trapping, and hole-initiated chemistry) have been proposed. The aim of this study is to explore another mechanism - internal excitation - in which a bound PAG electron can be excited by receiving energy from another energetic electron, causing a reaction that produces acid. This paper explores the mechanism of internal excitation through the analogous process of electron-induced fluorescence, in which an electron loses energy by transferring that energy to a molecule and that molecule emits a photon rather than decomposing. We will show and quantify electron-induced fluorescence of several fluorophores in polymer films to mimic resist materials, and use this information to refine our proposed mechanism. Relationships between the molecular structure of fluorophores and fluorescent quantum yield may aid in the development of novel PAGs for EUV lithography.

  17. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  18. Specific expression patterns and cell distribution of ancient and modern PAG in bovine placenta during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzard, Eve; Reinaud, Pierrette; Dubois, Olivier; Guyader-Joly, Catherine; Humblot, Patrice; Ponsart, Claire; Charpigny, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) constitute a multigenic family of aspartic proteinases expressed in the trophoblast of the ruminant placenta. In Bos taurus, this family comprises 21 members segregated into ancient and modern phylogenetic groups. Ancient PAGs have been reported to be synthesized throughout the trophoblastic cell layer whereas modern PAGs are produced by binucleate cells of cotyledons. The aim of this study was to investigate modern and ancient PAGs during gestation in cotyledonary and intercotyledonary tissues. To obtain convincing and innovative results despite the high sequence identity shared between PAGs, we designed specific tools such as amplification primers and antibodies. Using real-time RT-PCR, we described the transcript expression of 16 bovine PAGs. Overall, PAGs are characterized by an increase in their expression during gestation. However, we demonstrated a segregation of modern PAGs in cotyledons and of ancient PAGs in the intercotyledonary chorion, except for the ancient PAG2 expressed in cotyledons. By raising specific antibodies against the modern PAG1 and ancient PAG11 and PAG2, we established the expression kinetics of the proteins using western blotting. Immunohistochemistry showed that PAGs were produced by specific cellular populations: PAG1 by binucleate cells in the whole trophoblastic layer, PAG11 was localized in binucleate cells of the intercotyledonary trophoblast and the chorionic plate of the cotyledon, while PAG2 was produced in mononucleate cells of the internal villi of the cotyledon. These results revealed a highly specific regulation of PAG expression and cell localization as a function of their phylogenetic status, suggesting distinct biological functions within placental tissues.

  19. Evidence of Pavlovian conditioned fear following electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, G; Mana, M J; Jacobs, W J; Phillips, A G

    1987-01-01

    Stimulation of the periaqueductal grey (PAG) has been used to support aversive conditioning in a variety of species with several experimental paradigms. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated whether the behavioral changes produced by PAG stimulation in these paradigms are mediated by associative or nonassociative mechanisms. The present studies demonstrate that electrical stimulation of the PAG in the rat may be used to support associative learning in a Pavlovian paradigm. In each experiment, a fully controlled conditional emotional response (CER) procedure was used to examine the unconditional aversive properties of PAG stimulation. In Experiment 1a, weak associative conditioning was observed when a light CS was paired with PAG stimulation over 6 conditioning trials. In Experiment 1b, robust associative conditioning was obtained with a light CS when 18 conditioning trials were used. In Experiment 2, robust associative conditioning was demonstrated with a tone CS when 6 conditioning trials were used. The results parallel those found when other aversive stimuli are used as a UCS (e.g., footshock or intraorbital air puff), and because the present experiments included the proper control procedures the results clearly indicate that the behavioral changes produced by PAG stimulation are mediated by associative Pavlovian learning mechanisms rather than nonassociative mechanisms such as sensitization or pseudoconditioning. The present technique may be useful for assessing the neuroanatomical and neurochemical substrates underlying the aversive effects of brain-stimulation, and for screening the effects of drugs on the conditional and unconditional responses produced by such stimulation.

  20. Design, synthesis, and characterization of fluorine-free PAGs for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sen; Glodde, Martin; Varanasi, Pushkara R.

    2010-04-01

    Photoacid generators (PAGs) are a key component in chemically amplified resists used in photolithography. Perfluorooctanesulfonates (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkylsulfonates (PFAS) have been well adopted as PAGs in 193 nm photoresist. Recently, concerns have been raised about their environmental impact due to their chemical persistency, bioaccumulation and toxicity. It is a general interest to find environmentally benign PAGs that are free of fluorine atoms. Here we describe the design, synthesis and characterization of a series of novel fluorine-free onium salts as PAGs for 193 nm photoresists. These PAGs demonstrated desirable physical and lithography properties when compared with PFAS-based PAGs for both dry and immersion exposures.

  1. Neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to rostral ventromedial medulla in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bin eYin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG modulates nociception via a descending pathway that relays in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and terminates in the spinal cord. Previous behavioral pharmacology and electrophysiological evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays an important role in descending pain modulation, likely through the PAG-RVM pathway. However, there still lacks detailed information on the distribution of BDNF, activation of BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM in the condition of pain, and neurochemical properties of these neurons within the PAG. Through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and immunofluorescent staining, the homogenous distributions of BDNF mRNA and protein were observed in the four subregions of PAG. Both neurons and astrocytes expressed BDNF, but not microglias. By combining retrograde tracing methods and formalin pain model, there were more BDNF-containing neurons projecting to RVM being activated in the ventrolateral PAG (vlPAG than other subregions of PAG. The neurochemical properties of BDNF-containing projection neurons in the vlPAG were investigated. BDNF-containing projection neurons expressed auto receptor Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB in addition to serotonin (5-HT, neurotensin (NT, substance P (SP, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, and parvalbumin (PV but not tyrosine decarboxylase (TH. It is speculated that BDNF released from projection neurons in the vlPAG might participate in the descending pain modulation through enhancing the presynaptic release of other neuroactive substances (NSs in the RVM.

  2. "Grey matters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Katie

    2014-01-01

    It's common in this world, for diagnoses to be confused. This grey, oblique world is the "World of Brain Tumors" from which these narratives are written, a world I entered when a tangerine-sized tumor was found on my temporal lobe. Each narrative illustrates this world in which everything is covered in a thick film rendering things once obvious, now unknown. Parents are asked to choose treatment plans for their children, plans that will inevitably alter their child's quality of life but in ways they cannot determine or even imagine. Parents are asked to play God. Most of the parents who share their stories in this collection, parents of PBT (pediatric brain tumor) patients have to walk the line of trying to not disrupt their relationships with their physicians, wanting the best for their child, and facing the decision to follow their gut or go with advised treatment plans.

  3. 78 FR 42071 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance for Radiological Incidents AGENCY... guidance ``PAG Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance for Radiological Incidents... ``anonymous access'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you...

  4. Disinfection of grey water

    OpenAIRE

    Winward, Gideon Paul

    2007-01-01

    The reuse of grey water, for applications such as toilet flushing and irrigation, represents a potential sustainable solution to water shortages experienced by regions worldwide. Although reused grey water is not intended for potable use, the potential for transmission of waterborne pathogens by aerosol inhalation, topical contact, or indirect ingestion is a key concern for grey water reuse. This thesis explores the pathogen content of grey water and investigates pathogen remov...

  5. Projections from estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray to the lateral medulla oblongata in the rhesus monkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderhorst, VGJM; Terasawa, E; Ralston, HJ

    2004-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) contains numerous estrogen receptor-alpha immunoreactive (ER-alpha IR) neurons that are distributed in a species-specific way. These neurons might modulate different types of behavior that are mediated by the PAG such as active and passive coping responses, analgesia,

  6. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  7. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  8. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons

  9. Connections from the rat dorsal column nuclei (DCN) to the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaresi, Paolo; Mensà, Emanuela

    2016-08-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns (DCs; spinal cord stimulation; SCS) has been proposed to treat chronic neuropathic pain. SCS may activate a dual mechanism that would affect both the spinal cord and supraspinal levels. Stimulation of DCs or DC nuclei (DCN) in animals where neuropathic pain has been induced causes activation of brainstem centers including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), which is involved in the endogenous pain suppression system. Biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) was iontophoretically injected into the DCN to analyze the ascending projection directed to the PAG. Separate injections into the gracile nucleus (GrN) and the cuneate nucleus (CunN) showed BDA-positive fibers terminating in different regions of the contralateral PAG. GrN-PAG afferents terminated in the caudal and middle portions of PAG-l, whereas CunN-PAG fibers terminated in the middle and rostral portions of PAG-l. Based on the DCN somatotopic map, the GrN sends information to the PAG from the contralateral hindlimb and the tail and the CunN from the contralateral forelimb, shoulder, neck and ear. This somatotopic organization is consistent with earlier electrophysiological and PAG stimulation studies. These fibers could form part of the DCs-brainstem-spinal cord loop, which may be involved in the inhibitory effects of SCS on neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Uso de HeberPAG en carcinoma basocelular periocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanisel Jiménez Barbán

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 34 años de edad con un carcinoma basocelular nodular de párpado inferior del ojo izquierdo, de 3 años de evolución. Se procedió a aplicar el HeberPAG en inyección perilesional 3 veces por semana durante 3 semanas consecutivas. Terminadas las aplicaciones de este producto desaparecieron los signos clínicos del tumor. Se comenta el potencial destructor de este tumor, así como las técnicas utilizadas en el manejo de esta patología.

  11. Panicolytic-like effect of tramadol is mediated by opioid receptors in the dorsal periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaes, Gislaine Cardoso de Souza; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Sestile, Caio Cesar; Maraschin, Jhonatan Christian; Souza, Rodolfo Luis Silva; Porcu, Mauro; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2017-05-30

    Tramadol is a synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, acting as agonist of μ-opioid receptors and serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NE) reuptake inhibitor. This study evaluated the effects of tramadol in rats submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM), an animal model that evaluates behavioural parameters such as anxiety and panic. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated acutely with tramadol (16 and 32mg/kg) and were submitted to the ETM. Tramadol (32mg/kg) promoted a panicolytic-like effect. Considering that dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) is the main brain structure related to the pathophysiology of panic disorder (PD), this study also evaluated the participation of 5-HT and opioid receptors located in the dPAG in the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. Seven days after stereotaxic surgery for implantation of a cannula in the dPAG, the animals were submitted to the test. To assess the involvement of 5-HT 1A receptors on the effect of tramadol, we combined the 5-HT 1A receptor antagonist, WAY100635 (0.37nmol), microinjected intra-dPAG, 10min prior to the administration of tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). WAY100635 did not block the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol. We also associated the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, systemically (1mg/kg, i.p.) or intra-dPAG (0.5nmol) administered 10min prior to tramadol (32mg/kg, i.p.). Naloxone blocked the panicolytic-like effect of tramadol in both routes of administrations, showing that tramadol modulates acute panic defensive behaviours through its interaction with opioid receptors located in the dPAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gene structure of the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-like (PAG-L) in the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Aleksandra; Majewska, Marta; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Bieniek-Kobuszewska, Martyna; Szafranska, Bozena

    2017-09-01

    The pregnancy-associated glycoprotein-like family (PAG-L) is a large group of chorionic products, expressed in the pre-placental trophoblast and later in the post-implantational chorionic epithelium, and are involved in proper placenta development and embryo-maternal interaction in eutherians. This study describes identification of the PAG-L family in the genome of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber L.), named CfPAG-L. We identified 7657 bp of the CfPAG-L gDNA sequence (Acc. No. KX377932), encompassing nine exons (1-9) and eight introns (A-H). The length of the CfPAG-L exons (59-200 bp) was equivalently similar to the only known counterparts of bPAG1, bPAG2, and pPAG2. The length of the CfPAG-L introns ranged 288-1937 bp and was completely different from previously known PAG introns. The exonic CfPAG-L regions revealed 50.3-72.9% homology with equivalent segments of bPAG1 and pPAG2 structure. The intronic CfPAG-L regions alignments revealed a lack of homology. Within the entire CfPAG-L gene, 31 potential single nucleotide variants (SNV: 7 transversions and 24 transitions) were predicted. The identified exonic polymorphic loci did not affect the amino acid sequence of the CfPAG-L polypeptide precursor. This is the first report describing the CfPAG-L gene sequence, structural organization, and SNVs in the Eurasian beaver, one of the largest rodents.

  13. The Dutch Grey Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called ‘grey market’, in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  14. The Dutch Grey Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called 'grey market', in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  15. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  16. Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.

  17. GreyGuide. Poster presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to the GreyGuide, a repository of good practices and resources in grey literature. The GreyGuide seeks to capture proposed as well as published practices dealing with the supply and demand sides of grey literature. This is a collaborative project involving GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good pra...

  18. Ail and PagC-related proteins in the entomopathogenic bacteria of Photorhabdus genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Mouammine

    Full Text Available Among pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, the proteins of the Ail/OmpX/PagC family form a steadily growing family of outer membrane proteins with diverse biological properties, potentially involved in virulence such as human serum resistance, adhesion and entry into eukaryotic culture cells. We studied the proteins Ail/OmpX/PagC in the bacterial Photorhabdus genus. The Photorhabdus bacteria form symbiotic complexes with nematodes of Heterorhabditis species, associations which are pathogenic to insect larvae. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that in Photorhabdus asymbiotica and Photorhabdus luminescens only Ail and PagC proteins are encoded. The genomic analysis revealed that the Photorhabdus ail and pagC genes were present in a unique copy, except two ail paralogs from P. luminescens. These genes, referred to as ail1Pl and ail2Pl, probably resulted from a recent tandem duplication. Surprisingly, only ail1Pl expression was directly controlled by PhoPQ and low external Mg2+ conditions. In P. luminescens, the magnesium-sensing two-component regulatory system PhoPQ regulates the outer membrane barrier and is required for pathogenicity against insects. In order to characterize Ail functions in Photorhabdus, we showed that only ail2Pl and pagCPl had the ability, when expressed into Escherichia coli, to confer resistance to complement in human serum. However no effect in resistance to antimicrobial peptides was found. Thus, the role of Ail and PagC proteins in Photorhabdus life cycle is discussed.

  19. Development of Modified Pag (Polyalkylene Glycol) High VI High Fuel Efficient Lubricant for LDV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, Arup [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); McWatt, D. G. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Zdrodowski, R. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Liu, Zak [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Elie, Larry [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Simko, S. J. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States); Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ramirez, Giovanni [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cuthbert, J. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Hock, E. D. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Engine oils play a critical role in friction reduction. Improvements in engine oil technology steadily improved fuel economy as the industry moved through ILSAC GF-1 to GF-5 specifications. These improvements were influenced by changes in base oil chemistry, development of new friction modifiers and their treat levels, and the total additive package consisting of various other components. However, the improvements are incremental and further fuel consumption reduction opportunities are becoming more challenging. Polyalkylene glycol (PAG) based engine oils are being explored as a step forward for significant fuel consumption reduction. Although PAG fluids are used in many industrial applications, its application as an engine oil has been explored in a limited way. The objective of this project is to deep dive in exploring the applicability of PAG technology in engine oil, understanding the benefits, and limitations, elucidating the mechanism(s) for friction benefits, if any, and finally recommending how to address any limitations. The project was designed in four steps, starting with selection of lubricant technology, followed by friction and wear evaluations in laboratory bench tests which are relatively simple and inexpensive and also served as a screener for further evaluation. Selected formulations were chosen for more complex engine component level tests i.e., motored valvetrain friction and wear, piston ring friction using a motored single cylinder, and motored engine tests. A couple of formulations were further selected based on component level tests for engine dyno tests i.e., Sequence VID (ASTM D6709) for fuel economy, Sequence IVA (ASTM D6891) for valvetrain wear, and Sequence VG (ASTM D6593) for sludge and varnish protection. These are some of the industry standard tests required for qualifying engine oils. Out of these tests, a single PAG oil was selected for chassis roll dynamometer tests for fuel economy and emission measurements using FTP (Federal

  20. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  1. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  2. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  3. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  4. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  5. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of grey matter heterotopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An MRI scan of the brain is the special investigation of choice for the correct diagnosis of GMH. The pathognomonic finding is that of heterotopic grey matter abnormally located within areas of white matter. Defective foetal neuronal migration between the third and fifth month of pregnancy can lead to GMH, which can present ...

  6. Studies on pregnancy associated alpha2-glycoprotein (alpha2-PAG) in screening of malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Hoshiga, Noriko; Kobuke, Kyoko; Kyoizume, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    The measurement of α 2 -glycoprotein (α 2 -PAG) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method was established and its clinical significance was studied. The normal value of serum α 2 -PAG was 2.7+-3.7 μg/ml in men and 8.7+-9.8 μg/ml in women. However, significant difference was observed according to the presence of pregnancy history. α 2 -PAG was significantly higher in male patients with lung cancer (a mean of 18.2+-18.6 μg/ml or other cancers (a mean of 12.4+-12.8 μg/ml) than in norm al male people. One of the tumor markers, such as α 2 -PAG, CEA, AFP and ferritin, or more showed an abnormal value in many of the patients with malignant tumors. One marker or more were also abnormal in 128 of 428 atomic bomb survivors (29.9%), of whom 23 (18%) had abnormal values in two or more markers. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. The Csk-binding protein PAG regulates PDGF-induced Src mitogenic signaling via GM1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veracini, L.; Simon, V.; Richard, V.; Schraven, B.; Hořejší, Václav; Roche, S.; Benistant, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 3 (2008), s. 603-614 ISSN 0021-9525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : PDGF receptor * mitogenní aktivita * PAG Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.120, year: 2008

  8. 78 FR 22257 - Updates to Protective Action Guides Manual: Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and Planning Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies, FDA (66 FR 64046, Dec. 11, 2001). Provide basic planning guidance... decision making. Chapter 4--Late Phase: A brief planning guidance on the cleanup process is included... PAG Manual. Basic planning guidance on approaching radioactive waste disposal is included. Please...

  9. Grey zones of welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Harboe Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the ‘grey zones of welfare’ in rural Lithuania whereby I point to the inherent ambiguities that lies in a system where people to a high degree rely on networks and normative solutions to everyday shortcomings, rather than on the state. I argue that we in the period after socialism witness an increased degree of informal economies and social arrangements, as the formal sector of social security is perceived as unreliable. This results in a model where liberalism and individual ethics co-exist with a strong morality to support the poorest in society.

  10. Localization of the brainstem GABAergic neurons controlling paradoxical (REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sapin

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep (PS is a state characterized by cortical activation, rapid eye movements and muscle atonia. Fifty years after its discovery, the neuronal network responsible for the genesis of PS has been only partially identified. We recently proposed that GABAergic neurons would have a pivotal role in that network. To localize these GABAergic neurons, we combined immunohistochemical detection of Fos with non-radioactive in situ hybridization of GAD67 mRNA (GABA synthesis enzyme in control rats, rats deprived of PS for 72 h and rats allowed to recover after such deprivation. Here we show that GABAergic neurons gating PS (PS-off neurons are principally located in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG and the dorsal part of the deep mesencephalic reticular nucleus immediately ventral to it (dDpMe. Furthermore, iontophoretic application of muscimol for 20 min in this area in head-restrained rats induced a strong and significant increase in PS quantities compared to saline. In addition, we found a large number of GABAergic PS-on neurons in the vlPAG/dDPMe region and the medullary reticular nuclei known to generate muscle atonia during PS. Finally, we showed that PS-on neurons triggering PS localized in the SLD are not GABAergic. Altogether, our results indicate that multiple populations of PS-on GABAergic neurons are distributed in the brainstem while only one population of PS-off GABAergic neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDpMe region exist. From these results, we propose a revised model for PS control in which GABAergic PS-on and PS-off neurons localized in the vlPAG/dDPMe region play leading roles.

  11. Opioid tolerance in periaqueductal gray neurons isolated from mice chronically treated with morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Elena E; Chieng, Billy C H; Christie, MacDonald J; Connor, Mark

    2005-09-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a major site of opioid analgesic action, and a significant site of cellular adaptations to chronic morphine treatment (CMT). We examined mu-opioid receptor (MOP) regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (I(Ca)) and G-protein-activated K channel currents (GIRK) in PAG neurons from CMT mice. Mice were injected s.c. with 300 mg kg(-1) of morphine base in a slow release emulsion three times over 5 days, or with emulsion alone (vehicles). This protocol produced significant tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in a test of thermal nociception. Voltage clamp recordings were made of I(Ca) in acutely isolated PAG neurons and GIRK in PAG slices. The MOP agonist DAMGO (Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-N-Me-Phe-Gly-ol enkephalin) inhibited I(Ca) in neurons from CMT mice (230 nM) with a similar potency to vehicle (150 nM), but with a reduced maximal effectiveness (37% inhibition in vehicle neurons, 27% in CMT neurons). Inhibition of I(Ca) by the GABA(B) agonist baclofen was not altered by CMT. Met-enkephalin-activated GIRK currents recorded in PAG slices were significantly smaller in neurons from CMT mice than vehicles, while GIRK currents activated by baclofen were unaltered. These data demonstrate that CMT-induced antinociceptive tolerance is accompanied by homologous reduction in the effectiveness of MOP agonists to inhibit I(Ca) and activate GIRK. Thus, a reduction in MOP number and/or functional coupling to G proteins accompanies the characteristic cellular adaptations to CMT previously described in PAG neurons.

  12. Study on dissolution behavior of polymer-bound and polymer-blended photo-acid generator (PAG) resists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2013-03-01

    The requirements for the next generation resist materials are so challenging that it is indispensable for feasibility of EUV lithography to grasp basic chemistry of resist matrices in all stage of resist processes. Under such circumstances, it is very important to know dissolution characteristics of the resist film into alkaline developer though the dissolution of exposed area of resist films in alkaline developer to form a pattern is a complex reactive process. In this study, the influence of EUV and KrF exposure on the dissolution behavior of polymer bound PAG and polymer blended PAG was studied in detail using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) methods. The difference in swelling formation between KrF and EUV exposure was observed. It is likely that difference of reaction mechanism induces the difference of these swelling. Also, it is observed that the swelling of polymer-bound PAG is less than that of polymer blended PAG in both KrF and EUV exposure. This result indicates that polymer-bound PAG suppresses swelling very well and showed an excellent performance. Actually, the developed polymer bound-PAG resist showed an excellent performance (half pitch 50 nm line and space pattern). Thus, polymer bound PAG is one of the promising candidate for 16 nm EUV resist.

  13. Incoherently Coupled Grey-Grey Spatial Soliton Pairs in Biased Two-Photon Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yanli; Jiang Qichang; Ji Xuanmang

    2010-01-01

    The incoherently coupled grey-grey screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton pairs are predicted in biased two-photon photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be established provided that the incident beams have the same polarization, wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. The grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be considered as the united form of grey-grey screening soliton pairs and open or closed-circuit grey-grey photovoltaic soliton pairs. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus timneh using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL. The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  15. Antioxidant proteins TSA and PAG interact synergistically with Presenilin to modulate Notch signaling in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, Michael F; Reiter, Lawrence T; Zimm, Georgianna; Trimble-Morgan, Jennifer; Wu, Jane; Bier, Ethan

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is characterized by senile plaques in the brain and evidence of oxidative damage. Oxidative stress may precede plaque formation in AD; however, the link between oxidative damage and plaque formation remains unknown. Presenilins are transmembrane proteins in which mutations lead to accelerated plaque formation and early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins physically interact with two antioxidant enzymes thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA) and proliferation-associated gene (PAG) of the peroxiredoxin family. The functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. In the current study we expressed a presenilin transgene in Drosophila wing and sensory organ precursors of the fly. This caused phenotypes typical of Notch signaling loss-of-function mutations. We found that while expression of TSA or PAG alone produced no phenotype, co-expression of TSA and PAG with presenilin led to an enhanced Notch loss-of-function phenotype. This phenotype was more severe and more penetrant than that caused by the expression of Psn alone. In order to determine whether these phenotypes were indeed affecting Notch signaling, this experiment was performed in a genetic background carrying an activated Notch (Abruptex) allele. The phenotypes were almost completely rescued by this activated Notch allele. These results link peroxiredoxins with the in vivo function of Presenilin, which ultimately connects two key pathogenetic mechanisms in AD, namely, antioxidant activity and plaque formation, and raises the possibility of a role for peroxiredoxin family members in Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

  16. Production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Krvavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to learn from a survey about the production and economic characteristics of sheep production as well as economic position and developmental orientation of sheep breeders on the island of Pag. Data on production and economic characteristics of sheep production on the island of Pag were collected from a survey and processed through relevant descriptive statistics methods. The respondents have on average 47 breeding sheep, 2 rams and 9 sheep intended for flock renewal rate (not older than one year; which means an average flock has 58 sheep. The average total income from sheep production in 2009 was 72,460.10 HRK. The average total production costs in 2009 were 13,260.10 HRK, including the costs of fodder and veterinary services. All farms achieved positive financial results of 59,199.90 HRK in average. As many as three quarters of respondents indicated profitability of sheep production as the main motivation to engage in sheep production; very few indicated that heritage and inability to do other jobs were the main motivation. Important limiting factors for future development of sheep breeding on the island of Pag in most farms are lack of potential heirs and high average age of farm holders. Regarding the effects of joining the European Union, half the breeders intend to improve their production and harmonise it with the EU requirements and standards; one quarter of them intend to keep the existing production capacity; and another quarter intend to quit with production.

  17. Functioning heterotopic grey matter? Increased blood flow with voluntary movement and sensory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimodozono, M.; Kawahira, K.; Tanaka, N.

    1995-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter has never been reported to have any neuronal function other than as an epileptic focus. However, recent advances in measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral metabolism have enabled us to assess localised function and functional changes of the brain. We saw a patient with cerebral haemorrhage with bilateral heterotopic grey matter. No neurological deficits or seizures were present before the haemorrhage. To establish the function of the heterotopic grey matter, we studied changes in their rCBF during voluntary movement and sensory stimulation of unilateral extremities using xenon-CT (Xe-CT). (orig.)

  18. Rapid detection of food-borne Salmonella contamination using IMBs-qPCR method based on pagC gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Wang

    Full Text Available Abstract Detection of Salmonella is very important to minimize the food safety risk. In this study, the recombinant PagC protein and PagC antibody were prepared and coupled with immunomagnetic beads (IMBs to capture Salmonella cells from pork and milk samples. And then the SYBR Green qualitative PCR was developed to detect the pathogenic Salmonella. The results showed that the PagC polyclonal antiserum is of good specificity and the capture rate of 0.1 mg IMBs for Salmonella tended to be stable at the range of 70-74% corresponding to the concentrations between 101 and 104 CFU/mL. The method developed demonstrated high specificity for the positive Salmonella samples when compared to non-specific DNA samples, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The limit of detection of this assay was 18 CFU/mL. Detection and quantitative enumeration of Salmonella in samples of pork or milk shows good recoveries of 54.34% and 52.07%. In conclusion, the polyclonal antibody of recombinant PagC protein is effective to capture Salmonella from detected samples. The developed pagC antibody IMBs-qPCR method showed efficiency, sensitivity and specificity for 30 Salmonella detection, enabling detection within 10 h, which is a promising rapid method to detect Salmonella in emergency.

  19. Concerns for the human element in implementing Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Aby; Jeffries, Aileen; Fedorchak, Paul [Department of Health, Reactor Safety Section, WA (United States)

    1989-09-01

    Washington State has tested implementation of current ingestion PAGs at several drills and exercises. This testing has shown that protective action decisions cannot be based on computed projected doses (due to many assumptions involved). And so we recommend an alternative, simpler methodology based on the concentration of radionuclides in foods. Simplifying the process helps us to avoid confusing the public and to avoid problems that foster unintended public response. The purpose of the present paper is to describe three such problems, propose tentative solutions, and request federal assistance in arriving at a final resolution.

  20. Concerns for the human element in implementing Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Aby; Jeffries, Aileen; Fedorchak, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Washington State has tested implementation of current ingestion PAGs at several drills and exercises. This testing has shown that protective action decisions cannot be based on computed projected doses (due to many assumptions involved). And so we recommend an alternative, simpler methodology based on the concentration of radionuclides in foods. Simplifying the process helps us to avoid confusing the public and to avoid problems that foster unintended public response. The purpose of the present paper is to describe three such problems, propose tentative solutions, and request federal assistance in arriving at a final resolution

  1. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  2. [Screening of phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 (PAG1) by cDNA microarray and influence of overexpression of PAG1 on biologic behavior of human metastatic prostatic cancer cell line in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-juan; Wang, Yue-wei; Xie, Zhi-gang; You, Jiang-feng; Wang, Jie-liang; Cui, Xiang-lin; Pei, Fei; Zheng, Jie

    2010-02-01

    To screen for novel gene(s) associated with tumor metastasis, and to investigate the effect of overexpression of phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 (PAG1) on the biological behaviors of human prostatic cancer cell line PC-3M-1E8 in vitro. Four cDNA microarrays were constructed using cDNA library of prostatic cancer cells PC-3M-1E8 (high metastatic potential), PC-3M-2B4 (low metastatic potential), lung cancer cells PG-BE1 (high metastatic potential)and PG-LH7 (low metastatic potential)to screen genes which were differentially expressed according to their different metastatic properties. From a battery of differentially expressed genes, PAG1, which was markedly downregulated in both high metastatic sublines of PC-3M and PG was chosen for further investigation. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to confirm the gene expression of PAG1 at mRNA and protein levels. Full-length coding sequence of human PAG1 was subcloned into plasmid pcDNA3.0 and the recombinant plasmids were stably transfected into PC-3M-1E8. The cell proliferation ability, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis rates and invasive ability were detected by MTT, and in addition, soft agar colony formation, flow cytometry analysis and matrigel invasion assay using Boyden chamber were also carried out respectively. All experiments contained pcDNA3.0-PAG1-transfected clones, vector transfected clones and non-transfected parental cells. A total of 327 differentially expressed genes were obtained between the high and low metastatic sublines of PC-3M cells, including 123 upregulated and 204 downregulated genes in PC-3M-1E8. A total of 281 genes, including 167 upregulated and 114 downregulated genes were obtained in PG-BE1 cells. Nine genes were simultaneously downregulated and 8 genes were upregulated in both high metastatic cell lines of PC-3M and PG. The expression of PAG1 at mRNA and protein level were decreased in the high metastatic subline PC-3M-1

  3. GreyGuide, GreyNet’s web access portal and lobby for change in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Ponti, Roberto (ISTI-CNR); Stock, Christiane (Inist-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide was formerly launched as an online forum and repository of good practice in grey literature. The project partners then turned to the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices. During this same timeframe, GreyNet – one of the project partners – welcomed far reaching developments in its infrastructure. Three new committees were established alongside its Program Committee in line with GreyNet’s fourfold mission dedicated to research, publication, o...

  4. Overview. Rethinking the grey literature's definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Grey literature said to do difficult to obtain through commercial publishers. Recently, according to the spread of institutional repositories, grey literature is published on the Web and its full text is open to the public, then it has become easily accessible. Yet, the accessibility of grey literature has not been fully resolved. In this paper, the author introduces the definition of grey literature based on the discussion of the International Conference on Grey Literature (International Conference on Grey literature) and tries to reorganize and discuss on issues concerning the problems of grey literature accessibility. The author indicates that there are still many challenges in this field, also indicates that stable access to the sources on the Web is not always guaranteed. It is concluded that expertises and experiences of a librarian should be leveraged to get solutions regarding the accessibility of grey literature. (author)

  5. A novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein inhibits the growth and invasion of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ping; Xu, Tian-Min; Kan, Mu-Jie; Xiao, Ye-Chen; Cui, Man-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) acts by breaking down the basement membrane and is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These actions are mediated by binding to the uPA receptor (uPAR) via its growth factor domain (GFD). The present study evaluated the effects of uPAg-KPI, a fusion protein of uPA-GFD and a kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain that is present in the amyloid β-protein precursor. Using SKOV-3 cells, an ovarian cancer cell line, we examined cell viability, migration, invasion and also protein expression. Furthermore, we examined wound healing, and migration and invasion using a Transwell assay. Our data showed that uPAg-KPI treatment reduced the viability of ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in both a concentration and time-dependent manner by arresting tumor cells at G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. The IC50 of uPAg-KPI was 0.5 µg/µl after 48 h treatment. At this concentration, uPAg-KPI also inhibited tumor cell colony formation, wound closure, as well as cell migration and invasion capacity. At the protein level, western blot analysis demonstrated that uPAg-KPI exerted no significant effect on the expression of total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/ERK2 and AKT, whereas it suppressed levels of phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 and AKT. Thus, we suggest that this novel uPAg-KPI fusion protein reduced cell viability, colony formation, wound healing and the invasive ability of human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells in vitro by regulating ERK and AKT signaling. Further studies using other cell lines will confirm these findings.

  6. Black and grey neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbard, F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the development and use of ''black'' and ''grey'' detectors is reviewed. Such detectors are widely used for counting neutrons in (p,n) and (α,n) experiments and in neutron cross section measurements. Accuracy of each detector is stressed. 19 figures

  7. Grey Literature and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  8. Land governance as grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  9. Effects of gel composition on the radiation induced density change in PAG polymer gel dosimeters: a model and experimental investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilts, M; Jirasek, A; Duzenli, C

    2004-01-01

    Due to a density change that occurs in irradiated polyacrylamide gel (PAG), x-ray computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a feasible method of performing polymer gel dosimetry. However, applicability of the technique is currently limited by low sensitivity of the density change to dose. This work investigates the effect of PAG composition on the radiation induced density change and provides direction for future work in improving the sensitivity of CT polymer gel dosimetry. A model is developed that describes the PAG density change (Δρ gel ) as a function of both polymer yield (%P) and an intrinsic density change, per unit polymer yield, that occurs on conversion of monomer to polymer (Δρ polymer ). %P is a function of the fraction of monomer consumed and the weight fraction of monomer in the unirradiated gel (%T). Applying the model to experimental CT and Raman spectroscopic data, two important fundamental properties of the response of PAG density to dose (Δρ gel dose response) are discovered. The first property is that Δρ polymer depends on PAG %C (cross-linking fraction of total monomer) such that low and high %C PAGs exhibit a higher Δρ polymer than do more intermediate %C PAGs. This relationship is opposite to the relationship of polymer yield to %C and is explained by the effect of %C on the type of polymer formed. The second property is that the Δρ gel dose response is linearly dependent on %T. From the model, the inference is that, at least for %T≤12%, monomer consumption and Δρ polymer depend solely on %C. In terms of optimizing CT polymer gel dosimetry for high sensitivity, these results indicate that Δρ polymer can be expected to vary with each polymer gel system and thus should be considered when choosing a polymer gel for CT gel dosimetry. However, Δρ polymer and %P cannot be maximized simultaneously and maximizing %P, by choosing gels with intermediate %C and high %T, is found to have the greatest impact on increasing the

  10. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  11. Grey Guide Repository: presentation and demo

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Schopfel, Joachim; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation.

