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Sample records for grey heron colonies

  1. Colony Development and Density-Dependent Processes in Breeding Grey Herons

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    Takeshi Shirai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The density-dependent processes that limit the colony size of colonially breeding birds such as herons and egrets remain unclear, because it is difficult to monitor colonies from the first year of their establishment, and the most previous studies have considered mixed-species colonies. In the present study, single-species colonies of the Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea were observed from the first year of their establishment for 16 years in suburban Tokyo. Colony size increased after establishment, illustrating a saturation curve. The breeding duration (days from nest building to fledging by a pair increased, but the number of fledglings per nest decreased, with colony size. The reproductive season in each year began earlier, and there was greater variation in the timing of individual breeding when the colony size was larger. The prolonged duration until nestling feeding by early breeders of the colony suggests that herons at the beginning of the new breeding season exist in an unsteady state with one another, likely owing to interactions with immigrant individuals. Such density-dependent interference may affect reproductive success and limit the colony size of Grey Herons.

  2. DYNAMICS OF NUMBER OF GREY HERONS (ARDEA CINEREA L. COLONY IN THE UPPER COURSE OF ZAPOROZHYE (DNEPROVSKOYE RESERVOIR

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    Vovk M.V.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed in the area of natural reserve "Dneprovsko-Orelsky" and its adjacent territory – the island Pogorely. We discovered the changes of number of grey heron in colonial settlements, determined the principal factors influencing the formation of spatial structure of island bird communities. The analysis of nest distribution towards tree breeding biotopes was performed and stability of spatial structure of bird colonies was proved. We were tracking the number dynamics of pioneer colony and revealed the principal ecological and anthropogenic factors influencing the fluctuation of its abundance.

  3. Effects of a railway line project on a colony of grey herons; Auswirkungen eines linienhaften Vorhabens (Eisenbahnstrecke) auf eine Graureiherkolonie (Bayern)

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    Krause, P. [Inst. fuer Oekologie, Umweltvertraeglichkeit, Landschaftsplanung und Landesentwicklung, Westheim (Germany). igi Niedermeyer Inst.

    1997-12-01

    As part of the efforts made to collect ecological evidence in connection with the Nantenbach Bend project to link the Wuerzburg-Aschaffenburg-Frankfurt line with the new Wuerzburg-Hanover line the colony was observed at regular intervals after completion of the construction work with the intention of quantifying any effects on the population of grey herons. The counts that were carried out indicate that the number of breeding pairs halved in the period from 1990 to 1995 (49 pairs in 1995). On completion of the construction work the pairs once again increased in number, to 56 in 1996 and 52 in 1997. The conclusion that can be drawn from this is that the effects of construction work on the environment in the immediate vicinity were the main cause of negative developments in a bird population and that such measures have more extensive effects than has been assumed in the past. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der oekologischen Beweissicherung zum Vorhaben der Nantenbacher Kurve, die die Anbindung der Eisenbahnstrecke Wuerzburg-Aschaffenburg-Frankfurt am Main an die Neubaustrecke Wuerzburg-Hannover ermoeglicht, wurde die Graureiherkolonie in regelmaessigen Zeitabstaenden nach Fertigstellung der Baumassnahme untersucht. Die Bestandsaufnahmen sollen dazu dienen moegliche Auswirkungen auf die Graureiherpopulation zu quantifizieren. Aufgrund der Bestandszaehlungen wurde vom Jahr 1990 bis 1995 eine Halbierung der Brutpaare (49 Bp. in 1995) in der Kolonie festgestellt. Nach Beendigung der Bautaetigkeiten nahmen die Brutpaare von 56 Bp. in 1996 und 52 Bp. in 1997 wieder zu. Dies laesst darauf schliessen, dass baubedingte Auswirkungen im unmittelbaren Umfeld die hauptsaechliche Ursache fuer die negative Entwicklung eines Bestandes darstellen und einen groesseren Wirkungsgrad haben, als dieser bisher immer angenommen wurde. (orig.)

  4. Dioxin, PCB and PBDE exposure in grey heron (ardea cinerea)

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    Fernandes, A.; Thompson, H.; Dsilva, K.; White, S.; Rose, M. [Central Science Laboratory, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    In the United Kingdom recent investigations have detected elevated levels of mortality and bone disease in grey herons at an established colony in Nottinghamshire along the course of the river Trent (4). The causes of mortality are unclear but deformities recorded in the other birds include multiple fracture of the tarsus, tibia and metacarpal bones. These findings have prompted a pilot study into assessing the level of environmental contaminants in the tissue and eggs of these birds. Two classes of contaminants have the potential to cause the deformities observed in the birds - heavy metals such as selenium, cadmium, arsenic mercury and lead, and halogenated organic contaminants such as dioxins, and PCBs. This paper discusses levels of these contaminants in the samples of eggs taken from the colony. Additional samples of eggs were also collected from a colony in Hertfordshire and from a site in the north of the country. The discussion will be limited to the halogenated organic contaminants as the levels of heavy metals were similar in all sites and were generally at or above background levels. Given the increased utilisation of brominated flame retardant chemicals over the last decade and the similarities in structure and environmental persistence of some of these compounds to the dioxins and PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the samples.

  5. Surface topography of two trematodes parasites infecting grey heron Ardea cinerea Jouyi (Aves, Ciconiiformes) in Qena, Egypt.

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    Ammar, Khalaf Nour Abd El-Wahed

    2015-04-01

    Apharyngostrigea ardeolina and Echinoparyphium recurvatum are two important digenean parasites that were recovered from small intestine of grey heron with an infection rate (16.2%) and (8.8%) respectively. The surface topography of two species was redescribed by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Using SEM studies showed that the body surface of two trematodes were covered by contact receptors, several types of sensory tegumental papillae which may have useful function in orientation and feeding through increasing the surface area of absorption, could also play a role in sensation or in selection of the materials for ingestion by the fluke. The head collar of E. recurvatum is reniform in shape, bearing uninterrupted double row of 41 collar finger-like spines, a total including 4 end group ones on both ventral corners., tegumental spines were tongue-shaped without a terminal tip.

  6. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  7. Breeding success of a colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae in pasturelands of Costa Rica

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    Jaime Gómez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The breeding success of a double-brooding colony of Boat-billed Herons Cochlearius cochlearius was studied in pasturelands of Costa Rica. Mean clutch size in the first clutches (2.9 eggs/nest was higher than in second and repeat clutches (2.3 eggs/nest. Breeding success was similar in the first attempt and second attempts(20.7 % and 21.7 %, respectively. In both attempts earlier nests enjoyed a higher breeding success. Starvation of the youngest chicks within the nest and destruction of nests by bad weather conditions were the main factors related to nestling death. No effects of human activity on the reproduction of the breeding colony were observed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (4: 1131-1134. Epub 2006 Dec. 15Estudiamos el éxito reproductivo de una colonia del ave Cochlearius cochlearius en una zona ganadera de Costa Rica. El promedio de huevos por nido fue mayor durante el periodo de primeras puestas (2.9 huevos/nido que durante el periodo de segundas puestas y reposiciones (2.3 huevos/nido. El éxito reproductor de los dos periodos fue similar (20.7 % y 21.7 %, respectivamente. En ambos tuvieron más éxito las parejas que comenzaron la puesta antes. Las principales causas de mortandad fueron inanición de los pollos más jóvenes del nido y la destrucción de los nidos debido a condiciones climáticas adversas. No notamos efectos adversos por la actividad humana

  8. Influence of the heron colony on heavy metals accumulation in soil of Dniprovsko-Orilsky nature reserve

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    M. V. Vovk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of the settlements of heron on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. The author considers accumulation of trace elements in different soil horizons. The reasons of the prohibitions has been rate.