  12. Grey Guide: A Community Driven Open Resource Project in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Giannini, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide Project was formerly launched as an online forum and repository of good practice in grey literature. The GreyGuide manages Open Source Repositories and provides a unique resource in the field of grey literature that is long awaited and which responds to the information needs of a diverse, international grey literature community. As GreyNet's web access Portal, the GreyGuide now provides a wealth of content that was previously either confined to web pages or was...

  13. Grey Language Hesitant Fuzzy Group Decision Making Method Based on Kernel and Grey Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingsheng; Diao, Yuzhu; Gong, Zaiwu; Hu, Aqin

    2018-03-02

    Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation.

  14. Evaluation of the radiation-sensitizer/protector and/or antioxidant efficiencies using Fricke and PAG dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meesat, Ridthee; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Lepage, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, our aim is to assess the potential of Fricke and polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeters to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of potential radiation sensitizers/protectors and antioxidants. These compounds are of importance in radiotherapy as well as in disease prevention and promotion of health. The basic principle of the Fricke dosimeter is the radiation-induced oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ in an aerated aqueous 0.4 M H 2 SO 4 . The production of ferric ions is most sensitive to the radical species produced in the radiolysis of water. Using this method, we observed that cystamine (one of the best of the known radioprotectors) can prevent oxydation of Fe 2+ from reactive radiolysis species. However, one obvious disadvantage of the Fricke dosimeter is that it operates under highly acidic conditions (pH 0.46), which may degrade biological compounds. In contrast, the pH of the polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter is almost neutral, such that degradation of compounds is less probable. A change in R 2 -dose sensitivity was observed in the presence of radiosensitizers/radioprotectors and antioxidants. The protective effect of Trolox (a well-known antioxidant) and thiourea (a radioprotector) was readily observed using the PAG dosimeter. Incorporation of iodinated radiation sensitizers such as NaI and an iodine contrast agent led to a quantifiable sensitizer enhancement ratio. These studies suggest that the Fricke and the PAG dosimeters have the potential to evaluate the efficiency of radiation sensitizers/protectors and antioxidants.

  15. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of T-cell activation by PAG/Cbp, a lipid raft-associated transmembrane adaptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davidson, D.; Bakinowski, M.; Thomas, M. L.; Hořejší, Václav; Veillette, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2003), s. 2017-2028 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : PAG * Csk * T cell activation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 8.142, year: 2003

  16. Complement is activated in progressive multiple sclerosis cortical grey matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Lewis M; Neal, James W; Loveless, Sam; Michailidou, Iliana; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rees, Mark I; Reynolds, Richard; Robertson, Neil P; Morgan, B Paul; Howell, Owain W

    2016-06-22

    The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are caused by damage to myelin and nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Inflammation is tightly linked with neurodegeneration, and it is the accumulation of neurodegeneration that underlies increasing neurological disability in progressive MS. Determining pathological mechanisms at play in MS grey matter is therefore a key to our understanding of disease progression. We analysed complement expression and activation by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation in frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded post-mortem tissue blocks from 22 progressive MS cases and made comparisons to inflammatory central nervous system disease and non-neurological disease controls. Expression of the transcript for C1qA was noted in neurons and the activation fragment and opsonin C3b-labelled neurons and glia in the MS cortical and deep grey matter. The density of immunostained cells positive for the classical complement pathway protein C1q and the alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb was significantly increased in cortical grey matter lesions in comparison to control grey matter. The number of cells immunostained for the membrane attack complex was elevated in cortical lesions, indicating complement activation to completion. The numbers of classical (C1-inhibitor) and alternative (factor H) pathway regulator-positive cells were unchanged between MS and controls, whilst complement anaphylatoxin receptor-bearing microglia in the MS cortex were found closely apposed to cortical neurons. Complement immunopositive neurons displayed an altered nuclear morphology, indicative of cell stress/damage, supporting our finding of significant neurodegeneration in cortical grey matter lesions. Complement is activated in the MS cortical grey matter lesions in areas of elevated numbers of complement receptor-positive microglia and suggests that complement over-activation may contribute to the worsening pathology that underlies the

  17. Coupling effects of grey-grey separate spatial screening soliton pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qichang; Su Yanli; Ji Xuanmang

    2012-01-01

    The existence and coupling effects of grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs in a biased series non-photovoltaic photorefractive crystal circuit are investigated in this paper. The numerical solution of grey-grey soliton pairs is derived. The coupling effects between two grey solitons resulting from the input optical intensity and crystal temperature are analyzed numerically. The results show that when the input optical intensity of one crystal changes, two grey solitons in a soliton pair will all change; that is, two grey solitons can affect each other by the light-induced current that flows from one crystal to another. When the temperature of one crystal increases, the intensity width of the grey soliton in this crystal first decreases and then increases. Simultaneously, the intensity width of another grey soliton increases monotonically.

  18. An FMEA analysis using grey theory and grey rough sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for detecting the most important failure items as well as the most effective alternative strategy to cope with possible events. The proposed model of this paper uses grey technique to rank various alternatives and FMEA technique to find important faults. The implementation of the proposed method has been illustrated for an existing example on the literature. The results of this method show that the proposed model has been capable of detecting the most trouble making problems with fuzzy logic and finds the most important solution strategy using FMEA technique.

  19. Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssane Zouikr

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis during postnatal day (PND 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG. Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb as compared to medial habenula (MHb, however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process.

  20. Altered Formalin-Induced Pain and Fos Induction in the Periaqueductal Grey of Preadolescent Rats following Neonatal LPS Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouikr, Ihssane; James, Morgan H.; Campbell, Erin J.; Clifton, Vicki L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Dayas, Christopher V.; Hodgson, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis) during postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG). Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb) as compared to medial habenula (MHb), however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process. PMID:24878577

  1. Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...

  2. The luminous and the grey

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, David

    2014-01-01

    Color surrounds us: the lush green hues of trees and grasses, the variant blues of water and the sky, the bright pops of yellow and red from flowers. But at the same time, color lies at the limits of language and understanding. In this absorbing sequel to Chromophobia-which addresses the extremes of love and loathing provoked by color since antiquity-David Batchelor charts color's more ambiguous terrain.   The Luminous and the Grey explores the places where color comes into being and where it fades away, probing when it begins and when it ends both in the imagination and in the material world.

  3. Multiple sclerosis deep grey matter: the relation between demyelination, neurodegeneration, inflammation and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Lukas; Simeonidou, Constantina; Steinberger, Günther; Hametner, Simon; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Deretzi, Georgia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Lassmann, Hans; Frischer, Josa M

    2014-12-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffuse degenerative processes in the deep grey matter have been associated with clinical disabilities. We performed a systematic study in MS deep grey matter with a focus on the incidence and topographical distribution of lesions in relation to white matter and cortex in a total sample of 75 MS autopsy patients and 12 controls. In addition, detailed analyses of inflammation, acute axonal injury, iron deposition and oxidative stress were performed. MS deep grey matter was affected by two different processes: the formation of focal demyelinating lesions and diffuse neurodegeneration. Deep grey matter demyelination was most prominent in the caudate nucleus and hypothalamus and could already be seen in early MS stages. Lesions developed on the background of inflammation. Deep grey matter inflammation was intermediate between low inflammatory cortical lesions and active white matter lesions. Demyelination and neurodegeneration were associated with oxidative injury. Iron was stored primarily within oligodendrocytes and myelin fibres and released upon demyelination. In addition to focal demyelinated plaques, the MS deep grey matter also showed diffuse and global neurodegeneration. This was reflected by a global reduction of neuronal density, the presence of acutely injured axons, and the accumulation of oxidised phospholipids and DNA in neurons, oligodendrocytes and axons. Neurodegeneration was associated with T cell infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglia and profound accumulation of iron. Thus, both focal lesions as well as diffuse neurodegeneration in the deep grey matter appeared to contribute to the neurological disabilities of MS patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Participation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter in the hypoxic ventilatory response in unanaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L T; Biancardi, V; Vieira, E B; Leite-Panissi, C; Bícego, K C; Gargaglioni, L H

    2014-07-01

    Although periaqueductal grey matter activation is known to elicit respiratory and cardiovascular responses, the role of this midbrain area in the compensatory responses to hypoxia is still unknown. To test the participation of the periaqueductal grey matter in cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypoxia in adult male Wistar rats, we performed a chemical lesion of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial or the ventrolateral/lateral periaqueductal grey matter using ibotenic acid. Pulmonary ventilation, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature were measured in unanaesthetized rats during normoxic and hypoxic exposure (5, 15, 30 min, 7% O2). An ibotenic acid lesion of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial periaqueductal grey matter caused a higher increase in pulmonary ventilation (67.1%, 1730±282.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) compared to the Sham group (991.4±194 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) after 15 min in hypoxia, whereas for the ventrolateral/Lateral periaqueductal grey matter lesion, no differences were observed between groups. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature were not affected by a dorsolateral/dorsomedial or ventrolateral/lateral periaqueductal grey matter lesion. Middle to caudal portions of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial periaqueductal grey matter neurones modulate the hypoxic ventilatory response, exerting an inhibitory modulation during low O2 situations. In addition, the middle to caudal portions of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial or ventrolateral/lateral periaqueductal grey matter do not appear to exert a tonic role on cardiovascular or thermal parameters during normoxic and hypoxic conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Grey literature in meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris M; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2003-01-01

    In meta-analysis, researchers combine the results of individual studies to arrive at cumulative conclusions. Meta-analysts sometimes include "grey literature" in their evidential base, which includes unpublished studies and studies published outside widely available journals. Because grey literature is a source of data that might not employ peer review, critics have questioned the validity of its data and the results of meta-analyses that include it. To examine evidence regarding whether grey literature should be included in meta-analyses and strategies to manage grey literature in quantitative synthesis. This article reviews evidence on whether the results of studies published in peer-reviewed journals are representative of results from broader samplings of research on a topic as a rationale for inclusion of grey literature. Strategies to enhance access to grey literature are addressed. The most consistent and robust difference between published and grey literature is that published research is more likely to contain results that are statistically significant. Effect size estimates of published research are about one-third larger than those of unpublished studies. Unfunded and small sample studies are less likely to be published. Yet, importantly, methodological rigor does not differ between published and grey literature. Meta-analyses that exclude grey literature likely (a) over-represent studies with statistically significant findings, (b) inflate effect size estimates, and (c) provide less precise effect size estimates than meta-analyses including grey literature. Meta-analyses should include grey literature to fully reflect the existing evidential base and should assess the impact of methodological variations through moderator analysis.

  6. Presynaptic Glycine Receptors Increase GABAergic Neurotransmission in Rat Periaqueductal Gray Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwi-Hyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG is involved in the central regulation of nociceptive transmission by affecting the descending inhibitory pathway. In the present study, we have addressed the functional role of presynaptic glycine receptors in spontaneous glutamatergic transmission. Spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs were recorded in mechanically dissociated rat PAG neurons using a conventional whole-cell patch recording technique under voltage-clamp conditions. The application of glycine (100 µM significantly increased the frequency of sEPSCs, without affecting the amplitude of sEPSCs. The glycine-induced increase in sEPSC frequency was blocked by 1 µM strychnine, a specific glycine receptor antagonist. The results suggest that glycine acts on presynaptic glycine receptors to increase the probability of glutamate release from excitatory nerve terminals. The glycine-induced increase in sEPSC frequency completely disappeared either in the presence of tetrodotoxin or Cd2+, voltage-gated Na+, or Ca2+ channel blockers, suggesting that the activation of presynaptic glycine receptors might depolarize excitatory nerve terminals. The present results suggest that presynaptic glycine receptors can regulate the excitability of PAG neurons by enhancing glutamatergic transmission and therefore play an important role in the regulation of various physiological functions mediated by the PAG.

  7. Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14 months. COD concentrations were 724 ± 150 mg L- 1, of which 34% was

  8. Heterotopic grey matter: Ct vs. MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosten, N.; Schoerner, W.

    1989-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter is a rare cause of seizures. While lesions appear suspicious on CT because of equidensity to cortex, MR imaging can establish the diagnosis by demonstrating same signal intensity of heterotopia and grey matter on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted as well as inversion-recovery sequences. (orig.) [de

  9. Grey-Turner's sign in sclerosing peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthard, J. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1989-01-01

    A 41-year-old CAPD patient developed Grey-Turner's sign during the course of bacterial peritonitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At the same time a diagnosis of sclerosing peritonitis was made by CT-scanning of the abdomen. We think that Grey-Turner's flank staining could either have been caused by

  10. An Emerging New Paradigm in Opioid Withdrawal: A Critical Role for Glia-Neuron Signaling in the Periaqueductal Gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handong Ouyang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic use of opiates (i.e., narcotics such as the natural derivatives of opium including morphine or codeine or opioids (i.e., semisynthetic derivatives of opium and other molecules that activate opioid receptors induces dependence, which is associated with various specific behavioral and somatic signs after their withdrawal or after the administration of an opioid antagonist. Among the brain regions implicated in opiate dependence and withdrawal, the periaqueductal gray area (PAG appears to be critical in regulating the complex signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Numerous neurochemical mechanisms in the PAG have been identified that may contribute to the opioid withdrawal syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that glial activation leading to the release of proinflammatory molecules acting on neurons is important in the complex syndrome of opioid dependence and withdrawal. This paper focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of the vital role that glia-neuron interactions play in opioid dependence and withdrawal within the PAG. We summarize those neurochemical mechanisms associated with opioid withdrawal including the recently defined importance of TNFα release from activated glial cells that communicate with TNF receptors on PAG neurons.

  11. MobiPag: integrated mobile payment, ticketing and couponing solution based on NFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Helena; José, Rui; Coelho, André; Melro, Ana; Ferreira, Marta Campos; Falcão e Cunha, João; Monteiro, Miguel Pimenta; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-07-24

    Mobile payments still remain essentially an emerging technology, seeking to fill the gap between the envisioned potential and widespread usage. In this paper, we present an integrated mobile service solution based on the near field communication (NFC) protocol that was developed under a research project called MobiPag. The most distinctive characteristic of Mobipag is its open architectural model that allows multiple partners to become part of the payment value-chain and create solutions that complement payments in many unexpected ways. We describe the Mobipag architecture and how it has been used to support a mobile payment trial. We identify a set of design lessons resulting from usage experiences associated with real-world payment situations with NFC-enabled mobile phones. Based on results from this trial, we identify a number of challenges and guidelines that may help to shape future versions of NFC-based payment systems. In particular, we highlight key challenges for the initial phases of payment deployments, where it is essential to focus on scenarios that can be identified as more feasible for early adoption. We also have identified a fundamental trade-off between the flexibility supported by the Mobipag solution and the respective implications for the payment process, particularly on the users' mental model.

  12. MobiPag: Integrated Mobile Payment, Ticketing and Couponing Solution Based on NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile payments still remain essentially an emerging technology, seeking to fill the gap between the envisioned potential and widespread usage. In this paper, we present an integrated mobile service solution based on the near field communication (NFC protocol that was developed under a research project called MobiPag. The most distinctive characteristic of Mobipag is its open architectural model that allows multiple partners to become part of the payment value-chain and create solutions that complement payments in many unexpected ways. We describe the Mobipag architecture and how it has been used to support a mobile payment trial. We identify a set of design lessons resulting from usage experiences associated with real-world payment situations with NFC-enabled mobile phones. Based on results from this trial, we identify a number of challenges and guidelines that may help to shape future versions of NFC-based payment systems. In particular, we highlight key challenges for the initial phases of payment deployments, where it is essential to focus on scenarios that can be identified as more feasible for early adoption. We also have identified a fundamental trade-off between the flexibility supported by the Mobipag solution and the respective implications for the payment process, particularly on the users’ mental model.

  13. MobiPag: Integrated Mobile Payment, Ticketing and Couponing Solution Based on NFC †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Helena; José, Rui; Coelho, André; Melro, Ana; Ferreira, Marta Campos; Cunha, João Falcão e; Monteiro, Miguel Pimenta; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Mobile payments still remain essentially an emerging technology, seeking to fill the gap between the envisioned potential and widespread usage. In this paper, we present an integrated mobile service solution based on the near field communication (NFC) protocol that was developed under a research project called MobiPag. The most distinctive characteristic of Mobipag is its open architectural model that allows multiple partners to become part of the payment value-chain and create solutions that complement payments in many unexpected ways. We describe the Mobipag architecture and how it has been used to support a mobile payment trial. We identify a set of design lessons resulting from usage experiences associated with real-world payment situations with NFC-enabled mobile phones. Based on results from this trial, we identify a number of challenges and guidelines that may help to shape future versions of NFC-based payment systems. In particular, we highlight key challenges for the initial phases of payment deployments, where it is essential to focus on scenarios that can be identified as more feasible for early adoption. We also have identified a fundamental trade-off between the flexibility supported by the Mobipag solution and the respective implications for the payment process, particularly on the users' mental model. PMID:25061838

  14. Locating grey literature on communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.

  15. Dorsal border periaqueductal gray neurons project to the area directly adjacent to the central canal ependyma of the C4-T8 spinal cord in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Kerstens, L; VanderWant, J; Holstege, G

    In a previous study horseradish peroxidase (HRP) injections in the upper thoracic and cervical spinal cord revealed some faintly labeled small neurons at the dorsal border of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present light microscopic and electronmicroscopic tracing study describes the precise

  16. Role of IL-1 beta and 5-HT2 receptors in midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) in potentiating defensive rage behavior in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Suresh; Bhatt, Rekha; Zalcman, Steven S; Siegel, Allan

    2008-02-01

    Feline defensive rage, a form of aggressive behavior that occurs in response to a threat can be elicited by electrical stimulation of the medial hypothalamus or midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Our laboratory has recently begun a systematic examination of the role of cytokines in the regulation of rage and aggressive behavior. It was shown that the cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), differentially modulates defensive rage when microinjected into the medial hypothalamus and PAG by acting through separate neurotransmitter systems. The present study sought to determine whether a similar relationship exists with respect to interleukin 1-beta (IL-1 beta), whose receptor activation in the medial hypothalamus potentiates defensive rage. Thus, the present study identified the effects of administration of IL-1 beta into the PAG upon defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus. Microinjections of IL-1 beta into the dorsal PAG significantly facilitated defensive rage behavior elicited from the medial hypothalamus in a dose and time dependent manner. In addition, the facilitative effects of IL-1 beta were blocked by pre-treatment with anti-IL-1 beta receptor antibody, while IL-1 beta administration into the PAG had no effect upon predatory attack elicited from the lateral hypothalamus. The findings further demonstrated that IL-1 beta's effects were mediated through 5-HT(2) receptors since pretreatment with a 5-HT(2C) receptors antagonist blocked the facilitating effects of IL-1 beta. An extensive pattern of labeling of IL-1 beta and 5-HT(2C) receptors in the dorsal PAG supported these findings. The present study demonstrates that IL-beta in the dorsal PAG, similar to the medial hypothalamus, potentiates defensive rage behavior and is mediated through a 5-HT(2C) receptor mechanism.

  17. Electrophysiological analysis of pathways connecting the medial preoptic area with the mesencephalic central grey matter in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, N K; Mayer, M L

    1980-01-01

    1. An electrophysiological study of ascending and descending connexions between the dorsal raphe region of the mesencephalic periaqueductal grey matter and the medial preoptic area has been performed in dioestrous female rats anaesthetized with urethane. 2. Extracellular action potentials recorded from 208 neurones in the medial preoptic area were analysed for a change in excitability following stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter. 174 neurones were also tested for changes in excitability following stimulation of the mediobasal hypothalamus. 3. Stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter at 1 Hz was rarely effective, but short trains of pulses (three at 100 Hz) usually caused an initial inhibition (62.5% of 208) of both projection identified and adjacent neurones of the medial preoptic area, at latencies of 5--90 msec (mean 34.1 +/- 1.4 msec). Inhibition following stimulation of the mediobasal hypothalamus occurred less frequently (34%) and at shorter latency (mean 12.0 +/- 1.8 msec; n = 48). 4. Less frequently (10.6%) periaqueductal grey matter stimulation caused an initial excitation of preoptic neurones at latencies of 15--180 msec, (mean 35.3 +/- 7.2). Initial excitation following mediobasal hypothalamus stimulation was stronger, occurred more frequently (29%) and at shorter latencies (range 3--60 msec, mean 13.1 +/- 1.5). Following such initial excitation, inhibition of spontaneous or ionophoretically evoked activity occurred more frequently following mediobasal hypothalamic stimulation, than after periaqueductal grey matter stimulation. 5. Twenty-four neurones displayed antidromic invasion following periaqueductal grey matter stimulation. Latencies for invasion ranged from 13 to 50 msec (mean 25.5 +/- 2.0 msec) and are suggestive of an unmyelinated projection. Occasionally an abrupt decrease in latency followed an increase in stimulus intensity. Antidromic invasion from mediobasal hypothalamus was characterized by a shorter latency (mean 12.5 +/- 0

  18. Link managers for grey literature

    CERN Document Server

    Lodi-Rizzini, E; Vigen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    In the self service area of the library reading rooms it is required to organise the collections in the simplest way possible. This is an important feature for readers making it possible to a get direct access to the material without necessarily having to go via the library catalogue to retrieve the call number. A typical example will be that a collection is organised so that a reader easily can get directly from an article reference to the article itself in a library where the journal collection simply is organised alphabetically. This requirement seems to have been forgotten by many of the most important actors in the digital library, both by the commercial publishers and many of the bodies producing grey literature. How are the users supposed to get directly to Report XXX without having to navigate through n different web pages? This is on top happening in "The Library" which is intended to be close up to 100 based on self service! CERN Library has developed a mechanism, "Go direct", which handles the prob...

  19. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  20. GreyGuide - Guide to Good Practice in Grey Literature: A Community Driven Open Resource Project

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Schopfel, Joachim (University of Lille); Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation. The repository will contain guidelines such as those in handling theses and dissertations, how to write research report...

  1. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Grey Theory in Operator Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scientific and reasonable operator management is the basis of nuclear security. It was paid more attention after the three-mile island accident. The prediction of operators' basic behavior parameters is the premise and foundation of scientific and reasonable operator management. Grey theory happens to solve the dilemma encountered in prediction and decision-making of operator behavior in operator management of NPP. The procedure is divided into two steps: according to the history record of operators' behavior parameter, a differential equation model using grey theory is set up to predict the future behavior of operators and use grey theory to make decision for operator management. The calculation result is helpful for operator management and also useful for operators to find their shortcoming. Grey theory using in the study provides a new idea and method for future operator management in NPP

  3. Application of grey theory in operator management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and reasonable operator management is the basis of nuclear safety. It is paid more attention after the three-mile island accident. The prediction of operators' basic behavior parameters is the premise and foundation of scientific and reasonable operator management. Grey theory happened to solve the dilemma encountered in prediction and decision-making of operator behavior in operator management of nuclear power plant. The procedure was divided into two steps: 1) According to the historical record of operators' behavior parameters, a differential equation model using grey theory was set up to predict the future behavior of operators; 2) operator management decision-making was made based on grey theory. The calculation result is not only helpful for operator management but also useful for operators to find their shortcomings. Grey theory used in the study provides a new idea and method for future operator management in nuclear power plant. (author)

  4. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  5. MRI of laminar heterotopic grey matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahldiek, G.; Terwey, B.; Hanefeld, F.; Sperner, J.

    1990-01-01

    In one baby and 2 infants who presented with psychomotor retardation and epilepsy laminar heterotopic grey matter was demonstrated via magnetic resonance imaging. Laminar heterotopia is a rare migrational disorder with bilateral symmetric ribbons of grey matter within the centrum semiovale, separated from ventricular walls and from obviously normal-sized cortex by broad layers of white matter. The heterotopic grey matter has a signal intensity which is isointense compared with that of normal cortex irrespective of image weighting. On account of this signal behaviour differentiation against other white matter diseases is easy. The knowledge of these pathognomonic findings facilitates correct diagnosis, especially during the first and the second year of life, when signal intensities of white and grey matter differ from normal findings because of the occasionally delayed myelination process. Therefore, further diagnostic procedures can be avoided and early counseling of parents is possible. (orig.) [de

  6. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Grey literature for development: Some case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, B. (SHPT); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2007-01-01

    Grey Literature refers to publications issued by government, academia, business, and industry, in both print and electronic formats, but not controlled by commercial publishing interests, and where publishing is not the primary business activity of the organization. Newsletters, reports, working papers, theses, government documents, bulletins, fact sheets, conference proceedings and other publications distributed free, available by subscription, or for sale comprises grey literature. Non-prof...

  8. A development plan for the south-eastern part of Pag island with an emphasis on olive-growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Koščak Miočić-Stošić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the fact that the traditional usage of rural landscapes was agricultural, a degradation of landscape values, as well as an onset of natural succession, occur due to contemporary lifestyle. This can lead to negative effects regarding land-use change. This paper focuses on the south-eastern part of Pag island and explores the possibilities for the revitalisation of its neglected areas by envisioning its future development as an olive-growing region. The final goal was to define a planning procedure framework which would enable the creation of a strategic vision to be transformed into a comprehensive spatial development strategy for the research area. This area encompasses the territory between Kaštela in the north-west and the Pag’s bridge in the south-east which administratively belongs to the Zadar County and includes the Town of Pag, and the Kolan and Povljana municipalities. Olive-growing has been recognized as the strategic choice for development because of its tradition in the area and the potential integration with other relatable activities. Based on the SWOT analysis, an appropriate mission, a vision and strategic goals were defined for developing Pag as an olive-growing region. Further landscape planning methods included (1 the Lynch mapping analysis, (2 the Forman and Godron landscape ecology analysis and (3 the landscape pattern analysis. The results were then used together with digital orthophoto imagery to overlay and analyse relevant information. Hand drawings as well as AutoCAD, ArcGIS and image editing computer programmes were used in the process. This analytical phase was then followed by the development of several alternative spatial zonings, diagrams and concepts based on a preferable neighbourhood matrix and the activity sizing table. The planning process resulted in a concept for spatial development of the research area which would enable the implementation of the strategic vision. The main goal of this

  9. Extensive grey matter pathology in the cerebellum in multiple sclerosis is linked to inflammation in the subarachnoid space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Owain W; Schulz-Trieglaff, Elena Katharina; Carassiti, Daniele; Gentleman, Steven M; Nicholas, Richard; Roncaroli, Federico; Reynolds, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory neurological disease affecting myelin, neurons and glia. Demyelination and neurodegeneration of cortical grey matter contribute to a more severe disease, and inflammation of the forebrain meninges associates with pathology of the underlying neocortical grey matter, particularly in deep sulci. We assessed the extent of meningeal inflammation of the cerebellum, another structure with a deeply folded anatomy, to better understand the association between subarachnoid inflammation and grey matter pathology in progressive MS. We examined demyelinating and neuronal pathology in the context of meningeal inflammation in cerebellar tissue blocks from a cohort of 27 progressive MS cases previously characterized on the basis of the absence/presence of lymphoid-like aggregates in the forebrain meninges, in comparison with 11 non-neurological controls. Demyelination and meningeal inflammation of the cerebellum was greatest in those cases previously characterized as harbouring lymphoid-like structures in the forebrain regions. Meningeal inflammation was mild to moderate in cerebellar tissue blocks, and no lymphoid-like structures were seen. Quantification of meningeal macrophages, CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes, B cells and plasma cells revealed that the density of meningeal macrophages associated with microglial activation in the grey matter, and the extent of grey matter demyelination correlated with the density of macrophages and plasma cells in the overlying meninges, and activated microglia of the parenchyma. These data suggest that chronic inflammation is widespread throughout the subarachnoid space and contributes to a more severe subpial demyelinating pathology in the cerebellum. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  10. Les petits travailleurs du siècle : Sur Petites natures mortes au travail (2000 d’Yves Pagès

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bernard-Rabadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the fictions of Yves Pagès claim a taste for political controversy and claims libertarians: Petites natures mortes au travail (2000 is one of them. Composed of 24 short stories, this fiction is written without exacerbating militancy but shows through the mode of fragment new world of work, where workers rush to part-time in entertainment industry. All Characters are contractors, unemployed at the end of Rights and precarious. I will follow a tri-axial plan to show that the writer Yves Pagès with his serie of painting develops a gallery of the working class of the French at the end of the XXth Century. The first part will explicit the poetic of fragment, the second will draw a provocative portrait of Pagès and the third will explain the changing world of real work in terms of fiction.

  11. Whole genome grey and white matter DNA methylation profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Sandoval, Juan; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel; Gräff, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood. Herein, we determined the DNA methylation patterns of grey and white matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), an important region for higher cognitive skills that is particularly affected in various neurological diseases. For avoiding interindividual differences, we analyzed white and grey matter from the same donor using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and for validating their biological significance, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and pyrosequencing in ten and twenty independent samples, respectively. The combination of these analysis indicated robust grey-white matter differences in DNA methylation. What is more, cell type-specific markers were enriched among the most differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, we also found an outstanding number of grey-white matter differentially methylated genes that have previously been associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, as well as Multiple and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented here thus constitute an important resource for future studies not only to gain insight into brain regional as well as grey and white matter differences, but also to unmask epigenetic alterations that might underlie neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Application of grey system theory in telecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chen

    2011-05-01

    As a superiority to conventional statistical models, grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behaviour of unknown systems. Grey system theory can be used in the effective factor assessment, and used in large samples where data are not available or uncertain whether the data was representative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to adopt grey system theory to discuss older adult users' opinions on the telecare and its effect on their quality of life. This study surveyed the older adult users of Taiwan as subjects. User perception of the telecare services was collected via face-to-face interview. The grey system theory was used to examine the model. The results showed that the overall living quality has the greatest effect on the perceived effects of the telecare on their quality of life, followed by the acquisition of information, accessibility of medical care services, and safety. This finding may serve as a reference to future studies and it also shows that the grey system theory is a feasible analysis method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-05-15

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  15. Grey literature in library and information studies

    CERN Document Server

    Schopfel, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The further rise of electronic publishing has come to change the scale and diversity of grey literature facing librarians and other information practitioners. This compiled work brings together research and authorship over the past decade dealing with both the supply and demand sides of grey literature. While this book is written with students and instructors of Colleges and Schools of Library and Information Science in mind, it likewise serves as a reader for information professionals working in any and all like knowledge-based communities

  16. Grey Literature Between Tradition and Innovation: Is There a Continuum?

    OpenAIRE

    Pardelli, Gabriella; Goggi, Sara; Sassi, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This study wants to explore ways of social media communication for Grey Literature. In particular it describes the role of social media in relation with traditional channels and how social media applications can be used for Grey.

  17. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  18. Reflecting on the Postgraduate Experience: Teaching Research Methods and Statistics: Review of the DART-P Sponsored Workshop at PsyPAG 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Emma J.; Davies, Emma. L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the success of last year's teaching and career development workshop, this year's DART-P sponsored workshop at the Psychology Postgraduate Affairs Group (PsyPAG) Annual Conference held at Lancaster University focused on postgraduate's experiences of teaching research methods. This article provides a review of the invited speakers…

  19. TREATMENT OF GREY WATER USING CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Prashant Asirvadam; K. Dhivya Bharathi; P. Durairaj; M. Kaleeswaran; S. Abinaya

    2017-01-01

    The grey water is the waste water that is generated in the households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination. Sources of grey water include water from sinks, showers, baths, washing machine or dish washers. As grey water contains fewer pathogens than domestic waste, it is generally safer to handle and easier to treat and reuse onsite for toilet flushing, landscape or crop irrigation. The removal of toxic content in grey water in this era is one of the most needed process...

  20. Assembling and testing of laboratory scale grey water treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Harju, Vilhelmiina

    2010-01-01

    Grey water management and reuse is slowly gaining importance in the management of water resources. The benefits of well organized grey water management is that it offers a tool for coping with water scarcity and reduces the amount of pollution to enter the hydrological cycle. Grey water management aims on using treated grey water in applications which do not require drinking water quality. These non-potable reuse applications include industrial processes, irrigation, toilet flushing and lau...

  1. A gelatin-free model system for the study of the basic radiation-induced polymerization in PAG dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, S; Park, Y S; Schreiner, L J

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation we show results of investigations on gelatin-free dosimeters containing equal amounts of acrylamide and N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide (named Aqueous Polyacrylamide, APA, dosimeters). The dosimeters were prepared with three different total monomer concentrations (2, 6, and 8% by weight). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin and spin-lattice proton relaxation measurements at 20 MHz, and gravimetric analyses performed on all three dosimeters, show a continuous degree of polymerization over the range of dose 0.5 - 25 Gy. The developed NMR model explains the relationship observed between the relaxation data and the amount of cross-linked polymer formed at each dose. This model may be extended with gelatin relaxation data to provide a fundamental understanding of radiation-induced polymerization in the conventional PAG dosimeters

  2. Grey-Box Modelling of Pharmacokinetic /Pharmacodynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  3. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  4. Aproximación a la obra científica del Comandante médico Fidel Pagés Miravé Approach to the scientific work of medical Commander Fidel Pagés Miravé

    OpenAIRE

    I. Velázquez Rivera

    2011-01-01

    A. Faulconer en su libro "Foundations of Anesthesiology" refiriéndose a Pagés afirma: "No se encuentran apenas datos sobre la vida de este importante cirujano español". Esta concluyente afirmación unida a imperdonables omisiones de la figura de Pagés por historiógrafos de la anestesia o de la cirugía, y a graves errores en datos sobre su vida u obra, nos movió a realizar una aproximación, lo más exacta posible, a la obra científica del Comandante Médico Fidel Pagés Miravé. Escasas han sido la...

  5. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  6. The future of grey-box fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelt, Isak

    2017-01-01

    Society are becoming more dependent on software, and more artifacts are being connected to the Internet each day [31]. This makes the work of tracking down vulnerabilities in software a moral obligation for software developers. Since manual testing is expensive [7], automated bug finding techniques are attractive within the quality assurance field, since it can save companies a lot of money. This thesis summarizes the research of an automated bug finding technique called grey-box fuzzing, wit...

  7. Searching and synthesising 'grey literature' and 'grey information' in public health: critical reflections on three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2016-09-29

    Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature. On three previous occasions, we have attempted to systematically search for and synthesise public health grey literature and information-both to summarise the extent and nature of particular classes of interventions and to synthesise results of evaluations. Here, we briefly describe these three 'case studies' but focus on our post hoc critical reflections on searching for and synthesising grey literature and information garnered from our experiences of these case studies. We believe these reflections will be useful to future researchers working in this area. Issues discussed include search methods, searching efficiency, replicability of searches, data management, data extraction, assessing study 'quality', data synthesis, time and resources, and differentiating evidence synthesis from primary research. Information on applied public health research questions relating to the nature and range of public health interventions, as well as many evaluations of these interventions, may be predominantly, or only, held in grey literature and grey information. Evidence syntheses on these topics need, therefore, to embrace grey literature and information. Many typical systematic review methods for searching, appraising, managing, and synthesising the evidence base can be adapted for use with grey literature and information. Evidence synthesisers should carefully consider the opportunities and problems offered by including grey literature and information

  8. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  9. Multiattribute Grey Target Decision Method Based on Soft Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the Multiattribute decision-making problems in which the evaluation attribute sets are different and the evaluating values of alternatives are interval grey numbers, a multiattribute grey target decision-making method in which the attribute sets are different was proposed. The concept of grey soft set was defined, and its “AND” operation was assigned by combining the intersection operation of grey number. The expression approach of new grey soft set of attribute sets considering by all decision makers were gained by applying the “AND” operation of grey soft set, and the weights of synthesis attribute were proved. The alternatives were ranked according to the size of distance of bull’s eyes of each alternative under synthetic attribute sets. The green supplier selection was illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model.