  9. A supplier selection using a hybrid grey based hierarchical clustering and artificial bee colony

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    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Selection of one or a combination of the most suitable potential providers and outsourcing problem is the most important strategies in logistics and supply chain management. In this paper, selection of an optimal combination of suppliers in inventory and supply chain management are studied and analyzed via multiple attribute decision making approach, data mining and evolutionary optimization algorithms. For supplier selection in supply chain, hierarchical clustering according to the studied indexes first clusters suppliers. Then, according to its cluster, each supplier is evaluated through Grey Relational Analysis. Then the combination of suppliers’ Pareto optimal rank and costs are obtained using Artificial Bee Colony meta-heuristic algorithm. A case study is conducted for a better description of a new algorithm to select a multiple source of suppliers.

  10. Northern Alabama colonies of the endangered grey bat Myotis grisescens: Organochlorine contamination and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bagley, F.M.; Johnson, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    From 1976 to 1986, dead and dying grey bats Myotis grisescens and grey bat guano were collected from caves along the Tennessee River in northern Alabama to determine the possible role of organochlorine chemicals.sbd.in particular wastes from a former DDT manufacturing plant near Huntsville.sbd.in the mortalities. Concentrations of chemical residues in brains were less than known lethal levels: certain observations and analyses did indicate the possibility of past organochlorine-induced bat deaths. Levels of contaminants in bats declined slowly during the 10-year sampling period, but heavy residue burdens persist. The high ratio of DDD to DDE in residue from the former DDT plant made them identifiable as far as 140 km downriver. Grey bats concentrated chemical rsidues to higher levels and demonstrated the presence of these residues over much greater distances than did red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus. Grey bats may be the most sensitive indicator available for monitoring the contamination from this former DDT manufacturing site.

  11. 14. The Herons (Ardeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushlan, J.A.; Hancock, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Herons and their close relatives, the egrets and bitterns, comprise sixty species in total and are found all over the world except in polar regions, and are a strikingly beautiful part of the wetlands they inhabit. They are particularly abundant and popular in South West USA, especially Florida. Herons are a diverse group, easily recognized by their long legs, necks and bills. Many species are notable for their sociality as they feed, roost, and nest together in single or mixed species assemblages. The authors have extensive experience of research and observation of these birds and this book provides an up to date comprehensive review of the herons of the world. Covering their biology, distribution, description, systematics, breeding, feeding, and conservation, James Hancock and James Kushlan have distilled their lifetimes' research on the heron into one volume. This volume is complemented by beautiful color paintings especially painted for the book, color photographs, and distribution maps.

  12. Great Blue Herons in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    consolidation of the breeding population into relatively few, large reproductive centers. With the breeding population centralized, these colonies become...During nesting and reproduction , heron eggs and young fall prey to forest- associated raptors and other predators, further linking the complexity of...nests up to a meter wide and one-half meter deep. An adequate supply of nest material is also important; both deciduous and conifer twigs are utilized

  13. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  14. Inscribed polygons and Heron polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varfolomeev, V V

    2003-01-01

    Heron's well-known formula expressing the area of a triangle in terms of the lengths of its sides is generalized in the following sense to polygons inscribed in a circle: it is proved that the area is an algebraic function of the lengths of the edges of the polygon. Similar results are proved for the diagonals and the radius of the circumscribed circle. The resulting algebraic equations are studied and elementary geometric applications of the algebraic results obtained are presented

  15. The heron that laid the golden egg: metals and metalloids in ibis, darter, cormorant, heron, and egret eggs from the Vaal River catchment, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schyff, V; Pieters, R; Bouwman, H

    2016-06-01

    Metal pollution issues are afforded the highest priority in developing countries. Only one previous study has addressed metals in African bird eggs. We determined the concentration of metals and metalloids in bird eggs from four sites in the Vaal River catchment (VRC) of South Africa to provide data on the current situation. We analysed 16 pools of 77 heron, ibis, darter, egret, and cormorant eggs for 18 metals and metalloids using ICP-MS. We found high concentrations of gold (Au), uranium (U), thallium (Tl), and platinum (Pt) in Grey Heron eggs from Baberspan. Great white egrets from Bloemhof Dam had high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Multivariate analyses revealed strong associations between Au and U, and between palladium (Pd) and Pt. The toxic reference value (TRV) for Hg was exceeded in seven pools. Selenium exceeded its TRV in one pool; in the same pool, copper (Cu) reached its TRV. Compared with other studies, VRC bird eggs had high concentrations of contaminants. Based on these high concentrations, human health might be at risk as Grey Herons and humans share similar food and are therefore exposed to the same contaminants.

  16. Metal Concentrations, Foraging Distances, and Fledging Success of Great Blue Herons Nesting Along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

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    Tiller, Brett L.; Marco, Jeffrey D.; Rickard, William H.

    2005-05-01

    Excrement sample and livers of juvenile great blue herons were collected at nests at three widely separated colonies along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to test the validity of using excrement samples as indicators of metal concentrations in tissues of juvenile herons fed food collected by parent birds within a few kilometers of nests. There was no positive relation noted between metal concentrations in excrement and liver samples taken from the same nests. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations were noted in excrement samples collected among the different heron colonies. Arsenic, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations (dry wt.) were higher in excrement than in liver samples but the opposite was noted for Cu, Hg, and Zn. Mercury concentrations in heron liver samples were biomagnified to a greater extent than Cd and Cr. Fledging success and eggshell thickness measurements were used as indicators of population health. These values were equivalent to or better than those noted for heron colonies elsewhere in the United States.

  17. Responses of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) to aquatic and terrestrial recreational activities: a manipulative study

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    Esteban Fernandez-Juricic; Patrick A. Zollner; Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Lynne M. Westphal

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the presence and the frequency of canoe and pedestrian disturbance during two breeding seasons on multiple behavioral responses (scanning, freezing, grooming, sleeping, moving, wing-raising, and standing-up) of Black-crowned Night Heron ( Nycticorax nycticorax ) nestlings in a breeding colony in southeast Chicago. Short-...

  18. Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of young egrets and herons from Hong Kong and Szechuan, China.

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    Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

    1993-09-01

    Several species of herons and egrets frequently nest in colonies in areas where humans also concentrate. Since the birds feed on intermediate-sized fish that themselves concentrate pollutants, they can be used not only to assess the levels of contaminants in avian tissues but as indicators of contaminants in the environment. The concentration of heavy metals and selenium in the breast feathers of fledgling black-crowned night herons Nycticorax nycticorax and Chinese pond herons Ardeola bacchus from the Tu Jing Yan heronry outside Chengdu, Szechuan Province in China; and from fledgling black-crowned night heron, little egret Egretta garzetta, great egret Egretta alba and cattle egret Bubulcus ibis from the Mai Po heronry in Hong Kong, were determined. Breast feathers were also collected from adult great egrets in Hong Kong. Adult great egrets had significantly higher levels of all heavy metals than did young great egrets. There were no significant interspecific differences in metal levels among the young at Szechuan China, except for chromium (pond herons had higher levels). There were significant differences among the young nesting at Hong Kong for all metals examined. Great egrets had lower, and night herons had higher, levels of lead than the other young. Night herons also had the highest levels of cadmium, manganese, and selenium compared to the other young. Great egret chicks had the lowest mercury levels, while little egret had the highest levels. Lead levels for all the birds in both Hong Kong and Szechuan were among the highest in the world, and this was attributed to the continued use of leaded gasoline.

  19. Environmental contaminants in great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Oregon and Washington, USA

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    Thomas, C.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-12-01

    Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies in Oregon and Washington, USA, during 1994 to 1995. Contaminant concentrations, reproductive success, and biomagnification factors were determined and effects of residue levels were measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma bioassays. Mean residue concentrations in heron eggs and prey items were generally low. However, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in eggs and prey from Ross Island on the Willamette River. Biomagnification factors varied among sites. Sites were not significantly different in H4IIE tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), although the TCDD-EQ for Karlson Island was 9 to 20 times greater than that of any other site. Large differences existed between toxic equivalents calculated from egg residue concentrations and TCDD-EQs, which indicated nonadditive interactions among the compounds. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents and nest failure were positively correlated with TCDD concentration. Fledging and reproductive rates were similar to those determined for healthy heron populations, however, indicating that any adverse effects were occurring at the individual level and not at the colony level. Their results support the use of great blue herons as a biomonitor for contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Their relatively low sensitivity to organochlorine contaminants and high trophic position allows contaminant accumulation and biomagnification without immediate adverse effects that are often seen in other, more sensitive species.