  10. Experimental 3D dosimetry around a high-dose-rate clinical 192Ir source using a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJury, M.; Tapper, P.D.; Griffin, S.; Cosgrove, V.P.; Webb, S.; Murphy, P.S.; Leach, M.O.; Oldham, M.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that the experimental dosimetry of brachytherapy sources presents a challenge. Depending on the particular dosimeter used, measurements can suffer from poor spatial resolution (ion chambers), lack of 3D information (film) or errors due to the presence of the dosimeter itself distorting the radiation flux. To avoid these problems, we have investigated the dosimetry of a clinical 192 Ir source using a polyacrylamide gel (PAG) dosimeter. Experimental measurements of dose versus radial distance from the centre of the source (cross-line plots) were compared with calculations produced with a Nucletron NPS planning system. Good agreement was found between the planning system and gel measurements in planes selected for analysis. Gel dosimeter measurements in a coronal plane through the phantom showed a mean difference between measured absorbed dose and calculated dose of 0.17 Gy with SD=0.13Gy. Spatially, the errors at the reference point remain within one image pixel (1.0 mm). The use of polymer gel dosimetry shows promise for brachytherapy applications, offering complete, three-dimensional dose information, good spatial resolution and small measurement errors. Measurements close to the source, however, are difficult, due to some of the limiting properties of the polyacrylamide gel. (author)

  11. The Influence of Lath, Block and Prior Austenite Grain (PAG) Size on the Tensile, Creep and Fatigue Properties of Novel Maraging Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Steven; Hill, Paul; Rawson, Martin; Perkins, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The influence of martensitic microstructure and prior austenite grain (PAG) size on the mechanical properties of novel maraging steel was studied. This was achieved by looking at two different martensitic structures with PAG sizes of approximately 40 µm and 80 µm, produced by hot rolling to different reductions. Two ageing heat-treatments were considered: both heat-treatments consisted of austenisation at 960 °C, then aging at 560 °C for 5 h, but while one was rapidly cooled the other was slow cooled and then extended aged at 480 °C for 64 h. It is shown that for the shorter ageing treatment the smaller PAG size resulted in significant improvements in strength (increase of more than 150 MPa), ductility (four times increase), creep life (almost four times increase in creep life) and fatigue life (almost doubled). Whereas, the extended aged sample showed similar changes in the fatigue life, elongation and hardness it displayed yet showed no difference in tensile strength and creep. These results display the complexity of microstructural contributions to mechanical properties in maraging steels. PMID:28773086

  12. The Influence of Lath, Block and Prior Austenite Grain (PAG) Size on the Tensile, Creep and Fatigue Properties of Novel Maraging Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simm, Thomas; Sun, Lin; McAdam, Steven; Hill, Paul; Rawson, Martin; Perkins, Karen

    2017-06-30

    The influence of martensitic microstructure and prior austenite grain (PAG) size on the mechanical properties of novel maraging steel was studied. This was achieved by looking at two different martensitic structures with PAG sizes of approximately 40 µm and 80 µm, produced by hot rolling to different reductions. Two ageing heat-treatments were considered: both heat-treatments consisted of austenisation at 960 °C, then aging at 560 °C for 5 h, but while one was rapidly cooled the other was slow cooled and then extended aged at 480 °C for 64 h. It is shown that for the shorter ageing treatment the smaller PAG size resulted in significant improvements in strength (increase of more than 150 MPa), ductility (four times increase), creep life (almost four times increase in creep life) and fatigue life (almost doubled). Whereas, the extended aged sample showed similar changes in the fatigue life, elongation and hardness it displayed yet showed no difference in tensile strength and creep. These results display the complexity of microstructural contributions to mechanical properties in maraging steels.

  13. Peering through the Review Process: Towards Transparency in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Now that grey literature is readily catalogued, referenced, cited, and openly accessible to subject based communities as well as net users, the claims that grey literature is unpublished or non-published have sufficiently been put to rest. However, now that grey literature has met these former challenges and entered mainstream publishing, it requires in the spirit of science to have a system in place for the quality control of its content. This new challenge has recently been spurred by the I...

  14. Grey('s) Identity: Complications of Learning and Becoming in a Popular Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines an analysis of the American show "Grey's Anatomy" as an example of how popular culture represents identity and the process of professional identity construction in a medical workplace, particularly the surgical service of a large urban hospital. In discussing identity, she connects professional identity to…

  15. Current status and a short history of grey literature. Focusing on the international conference on grey literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)

  16. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  17. Alcohol consumption during adolescence is associated with reduced grey matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Noora; Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Tolmunen, Tommi; Kekkonen, Virve; Kivimäki, Petri; Tanila, Heikki; Laukkanen, Eila; Vanninen, Ritva

    2017-04-01

    Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use, but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy- and light-drinking adolescents. This was a longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed-up for 10 years using questionnaires at three time-points. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted at the last time-point. The area near Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. The 62 participants were aged 22-28 years and included 35 alcohol users and 27 controls who had been followed-up for approximately 10 years. Alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C at three time-points during 10 years. Participants were selected based on their AUDIT-C score. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted at the last time-point. Grey matter volume was determined and compared between heavy- and light-drinking groups using voxel-based morphometry on three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using predefined regions of interest and a threshold of P Grey matter volumes were significantly smaller among heavy-drinking participants in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right orbitofrontal and frontopolar cortex, right superior temporal gyrus and right insular cortex compared to the control group (P grey matter. Moreover, the structural changes detected in the insula of alcohol users may reflect a reduced sensitivity to alcohol's negative subjective effects. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Access to Grey Content: An Analysis of Grey Literature based on Citation and Survey Data, A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Boekhorst, Albert K. (UvA); Schöpfel, Joachim (INIST-CNRS); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2005-01-01

    Grey literature, an area of interest to special librarians and information professionals, can be traced back a half-century. However, grey literature as a specialized field in information studies is less than a decade old. At GL'97 in Luxembourg, grey literature was redefined "as information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishers (i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the pro...

  19. Grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs in a biased series two-photon centrosymmetric photorefractive crystals circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xuanmang; Wang, Jinlai; Jiang, Qichang; Liu, Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    Grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs are predicted in a biased series circuit consisting of two centrosymmetric photorefractive (PR) crystals with the two-photon PR effect. The numerical results show that two grey solitons in a soliton pair can affect each other by the light-induced current. The effects of the intensity of solitary waves and gating lights on the normalized profiles and the dynamical evolutions of solitons are discussed.

  20. On grey levels in random CAPTCHA generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fraser; Kouritzin, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    A CAPTCHA is an automatically generated test designed to distinguish between humans and computer programs; specifically, they are designed to be easy for humans but difficult for computer programs to pass in order to prevent the abuse of resources by automated bots. They are commonly seen guarding webmail registration forms, online auction sites, and preventing brute force attacks on passwords. In the following, we address the question: How does adding a grey level to random CAPTCHA generation affect the utility of the CAPTCHA? We treat the problem of generating the random CAPTCHA as one of random field simulation: An initial state of background noise is evolved over time using Gibbs sampling and an efficient algorithm for generating correlated random variables. This approach has already been found to yield highly-readable yet difficult-to-crack CAPTCHAs. We detail how the requisite parameters for introducing grey levels are estimated and how we generate the random CAPTCHA. The resulting CAPTCHA will be evaluated in terms of human readability as well as its resistance to automated attacks in the forms of character segmentation and optical character recognition.

  1. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  2. Roles of Raft-Anchored Adaptor Cbp/PAG1 in Spatial Regulation of c-Src Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneyama, Chitose; Suzuki, Takashi; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase c-Src is upregulated in numerous human cancers, implying a role for c-Src in cancer progression. Previously, we have shown that sequestration of activated c-Src into lipid rafts via a transmembrane adaptor, Cbp/PAG1, efficiently suppresses c-Src-induced cell transformation in Csk-deficient cells, suggesting that the transforming activity of c-Src is spatially regulated via Cbp in lipid rafts. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of the Cbp-mediated regulation of c-Src, a combined analysis was performed that included mathematical modeling and in vitro experiments in a c-Src- or Cbp-inducible system. c-Src activity was first determined as a function of c-Src or Cbp levels, using focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as a crucial c-Src substrate. Based on these experimental data, two mathematical models were constructed, the sequestration model and the ternary model. The computational analysis showed that both models supported our proposal that raft localization of Cbp is crucial for the suppression of c-Src function, but the ternary model, which includes a ternary complex consisting of Cbp, c-Src, and FAK, also predicted that c-Src function is dependent on the lipid-raft volume. Experimental analysis revealed that c-Src activity is elevated when lipid rafts are disrupted and the ternary complex forms in non-raft membranes, indicating that the ternary model accurately represents the system. Moreover, the ternary model predicted that, if Cbp enhances the interaction between c-Src and FAK, Cbp could promote c-Src function when lipid rafts are disrupted. These findings underscore the crucial role of lipid rafts in the Cbp-mediated negative regulation of c-Src-transforming activity, and explain the positive role of Cbp in c-Src regulation under particular conditions where lipid rafts are perturbed. PMID:24675741

  3. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card... request: (1) An extension from the Office of Management and Budget; and (2) to merge the currently approved information collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest...

  4. Effect of titanium on the near eutectic grey iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    The effect of Titanium on the microstructure of grey iron was investigated experimentally in this work. Tensile test bars of grey cast iron of near eutectic alloys containing 0.01, 0.1, 0.26 and 0.35% Ti, respectively were made in green sand moulds. Chemical analysis, metallographic investigation...

  5. Grey scale, the 'crispening effect', and perceptual linearization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belaïd, N.; Martens, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    One way of optimizing a display is to maximize the number of distinguishable grey levels, which in turn is equivalent to perceptually linearizing the display. Perceptual linearization implies that equal steps in grey value evoke equal steps in brightness sensation. The key to perceptual

  6. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ..., California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...: Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project (Madera County, California) lies... vegetation. Currently, vegetation within the Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project has changed from...

  7. Alternative Axiomatic Characterizations of the Grey Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirma Zeynep Alparslan Gok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Shapley value, one of the most common solution concepts of cooperative game theory is defined and axiomatically characterized in different game-theoretic models. Certainly, the Shapley value can be used in interesting sharing cost/reward problems in the Operations Research area such as connection, routing, scheduling, production and inventory situations. In this paper, we focus on the Shapley value for cooperative games, where the set of players is finite and the coalition values are interval grey numbers. The central question in this paper is how to characterize the grey Shapley value. In this context, we present two alternative axiomatic characterizations. First, we characterize the grey Shapley value using the properties of efficiency, symmetry and strong monotonicity. Second, we characterize the grey Shapley value by using the grey dividends.

  8. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  9. Prediction of pipeline corrosion rate based on grey Markov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Peng Guichu; Wang Yuemin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the model that combined by grey model and Markov model, the prediction of corrosion rate of nuclear power pipeline was studied. Works were done to improve the grey model, and the optimization unbiased grey model was obtained. This new model was used to predict the tendency of corrosion rate, and the Markov model was used to predict the residual errors. In order to improve the prediction precision, rolling operation method was used in these prediction processes. The results indicate that the improvement to the grey model is effective and the prediction precision of the new model combined by the optimization unbiased grey model and Markov model is better, and the use of rolling operation method may improve the prediction precision further. (authors)

  10. Limbic grey matter changes in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Xing, Yue; Schwarz, Stefan T; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated. Structural brain networks were obtained using covariance analysis seeded in regions showing grey matter abnormalities in PD subject group. Patients displayed focally reduced grey matter density in the right amygdala, which was present from the earliest stages of the disease without further advance in mild-moderate disease stages. Right amygdala grey matter density showed negative correlation with autonomic dysfunction and positive with cognitive performance in patients, but no significant interrelations were found with anxiety scores. Patients with PD also demonstrated right amygdala structural disconnection with less structural connectivity of the right amygdala with the cerebellum and thalamus but increased covariance with bilateral temporal cortices compared with controls. Age-related grey matter change was also increased in PD preferentially in the limbic system. In conclusion, detailed brain morphometry in a large group of early PD highlights predominant limbic grey matter deficits with stronger age associations compared with controls and associated altered structural connectivity pattern. This provides in vivo evidence for early limbic grey matter pathology and structural network changes that may reflect extranigral disease spread in PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The

  11. Grey literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-12-21

    Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P.; Houlette, C.; Godefroy, O.

    1998-01-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.)

  13. Repozitář a webový portál GreyGuide:Odpověď GreyNet na Deklaraci z Pisy

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide was launched and in early 2014 GreyNet welcomed far reaching developments in its resource management. These developments are in line with the “Pisa Declaration on Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources (May 16, 2014)”. In compliance with this 15-point roadmap, a selection of GreyNet’s web-based content will now migrate to the GreyGuide allowing for seamless browse, search, and retrieval across its collections.

  14. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykyy Ihor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  15. Grey relevant analysis of sodium critical heat flux in annular channel and the establishing of grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Liao Yixiang; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    1999-12-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, grey mutual analysis is done to some parameters influencing sodium CHF. The results of CHF are predicted by using GM (1,1) model. The GM(1,h) model is made up for creating CHF model. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  16. Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, T A; Shalabi, M; Wendland, C; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of grey water treatment in a UASB reactor was investigated. The batch recirculation experiments showed that a maximum total-COD removal of 79% can be obtained in grey-water treatment in the UASB reactor. The continuous operational results of a UASB reactor treating grey water at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 12 and 8 hours at ambient temperature (14-24 degrees C) showed that 31-41% of total COD was removed. These results were significantly higher than that achieved by a septic tank (11-14%), the most common system for grey water pre-treatment, at HRT of 2-3 days. The relatively lower removal of total COD in the UASB reactor was mainly due to a higher amount of colloidal COD in the grey water, as compared to that reported in domestic wastewater. The grey water had a limited amount of nitrogen, which was mainly in particulate form (80-90%). The UASB reactor removed 24-36% and 10-24% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, in the grey water, due to particulate nutrients removal by physical entrapment and sedimentation. The sludge characteristics of the UASB reactor showed that the system had stable performance and the recommended HRT for the reactor is 12 hours.

  17. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress-induced grey matter loss determined by MRI is primarily due to loss of dendrites and their synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mustafa S; Lagopoulos, Jim; Stait-Gardner, Tim; Price, William S; Chohan, Tariq W; Arnold, Jonathon C; Hatton, Sean N; Bennett, Maxwell R

    2013-04-01

    Stress, unaccompanied by signs of post-traumatic stress disorder, is known to decrease grey matter volume (GMV) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus but not the amygdala in humans. We sought to determine if this was the case in stressed mice using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to identify the cellular constituents of the grey matter that quantitatively give rise to such changes. Stressed mice showed grey matter losses of 10 and 15 % in the ACC and hippocampus, respectively but not in the amygdala or the retrosplenial granular area (RSG). Concurrently, no changes in the number or volumes of the somas of neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes were detected. A loss of synaptic spine density of up to 60 % occurred on different-order dendrites in the ACC and hippocampus (CA1) but not in the amygdala or RSG. The loss of spines was accompanied by decreases in cumulative dendritic length of neurons of over 40 % in the ACC and hippocampus (CA1) giving rise to decreases in volume of dendrites of 2.6 mm(3) for the former and 0.6 mm(3) for the latter, with no change in the amygdala or RSG. These values are similar to the MRI-determined loss of GMV following stress of 3.0 and 0.8 mm(3) in ACC and hippocampus, respectively, with no changes in the amygdala or RSG. This quantitative study is the first to relate GMV changes in the cortex measured with MRI to volume changes in cellular constituents of the grey matter.

  19. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H

    2003-10-01

    Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.

  20. Modification of grey scale in computer tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum perception of minute but relevant attenuation differences in CT images often requires display window settings so narrow that a considerable fraction of the image appears completely black or white and consequently without structure. In order to improve the display characteristics two principles of grey scale modification are presented. In one method the pixel contents are displayed unchanged within a selectable attenuation band but moved towards the limits of the band for pixels that are outside it. In the other the grey scale is arranged to a constant number of pixels per grey scale interval. (Auth.)

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Grey Wolf Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.

    2017-12-01

    The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America. They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns, and prey thresholds. These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the program JmpPro12 (SAS Institute, Crary, NC) to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved. I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density.

  2. Tidal Effects on Groundwater in a Very Small Tropical Island: A Study on the Groundwater Resources of Pag-asa Island, Kalayaan Island Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ong

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pag-asa Island, with its very small land area and low relief, has a very limited fresh water supply occurring as a thin freshwater lens. Climate, topography, vegetation, lithology, human abstractions, and tides affect the volume of the freshwater lens. Topographic and hydrogeologic surveys, coupled with a 72-hour groundwater-monitoring program were done to assess the effects of tides on the freshwater lens.Groundwater parameters measured in wells during the monitoring program include variations in water table depths, specific electrical conductivity (SEC, and temperature. Changes in these parameters were then correlated with the observed variations of the tides.The groundwater levels oscillate with the tides at varying amplitudes. The hydraulic properties of the lithologies making up the island's aquifer influence the amplitude of the oscillations. Groundwater level oscillations are least in the reef materials and greatest in the sandy materials where it is nearly simultaneous with the tidal variations. High electrical conductivity values are marked in wells built near the coasts and in sandy materials.The average annual precipitation is approximately 2,020 mm. Based on empirical studies, the estimated sustainable yield for small tropical islands is 6% of the lowest annual rainfall or about 20,300 m3/yr for Pag-asa Island.

  3. Application of entropy measurement technique in grey based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, four control variables are selected current, voltage, gas flow rate and ... Keywords: Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, Grey-Taguchi Method, Entropy ...... of metal inert gas welding on the corrosion and mechanical behaviour of.

  4. Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Physiology and Animal Production, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural ... Predation (47.37%) was the most important cause of nest failure. ... of conservation actions are essential to avoid future extinction of grey parrots.

  5. How to search for and use 'grey literature' in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric

    An ever-growing amount of grey literature is available to nurses, including oral presentations, personal communication, leaflets, newspapers and magazines, unpublished research, internal reports and minutes of meetings. It can be an invaluable research resource.

  6. Invenio: A Modern Digital Library for Grey Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Caffaro, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Grey literature has historically played a key role for researchers in the field of High- Energy Physics (HEP). Consequently CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) as the world’s largest particle physics laboratory has always been facing the challenge of distributing and archiving grey material. Invenio, an open-source repository software, has been developed as part of CERN’s institutional repository strategy to answer these needs. In this document we describe how the particular context of grey literature within the HEP community shaped the development of Invenio. We focus on the strategies that have been established in order to process grey material within the software and we analyse how it is used in a real production environment, the CERN Document Server (CDS).

  7. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge | Eriksson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and ...

  8. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  9. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  10. Brain grey matter volume alterations in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingying; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jing; Kuang, Weihong; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Bi, Feng; Kendrick, Keith M; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-11-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have demonstrated that grey matter abnormalities are involved in the pathophysiology of late-life depression (LLD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis that integrated the reported VBM studies, to determine consistent grey matter alterations in individuals with LLD. A systematic search was conducted to identify VBM studies that compared patients with LLD and healthy controls. We performed a meta-analysis using the effect size signed differential mapping method to quantitatively estimate regional grey matter abnormalities in patients with LLD. We included 9 studies with 11 data sets comprising 292 patients with LLD and 278 healthy controls in our meta-analysis. The pooled and subgroup meta-analyses showed robust grey matter reductions in the right lentiform nucleus extending into the parahippocampus, the hippocampus and the amygdala, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right subcallosal gyrus as well as a grey matter increase in the right lingual gyrus. Meta-regression analyses showed that mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD were not significantly related to grey matter changes. The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the studies included were heterogeneous, and most participants were medicated. The present meta-analysis is, to our knowledge, the first to overcome previous inconsistencies in the VBM studies of LLD and provide robust evidence for grey matter alterations within fronto-striatal-limbic networks, thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of LLD. The mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD did not appear to have a measurable impact on grey matter changes, although we cannot rule out the contributory effects of medication.

  11. The Mitochondrial m-AAA Protease Prevents Demyelination and Hair Greying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaiyu; Jacquemyn, Julie; Murru, Sara; Martinelli, Paola; Barth, Esther; Langer, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M; Rugarli, Elena I

    2016-12-01

    The m-AAA protease preserves proteostasis of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It ensures a functional respiratory chain, by controlling the turnover of respiratory complex subunits and allowing mitochondrial translation, but other functions in mitochondria are conceivable. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the m-AAA protease have been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinocerebellar ataxia. While essential functions of the m-AAA protease for neuronal survival have been established, its role in adult glial cells remains enigmatic. Here, we show that deletion of the highly expressed subunit AFG3L2 in mature mouse oligodendrocytes provokes early-on mitochondrial fragmentation and swelling, as previously shown in neurons, but causes only late-onset motor defects and myelin abnormalities. In contrast, total ablation of the m-AAA protease, by deleting both Afg3l2 and its paralogue Afg3l1, triggers progressive motor dysfunction and demyelination, owing to rapid oligodendrocyte cell death. Surprisingly, the mice showed premature hair greying, caused by progressive loss of melanoblasts that share a common developmental origin with Schwann cells and are targeted in our experiments. Thus, while both neurons and glial cells are dependant on the m-AAA protease for survival in vivo, complete ablation of the complex is necessary to trigger death of oligodendrocytes, hinting to cell-autonomous thresholds of vulnerability to m-AAA protease deficiency.

  12. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of grey matter heterotopia: A case-based reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Lippi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be related to less common underlying neuropsychiatric conditions – in this case report, the condition discussed is that of grey matter heterotopia (GMH. The patient presented with a history of prominent aggression, impulsivity and manipulative and attention-seeking behaviour. Episodes of depression and incidents of deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts had been reported. Neuropsychiatric symptoms included anxiety, a labile mood, delusional thinking and auditory hallucinations. Testing revealed some cognitive difficulties and severe impairment of frontal lobe functions. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of his brain revealed the presence of GMH, which had previously been misdiagnosed as tuberous sclerosis. An MRI scan of the brain is the special investigation of choice for the correct diagnosis of GMH. The pathognomonic finding is that of heterotopic grey matter abnormally located within areas of white matter. Defective foetal neuronal migration between the third and fifth month of pregnancy can lead to GMH, which can present later on in childhood or adolescence with epilepsy, intellectual impairment or reading difficulties. During the late teenage years or early adulthood, a wide variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be present, which can lead to diagnostic difficulties.

  13. A Grey Wolf Optimizer for Modular Granular Neural Networks for Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A grey wolf optimizer for modular neural network (MNN with a granular approach is proposed. The proposed method performs optimal granulation of data and design of modular neural networks architectures to perform human recognition, and to prove its effectiveness benchmark databases of ear, iris, and face biometric measures are used to perform tests and comparisons against other works. The design of a modular granular neural network (MGNN consists in finding optimal parameters of its architecture; these parameters are the number of subgranules, percentage of data for the training phase, learning algorithm, goal error, number of hidden layers, and their number of neurons. Nowadays, there is a great variety of approaches and new techniques within the evolutionary computing area, and these approaches and techniques have emerged to help find optimal solutions to problems or models and bioinspired algorithms are part of this area. In this work a grey wolf optimizer is proposed for the design of modular granular neural networks, and the results are compared against a genetic algorithm and a firefly algorithm in order to know which of these techniques provides better results when applied to human recognition.

  14. GreyGuide Portal and Repositories "Sharing knowledge as early as possible"

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Barsotti, Alessia; Pardini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The GreyGuide - Repository and Guide to Good Practices and Resources in Grey Literature was launched in 2013 as a collaborative effort between GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. It aims at ?. Offering information professionals, practitioners, and students common ground for good practices and resources in grey literature; ?. Providing support for all stakeholders working on Grey Literature related research issues; ?. Being consistent with recommendations made in the Pisa Declaration on Policy...

  15. An EGR performance evaluation and decision-making approach based on grey theory and grey entropy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xianghuan; Yang, Chuanlei; Wang, Hechun; Wang, Yinyan

    2018-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the main methods of reducing NOX emissions and has been widely used in marine diesel engines. This paper proposes an optimized comprehensive assessment method based on multi-objective grey situation decision theory, grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis to evaluate the performance and optimize rate determination of EGR, which currently lack clear theoretical guidance. First, multi-objective grey situation decision theory is used to establish the initial decision-making model according to the main EGR parameters. The optimal compromise between diesel engine combustion and emission performance is transformed into a decision-making target weight problem. After establishing the initial model and considering the characteristics of EGR under different conditions, an optimized target weight algorithm based on grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis is applied to generate the comprehensive evaluation and decision-making model. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a TBD234V12 turbocharged diesel engine, and the results clearly illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method for providing theoretical support and a reference for further EGR optimization.

  16. Grey water characterisation and pollutant loads in an urban slum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katukiza, A. Y.; Ronteltap, M.; Niwagaba, C. B.; Kansiime, F.; Lens, P. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L-1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L-1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L-1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 9 107 cfu (100 mL)-1 and 1.75 9 108 cfu (100 mL)-1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 9 106 cfu (100 mL)-1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, sodium adsorption ratio, oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p/0.05). The high loads of COD ([500 kg day-1), total suspended solids ([200 kg day-1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day-1 and 1.4 kg total phosphorus day-1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c-1 day-1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.

  17. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  18. Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Mirror neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia Vila, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons were recently discovered in frontal brain areas of the monkey. They are activated when the animal makes a specific movement, but also when the animal observes the same movement in another animal. Some of them also respond to the emotional expression of other animals of the same species. These mirror neurons have also been found in humans. They respond to or "reflect" actions of other individuals in the brain and are thought to represent the basis for imitation and empathy and hence the neurobiological substrate for "theory of mind", the potential origin of language and the so-called moral instinct.

  20. Melancthon Grey Wind Project environmental screening report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Canadian Hydro has proposed that the Melancthon and Grey Highlands Townships in Dufferin County, Ontario are ideally suited for the installation of a 240 MW wind farm. Assuming a turbine rating of 1.5 MW each, a total of 160 turbines could be installed. The utility has decided to undertake the project in up to 4 phases. This paper focuses on the construction and operation of a 75 MW wind turbine array (50, 1.5 MW turbines) dispersed over an area of about 3,511 hectares in the Melancthon Township. The total expected cost of the first phase is $130 million, with construction scheduled to begin in April 2005 for an in-service date of no later than March 31, 2006 to meet the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) funding requirements. This environmental screening report (ESR) was completed to help Canadian Hydro fulfill regulatory requirements. It presented the project summary, the estimated capacity of the wind farm, and construction schedule. The environmental setting was also presented along with power line routing. This ESR addressed issues that may impact surface and ground water quality, air quality, soil erosion, environmental noise and disposal of waste materials. Issues affecting migratory birds, agricultural resources, community characteristics, construction related traffic, public health, historical resources and viewscapes were also addressed. The general conclusion of the ESR is that the project can be constructed, operated and decommissioned in such a manner as to minimize potentially adverse effects on the environment while enhancing the positive effects both locally and provincially. Migratory bird deaths due to collision with turbines are expected to be negligible and the effects of breeding bird habitat have been minimized through proposed mitigation measures. Environmental noise levels are expected to be within the applicable noise criteria. There will be no negative effect on property values within the viewshed of the turbines. There are many net

  1. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  2. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-wai Kan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.

  3. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water: particle size effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, G P; Avery, L M; Stephenson, T; Jefferson, B

    2008-02-01

    The impact of water quality on the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water was investigated with reference to urban water reuse. Direct UV disinfection of grey water did not meet the stringent California State Title 22 criteria for unrestricted urban water reuse due to the presence of particulate material ranging from or = 2000 microm in size. Grey water was manipulated by settling to produce fractions of varying particle size distributions and blending was employed post-disinfection to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs). The efficacy of UV disinfection was found to be linked to the particle size of the grey water fractions. The larger particle size fractions with a mean particle size of 262 microm and above were observed to shield more coliforms from UV light than did the smaller particles with a mean particle size below 119 microm. Up to 70% of total coliforms in the larger particle size fractions were particle-associated following a UV dose (fluence) of 260 mJ.cm(-2) and would remain undetected by standard coliform enumeration techniques. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and recommendations made for grey water treatment to ensure removal of particle-associated indicator bacteria and pathogens prior to UV disinfection.

  4. Impacts of Triclosan in Grey water on Soil Microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, D.I; Felker, J.M; Baker, K.H

    2011-01-01

    The use of grey water for irrigation is becoming a common practice in arid regions such as the Southwestern US, the Middle East, Australia, and China. While grey water supplies nutrients to soil ecosystems, the possible impact of trace contaminants, particularly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has not been determined. This paper examined the impact of triclosan, an antibacterial agent commonly added to consumer products, on microbial populations and microbial diversity in soil irrigated with grey water. While there was no change in the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms in the soil, both the types and the antibiotic resistance of the microorganisms were significantly influenced by triclosan. The proportion of the microbial isolates resistant to antibiotics increased while at the same time, overall diversity of the microbial community decreased.

  5. Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana

    2017-10-01

    Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.

  6. Internet trade and threat of the grey area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ćwiąkała-Małys

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has been of great interest to tax, fiscal and customs authorities how trade and services provided over the Internet develop. A long time ago it was stated that the intense development of the Internet contributes to the expansion of the grey area. The grey area’s functioning is very unfavourable to the state economy, because although it creates GDP, it does not directly support the state budget. When considering reduced inflows to the state budget and increases in the deficit, it is reasonable to take any and all actions in order to limit the grey area in each field of social and economic life. Thus, the interest of specialized public authorities in this field should not raise any concerns.

  7. Converter of a continuous code into the Grey code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.I.; TrUbnikov, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a converter of a continuous code into the Grey code used in a 12-charged precision amplitude-to-digital converter to decrease the digital component of spectrometer differential nonlinearity to +0.7% in the 98% range of the measured band. To construct the converter of a continuous code corresponding to the input signal amplitude into the Grey code used is the regularity in recycling of units and zeroes in each discharge of the Grey code in the case of a continuous change of the number of pulses of a continuous code. The converter is constructed on the elements of 155 series, the frequency of continuous code pulse passing at the converter input is 25 MHz

  8. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti

    2016-01-01

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  9. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.dhar@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-15

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  10. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  11. Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimova, A.; Phillips, C. D.; Fietz, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Although the grey seal Halichoerus grypus is one of the most familiar and intensively studied of all pinniped species, its global population structure remains to be elucidated. Little is also known about how the species as a whole may have historically responded to climate-driven changes in habitat...... a little over 10 000 years ago, consistent with the last proposed isolation of the Baltic Sea. Approximate Bayesian computation also identified genetic signals consistent with postglacial population expansion across much of the species range, suggesting that grey seals are highly responsive to changes...

  12. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Hammond, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predatorswhose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some fish stocks or have an adverse effect on stock recovery programmes, especially because predation may trap sparse prey...... populations in a “predator pit”. To assess the likely impact of such effects, it is important to know how consumption and consequent predation mortality respond to the changing availability of prey.Wepresent a model of grey seal consumption as a function of the availability of multiple prey types [a Multi...

  13. Chewing suppresses the stress-induced increase in the number of pERK-immunoreactive cells in the periaqueductal grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Narimatsu, Yuri; Ono, Yumie; Sasaguri, Ken-Ichi; Onozuka, Minoru; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2015-07-10

    We investigated the effects of chewing under immobilization stress on the periaqueductal gray (PAG) matter using phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) as a marker of responding cells. Immobilization stress increased pERK-immunoreactive cells in the PAG. Among four subdivisions of the PAG, the increase of immunoreactive cells was remarkable in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions. However, increase of pERK-immunoreactive cells by the immobilization stress was not so evident in the dorsomedial and lateral subdivisions. The chewing under immobilization stress prevented the stress-induced increase of pERK-immunoreactive cells in the dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions with statistical significances (p<0.05). Again, chewing effects on pERK-immunoreactive cells were not visible in the dorsomedial and lateral subdivisions. These results suggest that the chewing alleviates the PAG (dorsolateral and ventrolateral subdivisions) responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neurons other than motor neurons in motor neuron disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoli, Riccardo; Biagioni, Francesca; Busceti, Carla L; Gaglione, Anderson; Ryskalin, Larisa; Gambardella, Stefano; Frati, Alessandro; Fornai, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically defined by a loss of motor neurons in the central nervous system. Accordingly, morphological analysis for decades considered motor neurons (in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord) as the neuronal population selectively involved in ALS. Similarly, this was considered the pathological marker to score disease severity ex vivo both in patients and experimental models. However, the concept of non-autonomous motor neuron death was used recently to indicate the need for additional cell types to produce motor neuron death in ALS. This means that motor neuron loss occurs only when they are connected with other cell types. This concept originally emphasized the need for resident glia as well as non-resident inflammatory cells. Nowadays, the additional role of neurons other than motor neurons emerged in the scenario to induce non-autonomous motor neuron death. In fact, in ALS neurons diverse from motor neurons are involved. These cells play multiple roles in ALS: (i) they participate in the chain of events to produce motor neuron loss; (ii) they may even degenerate more than and before motor neurons. In the present manuscript evidence about multi-neuronal involvement in ALS patients and experimental models is discussed. Specific sub-classes of neurons in the whole spinal cord are reported either to degenerate or to trigger neuronal degeneration, thus portraying ALS as a whole spinal cord disorder rather than a disease affecting motor neurons solely. This is associated with a novel concept in motor neuron disease which recruits abnormal mechanisms of cell to cell communication.

  15. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  16. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  18. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  19. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

  20. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  1. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  2. A Survey of African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) Trade and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive field based African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) trade and trafficking survey lasting 14 days was undertaken on the request of the Pheasant Conservation Group; International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to determine the existence or non-existence of parrots trapping, ...

  3. Abundance, movements and habitat use by African Grey Parrots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of African Grey Parrots are threatened by increased forest loss and the pet trade. Budongo forest reserve has, for over 60 years, been subjected to selective logging. Mabira forest reserve faces human pressures characterised by extractive disturbances, and agricultural activities with increased boundary ...

  4. Leydig cell tumor in grey zone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muheilan Mustafa Muheilan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Inguinal orchiectomy is the therapeutic decision of choice and long-term follow-up is necessary to exclude recurrence or metastasis. Cases which fall in the grey zone like ours need to be followed up carefully for metastasis instead of rushing into an early retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, with its potential risks and complications.

  5. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...

  6. Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pupping habitat ofd grey seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Groot, de A.V.; Aarts, G.M.; Dijkman, E.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus) started recolonising Dutch coastal haul-outs in the 1950s, after practically 500 years of rarity in the Dutch coastal zone which was caused mainly by human hunting. The first pup-birth was recorded in 1985 at the Wadden Sea sandbank of Engelschhoek.

  8. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  9. The superior colliculus of the camel: a neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and neuropeptide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Brown, E P K; Garey, L J

    2006-01-01

    In this study we examined the superior colliculus of the midbrain of the one-humped (dromedary) camel, Camelus dromedarius, using Nissl staining and anti-neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) immunohistochemistry for total neuronal population as well as for the enkephalins, somatostatin (SOM) and substance P (SP). It was found that, unlike in most mammals, the superior colliculus is much larger than the inferior colliculus. The superior colliculus is concerned with visual reflexes and the co-ordination of head, neck and eye movements, which are certainly of importance to this animal with large eyes, head and neck, and apparently good vision. The basic neuronal architecture and lamination of the superior colliculus are similar to that in other mammals. However, we describe for the first time an unusually large content of neurons in the superior colliculus with strong immunoreactivity for met-enkephalin, an endogenous opioid. We classified the majority of these neurons as small (perimeters of 40–50 µm), and localized diffusely throughout the superficial grey and stratum opticum. In addition, large pyramidal-like neurons with perimeters of 100 µm and above were present in the intermediate grey layer. Large unipolar cells were located immediately dorsal to the deep grey layer. By contrast, small neurons (perimeters of 40–50 µm) immunopositive to SOM and SP were located exclusively in the superficial grey layer. We propose that this system may be associated with a pain-inhibiting pathway that has been described from the periaqueductal grey matter, juxtaposing the deep layers of the superior colliculus, to the lower brainstem and spinal cord. Such pain inhibition could be important in relation to the camel's life in the harsh environment of its native deserts, often living in very high temperatures with no shade and a diet consisting largely of thorny branches. PMID:16441568

  10. OpenSIGLE - Crossroads for Libraries, Research and Educational Institutions in the field of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); Henrot, Nathalie (INIST-CNRS); Schöpfel, Joachim (University of Lille); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2009-01-01

    This poster is based on a paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Grey Literature (GL10) in which GreyNet's collections of conference preprints were made accessible via the OpenSIGLE Repository. OpenSIGLE offers a unique distribution channel for European grey literature with roots dating back a quarter century. The experience of INIST as service provider and GreyNet as data provider will be further discussed including recent developments. The poster closes...

  11. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  12. Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics,

  13. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  14. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  15. Prediction Model of Interval Grey Numbers with a Real Parameter and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey prediction models have become common methods which are widely employed to solve the problems with “small examples and poor information.” However, modeling objects of existing grey prediction models are limited to the homogenous data sequences which only contain the same data type. This paper studies the methodology of building prediction models of interval grey numbers that are grey heterogeneous data sequence, with a real parameter. Firstly, the position of the real parameter in an interval grey number sequence is discussed, and the real number is expanded into an interval grey number by adopting the method of grey generation. On this basis, a prediction model of interval grey number with a real parameter is deduced and built. Finally, this novel model is successfully applied to forecast the concentration of organic pollutant DDT in the atmosphere. The analysis and research results in this paper extend the object of grey prediction from homogenous data sequence to grey heterogeneous data sequence. Those research findings are of positive significance in terms of enriching and improving the theory system of grey prediction models.

  16. Measurements of $K^{0}_{s}$, \\PgL\\ + \\PagL, and $\\Xi^{+}+\\Xi^{-}$ production in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions with CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We present measurements of strange hadron ($K^{0}_{s}$, \\PgL\\ + \\PagL, and $\\Xi^{+} + \\Xi^{-}$) transverse momentum ($p^{}_{T}$) spectra in pp, pPb, and PbPb collisions over a wide range in charge-particle multiplicity and particle rapidity. The data were taken with the CMS detector at the LHC for pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV, and PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV. We find the average transverse kinetic energy ($KE^{}_{T}$) increases with event multiplicity, with a faster rate for heavier particle species. At similar multiplicities, we observe the separation in the $\\left\\langle KE^{}_{T} \\right\\rangle$, which is defined as $\\left\\langle KE^{}_{T} \\right\\rangle = \\left\\langle m_{T}\\right\\rangle - m$, where $m_T = \\sqrt{m^{2} + p_{T}^{2}}$, between different particle species is larger for pp and pPb systems than PbPb system. In pPb collisions, $\\left\\langle KE^{}_{T} \\right\\rangle$ is found to be larger in the Pb-going direction than in the p-goi...

  17. Thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae caught in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bror Jonsson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Two individuals of thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada were collected in a southern Norwegian brook (58° 22’ N, 8° 37’ E on 12th September 2007. The fish were 8.7 and 9.0 cm in total length, 6 and 7 g in total mass, and most probably in their first year of life. The nearest known spawning area of the species is south of the English Channel, meaning that they had probably moved at least 900 km across the North Sea during their first growth season. To our knowledge, this is the first published observation of the catadromous thinlip grey mullet from a Scandinavian freshwater course.

  18. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  19. Shape-based grey-level image interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keh-Shih Chuang; Chun-Yuan Chen; Ching-Kai Yeh

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) object data obtained from a CT scanner usually have unequal sampling frequencies in the x-, y- and z-directions. Generally, the 3D data are first interpolated between slices to obtain isotropic resolution, reconstructed, then operated on using object extraction and display algorithms. The traditional grey-level interpolation introduces a layer of intermediate substance and is not suitable for objects that are very different from the opposite background. The shape-based interpolation method transfers a pixel location to a parameter related to the object shape and the interpolation is performed on that parameter. This process is able to achieve a better interpolation but its application is limited to binary images only. In this paper, we present an improved shape-based interpolation method for grey-level images. The new method uses a polygon to approximate the object shape and performs the interpolation using polygon vertices as references. The binary images representing the shape of the object were first generated via image segmentation on the source images. The target object binary image was then created using regular shape-based interpolation. The polygon enclosing the object for each slice can be generated from the shape of that slice. We determined the relative location in the source slices of each pixel inside the target polygon using the vertices of a polygon as the reference. The target slice grey-level was interpolated from the corresponding source image pixels. The image quality of this interpolation method is better and the mean squared difference is smaller than with traditional grey-level interpolation. (author)

  20. Shape-based interpolation of multidimensional grey-level images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevera, G.J.; Udupa, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Shape-based interpolation as applied to binary images causes the interpolation process to be influenced by the shape of the object. It accomplishes this by first applying a distance transform to the data. This results in the creation of a grey-level data set in which the value at each point represents the minimum distance from that point to the surface of the object. (By convention, points inside the object are assigned positive values; points outside are assigned negative values.) This distance transformed data set is then interpolated using linear or higher-order interpolation and is then thresholded at a distance value of zero to produce the interpolated binary data set. In this paper, the authors describe a new method that extends shape-based interpolation to grey-level input data sets. This generalization consists of first lifting the n-dimensional (n-D) image data to represent it as a surface, or equivalently as a binary image, in an (n + 1)-dimensional [(n + 1)-D] space. The binary shape-based method is then applied to this image to create an (n + 1)-D binary interpolated image. Finally, this image is collapsed (inverse of lifting) to create the n-D interpolated grey-level data set. The authors have conducted several evaluation studies involving patient computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) data as well as mathematical phantoms. They all indicate that the new method produces more accurate results than commonly used grey-level linear interpolation methods, although at the cost of increased computation

  1. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  2. The trajectory prediction of spacecraft by grey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiyue; Wang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Zili; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-01-01

    The real-time and high-precision trajectory prediction of a moving object is a core technology in the field of aerospace engineering. The real-time monitoring and tracking technology are also significant guarantees of aerospace equipment. A dynamic trajectory prediction method called grey dynamic filter (GDF) which combines the dynamic measurement theory and grey system theory is proposed. GDF can use coordinates of the current period to extrapolate coordinates of the following period. At meantime, GDF can also keep the instantaneity of measured coordinates by the metabolism model. In this paper the optimal model length of GDF is firstly selected to improve the prediction accuracy. Then the simulation for uniformly accelerated motion and variably accelerated motion is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the mean composite position error of GDF prediction is one-fifth to that of Kalman filter (KF). By using a spacecraft landing experiment, the prediction accuracy of GDF is compared with the KF method and the primitive grey method (GM). The results show that the motion trajectory of spacecraft predicted by GDF is much closer to actual trajectory than the other two methods. The mean composite position error calculated by GDF is one-eighth to KF and one-fifth to GM respectively. (paper)

  3. Connectivity of Pacemaker Neurons in the Neonatal Rat Superficial Dorsal Horn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Neil C.; Arbabi, Shahriar; Baccei, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Pacemaker neurons with an intrinsic ability to generate rhythmic burst-firing have been characterized in lamina I of the neonatal spinal cord, where they are innervated by high-threshold sensory afferents. However, little is known about the output of these pacemakers, as the neuronal populations which are targeted by pacemaker axons have yet to be identified. The present study combines patch clamp recordings in the intact neonatal rat spinal cord with tract-tracing to demonstrate that lamina I pacemaker neurons contact multiple spinal motor pathways during early life. Retrograde labeling of premotor interneurons with the trans-synaptic virus PRV-152 revealed the presence of burst-firing in PRV-infected lamina I neurons, thereby confirming that pacemakers are synaptically coupled to motor networks in the spinal ventral horn. Notably, two classes of pacemakers could be distinguished in lamina I based on cell size and the pattern of their axonal projections. While small pacemaker neurons possessed ramified axons which contacted ipsilateral motor circuits, large pacemaker neurons had unbranched axons which crossed the midline and ascended rostrally in the contralateral white matter. Recordings from identified spino-parabrachial and spino-PAG neurons indicated the presence of pacemaker activity within neonatal lamina I projection neurons. Overall, these results show that lamina I pacemakers are positioned to regulate both the level of activity in developing motor circuits as well as the ascending flow of nociceptive information to the brain, thus highlighting a potential role for pacemaker activity in the maturation of pain and sensorimotor networks in the CNS. PMID:25380417

  4. Transcriptome analysis of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Yao-Chung; Barnes, Andrew C; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is an economically important fish species in Taiwan mariculture industry. Moreover, grey mullet are common hosts of a bacterial infection by Lactococcus garvieae. However, until now the information related to the immune system of grey mullet is unclear. Therefore, to understand the molecular basis underlying the host immune response to L. garvieae infection, Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 was used to analyse the head kidney and spleen transcriptome of infected grey mullet. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 55,203 unigenes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles between bacterial challenge fish and control fish identified a total of 7192 from head kidney and 7280 in spleen differentially expressed genes (P grey mullet to Lactococcus garvieae, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in grey mullet. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  6. Rethinking the Role of Grey Literature in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Dobrica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential impact of the emerging Fourth Industrial Revolution on grey literature and the challenges it will bring to the information management profession. Based on analysis of the most prevalent current trends and developments, it appears we will need to rethink the defi nition of grey literature, its creation and types, processing, storage, sustainability and usability. Information professionals, including the grey literature ones, will require training and new knowl...

  7. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  8. Departures from radiative equilibrium in stellar atmospheres grey absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss some of the consequences of departures from radiative equilibrium in stellar atmospheres. Using a discrete ordinates method we solve the radiative transfer equation in a grey atmosphere subjected to a specified distribution of mechanical heating, and determine the resulting temperature changes in LTE and non LTE conditions. We show how radiative transfer leads to temperature changes in regions that are not directly heated, and how non LTE effects lead to an amplification of the temperature rise produced by a given distribution of heating. An attempt is made to resolve a controversy surrounding the estimation of excess radiative losses in the solar chromosphere. (orig.) [de

  9. A TEM Study on the Ti-Alloyed Grey Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of graphite flakes in titanium alloyed cast iron is studied using electron microscopy techniques. Dual beam SEM/FIB has been used for TEM sample preparation. A TEM study has been carried out on graphite flakes in grey cast iron using selected area electron diffraction. Based...... and that there is a high proportion of twins in the fine grained graphite. It appears that twinning and stacking faults are involved in the fine grained structure of the graphite. It is discussed how Ti addition affect crystal growth and may lead to formation of superfine graphite....

  10. HYPOCALCEMIC SYNDROME IN AFRICAN GREY PARROT (PSITTACUS ERITHACUS ERITHACUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Filipović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus was presented to the Surgery Clinic of Veterinary Faculty of the University of Sarajevo. The presenting complaint was several seizures observed two days ago. The bird was kept indoors without any other bird species, and fed whole-seed diet with no vitamin and mineral supplementation. Blood biochemistry analysis revealed hypocalcemia. The treatment consisted of oral administration of calcium and vitamins A and D. The applied therapy resulted in very fast positive response and prevented recurrence of seizures.

  11. Ressenya a Grifoll, Isabel, Julián Acebrón, Flocel Sabaté (eds. (2014: Cartografies de l’ànima. Identitat, memòria i escriptura, Lleida, Pagès Editors, 2014, 248 pàgs. ISBN:978-84-9975-517-5; i Acebrón, Julián, Isabel Grifoll, Flocel Sabaté (eds. (2015: La Construcció d’identitats imaginades. Literatura medieval i ideologia, Lleida, Pagès Editors, 2015, 320 pàgs. ISBN:978-84-9975-704-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Martines

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Review to Grifoll, Isabel, Julián Acebrón, Flocel Sabaté (eds. (2014: Cartografies de l’ànima. Identitat, memòria i escriptura, Lleida, Pagès Editors, 2014, 248 pàgs. ISBN:978-84-9975-517-5; and Acebrón, Julián, Isabel Grifoll, Flocel Sabaté (eds. (2015: La Construcció d’identitats imaginades. Literatura medieval i ideologia, Lleida, Pagès Editors, 2015, 320 pàgs. ISBN:978-84-9975-704-9

  12. A prediction method based on grey system theory in equipment condition based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shengyuan; Yan, Shengyuan; Zhang, Hongguo; Zhang, Zhijian; Peng, Minjun; Yang, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Grey prediction is a modeling method based on historical or present, known or indefinite information, which can be used for forecasting the development of the eigenvalues of the targeted equipment system and setting up the model by using less information. In this paper, the postulate of grey system theory, which includes the grey generating, the sorts of grey generating and the grey forecasting model, is introduced first. The concrete application process, which includes the grey prediction modeling, grey prediction, error calculation, equal dimension and new information approach, is introduced secondly. Application of a so-called 'Equal Dimension and New Information' (EDNI) technology in grey system theory is adopted in an application case, aiming at improving the accuracy of prediction without increasing the amount of calculation by replacing old data with new ones. The proposed method can provide a new way for solving the problem of eigenvalue data exploding in equal distance effectively, short time interval and real time prediction. The proposed method, which was based on historical or present, known or indefinite information, was verified by the vibration prediction of induced draft fan of a boiler of the Yantai Power Station in China, and the results show that the proposed method based on grey system theory is simple and provides a high accuracy in prediction. So, it is very useful and significant to the controlling and controllable management in safety production. (authors)

  13. Greying of the human hair: a worldwide survey, revisiting the '50' rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhard, S; Lozano, I; Loussouarn, G

    2012-10-01

    While numerous papers have reported on the biological mechanisms of human hair pigmentation and greying, epidemiological descriptions of both natural hair colour and the greying process, worldwide, remain scarce. To assess hair colour and greying in a large world sample of human subjects, and to revisit the validity of the 50/50/50 rule of thumb, which states that 'at age 50 years, 50% of the population has at least 50% grey hair'. The natural hair colour of 4192 healthy male and female volunteers was assessed using a sensorial expert evaluation through the comparison of each volunteer's hair with standard swatches. Hair colour was studied according to age, gender and ethnic or geographical origin. Overall we observed that between 45 and 65 years of age, 74% of people were affected by grey hair with a mean intensity of 27%. Men harboured significantly more grey hair than women. Both age at onset and rate of greying with age appeared to be clearly linked to ethnic/geographical origin. Subjects of Asian and African descent showed less grey hair than those of caucasian origin, at comparable ages, confirming previously reported data. Calculating the percentage of people showing at least 50% grey hair coverage at age 50 years leads to a global range of 6-23%, according to ethnic/geographical origin and natural hair colour: well below that expressed by the '50' rule of thumb. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Research on wind field algorithm of wind lidar based on BP neural network and grey prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Chun-Li; Luo, Xiong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ze-hou; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Xiao-ding; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the BP neural network and grey algorithm to forecast and study radar wind field. In order to reduce the residual error in the wind field prediction which uses BP neural network and grey algorithm, calculating the minimum value of residual error function, adopting the residuals of the gray algorithm trained by BP neural network, using the trained network model to forecast the residual sequence, using the predicted residual error sequence to modify the forecast sequence of the grey algorithm. The test data show that using the grey algorithm modified by BP neural network can effectively reduce the residual value and improve the prediction precision.

  15. Structural and functional connectivity underlying grey matter covariance: impact of developmental insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2018-05-15

    Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis. The effects of childhood maltreatment and age on average grey matter density and the expression of each SCN were calculated. Childhood maltreatment was linked to age-related decreases in grey matter density across a SCN that overlapped with the default mode and fronto-parietal networks. Resting state functional connectivity and structural connectivity were calculated in the study-specific SCN and across the whole brain. Grey matter covariance was significantly correlated with rsFC across the SCN, and rsFC fully mediated the relationship between grey matter covariance and structural connectivity in the non-maltreated group. A unique association of grey matter covariance with structural connectivity was detected amongst individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. Perturbation of grey matter development across the default mode and fronto-parietal networks following childhood maltreatment may have significant implications for mental well-being, given the networks' roles in self-referential activity. Cross-modal comparisons suggest reduced grey matter following childhood maltreatment could arise from deficient functional activity earlier in life.

  16. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  17. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  18. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  19. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO, which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO, the differential evolution (DE, the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC, and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  20. A 3-D radiation model for non-grey gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Nevin; Doner, Nimeti

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) coupled with spectral line-based weighted sum of grey gases (SLW) model for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media for use in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on the same approach was developed. The code was applied to three test problems: two containing isothermal homogenous/non-homogenous water vapor and one non-isothermal water vapor/carbon dioxide mixture. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by benchmarking its steady-state predictions against accurate results, calculated by ray tracing method with statistical narrow band model, available in the literature. Comparative testing with solutions of other methods is also provided. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with SLW model provides accurate solutions for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with CFD codes based on MOL

  1. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work In The Brain Order Publications ... birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In ...

  2. Motor Neuron Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ... and other neurodegenerative diseases to better understand the function of neurons and other support cells and identify candidate therapeutic ...

  3. OpenSIGLE, Home to GreyNet's Research Community and its Grey Literature Collections: Initial Results and a Project Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Farace , Dominic ,; Frantzen , Jerry; Stock , Christiane; Henrot , Nathalie; Schöpfel , Joachim

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In 1980, some major European scientific information centres established the “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE) to provide access to European grey literature and to improve bibliographic coverage. August 23, 2006, the Luxemburg Register of Commerce and Societies published the liquidation of the association EAGLE that produced the SIGLE database until 2005. Nevertheless, the former EAGLE member consented to preserve the European co-operation fo...

  4. A Whiter Shade of Grey: A new approach to archaeological grey literature using the XML version of the TEI Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Falkingham

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has arisen through the author's interest in two contemporary issues within archaeology: the production and dissemination of grey literature and the potential of XML. Grey literature is examined, with specific reference to unpublished reports literature produced in the present climate of developer-funded archaeology in England. There are concerns about the accessibility of this literature, both from within and beyond the archaeological profession. The vast majority of reports are word-processed and then printed in hard-copy format for limited distribution. The original, digital document however, has largely been seen as a by-product. Awareness of the importance of these digital reports, and their preservation must be raised. Electronic means of delivery and dissemination via the World Wide Web offer huge potential and present opportunities for new ways of working. Archaeology is not alone in seeking to promote the accessibility of grey literature; indeed there are many disciplines that have created online initiatives aiming to do just this, utilising a variety of means and a range of electronic file formats. The use of XML technology appears to offer many advantages over traditional formats, such as word-processed, PDF and even (XHTML files, particularly with regard to the manipulation and presentation of encoded electronic text. Increasingly, XML technology is being used for electronic delivery and dissemination and the pros and cons of so doing are discussed in this article. This theme has been developed by the author through a 'proof of concept' practical case study of three unpublished grey literature archaeology reports from the North Yorkshire Historic Environment Record. XML documents have been created from the original word-processed electronic reports by the manual application of XML markup, the methodology for which was devised following the XML version of the Text Encoding Initiative's TEI P4 Guidelines. The level of

  5. A modified discrete algebraic reconstruction technique for multiple grey image reconstruction for limited angle range tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiting; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiangyu; Li, Fahu; Guo, Pengfei; Tian, Yangchao

    2016-03-01

    The `missing wedge', which is due to a restricted rotation range, is a major challenge for quantitative analysis of an object using tomography. With prior knowledge of the grey levels, the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) is able to reconstruct objects accurately with projections in a limited angle range. However, the quality of the reconstructions declines as the number of grey levels increases. In this paper, a modified DART (MDART) was proposed, in which each independent region of homogeneous material was chosen as a research object, instead of the grey values. The grey values of each discrete region were estimated according to the solution of the linear projection equations. The iterative process of boundary pixels updating and correcting the grey values of each region was executed alternately. Simulation experiments of binary phantoms as well as multiple grey phantoms show that MDART is capable of achieving high-quality reconstructions with projections in a limited angle range. The interesting advancement of MDART is that neither prior knowledge of the grey values nor the number of grey levels is necessary.

  6. Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.

    2010-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are

  7. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  8. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, D.; Gebrekirstos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture (“rainbow water”) is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by

  9. Prediction of sodium critical heat flux (CHF) in annular channel using grey systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    2001-01-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, the grey mutual analysis of some parameters influencing sodium CHF is carried out, and the CHF values are predicted by GM(1, 1) model. The GM(1, h) model is established for CHF prediction, and the predicted CHF values are good agreement with the experimental data

  10. Application of grey system theory to construction control for prestressed concrete continuous bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Lu, Zhean; Wang, Juanjuan

    2006-01-01

    Text in Chinese. - This paper discussed the application of the grey system theory for the construction control of bridges on the background of the construction of Fuhe Bridge in Huangpi county, Hubei province. The GM( 1,1) model was the most representative and widely applied grey prognosticate model

  11. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  12. A model for planning the chemical integrated system under uncertainty by the grey programming approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2013-01-01

    demand, and the production capacity have been considered as mutative variables, then an improved model in which some parameters are not constant has been developed and a new method to solve the grey linear programming has been proposed. In the grey programming model, the value of credibility can...

  13. Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    review the analysis of the GPC method with emphasis on efficiently producing speckle-free two-dimensional grey-level light Patterns. Numerical simulations are applied to construct 8-bit grey-level optical potential landscapes with high fidelity and optical throughput via the GPC method. Three types...

  14. Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey......-box approach. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Analysis of grey-water used for irrigating vegetables and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of grey-water used for irrigating vegetables and possible effects on soils in the ... The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals found in the grey-water ... in order to lower the salt content and to improve the irrigation water quality.

  16. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  17. Forecasting Performance of Grey Prediction for Education Expenditure and School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) rolling models derived from grey system theory were estimated using time-series data from projection studies by National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). An out-of-sample forecasting competition between the two grey prediction models and exponential smoothing used by NCES was conducted for education expenditure and…

  18. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  19. Subcortical grey matter changes in untreated, early stage Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Kim, Min-Jik; Jang, Ji-Wan; Suh, Sang-Il; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Previous MRI studies have investigated cortical or subcortical grey matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yielding inconsistent findings between the studies. We therefore sought to determine whether focal cortical or subcortical grey matter changes may be present from the early disease stage. We recruited 49 untreated, early stage PD patients without dementia and 53 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical grey matter structures, respectively. Voxel-based morphometry showed neither reductions nor increases in grey matter volume in patients compared to controls. Compared to controls, PD patients had significant reductions in adjusted volumes of putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus (corrected p grey matter and clinical variables representing disease duration and severity. Our results suggest that untreated, early stage PD without dementia is associated with volume reduction and shape deformation of subcortical grey matter, but not with cortical grey matter reduction. Our findings of structural changes in the posterolateral putamen and ventromedial putamen/nucleus accumbens could provide neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of motor and limbic striatum, further implicating motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, respectively. Early hippocampal involvement might be related to the risk for developing dementia in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.

  1. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  2. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  3. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  4. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  5. An EPQ model with imperfect items using interval grey numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Aydemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic economic production quantity (EPQ model has been widely used to determine the optimal production quantity. However, the analysis for finding an EPQ model has many weaknesses which lead many researchers and practitioners to make extensions in several aspects on the original EPQ model. The basic assumption of EPQ model is that 100% of manufactured products are non-defective that is not valid for many production processes generally. The purpose of this paper is to develop an EPQ model with grey demand rate and cost values with maximum backorder level allowed with the good quality items in units under an imperfect production process. The imperfect items are considered to be low quality items which are sold to a particular purchaser at a lower price and, the others are reworked and scrapped. A mathematical model is developed and then an industrial example is presented on the wooden chipboard production process for illustration of the proposed model.

  6. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; Caldwell, Pat; Braun, Uwe; Harrington, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 & ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA gene, elongation factor 1-alpha, histone H3, actin and calmodulin gene regions suggest that Groups I and II are two distinct species. Furthermore, Cercospora zeae-maydis (Group I) can be distinguished from C. zeina sp. nov. (Group II) by its faster growth rate on artificial media, the ability to produce cercosporin, longer conidiophores, and broadly fusiform conidia. A PCR-based test that distinguishes the two species was developed using species-specific primers designed from the histone H3 gene.

  7. Selecting an optimal mixed products using grey relationship model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated supplier selection and inventory management using grey relationship model (GRM as well as multi-objective decision making process. The proposed model of this paper first ranks different suppliers based on GRM technique and then determines the optimum level of inventory by considering different objectives. To show the implementation of the proposed model, we use some benchmark data presented by Talluri and Baker [Talluri, S., & Baker, R. C. (2002. A multi-phase mathematical programming approach for effective supply chain design. European Journal of Operational Research, 141(3, 544-558.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper is capable of handling different criteria for supplier selection.

  8. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  9. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  10. Parameter Estimation in Stochastic Grey-Box Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and flexible parameter estimation scheme for grey-box models in the sense of discretely, partially observed Ito stochastic differential equations with measurement noise is presented along with a corresponding software implementation. The estimation scheme is based on the extended...... Kalman filter and features maximum likelihood as well as maximum a posteriori estimation on multiple independent data sets, including irregularly sampled data sets and data sets with occasional outliers and missing observations. The software implementation is compared to an existing software tool...... and proves to have better performance both in terms of quality of estimates for nonlinear systems with significant diffusion and in terms of reproducibility. In particular, the new tool provides more accurate and more consistent estimates of the parameters of the diffusion term....

  11. Nonrelativistic grey Sn-transport radiative-shock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J. M.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present semi-analytic radiative-shock solutions in which grey Sn-transport is used to model the radiation, and we include both constant cross sections and cross sections that depend on temperature and density. These new solutions solve for a variable Eddington factor (VEF) across the shock domain, which allows for interesting physics not seen before in radiative-shock solutions. Comparisons are made with the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions of Lowrie and Edwards [1], which assumed that the Eddington factor is constant across the shock domain. It is our experience that the local Mach number is monotonic when producing nonequilibrium-diffusion solutions, but that this monotonicity may disappear while integrating the precursor region to produce Sn-transport solutions. For temperature- and density-dependent cross sections we show evidence of a spike in the VEF in the far upstream portion of the radiative-shock precursor. We show evidence of an adaptation zone in the precursor region, adjacent to the embedded hydrodynamic shock, as conjectured by Drake [2, 3], and also confirm his expectation that the precursor temperatures adjacent to the Zel’dovich spike take values that are greater than the downstream post-shock equilibrium temperature. We also show evidence that the radiation energy density can be nonmonotonic under the Zel’dovich spike, which is indicative of anti-diffusive radiation flow as predicted by McClarren and Drake [4]. We compare the angle dependence of the radiation flow for the Sn-transport and nonequilibriumdiffusion radiation solutions, and show that there are considerable differences in the radiation flow between these models across the shock structure. Lastly, we analyze the radiation flow to understand the cause of the adaptation zone, as well as the structure of the Sn-transport radiation-intensity solutions across the shock structure.

  12. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  13. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  14. Public health interventions and behaviour change: reviewing the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, H; Hardiker, N R; McGrath, M; McQuarrie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study identified and reviewed grey literature relating to factors facilitating and inhibiting effective interventions in three areas: the promotion of mental health and well-being, the improvement of food and nutrition, and interventions seeking to increase engagement in physical activity. Sourcing, reviewing and analysis of relevant grey literature. Evidence was collected from a variety of non-traditional sources. Thirty-six pieces of documentary evidence across the three areas were selected for in-depth appraisal and review. A variety of approaches, often short-term, were used both as interventions and outcome measures. Interventions tended to have common outcomes, enabling the identification of themes. These included improvements in participant well-being as well as identification of barriers to, and promoters of, success. Most interventions demonstrated some positive impact, although some did not. This was particularly the case for more objective measures of change, such as physiological measurements, particularly when used to evaluate short-term interventions. Objective health measurement as part of an intervention may act as a catalyst for future behaviour change. Time is an important factor that could either promote or impede the success of interventions for both participants and facilitators. Likewise, the importance of involving all stakeholders, including participants, when planning health promoting interventions was established as an important indicator of success. Despite its limited scope, this review suggests that interventions can be more efficient and effective. For example, larger-scale, longer-term interventions could be more efficient, whilst outcomes relating to the implementation and beyond could provide a clearer picture of effectiveness. Additionally, interventions and evaluations must be flexible, evolve in partnership with local communities, and reflect local need and context. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health

  15. Anti-wear additive content in fully synthetic PAO and PAG base oils and its effect on electrostatic and tribological phenomena in a rotating shaft-oil-lip seal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Juliusz B.; Głogowski, Marek J.

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents the results of experiments on electrostatic and tribological aspects of different anti-wear additive's contents when an additive is blended with different fully synthetic (poly-α-olefin) and PAG (polyalkylene glycol) base oils in a rotating shaft-oil and oil-lip seal interfacial system. The experimental results are the relationships of electric potential induced in a lip seal's stiffening ring to angular velocity of a rotating metal shaft and to temperature of the oils tested. The braking torque of a shaft is measured with a torquemeter sensor connected directly with a microprocessor-based system for controlling the rotational speed and for measuring the shaft's braking torque and oil temperature. The beneficial and promising results are obtained for PAG when an external DC electric field is applied to the system and the braking torque is then reduced for a certain combination of the base oil and additive's contents. On the basis of the former and present research results an analysis is made to permit one to show how the type of the oils and additives tested can affect both interfaces: rotating shaft-oil and oil-lip of the lip seal and especially the braking torque.

  16. Grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, S; McDonald, S; Clarke, M; Egger, M

    2007-04-18

    The inclusion of grey literature (i.e. literature that has not been formally published) in systematic reviews may help to overcome some of the problems of publication bias, which can arise due to the selective availability of data. To review systematically research studies, which have investigated the impact of grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to 20 May 2005), the Science Citation Index (June 2005) and contacted researchers who may have carried out relevant studies. A study was considered eligible for this review if it compared the effect of the inclusion and exclusion of grey literature on the results of a cohort of meta-analyses of randomized trials. Data were extracted from each report independently by two reviewers. The main outcome measure was an estimate of the impact of trials from the grey literature on the pooled effect estimates of the meta-analyses. Information was also collected on the area of health care, the number of meta-analyses, the number of trials, the number of trial participants, the year of publication of the trials, the language and country of publication of the trials, the number and type of grey and published literature, and methodological quality. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. All five studies showed that published trials showed an overall greater treatment effect than grey trials. This difference was statistically significant in one of the five studies. Data could be combined for three of the five studies. This showed that, on average, published trials showed a 9% greater treatment effect than grey trials (ratio of odds ratios for grey versus published trials 1.09; 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Overall there were more published trials included in the meta-analyses than grey trials (median 224 (IQR 108-365) versus 45(IQR 40-102)). Published trials had more participants on average. The most

  17. Developmental Patterns of Doublecortin Expression and White Matter Neuron Density in the Postnatal Primate Prefrontal Cortex and Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Samantha J.; Joshi, Dipesh; Allen, Katherine M.; Sivagnanasundaram, Sinthuja; Rothmond, Debora A.; Saunders, Richard; Noble, Pamela L.; Webster, Maree J.; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque) and density of white matter neurons (humans) during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37) and matched controls (n = 37) and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in schizophrenia. PMID

  18. Developmental patterns of doublecortin expression and white matter neuron density in the postnatal primate prefrontal cortex and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Fung

    Full Text Available Postnatal neurogenesis occurs in the subventricular zone and dentate gyrus, and evidence suggests that new neurons may be present in additional regions of the mature primate brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Addition of new neurons to the PFC implies local generation of neurons or migration from areas such as the subventricular zone. We examined the putative contribution of new, migrating neurons to postnatal cortical development by determining the density of neurons in white matter subjacent to the cortex and measuring expression of doublecortin (DCX, a microtubule-associated protein involved in neuronal migration, in humans and rhesus macaques. We found a striking decline in DCX expression (human and macaque and density of white matter neurons (humans during infancy, consistent with the arrival of new neurons in the early postnatal cortex. Considering the expansion of the brain during this time, the decline in white matter neuron density does not necessarily indicate reduced total numbers of white matter neurons in early postnatal life. Furthermore, numerous cells in the white matter and deep grey matter were positive for the migration-associated glycoprotein polysialiated-neuronal cell adhesion molecule and GAD65/67, suggesting that immature migrating neurons in the adult may be GABAergic. We also examined DCX mRNA in the PFC of adult schizophrenia patients (n = 37 and matched controls (n = 37 and did not find any difference in DCX mRNA expression. However, we report a negative correlation between DCX mRNA expression and white matter neuron density in adult schizophrenia patients, in contrast to a positive correlation in human development where DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density are higher earlier in life. Accumulation of neurons in the white matter in schizophrenia would be congruent with a negative correlation between DCX mRNA and white matter neuron density and support the hypothesis of a migration deficit in

  19. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2012-03-15

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Grey matter alterations in patients with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Roa-Sanchez, Pedro; Speckter, Herwin; Fermin-Delgado, Rafael; Perez-Then, Eddy; Oviedo, Jairo; Stoeter, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare heritable disease marked by dystonia and loss of movement control. In contrast to the well-known "Eye-of-the-Tiger" sign affecting the globus pallidus, little is known about other deviations of brain morphology, especially about grey matter changes. We investigated 29 patients with PKAN and 29 age-matched healthy controls using Magnet Resonance Imaging and Voxel-Based Morphometry. As compared to controls, children with PKAN showed increased grey matter density in the putamen and nucleus caudatus and adults with PKAN showed increased grey matter density in the ventral part of the anterior cingulate cortex. A multiple regression analysis with dystonia score as predictor showed grey matter reduction in the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal lobule, pars triangularis and small frontal and temporal areas and an analysis with age as predictor showed grey matter decreases in the putamen, nucleus caudatus, supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate cortex. The grey matter increases may be regarded as a secondary phenomenon compensating the increased activity of the motor system due to a reduced inhibitory output of the globus pallidus. With increasing age, the grey matter reduction of cortical midline structures however might contribute to the progression of dystonic symptoms due to loss of this compensatory control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. State-of-the-evidence reviews: advantages and challenges of including grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen M; Premji, Shahirose; Hayden, K Alix; Serrett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, health policy decision-makers and professionals are turning to research-based evidence to support decisions about policy and practice. Systematic reviews are useful for gathering, summarizing, and synthesizing published and unpublished research about clearly defined interventions. State-of-the-evidence reviews are broader than traditional systematic reviews and may include not only published and unpublished research, but also published and unpublished non-research literature. Decisions about whether to include this "grey literature" in a review are challenging and lead to many questions about whether the advantages outweigh the challenges. The primary purpose of this article is to describe what constitutes grey literature, and methods to locate it and assess its quality. The secondary purpose is to discuss the core issues to consider when making decisions to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review. A recent state-of-the-evidence review is used as an exemplar to present advantages and challenges related to including grey literature in a review. Despite the challenges, in the exemplar, inclusion of grey literature was useful to validate the results of a research-based literature search. Decisions about whether to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review are complex. A checklist to assist in decision-making was created as a tool to assist the researcher in determining whether it is advantageous to include grey literature in a review.