  20. 'HERON' as a dark matter detector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.S.; Bandler, S.R.; Brouer, S.M.; Enss, C.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Seidel, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    ''HERON'', which is the acronym for '' Helium: Roton detection of Neutrinos'', is a project whose principal goal is a next generation detector of solar neutrinos from the p-p and 7 Be branches. It will utilize superfluid helium as the target material and employ event energy transport out of the target by phonon and roton processes unique to helium. Many of the challenges presented for dark matter detection are very similar to those for low energy solar neutrinos. We present new results from our feasibility studies for HERON which indicate an asymmetry in the roton emission distribution from stopping particles and the ability to detect simultaneously the ultraviolet fluorescence photons also emitted. These features are potentially valuable for solar neutrino detection and the question is explored as to whether or not the same helium technique could be valuable for WIMP dark matter detection

  1. Reproductive success and chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination of resident great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from coastal British Columbia, Canada, 1977 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.L.; Elliott, J.E.; Butler, R.W.; Wilson, L.K.

    2003-01-01

    Human disturbance and loss of nesting habitat were more important factors than chlorinated hydrocarbons in changing heron reproductive success. - Over the period 1977-2000, eggs of Pacific great blue heron (Ardea herodias fannini) were collected from 23 colonies along the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada, and analyzed for persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of OC pesticides in eggs declined sharply in the late 1970s, after which there were minimal changes. The sums of PCB congeners were not reduced appreciably during the 1980s and 1990s, but Aroclor 1260 concentrations suggested a sharp decline in PCB contamination of eggs in the late 1970s, similar to that shown for OC pesticides. Eggs collected along or near the Fraser River delta showed higher levels of most pesticides compared to other monitored colonies. Although the delta lands support a long-standing agricultural economy, the primary factors influencing OC levels in the delta colonies were thought to be driven by estuarine processes. We suggest two possible influencing factors were: 1) a greater rate of bioaccumulation in the estuary due to the deposition of particulates collected over a vast area encompassed by the Fraser River watershed; or 2) a higher rate of biomagnification in the estuary due to species differences at lower trophic levels of the heron food chain. Eggs from urban colonies contained higher levels of PCBs. The congener pattern was not clearly different from that observed in less contaminated eggs from rural and pulp mill-influenced colonies, except that colonies in Vancouver had greater proportions of PCB-66, suggesting a local source of Aroclor 1242. Productivity in the coastal heron colonies was highly variable over the period of study, with 71% of recorded colony-wide reproductive failures occurring in colonies near pulp mills. However, the predominant factors influencing reproductive success were probably disturbance

  2. Keratin subsidies promote feather decomposition via an increase in keratin-consuming arthropods and microorganisms in bird breeding colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Masuya, Hayato

    2015-06-01

    Resource subsidies are well known to increase population densities of consumers. The decomposition process of these subsidised resources can be influenced by increasing consumer abundance. However, few studies have assessed whether resource subsidies can promote resource decomposition via a population increase in consumers. Here, we examined the effects of keratin subsidies on feather decomposition in egret and heron breeding colonies. Egrets and herons (Ardeidae) frequently breed in inland forests and provide large amounts of keratin materials to the forest floor in the form of feathers of chicks (that die). We compared the decrease in the weights of egret and heron feathers (experimentally placed on the forest floor) over a 12-month period among egret/heron breeding colonies (five sites) and areas outside of colonies (five sites) in central Japan. Of the feathers placed experimentally on forest floors, 92-97 % and 99-100 % in colonies and 47-50 % and 71-90 % in non-colony areas were decomposed after 4 and 12 months, respectively. Then, decomposition rates of feathers were faster in colonies than in areas outside of colonies, suggesting that keratin subsidies can promote feather decomposition in colonies. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicated that keratin-feeding arthropods and keratinophilic fungi played important roles in feather decomposition. Therefore, scavenging arthropods and keratinophilic fungi, which dramatically increased in egret and heron breeding colonies, could accelerate the decomposition of feathers supplied to the forest floor of colonies.

  3. Observations of indirect filial cannibalism in response to nest failure of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Dwight, Ian; Young, Laura G.

    2017-01-01

    During 2011, four separate instances of indirect filial cannibalism, whereby adults consumed their young that died from unknown causes, were observed using video-monitoring techniques in a nesting colony of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) on Alcatraz Island. Though they were not observed actively killing their young, in all four observations adult Black-crowned Night-Herons consumed their young following death (i.e., indirect filial cannibalism). We could not determine cause of chick mortality, but parental neglect was likely a contributing factor in at least two instances. Indirect filial cannibalism is not commonly documented among birds, and understanding how cannibalism contributes to nest failure can help researchers better understand factors that limit nesting populations.

  4. "Grey matters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Katie

    2014-01-01

    It's common in this world, for diagnoses to be confused. This grey, oblique world is the "World of Brain Tumors" from which these narratives are written, a world I entered when a tangerine-sized tumor was found on my temporal lobe. Each narrative illustrates this world in which everything is covered in a thick film rendering things once obvious, now unknown. Parents are asked to choose treatment plans for their children, plans that will inevitably alter their child's quality of life but in ways they cannot determine or even imagine. Parents are asked to play God. Most of the parents who share their stories in this collection, parents of PBT (pediatric brain tumor) patients have to walk the line of trying to not disrupt their relationships with their physicians, wanting the best for their child, and facing the decision to follow their gut or go with advised treatment plans.

  5. Radiocesium dynamics in herons inhabiting a contaminated reservoir system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombey, A.H.; Paine, D.; McFarlane, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The little blue heron (Florida caerulea) and the green heron (Butorides virescens) nest at a radionuclide-contaminated reservoir on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Green herons distributed their nests singly along the periphery of the reservoir but fed their nestlings exclusively upon amphibians collected from adjacent uncontaminated Carolina bays. Radiocesium burdens in green heron nestlings did not exceed 5 pCi/g wet wt. and 12 regurgitated food pellets averaged 0.2 pCi/g. Twelve pairs of little blue herons established a heronry upon a small island and fed their nestlings fish and amphibians foraged from within the differentially radionuclide-contaminated reservoir system. Nestlings within the same nest did not exhibit significant differences in body burdens, and the maximum radiocesium burden determined was 27.4 pCi/g wet wt. Substantial differences were found between nestlings from different nests however. The radiocesium level of 43 regurgitated food pellets had a high correlation with observed levels in the nestlings, and variation in food contamination is believed to be the major contributor in the observed variation in the nestlings. The variable contamination of primary prey species was correlated with the differentially contaminated foraging sites and indicates that adult little blue herons tended to spatially partition the available foraging areas. (author)

  6. ADAPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF HERONS PLUMAGE FOR THEIR WAY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshelev V. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feather cover of each bird species reflects spectra of species, age, sex and environmental attributes defined the phylogeny of taxa, habitat and life patterns. In turn, many ecological phenomena in the birds’ life patterns are directly dependent on the state of plumage (e.g., time of breeding, seasonal migration, roost flights. For the first time the quantitative characterization of six heron species' plumage were done as well as the description of powder down feathers. The adaptive features of feathers and various types of heron’s plumages were discussed.The structure of contour feathers of herons is related to the peculiarities of species life pattern. All the species have a relatively small number of contour feathers, despite their large body size. According to this index the herons are more similar to typical wading birds (gulls, sandpipers than for waterfowl. The total number of heron feathers slightly increase in winter, because they are migratory species. Structure of contour feathers of herons corresponds to that of other waterbirds. The rod is not bent, the feathers are large, and the mounting angle to the surface of the body is little. The cores of abdominal feather fracts reduce heat transfer and can be regarded as an adaptation factor to aquatic environment.Buoyancy is provided by heron’s feathers insignificantly, in contrast to the typical waterfowl species. Significant subcutaneous fat stores are typical for herons in spring, autumn and winter, increased buoyancy and being the energy reserves provide thermoregulation in cold environment. Our data indicate weak adaptation of herons’ plumage to aquatic environments, but also confirm its insulating properties, which is prove the herons semi-aquatic rather than aquatic life patterns.Due to color of plumage some three groups of herons were considered: white, mottled and camouflaged. Coloration of second and third group performs a protective function. We didn’t found a clear

  7. Disinfection of grey water

    OpenAIRE

    Winward, Gideon Paul

    2007-01-01

    The reuse of grey water, for applications such as toilet flushing and irrigation, represents a potential sustainable solution to water shortages experienced by regions worldwide. Although reused grey water is not intended for potable use, the potential for transmission of waterborne pathogens by aerosol inhalation, topical contact, or indirect ingestion is a key concern for grey water reuse. This thesis explores the pathogen content of grey water and investigates pathogen remov...