  2. Does the inclusion of grey literature influence estimates of intervention effectiveness reported in meta-analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, L; Pham, B; Tugwell, P; Moher, D

    2000-10-07

    The inclusion of only a subset of all available evidence in a meta-analysis may introduce biases and threaten its validity; this is particularly likely if the subset of included studies differ from those not included, which may be the case for published and grey literature (unpublished studies, with limited distribution). We set out to examine whether exclusion of grey literature, compared with its inclusion in meta-analysis, provides different estimates of the effectiveness of interventions assessed in randomised trials. From a random sample of 135 meta-analyses, we identified and retrieved 33 publications that included both grey and published primary studies. The 33 publications contributed 41 separate meta-analyses from several disease areas. General characteristics of the meta-analyses and associated studies and outcome data at the trial level were collected. We explored the effects of the inclusion of grey literature on the quantitative results using logistic-regression analyses. 33% of the meta-analyses were found to include some form of grey literature. The grey literature, when included, accounts for between 4.5% and 75% of the studies in a meta-analysis. On average, published work, compared with grey literature, yielded significantly larger estimates of the intervention effect by 15% (ratio of odds ratios=1.15 [95% CI 1.04-1.28]). Excluding abstracts from the analysis further compounded the exaggeration (1.33 [1.10-1.60]). The exclusion of grey literature from meta-analyses can lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effectiveness. In general, meta-analysts should attempt to identify, retrieve, and include all reports, grey and published, that meet predefined inclusion criteria.

  3. Study on grey theoretical model of passive residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Yang Ruichang; Su, G.H.; Jia Dounan; Sugiyama, K.

    2004-01-01

    Natural Circulation Passive Residual Heat Removal System is treated as a Grey System by taking into account of its complexity and uncertainty of effect for factors each other. The magnitude and degree of some factors are confirmed by grey incidence analysis method; The one-one relationship of some variables is built by GM (1, 1) model; The relationship between key factor and other effect factors is built (1, 4) model. Grey model shows its more advantage of precision through comparing with multivariate model. (author)

  4. International Conference on Grey Systems and intelligent Services (IEEE GSIS 2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sifeng; Advances in Grey Systems Research

    2010-01-01

    This book contains contributions by some of the leading researchers in the area of grey systems theory and applications. All the papers included in this volume are selected from the contributions physically presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, November 11 – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This event was jointly sponsored by IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, Natural Science Foundation of China, and Grey Systems Society of China. Additionally, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics also invested heavily in this event with its direct and indirect financial and administrative supports.

  5. Nondestructive testing of hardness of grey iron casts by upper harmonics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, R.E.; Ivanenko, T.G.; Kuznetsky, S.S.; Mutovin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The relation between microstructure of grey iron and his surface hardness on the one hand and magnetic characteristics on the other hand has been investigated on toroidal samples. It is shown that surface hardness of grey iron and parameter a in Froelich formula are dependent linearly on the total surface of graphite inclusions. The conclusion was made that the testing of the grey iron hardness better to make by using the phase of the upper harmonics of the output signal of the overlain transducer. The coefficient of the linear correlation between readings corresponding device and the hardness is 0.86. (orig.)

  6. Non-Grey Radiation Modeling using Thermal Desktop/Sindaworks TFAWS06-1009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Paine, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the non-grey radiation modeling capabilities of Cullimore and Ring's Thermal Desktop(Registered TradeMark) Version 4.8 SindaWorks software. The non-grey radiation analysis theory implemented by Sindaworks and the methodology used by the software are outlined. Representative results from a parametric trade study of a radiation shield comprised of a series of v-grooved shaped deployable panels is used to illustrate the capabilities of the SindaWorks non-grey radiation thermal analysis software using emissivities with temperature and wavelength dependency modeled via a Hagen-Rubens relationship.

  7. Prediction on corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system based on optimized grey theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Jiang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, the pre- diction error from the grey theory is greater, so a new method, optimized grey theory was presented in the paper. A comparison among predicted results from present and other methods was carried out, and it is seem that optimized grey theory is correct and effective for the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, and it provides a fundamental basis for the maintenance of pipe in nuclear power system. (authors)

  8. A Decision-Making Method with Grey Multi-Source Heterogeneous Data and Its Application in Green Supplier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yaoguo; Mao, Wenxin

    2018-01-01

    In view of the multi-attribute decision-making problem that the attribute values are grey multi-source heterogeneous data, a decision-making method based on kernel and greyness degree is proposed. The definitions of kernel and greyness degree of an extended grey number in a grey multi-source heterogeneous data sequence are given. On this basis, we construct the kernel vector and greyness degree vector of the sequence to whiten the multi-source heterogeneous information, then a grey relational bi-directional projection ranking method is presented. Considering the multi-attribute multi-level decision structure and the causalities between attributes in decision-making problem, the HG-DEMATEL method is proposed to determine the hierarchical attribute weights. A green supplier selection example is provided to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method. PMID:29510521

  9. A Decision-Making Method with Grey Multi-Source Heterogeneous Data and Its Application in Green Supplier Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Dang, Yaoguo; Mao, Wenxin

    2018-03-03

    In view of the multi-attribute decision-making problem that the attribute values are grey multi-source heterogeneous data, a decision-making method based on kernel and greyness degree is proposed. The definitions of kernel and greyness degree of an extended grey number in a grey multi-source heterogeneous data sequence are given. On this basis, we construct the kernel vector and greyness degree vector of the sequence to whiten the multi-source heterogeneous information, then a grey relational bi-directional projection ranking method is presented. Considering the multi-attribute multi-level decision structure and the causalities between attributes in decision-making problem, the HG-DEMATEL method is proposed to determine the hierarchical attribute weights. A green supplier selection example is provided to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method.

  10. [Adaptation and validation of the SMP-T2D questionnaire in Spanish for evaluating self-management of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes: PAG-DT2+HTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván Flores, G M; Gallegos Carrillo, K; Palomo Piñon, S; Sánchez García, S; Cuadros Moreno, J; Martínez Olivares, M V; Cuevas Cancino, J J; Grijalva, I; Sánchez Arenas, R

    High blood pressure is one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide. It affects one in every 3 adults over 40, while one in 10 suffers from diabetes. For both diseases, adherence to pharmacological treatment is over 30%, and self-management, which takes into account diet and physical activity, is still unknown, as there is no tool available to measure self-management. Therefore, the object of this study was to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the self-management profile for type 2 diabetes (SMP-T2D) questionnaire in patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure among users of first level care in the social security institution of Mexico. The SMP-T2D was adapted to Spanish by translation into Spanish, and being used only in patients with high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes-hypertension. A convergent and discriminatory validation was performed. Patients over 50 years old with high blood pressure were include. Those that did not complete the questionnaire or give informed consent were rejected. The Spanish version of the SMP-T2D was called PAG-DT2+HTA, and was applied to 145 people with hypertension: 54.4% with hypertension only, and 43.6% with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Mean age was 66.14 years (SD=10.78), with 34.7% women and 65.3% men. Internal consistency by α-Cronbach for the questionnaire was 0.561 (P=.000). The correlation between the PAG-DT2+HTA and Morisky-Green was significant. The ability to discriminate between people with and without education and with and without economic means was obtained. The Spanish version of SMP-T2D (PAG-DT2+HTA) that measures self-management in type 2 diabetes, can be used to measure self-management in people with type 2 diabetes-hypertension. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Dioxin, PCB and PBDE exposure in grey heron (ardea cinerea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.; Thompson, H.; Dsilva, K.; White, S.; Rose, M. [Central Science Laboratory, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    In the United Kingdom recent investigations have detected elevated levels of mortality and bone disease in grey herons at an established colony in Nottinghamshire along the course of the river Trent (4). The causes of mortality are unclear but deformities recorded in the other birds include multiple fracture of the tarsus, tibia and metacarpal bones. These findings have prompted a pilot study into assessing the level of environmental contaminants in the tissue and eggs of these birds. Two classes of contaminants have the potential to cause the deformities observed in the birds - heavy metals such as selenium, cadmium, arsenic mercury and lead, and halogenated organic contaminants such as dioxins, and PCBs. This paper discusses levels of these contaminants in the samples of eggs taken from the colony. Additional samples of eggs were also collected from a colony in Hertfordshire and from a site in the north of the country. The discussion will be limited to the halogenated organic contaminants as the levels of heavy metals were similar in all sites and were generally at or above background levels. Given the increased utilisation of brominated flame retardant chemicals over the last decade and the similarities in structure and environmental persistence of some of these compounds to the dioxins and PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the samples.

  12. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.

    2007-01-01

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  13. A Conceptual Grey Analysis Method for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mikela Chatzimichailidou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerning engineers, project management is a crucial field of research and development. Projects of high uncertainty and scale are characterized by risk, primarily related to their completion time. Thus, safe duration estimations, throughout the planning of a project, are a key objective for project managers. However, traditional linear approaches fail to include and sufficiently serve the dynamic nature of activities duration. On this ground, attention should be paid to designing and implementing methodologies that approximate the duration of the activities during the phase of planning and scheduling too. The grey analysis mathematical modeling seems to gain grounds, since it gradually becomes a well-adapted and up-to-date technique for numerous scientific sectors. This paper examines the contribution of the logic behind the aforementioned analysis, aiming to predict possible future divergences of task durations in big construction projects. Based on time observations of critical instances, a conceptual method is developed for making duration estimations and communicating deviations from the original schedule, in a way that approximations will fit reality better. The whole procedure endeavors to investigate the decrease of uncertainty, regarding project completion time and reduce, up to a scale, a possible inaccurate estimation of a project manager. The utmost effort is about exploiting the gained experience and eliminating the “hedgehog syndrome”. This is attainable by designing a reliable, easily updated, and readable information system. An enlightening example is to be found in the last section.

  14. Linear multifrequency-grey acceleration recast for preconditioned Krylov iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Jim E.; Brian Yang, T.-Y.; Warsa, James S.

    2007-01-01

    The linear multifrequency-grey acceleration (LMFGA) technique is used to accelerate the iterative convergence of multigroup thermal radiation diffusion calculations in high energy density simulations. Although it is effective and efficient in one-dimensional calculations, the LMFGA method has recently been observed to significantly degrade under certain conditions in multidimensional calculations with large discontinuities in material properties. To address this deficiency, we recast the LMFGA method in terms of a preconditioned system that is solved with a Krylov method (LMFGK). Results are presented demonstrating that the new LMFGK method always requires fewer iterations than the original LMFGA method. The reduction in iteration count increases with both the size of the time step and the inhomogeneity of the problem. However, for reasons later explained, the LMFGK method can cost more per iteration than the LMFGA method, resulting in lower but comparable efficiency in problems with small time steps and weak inhomogeneities. In problems with large time steps and strong inhomogeneities, the LMFGK method is significantly more efficient than the LMFGA method

  15. Grey water characterization and treatment for reuse in an arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, E.; Bani-Melhem, K.

    2012-01-01

    Grey water from a university facilities building in Cairo, Egypt was analysed for basic wastewater parameters. Mean concentrations were calculated based on grab samples over a 16-month period. Values for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients

  16. A Novel Grey Wave Method for Predicting Total Chinese Trade Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total trade volume of a country is an important way of appraising its international trade situation. A prediction based on trade volume will help enterprises arrange production efficiently and promote the sustainability of the international trade. Because the total Chinese trade volume fluctuates over time, this paper proposes a Grey wave forecasting model with a Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter to forecast it. This novel model first parses time series into long-term trend and short-term cycle. Second, the model uses a general GM (1,1 to predict the trend term and the Grey wave forecasting model to predict the cycle term. Empirical analysis shows that the improved Grey wave prediction method provides a much more accurate forecast than the basic Grey wave prediction method, achieving better prediction results than autoregressive moving average model (ARMA.

  17. Vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of normal cervical lymph nodes: variations with nodal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Michael; Ahuja, Anil; Brook, Fiona; Metreweli, Constantine

    2001-01-01

    AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate variations in the vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of cervical lymph nodes with their size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High resolution grey-scale sonography and power Doppler sonography were performed in 1133 cervical nodes in 109 volunteers who had a sonographic examination of the neck. Standardized parameters were used in power Doppler sonography. RESULTS: About 90% of lymph nodes with a maximum transverse diameter greater than 5 mm showed vascularity and an echogenic hilus. Smaller nodes were less likely to show vascularity and an echogenic hilus. As the size of the lymph nodes increased, the intranodal blood flow velocity increased significantly (P 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide a baseline for grey-scale and power Doppler sonography of normal cervical lymph nodes. Sonologists will find varying vascularity and grey-scale appearances when encountering nodes of different sizes. Ying, M. et al. (2001)

  18. Modeling imperfectly repaired system data via grey differential equations with unequal-gapped times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Renkuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that grey differential equation models are useful in repairable system modeling. The arguments starts with the review on GM(1,1) model with equal- and unequal-spaced stopping time sequence. In terms of two-stage GM(1,1) filtering, system stopping time can be partitioned into system intrinsic function and repair effect. Furthermore, we propose an approach to use grey differential equation to specify a semi-statistical membership function for system intrinsic function times. Also, we engage an effort to use GM(1,N) model to model system stopping times and the associated operating covariates and propose an unequal-gapped GM(1,N) model for such analysis. Finally, we investigate the GM(1,1)-embed systematic grey equation system modeling of imperfectly repaired system operating data. Practical examples are given in step-by-step manner to illustrate the grey differential equation modeling of repairable system data

  19. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure...... sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without...... sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls...

  20. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  1. Application of grey incidence analysis to connection between human errors and root cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yinxiang; Yu Ren; Zhou Gang; Chen Dengke

    2008-01-01

    By introducing grey incidence analysis, the relatively important impact of root cause upon human errors was researched in the paper. On the basis of WANO statistic data and grey incidence analysis, lack of alternate examine, bad basic operation, short of theoretical knowledge, relaxation of organization and management and deficiency of regulations are the important influence of root cause on human err ors. Finally, the question to reduce human errors was discussed. (authors)

  2. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman A.; Ghrair, Ayoup M.; Megdal, Sharon B.

    2012-01-01

    Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their ...

  3. Behavioral Pattern of Endemic Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis) within the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Wijerathne, Iresha; Wickramasinghe, Sriyani

    2018-01-01

    The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from 2013 to 2015. Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill (SLGh). The study recorded 35 behavioral events i...

  4. Characterising the grey matter correlates of leukoaraiosis in cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lambert

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that SVD severity is associated with regional cortical thinning. Furthermore a quantitative measure of SVD severity (WMH volume can be predicted from grey matter measures, supporting an association between white and grey matter damage. The pattern of cortical thinning and volumetric decline is distinctive for SVD severity compared to ageing. These results, taken together, suggest that there is a phenotypic pattern of atrophy associated with SVD severity.

  5. The initiatives of a library association for the promotion of grey literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alberani, V. (ISS); De Castro Pietrangeli, P. (ISS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    The main initiatives taken in Italy by the Italian Library Association (AIB) for the development and promotion of grey literature since the recommendations of the seminar of York and following the Italian adhesion to EAGLE (through the Central Library of the Italian National Research Council-CNR) are presented, i.e.: survey the main Italian producers of GL through the application and creation of international and national standards; evaluate the use of grey literature in scientific communicat...

  6. Presentation of the paper “Open access repositories as channel of publication scientific grey literature”

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Fernández, Tránsito; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Merlo Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation of the paper entitled “Open access repositories as channel of publication scientific grey literature” in the TEEM 2015 International Conference held in Porto (Portugal) in October 7-9, 2015. In this paper we describe how the open access repositories are valid channels for the publication of scientific grey literature. Technological development facilitates the communication of scientific knowledge, allowing expand distribution channels and significantly reducing tra...

  7. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10–67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations’ websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews. PMID:26379270

  8. Grey matter volume in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and associated eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Monzon, Beatriz; Henderson, Luke A; Madden, Sloane; Macefield, Vaughan G; Touyz, Stephen; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Foroughi, Nasim; Hay, Phillipa

    2017-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder of complex aetiology. Previous neuroimaging studies have found consistent global reductions in global grey matter volume of underweight girls with AN; however, differences in regional grey matter volumes are less consistent. The aims of this study were to investigate grey matter regional volumes of adolescent girls with AN before and after weight recovery and the relationship of any changes with clinical characteristics. We collected high-resolution T1-weighted images from 26 underweight girls with AN before weight gain and 20 healthy control volunteers. Clinical features were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. AN subjects displayed reduced grey matter volumes in the insula, amygdala, prefrontal, hippocampal and cingulate cortices and the precuneus, relative to healthy controls. In a subset of 10 AN subjects who were followed after weight recovery, grey matter volumes increased to near-control levels in the orbito- and medial prefrontal, insular, left hippocampal and mid- and posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus. The recovery of the right anterior thalamus and the left orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with improvements in eating concerns and shape concerns, respectively. However, large parts of the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nuclei and right hippocampus did not display any grey matter recovery following a short-term of treatment. These results show that in adolescents with AN, some brain regions display marked recovery in grey matter volume following weight recovery, whereas others do not, considering grey mater recovery possibly linked to symptom improvement. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10-67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations' websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews.

  10. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wagner, Gernot; Apfalter, Petra; Maier, Manfred

    2011-11-28

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are published in peer-reviewed journals. The grey

  11. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  12. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)

  13. Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Gideon P; Avery, Lisa M; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Adequate disinfection of grey water prior to reuse is important to prevent the potential transmission of disease-causing microorganisms. Chlorine is a widely utilised disinfectant and as such is a leading contender for disinfection of grey water intended for reuse. This study examined the impact of organics and particles on chlorine disinfection of grey water, measured by total coliform inactivation. The efficacy of disinfection was most closely linked with particle size. Larger particles shielded total coliforms from inactivation and disinfection efficacy decreased with increasing particle size. Blending to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs) following chlorine disinfection revealed that up to 91% of total coliforms in chlorinated grey water were particle associated. The organic concentration of grey water affected chlorine demand but did not influence the disinfection resistance of total coliforms when a free chlorine residual was maintained. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and it is recommended that grey water treatment systems target suspended solids removal to ensure removal of PACs prior to disinfection.

  14. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Our results indicate "cross-modal" plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

  15. Towards a Holistic Cortical Thickness Descriptor: Heat Kernel-Based Grey Matter Morphology Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yalin

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a heat kernel based regional shape descriptor that may be capable of better exploiting volumetric morphological information than other available methods, thereby improving statistical power on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. The mechanism of our analysis is driven by the graph spectrum and the heat kernel theory, to capture the volumetric geometry information in the constructed tetrahedral meshes. In order to capture profound brain grey matter shape changes, we first use the volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator to determine the point pair correspondence between white-grey matter and CSF-grey matter boundary surfaces by computing the streamlines in a tetrahedral mesh. Secondly, we propose multi-scale grey matter morphology signatures to describe the transition probability by random walk between the point pairs, which reflects the inherent geometric characteristics. Thirdly, a point distribution model is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the grey matter morphology signatures and generate the internal structure features. With the sparse linear discriminant analysis, we select a concise morphology feature set with improved classification accuracies. In our experiments, the proposed work outperformed the cortical thickness features computed by FreeSurfer software in the classification of Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, on publicly available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The multi-scale and physics based volumetric structure feature may bring stronger statistical power than some traditional methods for MRI-based grey matter morphology analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in regional grey matter volumes in currently ill patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Abel, Larry Allen; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Hughes, Matthew Edward

    2018-01-01

    Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. AN participants were found to have reduced grey matter volumes in a number of areas including regions of the basal ganglia (including the ventral striatum), and parietal and temporal cortices. Body mass index (BMI) and global scores on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) were also found to correlate with grey matter volumes in a region of the brainstem (including the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) in AN, and predicted 56% of the variance in grey matter volumes in this area. The brain regions associated with grey matter reductions in AN are consistent with regions responsible for cognitive deficits associated with the illness including anhedonia, deficits in affect perception and saccadic eye movement abnormalities. Overall, the findings suggest reduced grey matter volumes in AN that are associated with eating disorder symptomatology. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. NEURON and Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael L; Davison, Andrew P; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    The NEURON simulation program now allows Python to be used, alone or in combination with NEURON's traditional Hoc interpreter. Adding Python to NEURON has the immediate benefit of making available a very extensive suite of analysis tools written for engineering and science. It also catalyzes NEURON software development by offering users a modern programming tool that is recognized for its flexibility and power to create and maintain complex programs. At the same time, nothing is lost because all existing models written in Hoc, including graphical user interface tools, continue to work without change and are also available within the Python context. An example of the benefits of Python availability is the use of the xml module in implementing NEURON's Import3D and CellBuild tools to read MorphML and NeuroML model specifications.

  18. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  20. Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Harding

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A conservative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led to increased interactions with the fishery, and demands are being raised for the re-introduction of the hunt. We provide a demographic analysis and a risk assessment of the population, and make recommendations on how to decrease the risk of over exploitation. Although hunting increases the risk of quasi-extinction, the risk can be significantly reduced by the choice of a cautious hunting regime. The least hazardous regimes allow no hunting below a ‘security level’ in population size. Obviously, to implement such a hunting regime detailed knowledge of the population size and growth rate is required. It is not possible to estimate “true” risks for quasi-extinction, but we used an approach where the relative difference for different scenarios can be compared. With a security level at 5,000 females, the population quasi-extinction risk increases 50 fold at an annual hunt of 500 females compared with a scenario with no hunting. The risk of quasi-extinction is very sensitive to declines in the mean growth rate and to increased variance in growth rate. The variance in the population estimates over the last 14 years imply that it would take 9 years to detect a declinefrom 1.075 to 1.027 in the rate of population increase. We also show how the age composition of killed animals influences the impact of the hunt. The overall recommendation is that hunting should be kept to a minimum, carefully documented and accompanied by close population monitoring.

  1. Central diabetes insipidus in an African Grey parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Simon R; Wood, Catherine; de Matos, Ricardo; Ledbetter, Eric C; Morrisey, James K

    2010-08-15

    A 5.5-year-old sexually intact female African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated for a 1-year history of pronounced polyuria and polydipsia. The bird also had a 1-month history of signs of mild depression and mydriasis. Physical examination revealed a thin body condition and incomplete bilateral mydriasis. Other examination findings as well as CBC and screening radiography results were unremarkable. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed mild hypernatremia. The bird had a 3.3% loss in body weight over 170 minutes during a water deprivation test, and urine osmolality remained low. After IM administration of 0.9 microg of desmopressin, the rate of weight loss decreased substantially and urine osmolality increased 300% over the following 200 minutes. Initial attempts to treat the bird with orally administered desmopressin failed to correct the polydipsia and polyuria. Ultimately, IM administration of 24 microg of desmopressin/kg (10.9 microg/lb) every 12 hours yielded a noticeable reduction in water consumption and urine production over a 6- to 8-hour period. Eight months later, the bird was returned for a recheck examination, at which time it was in good health and continued to respond to the medication. Despite continued response to the medication, right-sided internal ophthalmoparesis was detected 16 months after the initial diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, central diabetes insipidus in birds has not been reported. The condition should be considered in birds with clinical signs of disease similar to those in mammals. Long-term IM administration of desmopressin may be a viable treatment option.

  2. Grey forecasting model for CO2 emissions: A Taiwan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiun-Sin; Liou, Fen-May; Huang, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. → The CARMA indicates that the Taichung coal-fired power plants had the highest CO 2 emissions in the world. → GM(1,1) prediction accuracy is fairly high. → The results show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. -- Abstract: Among the various greenhouse gases associated with climate change, CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. The latest data from Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA) shows that the coal-fired power plant in Taichung, Taiwan emitted 39.7 million tons of CO 2 in 2007 - the highest of any power plant in the world. Based on statistics from Energy International Administration, the annual CO 2 emissions in Taiwan have increased 42% from 1997 until 2006. Taiwan has limited natural resources and relies heavily on imports to meet its energy needs, and the government must take serious measures control energy consumption to reduce CO 2 emissions. Because the latest data was from 2009, this study applied the grey forecasting model to estimate future CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 2010 until 2012. Forecasts of CO 2 emissions in this study show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. Overall, the GM(1,1) predicted further increases in CO 2 emissions over the next 3 years. Although Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations and is not bound by the Kyoto Protocol, the findings of this study provide a valuable reference with which the Taiwanese government could formulate measures to reduce CO 2 emissions by curbing the unnecessary the consumption of energy.

  3. Single neuron computation

    CERN Document Server

    McKenna, Thomas M; Zornetzer, Steven F

    1992-01-01

    This book contains twenty-two original contributions that provide a comprehensive overview of computational approaches to understanding a single neuron structure. The focus on cellular-level processes is twofold. From a computational neuroscience perspective, a thorough understanding of the information processing performed by single neurons leads to an understanding of circuit- and systems-level activity. From the standpoint of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a single real neuron is as complex an operational unit as an entire ANN, and formalizing the complex computations performed by real n

  4. Mesmerising mirror neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Mirror neurons have been hailed as the key to understanding social cognition. I argue that three currents of thought-relating to evolution, atomism and telepathy-have magnified the perceived importance of mirror neurons. When they are understood to be a product of associative learning, rather than an adaptation for social cognition, mirror neurons are no longer mesmerising, but they continue to raise important questions about both the psychology of science and the neural bases of social cognition. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-05-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons, originally discovered in the premotor cortex of monkeys, that discharge both when individuals perform a given motor act and when they observe others perform that same motor act. Ample evidence demonstrates the existence of a cortical network with the properties of mirror neurons (mirror system) in humans. The human mirror system is involved in understanding others' actions and their intentions behind them, and it underlies mechanisms of observational learning. Herein, we will discuss the clinical implications of the mirror system.

  6. Forecasting the natural gas demand in China using a self-adapting intelligent grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Bo; Li, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Reasonably forecasting demands of natural gas in China is of significance as it could aid Chinese government in formulating energy policies and adjusting industrial structures. To this end, a self-adapting intelligent grey prediction model is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional grey models which have the inherent drawbacks of fixed structure and poor adaptability, the proposed new model can automatically optimize model parameters according to the real data characteristics of modeling sequence. In this study, the proposed new model, discrete grey model, even difference grey model and classical grey model were employed, respectively, to simulate China's natural gas demands during 2002–2010 and forecast demands during 2011–2014. The results show the new model has the best simulative and predictive precision. Finally, the new model is used to forecast China's natural gas demand during 2015–2020. The forecast shows the demand will grow rapidly over the next six years. Therefore, in order to maintain the balance between the supplies and the demands for the natural gas in the future, Chinese government needs to take some measures, such as importing huge amounts of natural gas from abroad, increasing the domestic yield, using more alternative energy, and reducing the industrial reliance on natural gas. - Highlights: • A self-adapting intelligent grey prediction model (SIGM) is proposed in this paper. • The SIGM has the advantage of working with exponential functions and linear functions. • The SIGM solves the drawbacks of fixed structure and poor adaptability of grey models. • The demand of natural gas in China is successfully forecasted using the SIGM model. • The study findings can help Chinese government reasonably formulate energy policies.

  7. Staging of cortical and deep grey matter functional connectivity changes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim A; Eijlers, Anand J C; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Schoonheim, Menno M

    2018-02-01

    Functional connectivity is known to increase as well as decrease throughout the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could represent different stages of the disease. In addition, functional connectivity changes could follow the atrophy pattern observed with disease progression, that is, moving from the deep grey matter towards the cortex. This study investigated when and where connectivity changes develop and explored their clinical and cognitive relevance across different MS stages. A cohort of 121 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 122 with late RRMS and 53 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) as well as 96 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity changes were investigated for (1) within deep grey matter connectivity, (2) connectivity between the deep grey matter and cortex and (3) within-cortex connectivity. A post hoc regional analysis was performed to identify which regions were driving the connectivity changes. Patients with late RRMS and SPMS showed increased connectivity of the deep grey matter, especially of the putamen and palladium, with other deep grey matter structures and with the cortex. Within-cortex connectivity was decreased, especially for temporal, occipital and frontal regions, but only in SPMS relative to early RRMS. Deep grey matter connectivity alterations were related to cognition and disability, whereas within-cortex connectivity was only related to disability. Increased connectivity of the deep grey matter became apparent in late RRMS and further increased in SPMS. The additive effect of cortical network degeneration, which was only seen in SPMS, may explain the sudden clinical deterioration characteristic to this phase of the disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded.

  9. Grey-Markov prediction model based on background value optimization and central-point triangular whitenization weight function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Dang, Yaoguo; Li, Bingjun

    2018-01-01

    Grey-Markov forecasting model is a combination of grey prediction model and Markov chain which show obvious optimization effects for data sequences with characteristics of non-stationary and volatility. However, the state division process in traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model is mostly based on subjective real numbers that immediately affects the accuracy of forecasting values. To seek the solution, this paper introduces the central-point triangular whitenization weight function in state division to calculate possibilities of research values in each state which reflect preference degrees in different states in an objective way. On the other hand, background value optimization is applied in the traditional grey model to generate better fitting data. By this means, the improved Grey-Markov forecasting model is built. Finally, taking the grain production in Henan Province as an example, it verifies this model's validity by comparing with GM(1,1) based on background value optimization and the traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model.

  10. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  11. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  12. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  13. Go Grey - A Laundry to Landscape Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, S.

    2017-12-01

    California residents have dealt with severe drought and high water bills for the few past years[1]. The objective of our project is to use the concept of greywater irrigation to build a low cost, adaptable, and easy to install irrigation system to collect the greywater from the washing machine and use it to water the plants. This system can reduce a household's water usage, extend the life of a septic system, and save time on watering plants by recycling the water from the washing machine. Our simple system requires PVC pipes, a three-way water diverter (valve), a mesh coffee filter, and a water (rain) barrel. The water from the washing machine travels through the three-way valve, which diverts it either to the garden or to the sewer. The PVC pipes lead outside to the garden, where the water barrel is located. The water goes through the mesh coffee filter that is attached on top of the barrel, so that lint and other impurities can be filtered out. The water collected in the barrel will travel through drip irrigation or through a hose to directly water the roots of the plants. This fully functional greywater system was successfully constructed and tested through various trails. We used a Kenmore standard 4.5 cubic feet front load high efficiency washer which uses less water compared to the traditional washers and measured the water collected in water barrel after each wash. Irrespective of the size of the load, the amount of water collected from each wash remained almost the same.. However, we collected enough grey water from each washer load to fill the rain barrel and water the plants in the garden. We were able apply the concept of greywater irrigation successfully to build our own low cost, adaptable, and easy to install greywater system that can be used in any household to water plants in the garden. Our system recycles the water from the washer instead of just wasting it thereby reducing a household's water usage and water bill especially during the time of

  14. NeuronBank: a tool for cataloging neuronal circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S Katz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic unit of any nervous system is the neuron. Therefore, understanding the operation of nervous systems ultimately requires an inventory of their constituent neurons and synaptic connectivity, which form neural circuits. The presence of uniquely identifiable neurons or classes of neurons in many invertebrates has facilitated the construction of cellular-level connectivity diagrams that can be generalized across individuals within a species. Homologous neurons can also be recognized across species. Here we describe NeuronBank.org, a web-based tool that we are developing for cataloging, searching, and analyzing neuronal circuitry within and across species. Information from a single species is represented in an individual branch of NeuronBank. Users can search within a branch or perform queries across branches to look for similarities in neuronal circuits across species. The branches allow for an extensible ontology so that additional characteristics can be added as knowledge grows. Each entry in NeuronBank generates a unique accession ID, allowing it to be easily cited. There is also an automatic link to a Wiki page allowing an encyclopedic explanation of the entry. All of the 44 previously published neurons plus one previously unpublished neuron from the mollusc, Tritonia diomedea, have been entered into a branch of NeuronBank as have 4 previously published neurons from the mollusc, Melibe leonina. The ability to organize information about neuronal circuits will make this information more accessible, ultimately aiding research on these important models.

  15. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  16. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  17. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  18. Modelling the Errors of EIA’s Oil Prices and Production Forecasts by the Grey Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Hasantash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey theory is about systematic analysis of limited information. The Grey-Markov model can improve the accuracy of forecast range in the random fluctuating data sequence. In this paper, we employed this model in energy system. The average errors of Energy Information Administrations predictions for world oil price and domestic crude oil production from 1982 to 2007 and from 1985 to 2008 respectively were used as two forecasted examples. We showed that the proposed Grey-Markov model can improve the forecast accuracy of original Grey forecast model.

  19. Research on prediction of agricultural machinery total power based on grey model optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Zhou, Jin; Zheng, Chang-zheng

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflex and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. It is the power source of agricultural production, and is the main factors to enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity expand production scale and increase the income of the farmers. Its demand is affected by natural, economic, technological and social and other "grey" factors. Therefore, grey system theory can be used to analyze the development of agricultural machinery total power. A method based on genetic algorithm optimizing grey modeling process is introduced in this paper. This method makes full use of the advantages of the grey prediction model and characteristics of genetic algorithm to find global optimization. So the prediction model is more accurate. According to data from a province, the GM (1, 1) model for predicting agricultural machinery total power was given based on the grey system theories and genetic algorithm. The result indicates that the model can be used as agricultural machinery total power an effective tool for prediction.