  8. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  9. Grey water biodegradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different

  10. Factors influencing liver PCB concentrations in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and herons (Ardea cinerea) in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienburg, Claire L.; Shore, Richard F

    2004-11-01

    Large scale temporal and spatial changes in the exposure of terrestrial vertebrates to PCBs have been monitored in the UK by measuring liver residues in sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) and grey herons (Ardea cinerea) from throughout the country. Residues in the three species are typically characterised by large intra- and inter-specific variation. Data for 306 sparrowhawks, 186 kestrels and 47 herons collected between 1992 and 1997 as part of a national Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme were examined to determine how much of this variation was explained by body condition, age and sex, rather than other factors. In all three species, body condition was the single most important factor and accounted for up to 49% of the variation in PCB liver residues; starved birds had the highest liver concentrations. Age and sex were also significant but of lesser importance. Adult sparrowhawks and kestrels had liver PCB residues that were 2 to 10-fold higher than in first-year birds. Sex did not affect residue magnitude in a consistent manner. PCB concentrations in the liver were higher in males than females in both first-year and adult kestrels and in first-year sparrowhawks, but adult female sparrowhawks had similar PCB residues to adult males. Liver residues also varied seasonally. PCB concentrations in first-year sparrowhawks increased during the first year following fledging and a similar pattern was detected in adult female sparrowhawks following egg laying. When these physiological factors were taken into account, it was evident that while kestrels with high fat scores had significantly lower PCB concentrations than either sparrowhawks or herons, liver residues were similar in all three species when birds were in a starved condition. Overall during 1992-1997, the combined influence of body condition, age and sex explained more of the variation in liver PCB concentrations than species differences or other factors, such as geographical variation

  11. Chondrosarcoma in a wild great white heron from southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, M G; Woodard, J C

    1992-01-01

    A typical chondrosarcoma is reported from the nictitating membrane of a great white heron (Ardea herodius occidentalis). This is the first report of a neoplasm in a free flying ciconiiform, and was the only one found in a survey of 957 carcasses from Florida.

  12. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of Herons and Egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the composition of nestling regurgitations collected during 3 breeding seasons, fish were the most important prey group for Great Egrets (Ardea alba: N = 200 nest-day samples; aggregate percent biomass [APB] = 73.4%), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula: N = 115; APB = 91.4%), and Tricolored Herons (E. tricolor. N = 68; APB = 97.3%). For Little Blue Herons (E. caerulerr. N = 57), grass shrimp (Palaemoneles paludosus; APB = 39.7%) ranked higher in overall importance than all fishes combined (APB = 36.5%). Dietary overlap, as measured by Schoener's Similarity Index, was greatest between Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons (77%) and lowest between Tricolored Herons and Little Blue Herons (30%). Diet diversity, as measured by Shannon's Index, was highest for Great Egrets (2.04), intermediate for Snowy Egrets (1.71) and Tricolored Herons (1.68), and lowest for Little Blue Herons (1.60). Great Egrets ate a wider variety of fish species and sizes, especially larger fishes, and more crayfish than the other species. Little Blue Herons ate fewer fish and more grass shrimp and insects, and ate smaller forage fishes than Tricolored Herons but similar-sized fish as Snowy Egrets. The coarse-scale trophic composition of Snowy Egret and Tricolored Heron diets did not differ significantly, but Tricolored Herons ate larger forage fishes than Snowy Egrets. Pronounced interannual and intercolony variation in diet composition suggested that Great Egrets and Little Blue Herons switched prey types as hydrologic conditions and habitat availability changed. Conversely, lack of such variation suggested that Snowy Egrets and Tricolored Herons adjusted their foraging tactics to ensure contin-ued encounters with preferred prey despite changing habitat conditions. These results are generally consistent with other published data, help confirm some generalizations about foraging strategies and patterns of niche differentiation among these ecologically similar species, and have implications for

  13. The Dutch Grey Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called ‘grey market’, in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  14. The Dutch Grey Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called 'grey market', in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  15. Characteristics of grey wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...

  16. Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert

    2014-09-01

    In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.

  17. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIntosh, D.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models

  18. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs; Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  19. Model of the PCB and mercury exposure of mink and great blue heron inhabiting the off-site environment downstream from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIntosh, D.L. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Suter, G.W. II; Hoffman, F.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    This report presents a pair of wildlife exposure models developed for use in investigating the risks to wildlife of releases of mercury and PCBS. The species modeled are the great blue heron and mink The models may be used to estimate the exposure experienced by mink and herons, to help establish remedial action goals and to identify research needs. Because mercury and PCBs bioaccumulate through dietary uptake, the models simulate the food webs supporting the two species. Sources of contaminants include surface water, sediment, sediment pore water, and soil. The model are stochastic equilibrium models. Two types of variance in the input parameters are distinguished: stochastic variance among individual mink and herons and ignorance concerning true parameter values. The variance in the output due to stochastic parameters indicates the expected variance among the receptors. The variance due to ignorance indicates the extent to which the model outputs could be unpaved by additional sampling and measurement. The results of the models were compared to concentrations measured in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from colonies on the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. The predicted concentrations agreed well with the measured concentrations. In addition, the variances in measured values among individuals was approximately equal to the total stochastic variance predicted by the models.

  20. GreyGuide. Poster presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Welcome to the GreyGuide, a repository of good practices and resources in grey literature. The GreyGuide seeks to capture proposed as well as published practices dealing with the supply and demand sides of grey literature. This is a collaborative project involving GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good pra...

  1. Nest survival is influenced by parental behaviour and heterospecifics in a mixed-species colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Brianne E.; Coates, Peter S.; Hothem, Roger L.; Howe, Kristy; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of avian nest success often focus on examining influences of variation in environmental and seasonal factors. However, in-depth evaluations can also incorporate variation in individual incubation behaviour to further advance our understanding of avian reproductive ecology. We examined these relationships in colonially nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons Nycticorax nycticorax using intensive video-monitoring methods to quantify incubation behaviours. We modelled nest survival as a function of both extrinsic factors and incubation behaviours over a 3-year period (2010–12) on Alcatraz Island, USA. Model-averaged parameter estimates indicated that nest survival increased as a function of greater incubation constancy (% of time spent incubating eggs within a 24-h period), and average daily precipitation throughout the nesting stage. Common Ravens Corvus corax are the only known nest predator of Night-Herons on Alcatraz Island, as on many other coastal Pacific islands. We also investigated the effects of heterospecific nesting of California Gulls Larus californicus and Western Gulls Larus occidentalis in a mixed-species colony with Night-Herons, based on nesting proximity data collected over a 2-year period (2011–12). This second analysis indicated that, in addition to incubation behaviours, nesting heterospecifics are an important factor for explaining variation in Night-Heron nest survival. However, contrary to our original expectation, we found that Night-Herons experienced increased nest survival with increasing distance from gull colony boundaries. These results may apply to other areas with multiple colonial nesting species and similar predator communities and climatic patterns.

  2. Mercury and drought along the lower Carson River, Nevada: II. Snowy egret and black-crowned night-heron reproduction on Lahontan Reservoir, 1997-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elwood F.; Henry, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury concentrations in the floodplain of the Carson River Basin in northwestern Nevada are some of the highest ever reported in a natural system. Thus, a portion of the basin including Lahontan Reservoir was placed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Natural Priorities List for research and cleanup. Preliminary studies indicated that reproduction in piscivorous birds may be at risk. Therefore, a 10-year study (1997–2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction of snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting on Gull Island in Lahontan Reservoir. Special attention was given to the annual flow of the Carson River, the resultant fluctuation of this irrigation reservoir, and the annual exposure of snowy egrets and night-herons to methylmercury (MeHg). The dynamic character of the river due to flooding and drought (drought effect) influenced snowy egret and night-heron reproduction more so than did MeHg contamination of eggs. During an extended drought (2000–2004) in the middle of the study, snowy egret nests containing eggs with concentrations of MeHg (measured as total mercury [THg] ∼ 100% MeHg) ≥0.80 μg THg/g, ww, all failed, but in 1997 and 2006 (wet years with general flooding), substantial numbers of young were produced (but fewer than at nests where eggs contained reproductive threshold of tolerance to MeHg may be associated with habitat quality (food type and abundance). Clearly, drought was the most important factor affecting snowy egret annual productivity. In contrast to snowy egrets, night-herons generally had fewer nests meeting the 0.80 μg THg/g criterion, and those above the criterion were less sensitive to mercury than were snowy egrets. Furthermore, night-herons appeared more tolerant of drought conditions than snowy egrets because they nested earlier, selected more protected nesting sites, and had a more generalist diet that provided additional food options including terrestrial

  3. Grey water biodegradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.

  4. The foraging behaviour of herons and egrets on the Magela Creek flood plain, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recher, H.F.; Holmes, R.T.

    1982-03-01

    Five species of diurnal herons are common on the Magela Creek flood plain and forage along the edges of natural and artifical waterbodies both inside and outside the Ranger Uranium Project Area. The species of heron differ in the kinds and sizes of prey they take, their foraging location, degree of sociality and foraging behaviour. Because it takes relatively large fish, the Great Egret, E. alba, is most likely to be affected by any contamination of the aquatic environment by heavy metals or radionuclides. The Nankeen Night Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus is also abundant on the flood plain and probably feeds on large fish and frogs. The other herons take smaller or immature prey or hunt mostly in terrestrial habitats and are therefore less likely to be affected by contamination of the aquatic environment

  5. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  6. Grey zones of welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Harboe Knudsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the ‘grey zones of welfare’ in rural Lithuania whereby I point to the inherent ambiguities that lies in a system where people to a high degree rely on networks and normative solutions to everyday shortcomings, rather than on the state. I argue that we in the period after socialism witness an increased degree of informal economies and social arrangements, as the formal sector of social security is perceived as unreliable. This results in a model where liberalism and individual ethics co-exist with a strong morality to support the poorest in society.

  7. Colonial Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Palmer, Russell

    2016-01-01

    and the USA which reveal that the study of colonial institutions should not be limited to the functional life of these institutions—or solely those that take the form of monumental architecture—but should include the long shadow of “imperial debris” (Stoler 2008) and immaterial institutions....

  8. Vision and foraging in cormorants: more like herons than hawks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo L. show the highest known foraging yield for a marine predator and they are often perceived to be in conflict with human economic interests. They are generally regarded as visually-guided, pursuit-dive foragers, so it would be expected that cormorants have excellent vision much like aerial predators, such as hawks which detect and pursue prey from a distance. Indeed cormorant eyes appear to show some specific adaptations to the amphibious life style. They are reported to have a highly pliable lens and powerful intraocular muscles which are thought to accommodate for the loss of corneal refractive power that accompanies immersion and ensures a well focussed image on the retina. However, nothing is known of the visual performance of these birds and how this might influence their prey capture technique. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the aquatic visual acuity of great cormorants under a range of viewing conditions (illuminance, target contrast, viewing distance and found it to be unexpectedly poor. Cormorant visual acuity under a range of viewing conditions is in fact comparable to unaided humans under water, and very inferior to that of aerial predators. We present a prey detectability model based upon the known acuity of cormorants at different illuminances, target contrasts and viewing distances. This shows that cormorants are able to detect individual prey only at close range (less than 1 m. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that cormorants are not the aquatic equivalent of hawks. Their efficient hunting involves the use of specialised foraging techniques which employ brief short-distance pursuit and/or rapid neck extension to capture prey that is visually detected or flushed only at short range. This technique appears to be driven proximately by the cormorant's limited visual capacities, and is analogous to the foraging techniques employed by herons.

  9. Incoherently Coupled Grey-Grey Spatial Soliton Pairs in Biased Two-Photon Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yanli; Jiang Qichang; Ji Xuanmang

    2010-01-01

    The incoherently coupled grey-grey screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton pairs are predicted in biased two-photon photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be established provided that the incident beams have the same polarization, wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. The grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be considered as the united form of grey-grey screening soliton pairs and open or closed-circuit grey-grey photovoltaic soliton pairs. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Short Note Brood parasitism in the Green-backed Heron ( Butorides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Note Brood parasitism in the Green-backed Heron (Butorides striatus). R Yosef, P Zduniak. Abstract. Ostrich 2005, 76(1&2): 78–79. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/00306520509485476 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. GreyGuide Forum and Repository

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...

  12. GreyGuide, GreyNet’s web access portal and lobby for change in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Ponti, Roberto (ISTI-CNR); Stock, Christiane (Inist-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2015-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide was formerly launched as an online forum and repository of good practice in grey literature. The project partners then turned to the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices. During this same timeframe, GreyNet – one of the project partners – welcomed far reaching developments in its infrastructure. Three new committees were established alongside its Program Committee in line with GreyNet’s fourfold mission dedicated to research, publication, o...

  13. An overview of exposure to, and effects of, petroleum oil and organochlorine pollution in Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, BjoernMunro

    1996-01-01

    Most incidences involving oil pollution of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) seem to have occurred at the breeding sites. Because of the high concentration of animals at this time, even small oil spills will pollute many animals. As a result of chronic low-level pollution from coastal ship traffic and discharges from offshore petroleum activity in the North Sea, 50% of the grey seal pups at the largest breeding colony in Norway are polluted each year by oil. This oil pollution, as well as other cases of spills at breeding colonies, shows that oil produced little visible disturbance to the seals' behaviour and there is little mortality. The effects and mortality may, however, be more serious following a spill of crude oil, where animals may be affected by inhalation of toxic volatile compounds. High body burdens of PCBs and DDTs seem to have caused skull-bone lesions and occlusions of the uteri in grey seals in the Baltic Sea. Exposure to these persistent compounds has also been suspected to be the cause of reduction in the population of Baltic grey seals. There are indications that thyroid hormone and vitamin A status of grey seal pups are affected by the low exposure concentrations experienced at the Norwegian coast (1/20 of the concentration detected in grey seal pups from the Baltic Sea). This gives serious cause for concern about the effects that chronic low-level exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants may have on individuals and on populations of grey seals

  14. Overview. Rethinking the grey literature's definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Grey literature said to do difficult to obtain through commercial publishers. Recently, according to the spread of institutional repositories, grey literature is published on the Web and its full text is open to the public, then it has become easily accessible. Yet, the accessibility of grey literature has not been fully resolved. In this paper, the author introduces the definition of grey literature based on the discussion of the International Conference on Grey Literature (International Conference on Grey literature) and tries to reorganize and discuss on issues concerning the problems of grey literature accessibility. The author indicates that there are still many challenges in this field, also indicates that stable access to the sources on the Web is not always guaranteed. It is concluded that expertises and experiences of a librarian should be leveraged to get solutions regarding the accessibility of grey literature. (author)

  15. Black and grey neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbard, F.

    1977-01-01

    Recent progress in the development and use of ''black'' and ''grey'' detectors is reviewed. Such detectors are widely used for counting neutrons in (p,n) and (α,n) experiments and in neutron cross section measurements. Accuracy of each detector is stressed. 19 figures

  16. Grey Literature and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Karen A.

    2006-01-01

    Accreditation standards for professional schools offering social work degrees mandate curriculum content that provides students with skills to analyze, formulate, and influence social policies. An important source of analytical thinking about social policy is the "grey" literature issued by public policy organizations, think tanks,…

  17. Land governance as grey zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    demonstrates that in Uganda, the need to maintain the ruling coalition in a clientelist political settlement to build electoral support, and the desire to attract economic investors, constitute political incentives to maintain land governance as a grey zone, even if there is apparent political...