  20. Optimization of PID Parameters Utilizing Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi Method and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Controller that uses PID parameters requires a good tuning method in order to improve the control system performance. Tuning PID control method is divided into two namely the classical methods and the methods of artificial intelligence. Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is one of the artificial intelligence methods. Previously, researchers had integrated PSO algorithms in the PID parameter tuning process. This research aims to improve the PSO-PID tuning algorithms by integrating the tuning process with the Variable Weight Grey- Taguchi Design of Experiment (DOE) method. This is done by conducting the DOE on the two PSO optimizing parameters: the particle velocity limit and the weight distribution factor. Computer simulations and physical experiments were conducted by using the proposed PSO- PID with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE and the classical Ziegler-Nichols methods. They are implemented on the hydraulic positioning system. Simulation results show that the proposed PSO-PID with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE has reduced the rise time by 48.13% and settling time by 48.57% compared to the Ziegler-Nichols method. Furthermore, the physical experiment results also show that the proposed PSO-PID with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE tuning method responds better than Ziegler-Nichols tuning. In conclusion, this research has improved the PSO-PID parameter by applying the PSO-PID algorithm together with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE method as a tuning method in the hydraulic positioning system.

  1. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2006-07-01

    A grey fuzzy optimization model is developed for water quality management of river system to address uncertainty involved in fixing the membership functions for different goals of Pollution Control Agency (PCA) and dischargers. The present model, Grey Fuzzy Waste Load Allocation Model (GFWLAM), has the capability to incorporate the conflicting goals of PCA and dischargers in a deterministic framework. The imprecision associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fractional removal levels are modeled in a fuzzy mathematical framework. To address the imprecision in fixing the lower and upper bounds of membership functions, the membership functions themselves are treated as fuzzy in the model and the membership parameters are expressed as interval grey numbers, a closed and bounded interval with known lower and upper bounds but unknown distribution information. The model provides flexibility for PCA and dischargers to specify their aspirations independently, as the membership parameters for different membership functions, specified for different imprecise goals are interval grey numbers in place of a deterministic real number. In the final solution optimal fractional removal levels of the pollutants are obtained in the form of interval grey numbers. This enhances the flexibility and applicability in decision-making, as the decision-maker gets a range of optimal solutions for fixing the final decision scheme considering technical and economic feasibility of the pollutant treatment levels. Application of the GFWLAM is illustrated with case study of the Tunga-Bhadra river system in India.

  3. Nutrient Removal of Grey Water from Wet Market Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Danial; Mohd Razman Salim; Salmiati

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity has become an important issue in this world today. Water reuse is known as one of the strategies to overcome this problem. Grey water is one of the sources of reused water. Several researches were carried out on water reuse, but limited attention was focused on reusing grey water from wet market, which contains high nutrient and organic matters. This study was carried out on nutrient removal from grey water using sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The grey water sample was taken from a wet market (Pasar Peladang, Skudai). About 1L of grey water was fed into the reactor with a total volume of 4L. Anoxic-aerobic phase were divided with a ratio of 30 % - 70 % of total time respectively. Mixing was maintained at 30 rpm during the start of each cycle until settling phase to achieve uniform condition. Influent and effluent were set for 30 minutes. The SBR was operated with 3 cycles/ day, temperature 30 degree Celsius, cycle time 8 hours and hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.2 days. Aeration at 35 L/ min was induced for ammonia conversion and assisting nitrification.. The results show that the bacteria growing in alternating anoxic/ aerobic systems could remove organic substrates and nutrient. The COD, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus removal efficiencies were maximum at the levels of 94 %, 88 % and 70 % respectively. Anaerobic-Aerobic-Anoxic phase was proposed to increase the removal percentage. (author)

  4. Analysis and design of a Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor for energy management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Albert W.L.; Chi, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to use electricity efficiently, a demand control management system is one of the effective ways to reduce energy consumption and electric bills. An electricity demand control system is used as a means to monitor and manage the usage of electricity effectively. Moreover, it is a useful tool for avoiding penalties beyond the contracted demand value of electricity with the electric power company. In this project, we developed a Taguchi-Grey based predictor to forecast the demand value of electricity on line. In a Grey prediction, the parameter settings are highly relevant to the accuracy of forecasting. A Taguchi method was employed to optimize the parameter settings for the Grey based electricity demand value predictor. Our experimental results show that the optimal parameter settings of the Grey prediction are α=0.4, five point modeling and three minute sampling time of the data acquisition system. The improved Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor in conjunction with the PC based electricity demand control system is a cost effective and efficient means to manage the usage of electricity

  5. Playing Super Mario 64 increases hippocampal grey matter in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L West

    Full Text Available Maintaining grey matter within the hippocampus is important for healthy cognition. Playing 3D-platform video games has previously been shown to promote grey matter in the hippocampus in younger adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training (i.e., Super Mario 64 on grey matter in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of older adults. Older adults who were 55 to 75 years of age were randomized into three groups. The video game experimental group (VID; n = 8 engaged in a 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months. Additionally, an active control group took a series of self-directed, computerized music (piano lessons (MUS; n = 12, while a no-contact control group did not engage in any intervention (CON; n = 13. After training, a within-subject increase in grey matter within the hippocampus was significant only in the VID training group, replicating results observed in younger adults. Active control MUS training did, however, lead to a within-subject increase in the DLPFC, while both the VID and MUS training produced growth in the cerebellum. In contrast, the CON group displayed significant grey matter loss in the hippocampus, cerebellum and the DLPFC.

  6. Assessing the geographic origin of the invasive grey squirrel using DNA sequencing: Implications for management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D. Stevenson-Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis has become a major pest species causing negative effects to forestry and biodiversity. This study aims to assess the origin of grey squirrel within Cumbria using phylogeographic analysis to aid in management and control. The work reported analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences in the D-Loop gene of 73 grey squirrel individuals from multiple locations in the UK. The results indicate that individuals in north Cumbria are derived from individuals from Scotland and North East England. Other individuals in north Cumbria share a unique haplotype with south Cumbria and Lancashire suggesting a southerly origin and movement around or over the Cumbrian Mountain range which is thought of as a barrier to movements. The assessment of invasive species geographical origin and the identification of potential wildlife transit corridors through natural barriers are becoming more important as species shift range in response to environmental and ecological changes. With the grey squirrel population expansion also occurring in Italy, the European red squirrel may become threatened across its entire range. It is crucial to understand the population origins of the invasive grey squirrel and landscape usage to successfully manage the incursion routes and control the population.

  7. Application of Grey-TOPSIS approach to evaluate value chain performance of tea processing chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Nyaoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an effective method to measure value chain performance and rank them based on qualitative criteria and to determine the ranking order of the various forms of performance under study. This approach integrates the advantage of grey systems theory and TOPSIS to evaluate and rank value chain performance. Grey-TOPSIS approach has been applied to measure and rank the value chain performance of various firms. The results indicate that the proposed model is useful to facilitate multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM problem under the environment of uncertainty and vagueness. The model also provides an appropriate ranking order based on the available alternatives. The Grey-TOPSIS approach that will be useful to the managers to use for solving the similar type of decision-making problems in their firms in the future has been discussed. Even though, the problem of choosing a suitable performance option is often addressed in practice and research, very few studies are available in the literature of Grey-TOPSIS decision models. Also, Grey-TOPSIS model application in the tea processing firms is non-existence hence this study is the very first to apply this model in evaluating value chain performance in the tea processing firms.

  8. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  9. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  10. Early grey matter changes in structural covariance networks in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, Emma M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Roos, Raymund A C

    2016-01-01

    Progressive subcortical changes are known to occur in Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Less is known about the occurrence and cohesion of whole brain grey matter changes in HD. We aimed to detect network integrity changes in grey matter structural covariance networks and examined relationships with clinical assessments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data of premanifest HD ( n  = 30), HD patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) was used to identify ten structural covariance networks based on a novel technique using the co-variation of grey matter with independent component analysis in FSL. Group differences were studied controlling for age and gender. To explore whether our approach is effective in examining grey matter changes, regional voxel-based analysis was additionally performed. Premanifest HD and HD patients showed decreased network integrity in two networks compared to controls. One network included the caudate nucleus, precuneous and anterior cingulate cortex (in HD p  covariance might be a sensitive approach to reveal early grey matter changes, especially for premanifest HD.

  11. Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, M.M.; Frouin, H.; Pillet, S.; Lesage, V.; De Guise, S.; Fournier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ), methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10 -4 M HgCl 2 or CH 3 HgCl or to 50 ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10 -5 M CdCl 2 or 10 -4 M HgCl 2 . An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH 3 HgCl from 10 -6 M in grey seals and from 10 -5 M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15 ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH 3 HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl 2 . From IC 50 , chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH 3 HgCl > CdCl 2 > HgCl 2 > Aroclor 1254.

  12. Playing Super Mario 64 increases hippocampal grey matter in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Konishi, Kyoko; Benady-Chorney, Jessica; Bohbot, Veronique D; Peretz, Isabelle; Belleville, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining grey matter within the hippocampus is important for healthy cognition. Playing 3D-platform video games has previously been shown to promote grey matter in the hippocampus in younger adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training (i.e., Super Mario 64) on grey matter in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of older adults. Older adults who were 55 to 75 years of age were randomized into three groups. The video game experimental group (VID; n = 8) engaged in a 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months. Additionally, an active control group took a series of self-directed, computerized music (piano) lessons (MUS; n = 12), while a no-contact control group did not engage in any intervention (CON; n = 13). After training, a within-subject increase in grey matter within the hippocampus was significant only in the VID training group, replicating results observed in younger adults. Active control MUS training did, however, lead to a within-subject increase in the DLPFC, while both the VID and MUS training produced growth in the cerebellum. In contrast, the CON group displayed significant grey matter loss in the hippocampus, cerebellum and the DLPFC.

  13. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice.

  14. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de, E-mail: dearcangelis@na.infn.it [Department of Information Engineering and CNISM, Second University of Naples, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2011-05-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  15. Neuronal avalanches and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangelis, Lucilla de

    2011-01-01

    Networks of living neurons represent one of the most fascinating systems of biology. If the physical and chemical mechanisms at the basis of the functioning of a single neuron are quite well understood, the collective behaviour of a system of many neurons is an extremely intriguing subject. Crucial ingredient of this complex behaviour is the plasticity property of the network, namely the capacity to adapt and evolve depending on the level of activity. This plastic ability is believed, nowadays, to be at the basis of learning and memory in real brains. Spontaneous neuronal activity has recently shown features in common to other complex systems. Experimental data have, in fact, shown that electrical information propagates in a cortex slice via an avalanche mode. These avalanches are characterized by a power law distribution for the size and duration, features found in other problems in the context of the physics of complex systems and successful models have been developed to describe their behaviour. In this contribution we discuss a statistical mechanical model for the complex activity in a neuronal network. The model implements the main physiological properties of living neurons and is able to reproduce recent experimental results. Then, we discuss the learning abilities of this neuronal network. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. The system is able to learn all the tested rules, in particular the exclusive OR (XOR) and a random rule with three inputs. The learning dynamics exhibits universal features as function of the strength of plastic adaptation. Any rule could be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  16. Grey gurnard ( Eutrigla gurnadus ) in the North Sea: an emerging key predator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floeter, J.; Kempf, A.; Vinther, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Grey gurnard (Eutrigla gurnadus) is a widely distributed demersal species in the North Sea that has been ranked frequently among the 10 dominant species. Since the late 1980s, grey gurnard catch rates in the international bottom trawl surveys showed a pronounced increase and it was included...... as an "other predator" in the North Sea multispecies virtual population analysis (MSVPA) in 1997. The MSVPA results estimated grey gurnard to be responsible for approximately 60% of the total predation mortality on age-0 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Long-term MSVPA predictions led to the extinction of North...... Sea cod. As a possible technical reason, the Holling type II functional response implemented in the model was discussed. In the current analysis, it was demonstrated that the Holling type II functional response was not responsible for the extinction of cod in the model, which was rather a true effect...

  17. Does predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) affect Bothnian Sea herring stock estimates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdmark, Anna; Östman, Örjan; Nielsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    when accounting for seal predation, this did not change the conclusions about drivers of herring dynamics. Accounting for grey seal predation is important for abundance estimates of old herring, but currently not for SSB estimates, given the great uncertainties in the standard assessment. The grey seal...... fivefold since 1985. Its main prey, herring (Clupea harrengus), is a key species for fisheries in the region. Yet, current stock assessments assume constant natural mortality, leading to a risk of biased stock estimates with increasing predation and misleading analyses of herring population dynamics. We...... estimated grey seal predation from diet data and reanalysed herring spawning stock biomass (SSB) during 1973–2009. Accounting for predation increased the herring SSB 16% (maximum 19%), but this was within the confidence intervals when ignoring predation. Although mortality in older individuals was inflated...

  18. Development of Piagetian object permanence in a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, I M; Willner, M R; Gravitz, L B

    1997-03-01

    The authors evaluated the ontogenetic performance of a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) on object permanence tasks designed for human infants. Testing began when the bird was 8 weeks old, prior to fledging and weaning. Because adult grey parrots understand complex invisible displacements (I. M. Pepperberg & F. A. Kozak, 1986), the authors continued weekly testing until the current subject completed all of I. C. Uzgiris and J. Hunt's (1975) Scale 1 tasks. Stage 6 object permanence with respect to these tasks emerged at 22 weeks, after the bird had fledged but before it was completely weaned. Although the parrot progressed more rapidly overall than other species that have been tested ontogenetically, the subject similarly exhibited a behavioral plateau part way through the study. Additional tests, administered at 8 and 12 months as well as to an adult grey parrot, demonstrated, respectively, that these birds have some representation of a hidden object and understand advanced invisible displacements.

  19. Grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Batchelli, L; Balaguer, M D; Puig, S; Colprim, J

    2013-01-01

    Grey water has long been considered a promising option for dealing with water scarcity and reuse. However, factors such as lack of macronutrients and low carbon content make its treatment challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the applicability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology to on-site grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation. The results demonstrated that the regenerated water complied with microbiological parameters concerning restriction of solids and organic matter removal. Denitrification was not fully accomplished, but ammonium was totally oxidised and low concentrations of nitrates were achieved. Effluent with good appearance and no odour was used in an experimental study to irrigate a grid system containing natural and artificial grass sections. The conclusion is that SBR technology offers a promising treatment for grey water.

  20. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  1. Prediction of multi performance characteristics of wire EDM process using grey ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanan, Somasundaram; Nair, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Super alloys are used to fabricate components in ultra-supercritical power plants. These hard to machine materials are processed using non-traditional machining methods like Wire cut electrical discharge machining and needs attention. This paper details about multi performance optimization of wire EDM process using Grey ANFIS. Experiments are designed to establish the performance characteristics of wire EDM such as surface roughness, material removal rate, wire wear rate and geometric tolerances. The control parameters are pulse on time, pulse off time, current, voltage, flushing pressure, wire tension, table feed and wire speed. Grey relational analysis is employed to optimise the multi objectives. Analysis of variance of the grey grades is used to identify the critical parameters. A regression model is developed and used to generate datasets for the training of proposed adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The developed prediction model is tested for its prediction ability.

  2. Isolation of Brucella pinnipedialis from Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Nylund, Minna; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Heikkinen, Petra; Kauhala, Kaarina; Jay, Maryne; Isomursu, Marja

    2017-10-01

    Brucella infection in seals was reported for the first time in 1994 around the coast of Scotland. Since then, marine mammal Brucella infections were found to be widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Two Brucella species affect marine mammals: Brucella pinnipedialis in pinnipeds and Brucella ceti in cetaceans. We examined the livers of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Finnish coast (n=122) hunted, found dead, or killed as by-catch in fishing gear in 2013-15 as part of population health monitoring. We detected B. pinnipedialis in the livers of three grey seals. The bacterium was isolated from livers displaying parasitic cholangitis. We also detected Brucella DNA in liver flukes (Pseudamphistomum truncatum) obtained from a Brucella-infected grey seal, suggesting that flukes might be possible vectors of this pathogen in the marine environment.

  3. Optimisation of wire-cut EDM process parameter by Grey-based response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Soota, Tarun; Kumar, Jitendra

    2018-03-01

    Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is one of the advanced machining processes. Response surface methodology coupled with Grey relation analysis method has been proposed and used to optimise the machining parameters of WEDM. A face centred cubic design is used for conducting experiments on high speed steel (HSS) M2 grade workpiece material. The regression model of significant factors such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current, and wire feed is considered for optimising the responses variables material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness and Kerf width. The optimal condition of the machining parameter was obtained using the Grey relation grade. ANOVA is applied to determine significance of the input parameters for optimising the Grey relation grade.

  4. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  5. Time evolution of hadronization and grey tracks in DIS off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the grey tracks produced in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off nuclei provides important information on the space-time development of hadronization in nuclear medium. This method is complementary to the measurement of nuclear attenuation of leading inclusive hadrons. While the latter is focused on the hadronization dynamics for the quite rare process of leading hadrons production, the former covers the main bulk of inelastic events, and its Q 2 dependence is a very sensitive tool to discriminate between different models of hadronization. Employing the model of perturbative hadronization developed earlier, we calculate the Q 2 and x Bj dependences of the number of collisions and relate it to the mean number of grey tracks, using an empirical relation obtained from the analysis of data from the Fermilab E665 experiment on DIS of muons off the Xe nucleus. We found the number of grey tracks to rise steeply with Q 2 in good agreement with the experimental data

  6. Scaling in multiplicity distributions of heavy, black and grey prongs in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Torsti, J.J.; Valtonen, E.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling hypothesis was examined in the case of heavy, black, and grey prongs in proton-emulsion collisions ('heavy' means 'either black or grey'). The average multiplicities of these prongs were computed in the region 0.1-400 GeV for the nuclei C, N, O, S, Br, Ag, and I. After the inclusion of the energy-dependent excitation probability of the nuclei of the form P* = b 0 + b 1 ln E 0 into the model, experimental multiplicity distributions in the energy region 6-300 GeV agreed satisfactorily with the scaling hypothesis. The ratio of the dispersion D (D = √ 2 >- 2 ) to the average multiplicity in the scaling functions of heavy, balck, and grey prongs was estimated to be 0.86, 0.84, and 1.04, respectively, in the high energy region. (Auth.)

  7. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginot, Peter G., E-mail: maginot1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ragusa, Jean C., E-mail: jean.ragusa@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  8. Quantitative ultrasonography of the periventricular white and grey matter of the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaart, R A; Thijssen, J M; Rotteveel, J J; Valckx, F M; van Geemen, A J

    1999-05-01

    This study addresses the value of operator-independent computer processing of ultrasonograms of the developing brain. With this aim, routine cranial ultrasonograms obtained from 39 term and preterm infants without clinical or sonographic evidence of brain damage were analyzed by five observers. The procedure, respectively, included: 1. the definition of four regions of interest (ROI), one white matter and one grey matter area on each side of the brain; 2. digitization of the sonogram data within these ROIs; 3. correction for the equipment settings, using data from a tissue-mimicking phantom as a reference; and 4. calculation of four sonogram characteristics (i.e., mean echo level, MEAN, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, and axial and lateral correlation, CORAX and CORLAT, of the echo level co-occurrence matrix). Significant differences between both sides of the brain or a significant influence of ROI size were not found. The interobserver spread was considerable, but less than the intersubject spread. Two sonogram characteristics seemed strongly correlated in white and grey matter (CORAX and CORLAT) and another only in white matter (SNR with CORAX and CORLAT). MEAN seemed not to be correlated with any other characteristic. Furthermore, it was found that maturation equally decreases white and grey matter MEAN and, thus, hardly affects the ratio between the two. An effect on the other sonogram characteristics was only found in the white matter (i.e., an increase of SNR and a decrease of CORAX and CORLAT). Except for MEAN, the grey matter sonogram characteristics seem hardly affected by maturation. In view of these findings, we conclude that quantitative ultrasonography reveals white and grey matter maturation and, furthermore, provides a conceptional-age-independent reference (MEAN white:grey matter ratio) that might be found to facilitate the detection of pathologic brain alterations.

  9. Trends and Consumption Structures of China’s Blue and Grey Water Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water footprint has become a common method to study the water resources utilization in recent years. By using input–output analysis and dilution theory, the internal water footprint, blue water footprint and grey water footprint of China from 2002 to 2012 were estimated, and the consumption structure of water footprint and virtual water trade were analyzed. The results show: (1 From 2002 to 2012, the average annual internal water footprint was 3.83 trillion m3 in China, of which the blue water footprint was 0.25 trillion m3, and the grey water footprint was 3.58 trillion m3 (with Grade III water standard accounting; both the internal water footprint and grey water footprint experienced decreasing trends from 2002 to 2012, except for a dramatic increase in 2010; (2 Average annual virtual blue water footprint was the greatest in agriculture (39.2%, while tertiary industry (27.5% and food and tobacco processing (23.7% were the top two highest for average annual virtual grey water footprint; (3 Virtual blue water footprint in most sectors showed increasing trends due to the increase of final demand, while virtual grey water footprint in most sectors showed decreasing trends due to the decreases of total return water coefficients and conversion coefficients of virtual grey water footprint; (4 For water resources, China was self-reliant: the water used for producing the products and services to meet domestic consumption was taken domestically; meanwhile, China exported virtual water to other countries, which aggravated the water stress in China.

  10. The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.

  11. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  12. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%, and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of

  13. Hybrid Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Grey Wolf Optimizer for Improving Convergence Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly hybrid nature inspired algorithm called HPSOGWO is presented with the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. The main idea is to improve the ability of exploitation in Particle Swarm Optimization with the ability of exploration in Grey Wolf Optimizer to produce both variants’ strength. Some unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal test functions are used to check the solution quality and performance of HPSOGWO variant. The numerical and statistical solutions show that the hybrid variant outperforms significantly the PSO and GWO variants in terms of solution quality, solution stability, convergence speed, and ability to find the global optimum.

  14. Grey Tienshan Urumqi Glacier No.1 and light-absorbing impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Wang, Feiteng; Li, Zhongqin; Li, Yamin

    2016-01-01

    The Tienshan Urumqi Glacier No.1 (TUG1) usually shows ?grey? surfaces in summers. Besides known regional warming, what should be responsible for largely reducing its surface albedo and making it look ?grey?? A field campaign was conducted on the TUG1 on a selected cloud-free day of 2013 after a snow fall at night. Fresh and aged snow samples were collected in the field, and snow densities, grain sizes, and spectral reflectances were measured. Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) including black ...

  15. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  16. Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanoma and skin melanocytes in Grey horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Campagne, Cécile; Sundström, Elisabeth; Sousa, Pedro; Imran, Saima; Seltenhammer, Monika; Pielberg, Gerli; Olsson, Mats J; Egidy, Giorgia; Andersson, Leif; Golovko, Anna

    2014-11-21

    Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway, occurring in the vast majority of melanocytic neoplasms, has a pivotal role in melanoma development. Different mechanisms underlie this activation in different tumour settings. The Grey phenotype in horses, caused by a 4.6 kb duplication in intron 6 of Syntaxin 17 (STX17), is associated with a very high incidence of cutaneous melanoma, but the molecular mechanism behind the melanomagenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of the ERK pathway in melanoma development in Grey horses. Grey horse melanoma tumours, cell lines and normal skin melanocytes were analyzed with help of indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting for the expression of phospho-ERK1/2 in comparison to that in non-grey horse and human counterparts. The mutational status of BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes in Grey horse melanomas was determined by direct sequencing. The effect of RAS, RAF and PI3K/AKT pathways on the activation of the ERK signaling in Grey horse melanoma cells was investigated with help of specific inhibitors and immunoblotting. Individual roles of RAF and RAS kinases on the ERK activation were examined using si-RNA based approach and immunoblotting. We found that the ERK pathway is constitutively activated in Grey horse melanoma tumours and cell lines in the absence of somatic activating mutations in BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes or alterations in the expression of the main components of the pathway. The pathway is mitogenic and is mediated by BRAF, CRAF and KRAS kinases. Importantly, we found high activation of the ERK pathway also in epidermal melanocytes, suggesting a general predisposition to melanomagenesis in these horses. These findings demonstrate that the presence of the intronic 4.6 kb duplication in STX17 is strongly associated with constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanocytic cells in Grey horses in the absence of somatic mutations commonly linked to the activation of this

  17. Application of improved degree of grey incidence analysis model in fault diagnosis of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinwen; Ren Xin

    2014-01-01

    In order to further reduce the misoperation after the faults occurring of nuclear-powered system in marine, the model based on weighted degree of grey incidence of optimized entropy and fault diagnosis system are proposed, and some simulation experiments about the typical faults of steam generator of nuclear-powered system in marine are conducted. And the results show that the diagnosis system based on improved degree of grey incidence model is more stable and its conclusion is right, and can satisfy diagnosis in real time, and higher faults subjection degrees resolving power can be achieved. (authors)

  18. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.

  19. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  20. Performance evaluation of services quality in higher education institutions using modified SERVQUAL approach with grey analytic hierarchy process (G-AHP and multilevel grey evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zareinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s climate of fierce competition, there is a necessity to pay especial attention on customer demands either in manufacturing or service sector. Managers in service sector are under pressure in terms of environmental factors, they focus on customers’ satisfaction and this has led to the continuous improvement in the performance of service organizations. Meanwhile, customers’ expectations should be properly understood and measured. There have been various efforts to measure the quality of services using the SERVQUAL model. In this study, we try to investigate the concepts and factors influencing the quality of services according to modified SERVQUAL model and then utilize the proposed model of Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (G-AHP and Multilevel Grey Evaluation in order to evaluate the quality of services in the framework of Grey Systems Theory (GST. In order to propose our method, we will conduct a case study of the performance of service quality in higher education institutions of Isfahan-Iran.

  1. Stochastic neuron models

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, Priscilla E

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain...

  2. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  3. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.; Fayyed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD5, COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1) d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and

  4. Application of the grey correlative analysis to predicting uranium-mineralized faults in middle Miaoershan intrusive mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minqiang; Zhou Lilin; Kang Zili

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing the features of metallogenic faults of uranium ore field in middle Miaoershan intrusive mass, the method of grey system theory is used to analyze the grey correlation of tectonic conditions of 37 major silicified fault zones in this area. The faults are discriminated and sought optimally for the potential faults of prospecting, good results are obtained

  5. The relationship of waist circumference and body mass index to grey matter volume in community dwelling adults with mild obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y K; Sasaki, H; Takao, H; Yoshikawa, T; Hayashi, N; Mori, H; Kunimatsu, A; Aoki, S; Ohtomo, K

    2018-02-01

    Previous work has shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with low grey matter volume. However, evidence on the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and brain volume is relatively scarce. Moreover, the influence of mild obesity (as indexed by WC and BMI) on brain volume remains unclear. This study explored the relationships between WC and BMI and grey matter volume in a large sample of Japanese adults. The participants were 792 community-dwelling adults (523 men and 269 women). Brain magnetic resonance images were collected, and the correlation between WC or BMI and global grey matter volume were analysed. The relationships between WC or BMI and regional grey matter volume were also investigated using voxel-based morphometry. Global grey matter volume was not correlated with WC or BMI. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed significant negative correlations between both WC and BMI and regional grey matter volume. The areas correlated with each index were more widespread in men than in women. In women, the total area of the regions significantly correlated with WC was slightly greater than that of the regions significantly correlated with BMI. Results show that both WC and BMI were inversely related to regional grey matter volume, even in Japanese adults with somewhat mild obesity. Especially in populations with less obesity, such as the female participants in current study, WC may be more sensitive than BMI as a marker of grey matter volume differences associated with obesity.

  6. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  7. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-05-01

    Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia.

  8. Neuronal Migration and Neuronal Migration Disorder in Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xue-Zhi; TAKAHASHI, Sentaro; GUI, Chun; ZHANG, Rui; KOGA, Kazuo; NOUYE, Minoru; MURATA, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal cell migration is one of the most significant features during cortical development. After final mitosis, neurons migrate from the ventricular zone into the cortical plate, and then establish neuronal lamina and settle onto the outermost layer, forming an "inside-out" gradient of maturation. Neuronal migration is guided by radial glial fibers and also needs proper receptors, ligands, and other unknown extracellular factors, requests local signaling (e.g. some emitted by the Cajal-Retz...

  9. Application of complex inoculants in improving the process-ability of grey cast iron for cylinder blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wei-ming

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of several complex inoculants on mechanical properties, process-ability and sensibility of grey cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. The experimental results showed that the grey cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40%RE complex inoculants has tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and improved metallurgy quality. While the grey cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80%Sr compound inoculants has the best process-ability, the lowest cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The wear amount of the drill increases correspondingly with the increase of the microhardness difference of matrix structure, indicating the great effect of homogeneousness of matrix structure in the grey cast iron on the machinability of the grey cast iron.

  10. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  11. HLA-DRB*1501 associations with magnetic resonance imaging measures of grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Pardini, Matteo; Tur, Carmen; Mok, Kin Y; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Yousry, Tarek A; Houlden, Henry; Hardy, John; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2016-05-01

    The HLA-DRB*1501 haplotype influences the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is not known how it affects grey matter pathology. To assess HLA-DRB(*)1501 effects on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical grey matter pathology. Whole and lesional cortical grey matter volumes, lesional and normal-appearing grey matter magnetization transfer ratio were measured in 85 people with MS and 36 healthy control subjects. HLA-DRB(*)1501 haplotype was determined by genotyping (rs3135388). No significant differences were observed in MRI measures between the HLA-DRB(*)1501 subgroups. The HLA-DRB(*)1501 haplotype is not strongly associated with MRI-visible grey matter pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of formaldehyde in Caligus infection of laboratory reared grey mullet, Mugil cephalus (L)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Mortality due to infection by a copepod ectoparasite, Caligus bombayensis (R) was recorded in laboratory reared grey mullet. Spread of infection was rapid and most of infected fish died within 4 days and the entire batch died in 6-10 days. Treatment...

  13. Integrating grey and green infrastructure to improve the health and well-being of urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Mary E. Northridge; Sara S. Metcalf

    2012-01-01

    One of the enduring lessons of cities is the essential relationship between grey infrastructure (e.g., streets and buildings) and green infrastructure (e.g., parks and open spaces). The design and management of natural resources to enhance human health and well-being may be traced back thousands of years to the earliest urban civilizations. From the irrigation projects...

  14. Food and feeding habits of grey Mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding habits of grey mullets (Mugilidae) in the River Volta and River Pra estuaries in Ghana were studied between February 1997 and July 1998 as part of efforts to encourage their culture. Stomach contents of fish samples, obtained with a cast net and a drag net, were analysed using the 'points' and frequency ...

  15. Altered grey matter volume and cortical thickness in patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Lai-Quan; Xie, Wen-Lan

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22...

  16. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  17. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  18. The simple modelling method for storm- and grey-water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simple modelling method for storm- and grey-water quality management applied to Alexandra settlement. ... objectives optimally consist of educational programmes, erosion and sediment control, street sweeping, removal of sanitation system overflows, impervious cover reduction, downspout disconnections, removal of ...

  19. Comparative uncertainty analysis of copper loads in stormwater systems using GLUE and grey-box modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2007-01-01

    . With the proposed model and input data, the GLUE analysis show that the total sampled copper mass can be predicted within a range of +/- 50% of the median value ( 385 g), whereas the grey-box analysis showed a prediction uncertainty of less than +/- 30%. Future work will clarify the pros and cons of the two methods...

  20. Data-driven property verification of grey-box systems by Bayesian experiment design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haesaert, S.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Abate, A.

    2015-01-01

    A measurement-based statistical verification approach is developed for systems with partly unknown dynamics. These grey-box systems are subject to identification experiments which, new in this contribution, enable accepting or rejecting system properties expressed in a linear-time logic. We employ a

  1. Green, blue and grey water footprint reduction in irrigated crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie

    2017-01-01

    In the face of increasing water scarcity, reducing the consumptive and degradative water use of crop production is important to produce more food and/or for the environment. The thesis explores the potential for reducing the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of irrigated crop production by

  2. The clinical impact of cerebellar grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Damasceno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cerebellum is an important site for cortical demyelination in multiple sclerosis, but the functional significance of this finding is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and cognitive impact of cerebellar grey-matter pathology in multiple sclerosis patients. METHODS: Forty-two relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 30 controls underwent clinical assessment including the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS and cerebellar functional system (FS score, and cognitive evaluation, including the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT and the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a 3T scanner and variables of interest were: brain white-matter and cortical lesion load, cerebellar intracortical and leukocortical lesion volumes, and brain cortical and cerebellar white-matter and grey-matter volumes. RESULTS: After multivariate analysis high burden of cerebellar intracortical lesions was the only predictor for the EDSS (p<0.001, cerebellar FS (p = 0.002, arm function (p = 0.049, and for leg function (p<0.001. Patients with high burden of cerebellar leukocortical lesions had lower PASAT scores (p = 0.013, while patients with greater volumes of cerebellar intracortical lesions had worse SDMT scores (p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebellar grey-matter pathology is widely present and contributes to clinical dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, independently of brain grey-matter damage.

  3. Chemical shift magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cingulate grey matter in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechtcheriakov, Sergei; Kugener, Andre; Mattedi, Michael; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Marksteiner, Josef; Schocke, Michael; Graziadei, Ivo W.; Vogel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is frequently diagnosed in patients with liver cirrhosis who do not show overt clinical cirrhosis-associated neurological deficits. This condition manifests primarily with visuo-motor and attention deficits. We studied the association between visuo-motor deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopic parameters in cingulate grey matter and white matter of centrum semiovale in patients with liver cirrhosis. The data revealed an increase in the glutamate-glutamine/creatine ratio and a decrease in choline/creatine and inositol/creatine ratios in patients with liver cirrhosis. The analysis of the data showed that cirrhosis-associated deterioration of the visuo-motor function significantly correlates with a decrease in the choline/creatine ratio and an increase in N-acetylaspartate/choline in cingulate grey matter but not in the neighbouring white matter. Furthermore, the increase in the glutamate-glutamine/creatine ratio correlated significantly with the increase in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio. These data suggest an association between altered choline, glutamate-glutamine and NAA metabolism in cingulate grey matter and symptoms of MHE, and underline the importance of differentiation between grey and white matter in magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on patients with cirrhosis-associated brain dysfunction. (orig.)

  4. Grey water treatment concept integrating water and carbon recovery and removal of micropollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    A total treatment concept was developed for grey water from 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands. A thorough characterization of COD, nutrients, metals, micropollutants and anions was carried out. Four biological treatment systems were tested: aerobic, anaerobic, combined anaerobic¿+¿aerobic and a

  5. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving

  6. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic – Aerobic system for irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant

  7. Removal of micropollutants from aerobically treated grey water via ozone and activated carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ozonation and adsorption onto activated carbon were tested for the removal micropollutants of personal care products from aerobically treated grey water. MilliQ water spiked with micropollutants (100–1600 µgL-1) was ozonated at a dosing rate of 1.22. In 45 min, this effectively removed (>99%):

  8. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernádez Leal, L.; Soeter, A.M.; Kools, S.A.E.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Parsons, J.R.; Temmink, H.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic + aerobic 3) aerobic + activated carbon 4) aerobic + ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the

  9. Aspen's Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009-2010--Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…

  10. Short-Term Photovoltaic Power Generation Forecasting Based on Multivariable Grey Theory Model with Parameter Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the environment, temperature, and so forth, photovoltaic power generation volume is always fluctuating and subsequently impacts power grid planning and operation seriously. Therefore, it is of great importance to make accurate prediction of the power generation of photovoltaic (PV system in advance. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, in this paper, a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based multivariable grey theory model is proposed for short-term photovoltaic power generation volume forecasting. It is highlighted that, by integrating particle swarm optimization algorithm, the prediction accuracy of grey theory model is expected to be highly improved. In addition, large amounts of real data from two separate power stations in China are being employed for model verification. The experimental results indicate that, compared with the conventional grey model, the mean relative error in the proposed model has been reduced from 7.14% to 3.53%. The real practice demonstrates that the proposed optimization model outperforms the conventional grey model from both theoretical and practical perspectives.

  11. Efficient Parameterization for Grey-box Model Identification of Complex Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Knudsen, Morten Haack

    2006-01-01

    Grey box model identification preserves known physical structures in a model but with limits to the possible excitation, all parameters are rarely identifiable, and different parametrizations give significantly different model quality. Convenient methods to show which parameterizations are the be...... that need be constrained to achieve satisfactory convergence. Identification of nonlinear models for a ship illustrate the concept....

  12. Estimating 3D Object Parameters from 2D Grey-Level Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houkes, Z.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes a general framework for parameter estimation, which is suitable for computer vision applications. The approach described combines 3D modelling, animation and estimation tools to determine parameters of objects in a scene from 2D grey-level images. The animation tool predicts

  13. Research on a Novel Kernel Based Grey Prediction Model and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrete grey prediction models have attracted considerable interest of research due to its effectiveness to improve the modelling accuracy of the traditional grey prediction models. The autoregressive GM(1,1 model, abbreviated as ARGM(1,1, is a novel discrete grey model which is easy to use and accurate in prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous exponential time series. However, the ARGM(1,1 is essentially a linear model; thus, its applicability is still limited. In this paper a novel kernel based ARGM(1,1 model is proposed, abbreviated as KARGM(1,1. The KARGM(1,1 has a nonlinear function which can be expressed by a kernel function using the kernel method, and its modelling procedures are presented in details. Two case studies of predicting the monthly gas well production are carried out with the real world production data. The results of KARGM(1,1 model are compared to the existing discrete univariate grey prediction models, including ARGM(1,1, NDGM(1,1,k, DGM(1,1, and NGBMOP, and it is shown that the KARGM(1,1 outperforms the other four models.

  14. Non-grey benchmark results for two temperature non-equilibrium radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, B.; Olson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Benchmark solutions to time-dependent radiative transfer problems involving non-equilibrium coupling to the material temperature field are crucial for validating time-dependent radiation transport codes. Previous efforts on generating analytical solutions to non-equilibrium radiative transfer problems were all restricted to the one-group grey model. In this paper, a non-grey model, namely the picket-fence model, is considered for a two temperature non-equilibrium radiative transfer problem in an infinite medium. The analytical solutions, as functions of space and time, are constructed in the form of infinite integrals for both the diffusion description and transport description. These expressions are evaluated numerically and the benchmark results are generated. The asymptotic solutions for large and small times are also derived in terms of elementary functions and are compared with the exact results. Comparisons are given between the transport and diffusion solutions and between the grey and non-grey solutions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  16. Rough Neutrosophic Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Based on Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents rough netrosophic multiattribute decision making based on grey relational analysis. While the concept of neutrosophic sets is a powerful logic to deal with indeterminate and inconsistent data, the theory of rough neutrosophic sets is also a powerful mathematical tool to deal with incompleteness. The rating of all alternatives is expressed with the upper and lower approximation operator and the pair of neutrosophic sets which are characterized by truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsitymembership degree. Weight of each attribute is partially known to decision maker. We extend the neutrosophic grey relational analysis method to rough neutrosophic grey relational analysis method and apply it to multiattribute decision making problem. Information entropy method is used to obtain the partially known attribute weights. Accumulated geometric operator is defined to transform rough neutrosophic number (neutrosophic pair to single valued neutrosophic number. Neutrosophic grey relational coefficient is determined by using Hamming distance between each alternative to ideal rough neutrosophic estimates reliability solution and the ideal rough neutrosophic estimates un-reliability solution. Then rough neutrosophic relational degree is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.

  17. Examining the Determinants of China’s Inward FDI Using Grey Matrix Relational Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang JIANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grey relational analysis (GRA model is an important part of grey system theory, which is used to ascertain the relational grade between an influential factor and the major behavior factor. Most of GRA models are mainly applied to the field in which the behavior factor and influential factor are the cross-sectional or time series data in a given system. However, owing to the panel data contains plenty information including individual and time characteristics, the traditional GRA model cannot be applied to panel data analysis. To overcome this drawback, the grey matrix relational analysis model is applied to measure the similarity of panel data from two dimensions of individual and time on the basis of the definition of the matrix sequence of a discrete data sequence. This paper examines the determinants of inward foreign direct investment (IFDI in China using grey matrix relational analysis model. The study finds that the GDP per capita, enrollment of regular institutions of higher education, and internal expenditure on R&D are the key factors of IFDI.

  18. The feather damaging Grey parrot: an analysis of its behaviour and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 10-15%, feather damaging behaviour (FDB) is a common behavioural disorder in captive parrots (in particular Grey parrots, the species studied in this thesis) that may have aesthetic, medical and welfare consequences and often results in relinquishment or euthanasia.

  19. The habitat and associated bird assemblages of the Grey-headed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Grey-headed Parrot Poicephalus fuscicollis suahelicus has a widespread distribution in sub-Saharan Africa yet is uncommon in its natural range. In some areas seasonal movements are recorded. This study, conducted in north-eastern South Africa, showed that habitat use varied seasonally between two sites, Levubu ...

  20. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Frings

    Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD dementia are characterised by progressive brain atrophy. Longitudinal MRI volumetry may help to characterise ongoing structural degeneration and support the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. Automated, observer-independent atlas-based MRI volumetry was applied to analyse 102 MRI data sets from 15 bvFTD, 14 AD, and 10 healthy elderly control participants with consecutive scans over at least 12 months. Anatomically defined targets were chosen a priori as brain structures of interest. Groups were compared regarding volumes at clinic presentation and annual change rates. Baseline volumes, especially of grey matter compartments, were significantly reduced in bvFTD and AD patients. Grey matter volumes of the caudate and the gyrus rectus were significantly smaller in bvFTD than AD. The bvFTD group could be separated from AD on the basis of caudate volume with high accuracy (79% cases correct. Annual volume decline was markedly larger in bvFTD and AD than controls, predominantly in white matter of temporal structures. Decline in grey matter volume of the lateral orbitofrontal gyrus separated bvFTD from AD and controls. Automated longitudinal MRI volumetry discriminates bvFTD from AD. In particular, greater reduction of orbitofrontal grey matter and temporal white matter structures after 12 months is indicative of bvFTD.

  1. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the green, blue and grey water footprint of global crop production in a spatially-explicit way for the period 1996–2005. The assessment improves upon earlier research by taking a high-resolution approach, estimating the water footprint of 126 crops at a 5 by 5 arc minute grid.

  2. Grey seal attacks on harbour porpoises in the Eastern Scheldt: cases of survival and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podt, Annemieke; IJsseldijk, L.L.

    2017-01-01

    In the southern North Sea, hundreds of mutilated harbour porpoise carcasses (Phocoena phocoena) are found each year on beaches. Recent studies have confirmed that these concern the remains of predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). A retrospective study of post mortem photos helped to further

  3. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Begeman, L.; van Bleijswijk, J.D.L.; IJsseldijk, L.L.; Witte, H.; Gröne, A.

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal

  4. Albinistic common seals (Phoca vitulina) and melanistic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) rehabilitated in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Nynke; 't Hart, Pieter; Vader, Pieter C. van Voorst

    2010-01-01

    The Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in Pieterburen, The Netherlands, rehabilitates seals from the waters of the Wadden Sea, North Sea and Southwest Delta area. Incidental observations of albinism and melanism in common and grey seals are known from countries surrounding the North Sea.

  5. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Brett A; Goldizen, Anne W; Thomson, Vicki A; Seddon, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales) experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  6. The impact of the 1993 Braer oil spill on grey seals in Shetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, AilsaJ.; Watkins, John; Hiby, Lex

    1996-01-01

    Signs of acute respiratory distress were reported in moulting grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) hauled out on Lady's Holm, Shetland, following the Braer oil spill in January, 1993. Behavioural observations carried out between 16 January and 13 February 1993 showed that the proportion of animals exhibiting a discharge of nasal mucus was significantly higher than the proportion at a control site in the north (Papa Stour). The proportion of animals affected on Lady's Holm increased for up to one month following the spill. However, the time lag between exposure and peak response was approximately 30 days, longer than may be expected for an acute effect. The proportion of non-specific signs of respiratory distress in unexposed Shetland seals was assessed from observations made between 16 January and 25 January 1994. Symptoms similar to those seen in 1993 were also reported during this period, but the proportion of affected animals was higher in 1993. Symptoms were not observed at a grey seal moult site on the east coast of England in March 1993 and 1994. Grey seals moulting in Shetland during the time of the oil spill may have been acutely affected by exposure to hydrocarbons, but without sufficient baseline data on the occurrence of respiratory distress in grey seals it is difficult to determine the proportion attributable to other causes

  7. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  8. Fatal infection in three Grey Slender Lorises (Loris lydekkerianus nordicus) caused by clonally related Trueperella pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Samy; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Eisenberg, Tobias; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Schauerte, Nicole; Geiger, Christina; Kaim, Ute; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Becker, André; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2017-08-29

    Trueperella pyogenes is a worldwide known bacterium causing mastitis, abortion and various other pyogenic infections in domestic animals like ruminants and pigs. In this study we represent the first case report of three unusual fatal infections of Grey Slender Lorises caused by Trueperella pyogenes. Meanwhile, this study represents the first in-depth description of the multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on T. pyogenes species. Three Trueperella pyogenes were isolated from three different Grey Slender Lorises, which died within a period of two years at Frankfurt Zoo (Frankfurt am Main - Germany). The three Grey Slender Loris cases were suffering from severe sepsis and died from its complication. During the bacteriological investigation of the three cases, the T. pyogenes were isolated from different organisms in each case. The epidemiological relationship between the three isolates could be shown by four genomic DNA fingerprint methods (ERIC-PCR, BOX-PCR, (GTG) 5 -PCR, and RAPD-PCR) and by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) investigating four different housekeeping genes (fusA-tuf-metG-gyrA). In this study, we clearly showed by means of using three different rep-PCRs, by RAPD-PCR and by MLSA that the genomic fingerprinting of the investigated three T. pyogenes have the same clonal origin and are genetically identical. These results suggest that the same isolate contaminated the animal's facility and subsequently caused cross infection between the three different Grey Slender Lorises. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological approach concentrating on T. pyogenes using MLSA.

  9. Grey Parrot Number Acquisition: The Inference of Cardinal Value from Ordinal Position on the Numeral List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.; Carey, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A Grey parrot ("Psittacus erithacus") had previously been taught to use English count words ("one" through "sih" [six]) to label sets of one to six individual items (Pepperberg, 1994). He had also been taught to use the same count words to label the Arabic numerals 1 through 6. Without training, he inferred the relationship between the Arabic…

  10. Preserving the Digital Record of Science and Engineering: The Challenge of New Forms of Grey Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Research communications today are largely conducted by digital means. At this time, however, only a small percentage of these digital communiques are archived and preserved for future use. This article provides an overview of the challenge of this digital grey literature, a brief overview of digital archiving, and the role librarians and…

  11. Managing the Grey Literature of a Discipline through Collaboration: AgEcon Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Julia; Letnes, Louise

    2005-01-01

    AgEcon Search, http://www.agecon.lib.umn.edu, is an important and ground-breaking example of an alternative method of delivering current research results to many potential users. AgEcon Search, through a distributed model, collects and disseminates the grey literature of the fields of agricultural and resource economics. The development of this…

  12. Neuronal nets in robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Sanchez, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives a generic idea of the solutions that the neuronal nets contribute to the robotics. The advantages and the inconveniences are exposed that have regarding the conventional techniques. It also describe the more excellent applications as the pursuit of trajectories, the positioning based on images, the force control or of the mobile robots management, among others

  13. Periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid changes by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Zikou, Anastasia; Xydis, Vassilios; Kosta, Paraskevi; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G. [University of Ioannina, Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Intensive Care Unit, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2009-12-15

    Brain plasticity in patients with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) may suggest grey matter (GM) changes. To assess the volume of 116 GM areas and total volume of GM, white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in preterm children with PVL, using the Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) and the Individual Brain Atlases Statistical Parametric Mapping (IBASPM) toolboxes. Ten preterm children (gestational age 31.7{+-}4.2 weeks, corrected age 27.8{+-}21.7 months) with PVL and 46 matched, preterm control subjects were studied using a three-dimensional T1-weighted sequence. Volumes were calculated using SPM5 and IBASPM. GM volume in frontal superior orbital, posterior cingulum and lingual gyrus, the putamen and thalamus was significantly higher in children with PVL (3.6{+-}0.6 cm{sup 3}, 2.0{+-}0.5 cm{sup 3}, 9.7{+-}1.7 cm{sup 3}, 2.5{+-}0.6 cm{sup 3}, 2.6{+-}0.9 cm{sup 3}, respectively) than in controls (3.1{+-}0.7 cm{sup 3}, 1.5{+-}0.2 cm{sup 3}, 8.2{+-}1.3 cm{sup 3}, 1.7{+-}1.4 cm{sup 3}, 1.8{+-}0.4 cm{sup 3}, respectively). White matter volume was lower (182.1{+-}40.5 cm{sup 3}) and CSF volume was higher (300.8{+-}56.2 cm{sup 3}) in children with PVL than in controls (222.9{+-}67.2 cm{sup 3}, 219.0{+-}61.8 cm{sup 3}, respectively), P<0.05. No significant difference was found in the total GM volume and the volume of neocortex. Preterm children with PVL show regional GM volume increase, possibly explained by axonal sprouting, neuronal hypertrophy and neurogenesis, which in turn may reflect brain plasticity. (orig.)

  14. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana [IRCCS Neuromed, Neurogenetics Unit and Centre for Rare Disease, Pozzilli (Italy); Romanelli, Pantaleo [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Neurosurgery, Pozzilli (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, La Spezia (Italy); Frati, Luigi [University ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Second University of Naples, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  15. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana; Romanelli, Pantaleo; Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea; Frati, Luigi; Mansi, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  16. Complex inheritance of melanoma and pigmentation of coat and skin in Grey horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    Full Text Available The dominant phenotype of greying with age in horses, caused by a 4.6-kb duplication in intron 6 of STX17, is associated with a high incidence of melanoma and vitiligo-like skin depigmentation. However, the progressive greying and the incidence of melanoma, vitiligo-like depigmentation, and amount of speckling in these horses do not follow a simple inheritance pattern. To understand their inheritance, we analysed the melanoma grade, grey level, vitiligo grade, and speckling grade of 1,119 Grey horses (7,146 measurements measured in six countries over a 9-year period. We estimated narrow sense heritability (h(2, and we decomposed this parameter into polygenic heritability (h(2 (POLY, heritability due to the Grey (STX17 mutation (h(2 (STX17, and heritability due to agouti (ASIP locus (h(2 (ASIP. A high heritability was found for greying (h(2 = 0.79, vitiligo (h(2 = 0.63, and speckling (h(2 = 0.66, while a moderate heritability was estimated for melanoma (h(2 = 0.37. The additive component of ASIP was significantly different from zero only for melanoma (h(2 (ASIP = 0.02. STX17 controlled large proportions of phenotypic variance (h(2 (STX17 = 0.18-0.55 and overall heritability (h(2 (STX17/h(2 = 0.28-0.83 for all traits. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated as moderate to high, primarily due to the effects of the STX17 locus. Nevertheless, the correlation between progressive greying and vitiligo-like depigmentation remained large even after taking into account the effects of STX17. We presented a model where four traits with complex inheritance patterns are strongly influenced by a single mutation. This is in line with evidence of recent studies in domestic animals indicating that some complex traits are, in addition to the large number of genes with small additive effects, influenced by genes of moderate-to-large effect. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the STX17 mutation explains to a large extent the

  17. Vasculo-Neuronal Coupling: Retrograde Vascular Communication to Brain Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Jung; Ramiro Diaz, Juan; Iddings, Jennifer A; Filosa, Jessica A

    2016-12-14

    Continuous cerebral blood flow is essential for neuronal survival, but whether vascular tone influences resting neuronal function is not known. Using a multidisciplinary approach in both rat and mice brain slices, we determined whether flow/pressure-evoked increases or decreases in parenchymal arteriole vascular tone, which result in arteriole constriction and dilation, respectively, altered resting cortical pyramidal neuron activity. We present evidence for intercellular communication in the brain involving a flow of information from vessel to astrocyte to neuron, a direction opposite to that of classic neurovascular coupling and referred to here as vasculo-neuronal coupling (VNC). Flow/pressure increases within parenchymal arterioles increased vascular tone and simultaneously decreased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. On the other hand, flow/pressure decreases evoke parenchymal arteriole dilation and increased resting pyramidal neuron firing activity. In GLAST-CreERT2; R26-lsl-GCaMP3 mice, we demonstrate that increased parenchymal arteriole tone significantly increased intracellular calcium in perivascular astrocyte processes, the onset of astrocyte calcium changes preceded the inhibition of cortical pyramidal neuronal firing activity. During increases in parenchymal arteriole tone, the pyramidal neuron response was unaffected by blockers of nitric oxide, GABA A , glutamate, or ecto-ATPase. However, VNC was abrogated by TRPV4 channel, GABA B , as well as an adenosine A 1 receptor blocker. Differently to pyramidal neuron responses, increases in flow/pressure within parenchymal arterioles increased the firing activity of a subtype of interneuron. Together, these data suggest that VNC is a complex constitutive active process that enables neurons to efficiently adjust their resting activity according to brain perfusion levels, thus safeguarding cellular homeostasis by preventing mismatches between energy supply and demand. We present evidence for vessel-to-neuron

  18. Quantitative comparison of cortical and deep grey matter in pathological subtypes of unilateral cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheck, Simon M; Pannek, Kerstin; Fiori, Simona; Boyd, Roslyn N; Rose, Stephen E

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify grey matter changes in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP), differentiating between cortical or deep grey matter (CDGM) lesions, periventricular white matter (PWM) lesions, and unilateral and bilateral lesions. In a cross-sectional study we obtained high resolution structural magnetic resonance images from 72 children (41 males, 31 females, mean age 10y 9mo [SD 3y 1mo], range 5y 1mo-17y 1mo) with UCP (33 left, 39 right hemiplegia; Manual Ability Classification System level I n=29, II n=43; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n=46, II n=26), and 19 children with typical development (CTD; eight males, 11 females, mean age 11y 2mo [SD 2y 7mo], range 7y 8mo-16y 4mo). Images were classified by lesion type and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and subcortical volumetric analysis. Deep grey matter volumes were not significantly different between children with CDGM and PWM lesions, with the thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus being reduced unilaterally in both groups compared with CTD (p≤0.001). Children with CDGM lesions additionally showed widespread cortical changes involving all lobes using VBM (p<0.01). Children with bilateral lesions had reduced thalamus and putamen volumes bilaterally (p<0.001). The thalamic volume was reduced bilaterally in children with unilateral lesions (p=0.004). Lesions to the PWM cause secondary changes to the deep grey matter structures similar to primary changes seen in CDGM lesions. Despite having a unilateral phenotype, grey matter changes are observed bilaterally, even in children with unilateral lesions. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Grey water treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of grey water in two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and temperatures, was investigated. The first reactor (UASB-A) was operated at ambient temperature (14-25 degrees C) and HRT of 20, 12 and 8 h, while the second reactor (UASB-30) was operated at controlled temperature of 30 degrees C and HRT of 16, 10 and 6 h. The two reactors were fed with grey water from 'Flintenbreite' settlement in Luebeck, Germany. When the grey water was treated in the UASB reactor at 30 degrees C, total chemical oxygen demand (CODt) removal of 52-64% was achieved at HRT between 6 and 16 h, while at lower temperature lower removal (31-41%) was obtained at HRT between 8 and 20 h. Total nitrogen and phosphorous removal in the UASB reactors were limited (22-36 and 10-24%, respectively) at all operational conditions. The results showed that at increasing temperature or decreasing HRT of the reactors, maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge in the reactors improved. As the UASB reactor showed a significantly higher COD removal (31-64%) than the septic tank (11-14%) even at low temperature, it is recommended to use UASB reactor instead of septic tank (the most common system) for grey water pre-treatment. Based on the achieved results and due to high peak flow factor, a HRT between 8 and 12 h can be considered the suitable HRT for the UASB reactor treating grey water at temperature 20-30 degrees C, while a HRT of 12-24 h can be applied at temperature lower than 20 degrees C.

  20. Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinding, Charlotte; Gransjøen, Anne Mari; Schlumberger, Gina; Grushka, Miriam; Frasnelli, Johannes; Singh, Preet Bano

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the mouth, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Latest findings indicate that BMS could result from neuropathic trigeminal conditions. While many investigations have focused on the periphery, very few have examined possible central dysfunctions. To highlight changes of the central system of subjects with BMS, we analysed the grey matter concentration in 12 subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Data were compared with a control group (Ct). To better understand the brain mechanisms underlying BMS, the grey matter concentration of patients was also compared with those of dysgeusic patients (Dys). Dysgeusia is another oral dysfunction condition, characterized by a distorted sense of taste and accompanied by a reduced taste function. We found that a major part of the 'pain matrix' presented modifications of the grey matter concentration in subjects with BMS. Six regions out of eight were affected [anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, lobules of the cerebellum, insula/frontal operculum, inferior temporal area, primary motor cortex, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC)]. In the anterior cingulate gyrus, the lobules of the cerebellum, the inferior temporal lobe and the DLPFC, pain intensity correlated with grey matter concentration. Dys also presented changes in grey matter concentration but in different areas of the brain. Our results suggest that a deficiency in the control of pain could in part be a cause of BMS and that BMS and dysgeusia conditions are not linked to similar structural changes in the brain. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The IGF1 small dog haplotype is derived from Middle Eastern grey wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrander Elaine A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective sweep containing the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with size variation in domestic dogs. Intron 2 of IGF1 contains a SINE element and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP found in all small dog breeds that is almost entirely absent from large breeds. In this study, we surveyed a large sample of grey wolf populations to better understand the ancestral pattern of variation at IGF1 with a particular focus on the distribution of the small dog haplotype and its relationship to the origin of the dog. Results We present DNA sequence data that confirms the absence of the derived small SNP allele in the intron 2 region of IGF1 in a large sample of grey wolves and further establishes the absence of a small dog associated SINE element in all wild canids and most large dog breeds. Grey wolf haplotypes from the Middle East have higher nucleotide diversity suggesting an origin there. Additionally, PCA and phylogenetic analyses suggests a closer kinship of the small domestic dog IGF1 haplotype with those from Middle Eastern grey wolves. Conclusions The absence of both the SINE element and SNP allele in grey wolves suggests that the mutation for small body size post-dates the domestication of dogs. However, because all small dogs possess these diagnostic mutations, the mutations likely arose early in the history of domestic dogs. Our results show that the small dog haplotype is closely related to those in Middle Eastern wolves and is consistent with an ancient origin of the small dog haplotype there. Thus, in concordance with past archeological studies, our molecular analysis is consistent with the early evolution of small size in dogs from the Middle East. See associated opinion by Driscoll and Macdonald: http://jbiol.com/content/9/2/10

  2. Voxel-wise grey matter asymmetry analysis in left- and right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Friedrich, Patrick; Güntürkün, Onur; Genç, Erhan

    2016-10-28

    Handedness is thought to originate in the brain, but identifying its structural correlates in the cortex has yielded surprisingly incoherent results. One idea proclaimed by several authors is that structural grey matter asymmetries might underlie handedness. While some authors have found significant associations with handedness in different brain areas (e.g. in the central sulcus and precentral sulcus), others have failed to identify such associations. One method used by many researchers to determine structural grey matter asymmetries is voxel based morphometry (VBM). However, it has recently been suggested that the standard VBM protocol might not be ideal to assess structural grey matter asymmetries, as it establishes accurate voxel-wise correspondence across individuals but not across both hemispheres. This could potentially lead to biased and incoherent results. Recently, a new toolbox specifically geared at assessing structural asymmetries and involving accurate voxel-wise correspondence across hemispheres has been published [F. Kurth, C. Gaser, E. Luders. A 12-step user guide for analyzing voxel-wise gray matter asymmetries in statistical parametric mapping (SPM), Nat Protoc 10 (2015), 293-304]. Here, we used this new toolbox to re-assess grey matter asymmetry differences in left- vs. right-handers and linked them to quantitative measures of hand preference and hand skill. While we identified several significant left-right asymmetries in the overall sample, no difference between left- and right-handers reached significance after correction for multiple comparisons. These findings indicate that the structural brain correlates of handedness are unlikely to be rooted in macroscopic grey matter area differences that can be assessed with VBM. Future studies should focus on other potential structural correlates of handedness, e.g. structural white matter asymmetries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of the brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy - differences between normal grey and white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukowski, P.; Podgorski, P.; Guzinski, M.; Szewczyk, P.; Sasiadek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic method that allows for an assessment of the metabolite concentration in tissues. The sources of the strongest resonance signals within the brain are N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI) and water. The aim of our study was to analyse the ratios of metabolite signals within the brain in HMRS in the healthy population, to define the differences between the grey and white matter spectra. Material/Methods: We studied prospectively 90 subjects aged from 8 to 80 years (mean 43.3 years, SD=17.9), without neurological symptoms or abnormalities in magnetic resonance imaging. In all patients, brain HMRS with Signa HDx 1.5 T MR unit (GE Healthcare) was performed with PRESS sequence, using a single voxel method, at TE of 35 ms and TR of 1500 ms. Spectroscopic evaluation involved voxels placed in the white matter of parietal lobe (PWM) and the grey matter of posterior cingulate gyrus (PGM). On the basis of the intensity of NAA, Cr, Cho, mI and water signals, the proportions of these signals were calculated, as well as the ratio of the analyzed metabolite signal to the sum of signals of NAA, Cho, Cr and mI (%Met) in the PGM and PWM voxels. We compared the proportions in the same patients in PGM and PWM voxels. Results: There has been a statistically significant difference between the proportions of a majority of the metabolite ratios evaluated in PGM and PWM, indicating the higher concentration of NAA, Cr and mI in grey matter, and higher concentration of Cho in white matter. Conclusions: HMRS spectra of the brain grey and white matter differ significantly. The concentrations of NAA, Cr and mI are higher in grey matter, while of choline - in the white matter. (authors)

  4. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  5. Neuronal survival in the brain: neuron type-specific mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, Ulrich Gottfried; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic regions of mammalian brain produce many more neurons that will eventually survive and reach a mature stage. Developmental cell death affects both embryonically produced immature neurons and those immature neurons that are generated in regions of adult neurogenesis. Removal of substantial...... numbers of neurons that are not yet completely integrated into the local circuits helps to ensure that maturation and homeostatic function of neuronal networks in the brain proceed correctly. External signals from brain microenvironment together with intrinsic signaling pathways determine whether...... for survival in a certain brain region. This review focuses on how immature neurons survive during normal and impaired brain development, both in the embryonic/neonatal brain and in brain regions associated with adult neurogenesis, and emphasizes neuron type-specific mechanisms that help to survive for various...

  6. A Novel Grey Prediction Model Combining Markov Chain with Functional-Link Net and Its Application to Foreign Tourist Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chung Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grey prediction models for time series have been widely applied to demand forecasting because only limited data are required for them to build a time series model without any statistical assumptions. Previous studies have demonstrated that the combination of grey prediction with neural networks helps grey prediction perform better. Some methods have been presented to improve the prediction accuracy of the popular GM(1,1 model by using the Markov chain to estimate the residual needed to modify a predicted value. Compared to the previous Grey-Markov models, this study contributes to apply the functional-link net to estimate the degree to which a predicted value obtained from the GM(1,1 model can be adjusted. Furthermore, the troublesome number of states and their bounds that are not easily specified in Markov chain have been determined by a genetic algorithm. To verify prediction performance, the proposed grey prediction model was applied to an important grey system problem—foreign tourist forecasting. Experimental results show that the proposed model provides satisfactory results compared to the other Grey-Markov models considered.

  7. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  8. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Elías Hernández

    Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  9. An overview of exposure to, and effects of, petroleum oil and organochlorine pollution in Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, BjoernMunro

    1996-01-01

    Most incidences involving oil pollution of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) seem to have occurred at the breeding sites. Because of the high concentration of animals at this time, even small oil spills will pollute many animals. As a result of chronic low-level pollution from coastal ship traffic and discharges from offshore petroleum activity in the North Sea, 50% of the grey seal pups at the largest breeding colony in Norway are polluted each year by oil. This oil pollution, as well as other cases of spills at breeding colonies, shows that oil produced little visible disturbance to the seals' behaviour and there is little mortality. The effects and mortality may, however, be more serious following a spill of crude oil, where animals may be affected by inhalation of toxic volatile compounds. High body burdens of PCBs and DDTs seem to have caused skull-bone lesions and occlusions of the uteri in grey seals in the Baltic Sea. Exposure to these persistent compounds has also been suspected to be the cause of reduction in the population of Baltic grey seals. There are indications that thyroid hormone and vitamin A status of grey seal pups are affected by the low exposure concentrations experienced at the Norwegian coast (1/20 of the concentration detected in grey seal pups from the Baltic Sea). This gives serious cause for concern about the effects that chronic low-level exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants may have on individuals and on populations of grey seals

  10. Increased Grey Matter Associated with Long-Term Sahaja Yoga Meditation: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.

  11. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  12. Neuronal synchrony: peculiarity and generality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Thomas; Huerta, Ramon; Rabinovich, Mikhail I

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization in neuronal systems is a new and intriguing application of dynamical systems theory. Why are neuronal systems different as a subject for synchronization? (1) Neurons in themselves are multidimensional nonlinear systems that are able to exhibit a wide variety of different activity patterns. Their "dynamical repertoire" includes regular or chaotic spiking, regular or chaotic bursting, multistability, and complex transient regimes. (2) Usually, neuronal oscillations are the result of the cooperative activity of many synaptically connected neurons (a neuronal circuit). Thus, it is necessary to consider synchronization between different neuronal circuits as well. (3) The synapses that implement the coupling between neurons are also dynamical elements and their intrinsic dynamics influences the process of synchronization or entrainment significantly. In this review we will focus on four new problems: (i) the synchronization in minimal neuronal networks with plastic synapses (synchronization with activity dependent coupling), (ii) synchronization of bursts that are generated by a group of nonsymmetrically coupled inhibitory neurons (heteroclinic synchronization), (iii) the coordination of activities of two coupled neuronal networks (partial synchronization of small composite structures), and (iv) coarse grained synchronization in larger systems (synchronization on a mesoscopic scale). (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  13. Whole-brain grey matter density predicts balance stability irrespective of age and protects older adults from falling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-03-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. From Neurons to Newtons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    proteins generate forces, to the macroscopic levels where overt arm movements are vol- untarily controlled within an unpredictable environment by legions of neurons¯ring in orderly fashion. An extensive computer simulation system has been developed for this thesis, which at present contains a neural...... network scripting language for specifying arbitrary neural architectures, de¯nition ¯les for detailed spinal networks, various biologically realistic models of neurons, and dynamic synapses. Also included are structurally accurate models of intrafusal and extra-fusal muscle ¯bers and a general body...... that an explicit function may be derived which expresses the force that the spindle contractile elements must produce to exactly counter spindle unloading during muscle shortening. This information was used to calculate the corresponding "optimal" °-motoneuronal activity level. For some simple arm movement tasks...

  15. Criticality in Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Nir; Ito, Shinya; Brinkman, Braden A. W.; Shimono, Masanori; Deville, R. E. Lee; Beggs, John M.; Dahmen, Karin A.; Butler, Tom C.

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, experiments detecting the electrical firing patterns in slices of in vitro brain tissue have been analyzed to suggest the presence of scale invariance and possibly criticality in the brain. Much of the work done however has been limited in two ways: 1) the data collected is from local field potentials that do not represent the firing of individual neurons; 2) the analysis has been primarily limited to histograms. In our work we examine data based on the firing of individual neurons (spike data), and greatly extend the analysis by considering shape collapse and exponents. Our results strongly suggest that the brain operates near a tuned critical point of a highly distinctive universality class.

  16. Partial volume correction and image segmentation for accurate measurement of standardized uptake value of grey matter in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Gonca; Torigian, Drew; Basu, Sandip; Houseni, Mohamed; Zhuge, Ying; Rubello, Domenico; Udupa, Jayaram; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to explore a novel quantitative method [based upon an MRI-based image segmentation that allows actual calculation of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes] for overcoming the difficulties associated with conventional techniques for measuring actual metabolic activity of the grey matter. We included four patients with normal brain MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET scans (two women and two men; mean age 46±14 years) in this analysis. The time interval between the two scans was 0-180 days. We calculated the volumes of grey matter, white matter and CSF by using a novel segmentation technique applied to the MRI images. We measured the mean standardized uptake value (SUV) representing the whole metabolic activity of the brain from the F-FDG-PET images. We also calculated the white matter SUV from the upper transaxial slices (centrum semiovale) of the F-FDG-PET images. The whole brain volume was calculated by summing up the volumes of the white matter, grey matter and CSF. The global cerebral metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV with total brain volume. The whole brain white matter metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV for the white matter by the white matter volume. The global cerebral metabolic activity only reflects those of the grey matter and the white matter, whereas that of the CSF is zero. We subtracted the global white matter metabolic activity from that of the whole brain, resulting in the global grey matter metabolism alone. We then divided the grey matter global metabolic activity by grey matter volume to accurately calculate the SUV for the grey matter alone. The brain volumes ranged between 1546 and 1924 ml. The mean SUV for total brain was 4.8-7. Total metabolic burden of the brain ranged from 5565 to 9617. The mean SUV for white matter was 2.8-4.1. On the basis of these measurements we generated the grey matter SUV, which ranged from 8.1 to 11.3. The

  17. Growth and development of chicks of two species of partridge: the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and the chukar (Alectoris chukar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pis, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    1. In two partridge species, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix) and chukar (Alectoris chukar), from hatching up to 120 d, the growth rate and development of body mass, wing, tarsus, and bill length were measured and fitted by Gompertz equations. 2. As a typical precocial species, partridges hatched with relatively well developed legs and bills, and wing growth followed a gradual development of thermoregulation. 3. Gompertz growth constants for body mass growth were 0·039 and 0·038 for grey partridges and chukars, respectively. 4. The allometric relationship between tarsus length and body mass followed a geometric similarity (1/3 power) in both grey partridges and chukars.