  18. Grey water treatment systems: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a

  19. Grey Guide Repository: presentation and demo

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Schopfel, Joachim; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation.

  20. Grey Guide: A Community Driven Open Resource Project in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Giannini, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide Project was formerly launched as an online forum and repository of good practice in grey literature. The GreyGuide manages Open Source Repositories and provides a unique resource in the field of grey literature that is long awaited and which responds to the information needs of a diverse, international grey literature community. As GreyNet's web access Portal, the GreyGuide now provides a wealth of content that was previously either confined to web pages or was...

  1. Grey Language Hesitant Fuzzy Group Decision Making Method Based on Kernel and Grey Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingsheng; Diao, Yuzhu; Gong, Zaiwu; Hu, Aqin

    2018-03-02

    Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation.

  2. Coupling effects of grey-grey separate spatial screening soliton pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qichang; Su Yanli; Ji Xuanmang

    2012-01-01

    The existence and coupling effects of grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs in a biased series non-photovoltaic photorefractive crystal circuit are investigated in this paper. The numerical solution of grey-grey soliton pairs is derived. The coupling effects between two grey solitons resulting from the input optical intensity and crystal temperature are analyzed numerically. The results show that when the input optical intensity of one crystal changes, two grey solitons in a soliton pair will all change; that is, two grey solitons can affect each other by the light-induced current that flows from one crystal to another. When the temperature of one crystal increases, the intensity width of the grey soliton in this crystal first decreases and then increases. Simultaneously, the intensity width of another grey soliton increases monotonically.

  3. On colonial grounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, Peter Alexander René van

    1998-01-01

    As a study of the colonial situations of first millennium BC Sardinia, this book is as much an investigation into colonialism as a sociological category, as it explores the specific historical conditions of a particular region. Taking a fresh look at colonialism in Mediterranean archaeology from a

  4. Third Culture Kid's Effect on Character of Cady Heron in Mean Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Hapsari, Laily

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the movie, Mean Girls, specifically one of the character, Cady Heron,as a Third Culture Kid trying to adapt in new society. The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of Third Culture Kid in the movie character in socializing with the new surroundings and explain the way how one of the characters in Mean Girls adapts to the new surroundings.The writer uses library research to collect the data with the novel as the main data, and several relevant books, journa...

  5. An FMEA analysis using grey theory and grey rough sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid method for detecting the most important failure items as well as the most effective alternative strategy to cope with possible events. The proposed model of this paper uses grey technique to rank various alternatives and FMEA technique to find important faults. The implementation of the proposed method has been illustrated for an existing example on the literature. The results of this method show that the proposed model has been capable of detecting the most trouble making problems with fuzzy logic and finds the most important solution strategy using FMEA technique.

  6. Temporal trends of mercury and organohalogen contaminants in great blue heron eggs from the St. Lawrence River, Québec, Canada, 1991-2011, and relationships with tracers of feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champoux, Louise; Boily, Monique

    2017-12-31

    Since 1991, great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs have been collected and analyzed for mercury (Hg), persistent organic contaminants (OCs), brominated and non-brominated flame retardants (FRs) as well as stable isotopes δ 13 C and δ 15 N. In the present study, temporal trends of contaminants were analyzed in eggs sampled in four regions along the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada) and inland sites using new and previously published data. Most contaminants declined significantly over time in most regions. Globally, the highest annual change, -17.5%, was found for pp'-DDD, while the smallest annual decline, -0.54%, was observed for Hg. Concentrations of ΣDDT and ΣFR 8 (sum of 8 congeners) decreased by -11.6% and -7.3%, respectively. Declines in ΣPCBs differed among regions, from -5.6% in the fluvial section to -14.7% in the inland region. The highest concentration of ΣFR 8 was measured in eggs from Grande Ile in the fluvial section of the river in 1996 (2.39μg/g). Stable isotope ratios also showed temporal trends in some regions: δ 13 C decreased in the fluvial section and increased in Gulf region, while δ 15 N decreased in the fluvial section and increased in the upper estuary. Significant positive relationships were found between ΣDDT, ΣPCBs and ΣFRs and δ 15 N and δ 13 C in freshwater colonies, but not in estuarine or marine colonies. These results suggest that changes in trophic level and foraging areas over time were influential factors with respect to contaminant burden in great blue heron eggs in the fluvial section, but not in the other regions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Results of bald eagle, osprey and great blue heron nest site surveys near Fort MacKay, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, K.; Balagus, P.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the environmental impact assessment process, a study was conducted to assess the occurrence of bald eagle, osprey and great blue heron on Syncrude's proposed oil sand leases near Fort MacKay. The objective of the study was to determine the relative abundance, habitat preferences and nesting occurrences of these different birds. Aerial count surveys were conducted to include coverage of the shorelines of four rivers and 22 lakes. Breeding activities of the osprey, bald eagle and great blue heron were observed in the regional study area, but not in the local study area. 14 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...

  9. The luminous and the grey

    CERN Document Server

    Batchelor, David

    2014-01-01

    Color surrounds us: the lush green hues of trees and grasses, the variant blues of water and the sky, the bright pops of yellow and red from flowers. But at the same time, color lies at the limits of language and understanding. In this absorbing sequel to Chromophobia-which addresses the extremes of love and loathing provoked by color since antiquity-David Batchelor charts color's more ambiguous terrain.   The Luminous and the Grey explores the places where color comes into being and where it fades away, probing when it begins and when it ends both in the imagination and in the material world.

  10. Prey diversity for Three Species Herons in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve Serang Distrik, Banten Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI ELFIDASARI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of prey consumed by three species herons (Casmerodius albus, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis was studied in Pulau Dua Nature Reserve Serang, Banten Province using video tapes by following a focal individual for five minutes. In the laboratory the film was analysed every minutes to select complete sequences of feeding behavior in foraging site. There were differences on diversity and size of prey that consumed by three species herons among the different feeding locations. Casmerodius albus which was feeding on mudflat and fisheries consumed Chanos chanos (15.6%, Oreochromis sp (9.4% and Periophtalmus sp. (7.3%, and 36.5% couldn’t be identified. Egretta garzetta was feeding on mudflat, fisheries and rice-field, consumed Periophtalmus sp (15.4%, Mugil dussumeieri (7.9%, Chanos chanos (4.7%, Oreochromis sp (0.5%, including small frog and crustacean (0.5%. Bubulcus ibis was feeding on rice-field and grassland, consumed many variety of insects (92 % and many variety of snail (1.9% in their diet. The insects that B. ibis consumed including grasshopper (26.8%, caterpillar (0.9% and other invertebrates (worm, crustacean that could not be identified (64.3%.

  11. Grey literature in meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris M; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2003-01-01

    In meta-analysis, researchers combine the results of individual studies to arrive at cumulative conclusions. Meta-analysts sometimes include "grey literature" in their evidential base, which includes unpublished studies and studies published outside widely available journals. Because grey literature is a source of data that might not employ peer review, critics have questioned the validity of its data and the results of meta-analyses that include it. To examine evidence regarding whether grey literature should be included in meta-analyses and strategies to manage grey literature in quantitative synthesis. This article reviews evidence on whether the results of studies published in peer-reviewed journals are representative of results from broader samplings of research on a topic as a rationale for inclusion of grey literature. Strategies to enhance access to grey literature are addressed. The most consistent and robust difference between published and grey literature is that published research is more likely to contain results that are statistically significant. Effect size estimates of published research are about one-third larger than those of unpublished studies. Unfunded and small sample studies are less likely to be published. Yet, importantly, methodological rigor does not differ between published and grey literature. Meta-analyses that exclude grey literature likely (a) over-represent studies with statistically significant findings, (b) inflate effect size estimates, and (c) provide less precise effect size estimates than meta-analyses including grey literature. Meta-analyses should include grey literature to fully reflect the existing evidential base and should assess the impact of methodological variations through moderator analysis.

  12. Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14 months. COD concentrations were 724 ± 150 mg L- 1, of which 34% was

  13. Heterotopic grey matter: Ct vs. MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosten, N.; Schoerner, W.

    1989-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter is a rare cause of seizures. While lesions appear suspicious on CT because of equidensity to cortex, MR imaging can establish the diagnosis by demonstrating same signal intensity of heterotopia and grey matter on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted as well as inversion-recovery sequences. (orig.) [de

  14. Grey-Turner's sign in sclerosing peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthard, J. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1989-01-01

    A 41-year-old CAPD patient developed Grey-Turner's sign during the course of bacterial peritonitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At the same time a diagnosis of sclerosing peritonitis was made by CT-scanning of the abdomen. We think that Grey-Turner's flank staining could either have been caused by

  15. Locating grey literature on communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilko, Inna

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.

  16. Combined impacts of Black-crowned Night-Heron predation/disturbance and various management activities on Roseate Tern productivity in 2003, and testing of a video surveillance system for recording the diurnal and nocturnal behavior of terns and night-herons at Falkner Island, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Connecticut, in 2004: Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Westbrook, Connecticut and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5 Regional Office, Hadley, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendelow, J.A.; Kuter, M.

    2004-01-01

    Falkner Island (FICT), a unit of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge (SBMNWR) since 1985, is located in Long Island Sound 5 km south of Guilford, CT. For more than three decades it has been the site of the only large breeding colony in Connecticut of the federally endangered Northwest Atlantic population of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) and the state's largest colony of Common Terns (S. hirundo). Both species have been studied at this site since 1978 as part of the Falkner Island Tern Project (FITP), and since 1987 also as part of a regional Cooperative Roseate Tern Metapopulation Dynamics and Ecology Project (CRTMP), both coordinated by Dr. Jeffrey A. Spendelow of the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (USGS-PWRC). From 1997-2002 the Roseate Tern breeding population at this site declined by more than 50% from about 150 to about 70 nesting pairs, mostly as a result of the nocturnal predation and disturbance of tern chicks and eggs by Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax). Here we report the results of research done with the goal of improving management of nocturnal predators and developing new practices/structures to reduce losses of tern eggs and chicks so as to prevent the abandonment of this site by Roseate Terns. Notification of release of the USGS 'Quick Response Funds' (QRF) that were to be used to support the part of this study entitled 'Nocturnal behavior/interactions of endangered Roseate Terns and Black-crowned Night-Herons', and final approval of the Study Plan for this research did not occur until after the breeding season in 2003 was well underway. As a result, some work will need to be completed during the 2004 field season. There are two major objectives of this study. The first is to collect basic information (a) on the nocturnal behavior and interactions of Roseate (and Common) Terns with predatory Black-crowned Night-Herons, and (b) on how the behavior of the

  17. Modified Discrete Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linguo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of image segmentation has become more complicated with the increasing number of thresholds, and the option and application of the thresholds in image thresholding fields have become an NP problem at the same time. The paper puts forward the modified discrete grey wolf optimizer algorithm (MDGWO, which improves on the optimal solution updating mechanism of the search agent by the weights. Taking Kapur’s entropy as the optimized function and based on the discreteness of threshold in image segmentation, the paper firstly discretizes the grey wolf optimizer (GWO and then proposes a new attack strategy by using the weight coefficient to replace the search formula for optimal solution used in the original algorithm. The experimental results show that MDGWO can search out the optimal thresholds efficiently and precisely, which are very close to the result examined by exhaustive searches. In comparison with the electromagnetism optimization (EMO, the differential evolution (DE, the Artifical Bee Colony (ABC, and the classical GWO, it is concluded that MDGWO has advantages over the latter four in terms of image segmentation quality and objective function values and their stability.

  18. Status of grey seals along mainland Europe from the Southwestern Baltic to France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal was a common species along mainland Europe during the Stone Age (8,000-5,500 BC. Along the North Sea coast populations started to decline substantially during the 11th century as a result of excessive hunting. The last breeding populations disappeared in the 16th century in the Wadden Sea, and before 1900 in the Kattegat-Skagerrak and the Southwestern Baltic as a result of an extermination campaign. No regular pupping occurred along mainland Europe until the end of the 1970s, when a breeding colony was established near Amrum in the German Wadden Sea. Somewhat later, additional breeding sites were discovered near Terschelling in the Dutch Wadden Sea (1980, at Helgoland, and off Brittany in France. Tracking of movements indicate these seal groups to be linked to the larger populations in the UK. Numbers of grey seals in the recolonised areas have increased over the years, but in the Kattegat-Skagerrak stable numbersof about 25 individuals have been observed since the 1970s, whereas more than 100 grey seals are found in the Southwestern Baltic. In the southeastern North Sea, 120 grey seals occur during moult at Helgoland, 120 in the German and over 1,130 in the Dutch parts of the Wadden Sea in 2004. Along the southern Dutch and Belgian coasts small groups are regularly observed, but no colonies have yet been established. In the colonies off Brittany in France about 105 grey seals have been counted. Successful pupping has only been recorded 3 times in the Kattegat-Skagerrak over the past 30 years, and 2-4 pups are born annually in France and the Southwestern Baltic. The relative strongholds for breeding along the European continent are the Dutch Wadden Sea, where in 2003/2004 at least 150 pups were recorded, Amrum in the German Wadden Sea (23 pups and Helgoland (8 pups. Consequently, total numbers of counted grey seals from the Southwestern Baltic to France amounted to at least 1,600 in 2004, while about 190 pups were born in the area.

  19. Link managers for grey literature

    CERN Document Server

    Lodi-Rizzini, E; Vigen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    In the self service area of the library reading rooms it is required to organise the collections in the simplest way possible. This is an important feature for readers making it possible to a get direct access to the material without necessarily having to go via the library catalogue to retrieve the call number. A typical example will be that a collection is organised so that a reader easily can get directly from an article reference to the article itself in a library where the journal collection simply is organised alphabetically. This requirement seems to have been forgotten by many of the most important actors in the digital library, both by the commercial publishers and many of the bodies producing grey literature. How are the users supposed to get directly to Report XXX without having to navigate through n different web pages? This is on top happening in "The Library" which is intended to be close up to 100 based on self service! CERN Library has developed a mechanism, "Go direct", which handles the prob...

  20. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  1. GreyGuide - Guide to Good Practice in Grey Literature: A Community Driven Open Resource Project

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Schopfel, Joachim (University of Lille); Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation. The repository will contain guidelines such as those in handling theses and dissertations, how to write research report...