  18. Status of grey seals along mainland Europe from the Southwestern Baltic to France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal was a common species along mainland Europe during the Stone Age (8,000-5,500 BC. Along the North Sea coast populations started to decline substantially during the 11th century as a result of excessive hunting. The last breeding populations disappeared in the 16th century in the Wadden Sea, and before 1900 in the Kattegat-Skagerrak and the Southwestern Baltic as a result of an extermination campaign. No regular pupping occurred along mainland Europe until the end of the 1970s, when a breeding colony was established near Amrum in the German Wadden Sea. Somewhat later, additional breeding sites were discovered near Terschelling in the Dutch Wadden Sea (1980, at Helgoland, and off Brittany in France. Tracking of movements indicate these seal groups to be linked to the larger populations in the UK. Numbers of grey seals in the recolonised areas have increased over the years, but in the Kattegat-Skagerrak stable numbersof about 25 individuals have been observed since the 1970s, whereas more than 100 grey seals are found in the Southwestern Baltic. In the southeastern North Sea, 120 grey seals occur during moult at Helgoland, 120 in the German and over 1,130 in the Dutch parts of the Wadden Sea in 2004. Along the southern Dutch and Belgian coasts small groups are regularly observed, but no colonies have yet been established. In the colonies off Brittany in France about 105 grey seals have been counted. Successful pupping has only been recorded 3 times in the Kattegat-Skagerrak over the past 30 years, and 2-4 pups are born annually in France and the Southwestern Baltic. The relative strongholds for breeding along the European continent are the Dutch Wadden Sea, where in 2003/2004 at least 150 pups were recorded, Amrum in the German Wadden Sea (23 pups and Helgoland (8 pups. Consequently, total numbers of counted grey seals from the Southwestern Baltic to France amounted to at least 1,600 in 2004, while about 190 pups were born in the area.

  19. Parvalbumin+ Neurons and Npas1+ Neurons Are Distinct Neuron Classes in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vivian M; Hegeman, Daniel J; Cui, Qiaoling; Kelver, Daniel A; Fiske, Michael P; Glajch, Kelly E; Pitt, Jason E; Huang, Tina Y; Justice, Nicholas J; Chan, C Savio

    2015-08-26

    Compelling evidence suggests that pathological activity of the external globus pallidus (GPe), a nucleus in the basal ganglia, contributes to the motor symptoms of a variety of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have challenged the idea that the GPe comprises a single, homogenous population of neurons that serves as a simple relay in the indirect pathway. However, we still lack a full understanding of the diversity of the neurons that make up the GPe. Specifically, a more precise classification scheme is needed to better describe the fundamental biology and function of different GPe neuron classes. To this end, we generated a novel multicistronic BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line under the regulatory elements of the Npas1 gene. Using a combinatorial transgenic and immunohistochemical approach, we discovered that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons in the GPe represent two nonoverlapping cell classes, amounting to 55% and 27% of the total GPe neuron population, respectively. These two genetically identified cell classes projected primarily to the subthalamic nucleus and to the striatum, respectively. Additionally, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons were distinct in their autonomous and driven firing characteristics, their expression of intrinsic ion conductances, and their responsiveness to chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. In summary, our data argue that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons are two distinct functional classes of GPe neurons. This work revises our understanding of the GPe, and provides the foundation for future studies of its function and dysfunction. Until recently, the heterogeneity of the constituent neurons within the external globus pallidus (GPe) was not fully appreciated. We addressed this knowledge gap by discovering two principal GPe neuron classes, which were identified by their nonoverlapping expression of the

  20. Parvalbumin+ Neurons and Npas1+ Neurons Are Distinct Neuron Classes in the Mouse External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Vivian M.; Hegeman, Daniel J.; Cui, Qiaoling; Kelver, Daniel A.; Fiske, Michael P.; Glajch, Kelly E.; Pitt, Jason E.; Huang, Tina Y.; Justice, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that pathological activity of the external globus pallidus (GPe), a nucleus in the basal ganglia, contributes to the motor symptoms of a variety of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Recent studies have challenged the idea that the GPe comprises a single, homogenous population of neurons that serves as a simple relay in the indirect pathway. However, we still lack a full understanding of the diversity of the neurons that make up the GPe. Specifically, a more precise classification scheme is needed to better describe the fundamental biology and function of different GPe neuron classes. To this end, we generated a novel multicistronic BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) transgenic mouse line under the regulatory elements of the Npas1 gene. Using a combinatorial transgenic and immunohistochemical approach, we discovered that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons in the GPe represent two nonoverlapping cell classes, amounting to 55% and 27% of the total GPe neuron population, respectively. These two genetically identified cell classes projected primarily to the subthalamic nucleus and to the striatum, respectively. Additionally, parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons were distinct in their autonomous and driven firing characteristics, their expression of intrinsic ion conductances, and their responsiveness to chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. In summary, our data argue that parvalbumin-expressing neurons and Npas1-expressing neurons are two distinct functional classes of GPe neurons. This work revises our understanding of the GPe, and provides the foundation for future studies of its function and dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Until recently, the heterogeneity of the constituent neurons within the external globus pallidus (GPe) was not fully appreciated. We addressed this knowledge gap by discovering two principal GPe neuron classes, which were identified by their nonoverlapping

  1. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M; Romeo, F; Inoue, S; Niklison-Chirou, M V; Elia, A J; Dinsdale, D; Morone, N; Knight, R A; Mak, T W; Melino, G

    2016-09-01

    Newly generated neurons pass through a series of well-defined developmental stages, which allow them to integrate into existing neuronal circuits. After exit from the cell cycle, postmitotic neurons undergo neuronal migration, axonal elongation, axon pruning, dendrite morphogenesis and synaptic maturation and plasticity. Lack of a global metabolic analysis during early cortical neuronal development led us to explore the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biology during ex vivo differentiation of primary cortical neurons. Unexpectedly, we observed a huge increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Changes in mitochondrial mass, morphology and function were correlated with the upregulation of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, TFAM and PGC-1α. Concomitant with mitochondrial biogenesis, we observed an increase in glucose metabolism during neuronal differentiation, which was linked to an increase in glucose uptake and enhanced GLUT3 mRNA expression and platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKp) protein expression. In addition, glutamate-glutamine metabolism was also increased during the differentiation of cortical neurons. We identified PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling as a critical regulator role of energy metabolism in neurons. Selective pharmacological inhibition of these metabolic pathways indicate existence of metabolic checkpoint that need to be satisfied in order to allow neuronal differentiation.

  2. A hybrid method of grey relational analysis and data envelopment analysis for evaluating and selecting efficient suppliers plus a novel ranking method for grey numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sayyah Markabi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Evaluation and selection of efficient suppliers is one of the key issues in supply chain management which depends on wide range of qualitative and quantitative criteria. The aim of this research is to develop a mathematical model for evaluating and selecting efficient suppliers when faced with supply and demand uncertainties.Design/methodology/approach: In this research Grey Relational Analysis (GRA and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA are used to evaluate and select efficient suppliers under uncertainties. Furthermore, a novel ranking method is introduced for the units that their efficiencies are obtained in the form of interval grey numbers.Findings: The study indicates that the proposed model in addition to providing satisfactory and acceptable results avoids time-consuming computations and consequently reduces the solution time. To name another advantage of the proposed model, we can point out that it enables us to make decision based on different levels of risk.Originality/value: The paper presents a mathematical model for evaluating and selecting efficient suppliers in a stochastic environment so that companies can use in order to make better decisions.

  3. Grey signal processing and data reconstruction in the non-diffracting beam triangulation measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hao; Wang, Zhongyu; Fu, Jihua

    2008-12-01

    The non-diffracting beam triangulation measurement system possesses the advantages of longer measurement range, higher theoretical measurement accuracy and higher resolution over the traditional laser triangulation measurement system. Unfortunately the measurement accuracy of the system is greatly degraded due to the speckle noise, the CCD photoelectric noise and the background light noise in practical applications. Hence, some effective signal processing methods must be applied to improve the measurement accuracy. In this paper a novel effective method for removing the noises in the non-diffracting beam triangulation measurement system is proposed. In the method the grey system theory is used to process and reconstruct the measurement signal. Through implementing the grey dynamic filtering based on the dynamic GM(1,1), the noises can be effectively removed from the primary measurement data and the measurement accuracy of the system can be improved as a result.

  4. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  5. Microstructure Formation and Fracturing Characteristics of Grey Cast Iron Repaired Using Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Shi, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased. PMID:25032230

  6. The grey fovea sign of macular oedema or subfoveal fluid on non-stereoscopic fundus photographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Pascal W; Soliman, Wael; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the grey fovea sign of fovea-involving macular oedema or subretinal fluid accumulation in red-free fundus photography. METHODS: A test set of 91 digital fundus photographs of good quality from 100 consecutive eyes in 72 patients with diabetic retinopathy or central serous...... chorioretinopathy was composed by one of the investigators and evaluated by four masked observers. The photographs were graded as to whether a normal dark fovea was present or absent. The reference method was foveal thickness measurement using optical coherence tomography (OCT). RESULTS: Eyes graded as having...... a grey fovea on fundus photographs (n = 67) had a median foveal thickness of 279 μm (interquartile range 130 μm), whereas eyes graded as having a normal dark fovea (n = 24) had a median foveal thickness of 238 μm (interquartile range 44.5 μm, p = 0.025). CONCLUSION: The absence of a dark fovea on red...

  7. Conjunctival flora of healthy and diseased eyes of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus): implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, M; Bexton, S

    2016-07-23

    Ocular pathology is relatively common in stranded seals admitted to wildlife rehabilitation hospitals. Some have pre-existing problems, while others develop eye problems in captivity, and in particular ulcerative keratitis, due to factors such as large prominent eyes, suboptimal water quality, trauma and infighting. Despite treatment, corneal ulcerations can rapidly progress to 'melting' ulcers with subsequent rupture of the globe. In this case series, 32 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) had conjunctival swabs taken on admission to a UK wildlife hospital to identify ocular bacterial flora and nine had subsequent swabs taken after four weeks to see if this changed in captivity. Additionally, nine seals with ocular pathology were also swabbed. Although a wide range of bacteria were cultured on admission, the most common isolates were Gemella haemolysans, Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens All 'melting' ulcers were associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which suggests this bacterial species may be significant in the pathogenesis of progressive stromal ulceration in grey seals. British Veterinary Association.

  8. An Analysis of Bank Service Satisfaction Based on Quantile Regression and Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tsao Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bank service satisfaction is vital to the success of a bank. In this paper, we propose to use the grey relational analysis to gauge the levels of service satisfaction of the banks. With the grey relational analysis, we compared the effects of different variables on service satisfaction. We gave ranks to the banks according to their levels of service satisfaction. We further used the quantile regression model to find the variables that affected the satisfaction of a customer at a specific quantile of satisfaction level. The result of the quantile regression analysis provided a bank manager with information to formulate policies to further promote satisfaction of the customers at different quantiles of satisfaction level. We also compared the prediction accuracies of the regression models at different quantiles. The experiment result showed that, among the seven quantile regression models, the median regression model has the best performance in terms of RMSE, RTIC, and CE performance measures.

  9. Habitat selection by grey mullets (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae in Mediterranean estuaries: the role of salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A stratified study of microhabitat use by grey mullet on the island of Minorca (Balearic archipelago, western Mediterranean showed that the distribution of all the species was dramatically affected by salinity. Sites with a salinity level under 15 were positively selected in spring and summer by those species whose growth performance was the best in oligomesohaline water (Liza ramado and Mugil cephalus but also by a species whose growth was not affected by salinity (Chelon labrosus. Liza aurata concentrated in polyhaline and euhaline sites, where growth was improved, a pattern also exhibited by Liza saliens. Both species avoided fresh water sites all year round. As a consequence, community structure was correlated with salinity. The above reported electivity patterns often disappeared in autumn, when most grey mullets migrate off-shore.

  10. A grey DEMATEL approach to develop third-party logistics provider selection criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, Roohollah; Vafadarnikjoo, Amin

    2016-01-01

    - The paper's results help managers of automotive industries, particularly in developing countries, to outsource logistics activities to 3PL providers effectively and to create a significant competitive advantage. Originality/value - The main contributions of this paper are twofold. First, this paper proposes...... an integrated grey DEMATEL method to consider interdependent relationships among the 3PL provider selection criteria. Second, this study is one of the first studies to consider 3PL provider selection in a developing country like Iran....... identifies important criteria for 3PL provider selection and evaluation, and the purpose of this paper is to select 3PL providers from the viewpoint of firms which were already outsourcing their logistics services. Design/methodology/approach - This study utilized the grey decision-making trial...

  11. Optimization of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Biodiesel Using Grey-Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutam Pohit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Engine performances and emission characteristics of Karanja oil methyl ester blended with diesel were carried out on a variable compression diesel engine. In order to search for the optimal process response through a limited number of experiment runs, application of Taguchi method in combination with grey relational analysis had been applied for solving a multiple response optimization problem. Using grey relational grade and signal-to-noise ratio as a performance index, a particular combination of input parameters was predicted so as to achieve optimum response characteristics. It was observed that a blend of fifty percent was most suitable for use in a diesel engine without significantly affecting the engine performance and emissions characteristics.

  12. An Optimized Grey Dynamic Model for Forecasting the Output of High-Tech Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Xin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey dynamic model by convolution integral with the first-order derivative of the 1-AGO data and n series related, abbreviated as GDMC(1,n, performs well in modelling and forecasting of a grey system. To improve the modelling accuracy of GDMC(1,n, n interpolation coefficients (taken as unknown parameters are introduced into the background values of the n variables. The parameters optimization is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and is solved collectively using the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The optimized result has been verified by a case study of the economic output of high-tech industry in China. Comparisons of the obtained modelling results from the optimized GDMC(1,n model with the traditional one demonstrate that the optimal algorithm is a good alternative for parameters optimization of the GDMC(1,n model. The modelling results can assist the government in developing future policies regarding high-tech industry management.

  13. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  14. Evolutionary and Holistic Assessment of Green-Grey Infrastructure for CSO Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alida Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests future alterations in rainfall patterns due to climate variability, affecting public safety and health in urban areas. Urban growth, one of the main drivers of change in the current century, will also affect these conditions. Traditional drainage approaches using grey infrastructure offer low adaptation to an uncertain future. New methodologies of stormwater management focus on decentralized approaches in a long-term planning framework, including the use of Green Infrastructure (GI. This work presents a novel methodology to select, evaluate, and place different green-grey practices (or measures for retrofitting urban drainage systems. The methodology uses a hydrodynamic model and multi-objective optimization to design solutions at a watershed level. The method proposed in this study was applied in a highly urbanized watershed to evaluate the effect of these measures on Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO quantity. This approach produced promising results and may become a useful tool for planning and decision making of drainage systems.

  15. Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    With the aid of phase-only spatial light modulators (SLM), generalized phase contrast (GPC) has been applied with great success to the projection of binary light patterns through arbitrary-NA microscope objectives for real-time three-dimensional manipulation of microscopic particles. Here, we...... review the analysis of the GPC method with emphasis on efficiently producing speckle-free two-dimensional grey-level light Patterns. Numerical simulations are applied to construct 8-bit grey-level optical potential landscapes with high fidelity and optical throughput via the GPC method. Three types...... of patterns were constructed: geometric block patterns, multi-level optical trap arrays, and optical obstacle arrays. Non-periodic patterns were accurately projected with an average of 80% diffraction efficiency. Periodic patterns yielded even higher diffraction efficiencies, averaging 94%, by the utilization...

  16. Assessment of SIP Buildings for Sustainable Development in Rural China Using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Libiao; Wang, Hailing; Shi, Chunming; Du, Qiang; Li, Yi

    2017-10-25

    Traditional rural residential construction has the problems of high energy consumption and severe pollution. In general, with sustainable development in the construction industry, rural residential construction should be aimed towards low energy consumption and low carbon emissions. To help achieve this objective, in this paper, we evaluated four different possible building structures using AHP-Grey Correlation Analysis, which consists of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Grey Correlation Analysis. The four structures included the traditional and currently widely used brick and concrete structure, as well as structure insulated panels (SIPs). Comparing the performances of economic benefit and carbon emission, the conclusion that SIPs have the best overall performance can be obtained, providing a reference to help builders choose the most appropriate building structure in rural China.

  17. Grey-scale conversion X-ray mapping by EDS of multielement and multiphase layered microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John; Horsewell, Andy

    2007-01-01

    been obtained for several long-term isothermal heat treatments in which significant interdiffusion has taken place. The resulting composition profiles have greatly improved counting statistics compared to traditional point-by-point scans for the same scanning electron microscope time and may......procedure for grey-scale conversion of energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray maps has been developed, which is particularly useful for the plotting of line composition profiles across modified layered engineering surfaces. The method involves (a) the collection of grey-scale elemental maps, (b......, the procedure has been applied to a layered microstructure that results from a plasma-sprayed metallic MCrAlY coating onto a nickel-superalloy turbine blade. As a further demonstration of the accuracy and amount of compositional data that can be obtained with this procedure, measured compositional profiles have...

  18. Grey Wolf Optimizer Based on Powell Local Optimization Method for Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One heuristic evolutionary algorithm recently proposed is the grey wolf optimizer (GWO, inspired by the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. This paper presents an extended GWO algorithm based on Powell local optimization method, and we call it PGWO. PGWO algorithm significantly improves the original GWO in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. Hence, the PGWO could be applied in solving clustering problems. In this study, first the PGWO algorithm is tested on seven benchmark functions. Second, the PGWO algorithm is used for data clustering on nine data sets. Compared to other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, the results of benchmark and data clustering demonstrate the superior performance of PGWO algorithm.

  19. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid...... nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other...... anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since...

  20. Application of multi response optimization with grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarni, Sri; Wahyu Indratno, Sapto

    2018-01-01

    Multi-response optimization is an optimization process by considering multiple responses simultaneously. The purpose of this research is to get the optimum point on multi-response optimization process using grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic method. The optimum point is determined from the Fuzzy-GRG (Grey Relational Grade) variable which is the conversion of the Signal to Noise Ratio of the responses involved. The case study used in this research are case optimization of electrical process parameters in electrical disharge machining. It was found that the combination of treatments resulting to optimum MRR and SR was a 70 V gap voltage factor, peak current 9 A and duty factor 0.8.

  1. Grey-box state-space identification of nonlinear mechanical vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, J. P.; Schoukens, J.

    2018-05-01

    The present paper deals with the identification of nonlinear mechanical vibrations. A grey-box, or semi-physical, nonlinear state-space representation is introduced, expressing the nonlinear basis functions using a limited number of measured output variables. This representation assumes that the observed nonlinearities are localised in physical space, which is a generic case in mechanics. A two-step identification procedure is derived for the grey-box model parameters, integrating nonlinear subspace initialisation and weighted least-squares optimisation. The complete procedure is applied to an electrical circuit mimicking the behaviour of a single-input, single-output (SISO) nonlinear mechanical system and to a single-input, multiple-output (SIMO) geometrically nonlinear beam structure.

  2. Optimization of cryogenic cooled EDM process parameters using grey relational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S Vinoth; Kumar, M Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on cryogenic cooling of liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) copper electrode in the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. The optimization of the EDM process parameters, such as the electrode environment (conventional electrode and cryogenically cooled electrode in EDM), discharge current, pulse on time, gap voltage on material removal rate, electrode wear, and surface roughness on machining of AlSiCp metal matrix composite using multiple performance characteristics on grey relational analysis was investigated. The L 18 orthogonal array was utilized to examine the process parameters, and the optimal levels of the process parameters were identified through grey relational analysis. Experimental data were analyzed through analysis of variance. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was conducted to study the characteristics of the machined surface.

  3. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  4. Multi-criteria grey relational approach to evaluating reconfigurable manufacturing configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, A. U.

    2017-01-01

    In response to highly dynamic markets, manufacturing industries need alternative feasible manufacturing strategies. The strategy currently adopted is to reconfigure the existing manufacturing system. The conditions to reconfigure existing configurations change from time to time. An attempt is made to identify and apply an approach to evaluate these configurations. The paper proposes a grey relational decision-making approach. The approach takes into account multiple performance measures. The ...

  5. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana; Abdul Salam, P.; Kumar, S.; Untong, Akarapong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period

  6. Grey and white matter changes across the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia continuum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lillo

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD lie on a clinical, pathological and genetic continuum with patients of one disease exhibiting features of the other. Nevertheless, to date, the underlying grey matter and white matter changes across the ALS-FTD disease continuum have not been explored. In this study fifty-three participants with ALS (n = 10, ALS-FTD (n = 10 and behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD; n = 15 as well as controls (n = 18, underwent detailed clinical assessment plus structural imaging using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis of magnetic resonance brain imaging to examine grey and white matter differences and commonalities across the continuum. Importantly, patient groups were matched for age, education, gender and disease duration. VBM and DTI results showed that changes in the ALS group were confined mainly to the motor cortex and anterior cingulate as well as their underlying white matter tracts. ALS-FTD and bvFTD showed widespread grey matter and white matter changes involving frontal and temporal lobes. Extensive prefrontal cortex changes emerged as a marker for bvFTD compared to other subtypes, while ALS-FTD could be distinguished from ALS by additional temporal lobe grey and white matter changes. Finally, ALS could be mainly distinguished from the other two groups by corticospinal tract degeneration. The present study shows for the first time that FTD and ALS overlap in anterior cingulate, motor cortex and related white matter tract changes across the whole continuum. Nevertheless, frontal and temporal atrophy as well as corticospinal tract degeneration emerged as marker for subtype classification, which will inform future diagnosis and target disease management across the continuum.

  7. Juvenile bottlenecks and salinity shape grey mullet assemblages in Mediterranean estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Luis; Hereu, Bernat; Torras, Xavier

    2008-05-01

    Previous research has suggested that competitive bottlenecks may exist for the Mediterranean grey mullets (Osteichthyes, Mugilidae) at the fry stage with the exotic Cyprinus carpio (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) playing a central role. As a consequence, the structure of grey mullet assemblages at later stages is thought to reflect previous competition as well as differences in osmoregulatory skills. This paper tests that hypothesis by examining four predictions about the relative abundance of five grey mullet species in 42 Western Mediterranean estuary sites from three areas (Aiguamolls de l'Empordà, Ebro Delta and Minorca) differing in the salinity level and occurrence of C. carpio. Field data confirmed the predictions as: (1) Liza aurata and Mugil cephalus were scarce everywhere and never dominated the assemblage; (2) Liza saliens dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was higher than 13; (3) Liza ramado always dominated the assemblage where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was present; and (4) Chelon labrosus dominated the assemblage only where the salinity level was lower than 13 and C. carpio was absent. The catch per unit effort of C. labrosus of any size was smaller in the presence of C. carpio than where it had not been introduced, which is in agreement with the juvenile competitive bottleneck hypothesis. Discriminant analysis confirmed that the assemblage structure was linked to the salinity level and the occurrence of C. carpio for both early juveniles and late juveniles as well as adults. The data reported here reveal that the structure of grey mullet assemblages inhabiting Mediterranean estuaries is determined by salinity and competitive interactions at the fry stage.

  8. Analyzing internal barriers for automotive parts remanufacturers in China using grey-DEMATEL approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Xiqiang; Govindan, Kannan; Zhu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    analyzes internal barriers met by automotive parts remanufacturers and evaluates causal barriers by a proposed model framework. This objective is illustrated by employing the Grey Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approach. By virtue of these findings, remanufacturers can eradicate......Automotive industries have attracted attention from international sectors recently. This attention to the industry results in many innovative technologies being integrated in these manufacturing arenas. In developing countries such as the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) countries...

  9. Anatomical likelihood estimation meta-analysis of grey and white matter anomalies in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. DeRamus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in social communication and restrictive, repetitive behaviors. While behavioral symptoms are well-documented, investigations into the neurobiological underpinnings of ASD have not resulted in firm biomarkers. Variability in findings across structural neuroimaging studies has contributed to difficulty in reliably characterizing the brain morphology of individuals with ASD. These inconsistencies may also arise from the heterogeneity of ASD, and wider age-range of participants included in MRI studies and in previous meta-analyses. To address this, the current study used coordinate-based anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE analysis of 21 voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies examining high-functioning individuals with ASD, resulting in a meta-analysis of 1055 participants (506 ASD, and 549 typically developing individuals. Results consisted of grey, white, and global differences in cortical matter between the groups. Modeled anatomical maps consisting of concentration, thickness, and volume metrics of grey and white matter revealed clusters suggesting age-related decreases in grey and white matter in parietal and inferior temporal regions of the brain in ASD, and age-related increases in grey matter in frontal and anterior-temporal regions. White matter alterations included fiber tracts thought to play key roles in information processing and sensory integration. Many current theories of pathobiology ASD suggest that the brains of individuals with ASD may have less-functional long-range (anterior-to-posterior connections. Our findings of decreased cortical matter in parietal–temporal and occipital regions, and thickening in frontal cortices in older adults with ASD may entail altered cortical anatomy, and neurodevelopmental adaptations.

  10. Modelling of hydration kinetics of brown and grey African yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Peleg constant (K1) decreased from 6.66 x 10-2 to 1.5 x 10-2 h %-1 for the grey AYB, and from 4.89 x 10-2 to 1.21 x 10-2 h %-1 for the brown AYB seeds as the hydration temperature increased from 30 to 60oC, suggesting a corresponding increase in the initial water absorption rate. The temperature dependence of K1 ...

  11. Forecasting of municipal solid waste quantity in a developing country using multivariate grey models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intharathirat, Rotchana, E-mail: rotchana.in@gmail.com [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, KlongLuang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Abdul Salam, P., E-mail: salam@ait.ac.th [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, KlongLuang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Kumar, S., E-mail: kumar@ait.ac.th [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, KlongLuang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Untong, Akarapong, E-mail: akarapong_un@hotmail.com [School of Tourism Development, Maejo University, Chiangmai (Thailand)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grey model can be used to forecast MSW quantity accurately with the limited data. • Prediction interval overcomes the uncertainty of MSW forecast effectively. • A multivariate model gives accuracy associated with factors affecting MSW quantity. • Population, urbanization, employment and household size play role for MSW quantity. - Abstract: In order to plan, manage and use municipal solid waste (MSW) in a sustainable way, accurate forecasting of MSW generation and composition plays a key role. It is difficult to carry out the reliable estimates using the existing models due to the limited data available in the developing countries. This study aims to forecast MSW collected in Thailand with prediction interval in long term period by using the optimized multivariate grey model which is the mathematical approach. For multivariate models, the representative factors of residential and commercial sectors affecting waste collected are identified, classified and quantified based on statistics and mathematics of grey system theory. Results show that GMC (1, 5), the grey model with convolution integral, is the most accurate with the least error of 1.16% MAPE. MSW collected would increase 1.40% per year from 43,435–44,994 tonnes per day in 2013 to 55,177–56,735 tonnes per day in 2030. This model also illustrates that population density is the most important factor affecting MSW collected, followed by urbanization, proportion employment and household size, respectively. These mean that the representative factors of commercial sector may affect more MSW collected than that of residential sector. Results can help decision makers to develop the measures and policies of waste management in long term period.

  12. Long-distance dispersal connects Dinaric-Balkan and Alpine grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ražen, Nina; Kljun, Franc; Kos, Ivan; Krofel, Miha; Luštrik, Roman; Majić Skrbinšek, Aleksandra; Potočnik, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    In the last two centuries, persecution and deforestation caused grey wolf Canis lupus populations in Europe to decline. Recently, their numbers started to recover although most populations still remain isolated from one another. This study presents the first documented evidence of the successful reconnection of the Dinaric-Balkan and the Alpine wolf populations via long distance dispersal and subsequent reproduction. A young male wolf radiocollared in the Dinaric Mountains in July...

  13. "Grey nomads" in Australia: are they a good model for successful aging and health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Paul F D; Quirk, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Lifestyle factors have been identified as being very important in determining health in later life. Nutrition, exercise, and social environment all interact to promote, or to limit, opportunities for an active and healthy post-working life. Not only are rates of chronic illness and disability reduced through the promotion of healthy lifestyles, but also quality of life is maintained through the compression of morbidity. Governments in Australia, as in the European Union and North America, have highlighted the importance of behavioral change in health promotion strategies with the aim of having an impact on the health-related lifestyles of their populations. This paper examines the example of a group of older Australians, the "grey nomads," who may present opportunities for examining health-related lifestyle changes. The term grey nomad refers to a portion of the older population in Australia who choose to use their later years and retirement as opportunities for travel and leisure, mainly within the confines of the Australian continent. As such, they are similar to groups in North America, such as the "snow birds," who travel to the southern United States to escape the colder winters of more northerly latitudes. Similar seasonal migrations occur from Northern to Southern Europe. What all share in common is an active culture/lifestyle of attempting to "age successfully." Grey nomads also participate in the creation of what can be termed postmodern communities, where they and other regular travelers may develop a sense of community feeling with others who are also regularly returning to the same spot year after year. Social support is highly predictive of health outcomes and such mobile communities may prove a positive factor in promoting good health. In this paper we examine whether the "grey nomads" represent a good model for improving health-related lifestyles in later life.

  14. Building an autonomous citation index for grey literature : the economics working papers case

    OpenAIRE

    Barrueco Cruz, José Manuel; Krichel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an autonomous citation index named CitEc that has been developed by the authors. The system has been tested using a particular type of grey literature: working papers available in the RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) digital library. Both its architecture and performance are analysed in order to determine if the system has the quality required to be used for information retrieval and for the extraction of bibliometric indicators.

  15. The management of grey literature as a component of a library and information science curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Aina, L. Olatokunbo (University of Botswana); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1998-01-01

    A citation analysis of a sample of publications appearing in journals published in Africa in 1995 was carried out. The citation covered major disciplines in sciences, humanities, education, social sciences and librarianship. The study reveals that grey literature (GL) is used by researchers across the disciplines. Given the importance of GL to researchers in Africa, as well as the pervasive role internet can play in providing access to GL, a case is made for teaching the "management of GL " i...

  16. Building an autonomous citation index for grey literature: the Economics working papers case

    OpenAIRE

    Barrueco Cruz, José M. (Universitat de València); Krichel, T. (Long Island University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an autonomous citation index named CitEc that has been developed by the authors. The system has been tested using a particular type of grey literature: working papers available in the RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) digital library. Both its architecture and performance are analysed in order to determine if the system has the quality required to be used for information retrieval and for the extraction of bibliometric indicators. Includes: Conference preprint, Powe...

  17. Grey Literature citations in the age of Digital Repositories and Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Giannini, Silvia (ISTI-CNR); Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Goggi, Sara (ILC-CNR); Pardelli, Gabriella (ILC-CNR); Aloia, Danielle (NYAM); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2016-01-01

    The work measures grey citations in the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 and then describes the features of GL documents cited in different areas of knowledge: Computational Linguistics, Computer Science and Engineering. With the aim of surveying a wide and varied range of resources, we selected a sample data based on the bibliographical references of articles contained in four journals - all indexed by Scopus Citation Database and ISI Web of Science, with an Impact Factor (IF) over the last three y...

  18. Complete genomic characterisation of two novel poxviruses (WKPV and EKPV) from western and eastern grey kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Tu, Shin-Lin; Upton, Chris; McArtor, Cassie; Gillett, Amber; Laird, Tanya; O'Dea, Mark

    2017-10-15

    Poxviruses have previously been detected in macropods with cutaneous papillomatous lesions, however to date, no comprehensive analysis of a poxvirus from kangaroos has been performed. Here we report the genome sequences of a western grey kangaroo poxvirus (WKPV) and an eastern grey kangaroo poxvirus (EKPV), named for the host species from which they were isolated, western grey (Macropus fuliginosus) and eastern grey (Macropus giganteus) kangaroos. Poxvirus DNA from WKPV and EKPV was isolated and entire coding genome regions determined through Roche GS Junior and Illumina Miseq sequencing, respectively. Viral genomes were assembled using MIRA and SPAdes, and annotations performed using tools available from the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Centre. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy analysis was also performed on WKPV and its associated lesions. The WKPV and EKPV genomes show 96% identity (nucleotide) to each other and phylogenetic analysis places them on a distinct branch between the established Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera. WKPV and EKPV are 170 kbp and 167 kbp long, containing 165 and 162 putative genes, respectively. Together, their genomes encode up to 47 novel unique hypothetical proteins, and possess virulence proteins including a major histocompatibility complex class II inhibitor, a semaphorin-like protein, a serpin, a 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/δ 5→4 isomerase, and a CD200-like protein. These viruses also encode a large putative protein (WKPV-WA-039 and EKPV-SC-038) with a C-terminal domain that is structurally similar to the C-terminal domain of a cullin, suggestive of a role in the control of host ubiquitination. The relationship of these viruses to members of the Molluscipoxvirus and Avipoxvirus genera is discussed in terms of sequence similarity, gene content and nucleotide composition. A novel genus within subfamily Chordopoxvirinae is proposed to accommodate these two poxvirus species from kangaroos; we suggest

  19. Dynamic occupancy modelling reveals a hierarchy of competition among fishers, grey foxes and ringtails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David S; Matthews, Sean M; Swiers, Robert C; Callas, Richard L; Scott Yaeger, J; Farber, Stuart L; Schwartz, Michael K; Powell, Roger A

    2018-05-01

    Determining how species coexist is critical for understanding functional diversity, niche partitioning and interspecific interactions. Identifying the direct and indirect interactions among sympatric carnivores that enable their coexistence is particularly important to elucidate because they are integral for maintaining ecosystem function. We studied the effects of removing nine fishers (Pekania pennanti) on their population dynamics and used this perturbation to elucidate the interspecific interactions among fishers, grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and ringtails (Bassariscus astutus). Grey foxes (family: Canidae) are likely to compete with fishers due to their similar body sizes and dietary overlap, and ringtails (family: Procyonidae), like fishers, are semi-arboreal species of conservation concern. We used spatial capture-recapture to investigate fisher population numbers and dynamic occupancy models that incorporated interspecific interactions to investigate the effects members of these species had on the colonization and persistence of each other's site occupancy. The fisher population showed no change in density for up to 3 years following the removals of fishers for translocations. In contrast, fisher site occupancy decreased in the years immediately following the translocations. During this same time period, site occupancy by grey foxes increased and remained elevated through the end of the study. We found a complicated hierarchy among fishers, foxes and ringtails. Fishers affected grey fox site persistence negatively but had a positive effect on their colonization. Foxes had a positive effect on ringtail site colonization. Thus, fishers were the dominant small carnivore where present and negatively affected foxes directly and ringtails indirectly. Coexistence among the small carnivores we studied appears to reflect dynamic spatial partitioning. Conservation and management efforts should investigate how intraguild interactions may influence the

  20. The incidence of Grey Literature in online databases : a quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Luzi, Daniela (CNR-ISRDS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    This study aims to verify the diffusion and distribution of Grey Literature (GL) documents in commercially available online databases. It has been undertaken due to the growing importance of GL in the field of information and documentation, on the one hand, and the increasing supply of online databases, on the other hand. The work is divided into two parts. The first provides the results of a previous quantitative analysis of databases containing GL documents. Using a top-down methodology, i....