  2. Application of Grey Theory in Operator Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Scientific and reasonable operator management is the basis of nuclear security. It was paid more attention after the three-mile island accident. The prediction of operators' basic behavior parameters is the premise and foundation of scientific and reasonable operator management. Grey theory happens to solve the dilemma encountered in prediction and decision-making of operator behavior in operator management of NPP. The procedure is divided into two steps: according to the history record of operators' behavior parameter, a differential equation model using grey theory is set up to predict the future behavior of operators and use grey theory to make decision for operator management. The calculation result is helpful for operator management and also useful for operators to find their shortcoming. Grey theory using in the study provides a new idea and method for future operator management in NPP

  3. Application of grey theory in operator management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and reasonable operator management is the basis of nuclear safety. It is paid more attention after the three-mile island accident. The prediction of operators' basic behavior parameters is the premise and foundation of scientific and reasonable operator management. Grey theory happened to solve the dilemma encountered in prediction and decision-making of operator behavior in operator management of nuclear power plant. The procedure was divided into two steps: 1) According to the historical record of operators' behavior parameters, a differential equation model using grey theory was set up to predict the future behavior of operators; 2) operator management decision-making was made based on grey theory. The calculation result is not only helpful for operator management but also useful for operators to find their shortcomings. Grey theory used in the study provides a new idea and method for future operator management in nuclear power plant. (author)

  4. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  5. MRI of laminar heterotopic grey matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahldiek, G.; Terwey, B.; Hanefeld, F.; Sperner, J.

    1990-01-01

    In one baby and 2 infants who presented with psychomotor retardation and epilepsy laminar heterotopic grey matter was demonstrated via magnetic resonance imaging. Laminar heterotopia is a rare migrational disorder with bilateral symmetric ribbons of grey matter within the centrum semiovale, separated from ventricular walls and from obviously normal-sized cortex by broad layers of white matter. The heterotopic grey matter has a signal intensity which is isointense compared with that of normal cortex irrespective of image weighting. On account of this signal behaviour differentiation against other white matter diseases is easy. The knowledge of these pathognomonic findings facilitates correct diagnosis, especially during the first and the second year of life, when signal intensities of white and grey matter differ from normal findings because of the occasionally delayed myelination process. Therefore, further diagnostic procedures can be avoided and early counseling of parents is possible. (orig.) [de

  6. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Grey literature for development: Some case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, B. (SHPT); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2007-01-01

    Grey Literature refers to publications issued by government, academia, business, and industry, in both print and electronic formats, but not controlled by commercial publishing interests, and where publishing is not the primary business activity of the organization. Newsletters, reports, working papers, theses, government documents, bulletins, fact sheets, conference proceedings and other publications distributed free, available by subscription, or for sale comprises grey literature. Non-prof...

  8. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate non-invasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four to six day-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; n=7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body weight of nestling; n=6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 days of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32 - 0.74, p feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead, but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  9. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A; Cohen, Jonathan B; Hoffman, David J; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate noninvasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four- to 6-d-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia (USA), received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control, n = 7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body wt of nestling; n = 6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low- to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 d of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32-0.74, p feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  10. Diel coral reef acidification driven by porewater advection in permeable sands, Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Maher, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how biogeochemical processes in permeable sediments affect the pH of coastal waters. We demonstrate that seawater recirculation in permeable sands can play a major role in proton (H+) cycling in a coral reef lagoon. The diel pH range (up to 0.75 units) in the Heron Island...... lagoon was the broadest ever reported for reef waters, and the night‐time pH (7.69) was comparable to worst‐case scenario predictions for seawater pH in 2100. The net contribution of coarse carbonate sands to the whole system H+ fluxes was only 9% during the day, but approached 100% at night when small...... scale (i.e., flow and topography‐induced pressure gradients) and large scale (i.e., tidal pumping as traced by radon) seawater recirculation processes were synergistic. Reef lagoon sands were a net sink for H+, and the sink strength was a function of porewater flushing rate. Our observations suggest...

  11. Application of grey system theory in telecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Chen

    2011-05-01

    As a superiority to conventional statistical models, grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behaviour of unknown systems. Grey system theory can be used in the effective factor assessment, and used in large samples where data are not available or uncertain whether the data was representative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to adopt grey system theory to discuss older adult users' opinions on the telecare and its effect on their quality of life. This study surveyed the older adult users of Taiwan as subjects. User perception of the telecare services was collected via face-to-face interview. The grey system theory was used to examine the model. The results showed that the overall living quality has the greatest effect on the perceived effects of the telecare on their quality of life, followed by the acquisition of information, accessibility of medical care services, and safety. This finding may serve as a reference to future studies and it also shows that the grey system theory is a feasible analysis method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-05-15

    An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...

  14. Grey literature in library and information studies

    CERN Document Server

    Schopfel, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The further rise of electronic publishing has come to change the scale and diversity of grey literature facing librarians and other information practitioners. This compiled work brings together research and authorship over the past decade dealing with both the supply and demand sides of grey literature. While this book is written with students and instructors of Colleges and Schools of Library and Information Science in mind, it likewise serves as a reader for information professionals working in any and all like knowledge-based communities

  15. Specters of Colonialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Azad, Salam

    2013-01-01

    at the same time they always are bound to fail to become ‘Swedish’ because of the same foreign origins. Although Swedish culture – partly by distancing itself from having a colonial past – has successfully built up an image of openness, we argue that without acknowledging and confronting the role...

  16. Grey Literature Between Tradition and Innovation: Is There a Continuum?

    OpenAIRE

    Pardelli, Gabriella; Goggi, Sara; Sassi, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This study wants to explore ways of social media communication for Grey Literature. In particular it describes the role of social media in relation with traditional channels and how social media applications can be used for Grey.

  17. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  18. Unravelling feeding territoriality in the Little Blue Heron, Egretta caerulea, in Cananéia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moralez-Silva

    Full Text Available Habitat use by the Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea and discovery of feeding territoriality are discussed here. The results showed the existence of a territorial individual defending an area (2,564.46 ± 943.56 m² close to the mangrove, and non-territorial individuals (9.17 ± 2.54 in the rest of a demarcated area (mean area for the non-territorial: 893.25 ± 676.72. A weak positive correlation (r = 0.47, df = 46, p < 0.05 was found between the overlapping of territorial and non-territorial individuals (2.85 ± 3.07 m² and the mean overlapped area for territorial individuals (171.41 ± 131.40 m². Higher capture (1.52 ± 1.14 × 1.00 ± 1.37 catches/minutes and success rates (0.45 ± 0.31 × 0.21 ± 0.27 and lower energy expenditure rates (45.21 ± 14.96 × 51.22 ± 14.37 steps/minutes; and 3.65 ± 2.55 × 4.94 ± 3.28 stabs/minutes were observed for individuals foraging in areas close to the mangrove. The results suggest that the observed territorial behaviour is more related to a number of food parameters than to intruder pressure, and also that the observed territoriality might be related to defense of areas with higher prey availability.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of coral disease prevalence on Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapkylä, J.; Melbourne-Thomas, J.; Flavell, M.; Willis, B. L.

    2010-12-01

    Despite increasing research effort on coral diseases, little is known about factors driving disease dynamics on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). This is the first study to investigate the temporal patterns of coral disease prevalence and potential drivers of disease around Heron Island, in the southern Capricorn Bunker sector of the GBR. Surveys were conducted in two austral summers and three winters between November 2007 and August 2009 on six sites around the island. Six diseases were detected: brown band syndrome (BrB), growth anomalies (GA), ulcerative white spots (UWS), white syndrome (WS), skeletal eroding band disease (SEB) and black band disease (BBD). The lowest overall mean disease prevalence was 1.87 ± 0.75% (mean ± SE) in November 2007 and the highest 4.22 ± 1.72% in August 2008. There was evidence of seasonality for two diseases: BrB and UWS. This is the first study to report a higher prevalence of BrB in the winter. BrB had a prevalence of 3.29 ± 0.58% in August 2008 and 1.53 ± 0.28% in August 2009, while UWS was the most common syndrome in the summer with a prevalence of 1.12 ± 0.31% in November 2007 and 2.67 ± 0.52% prevalence in January 2008. The prevalence of GAs and SEB did not depend on the season, although the prevalence of GAs increased throughout the study period. WS had a slightly higher prevalence in the summer, but its overall prevalence was low (disease prevalence (12% of Acropora and 3.3% of Montipora species were diseased respectively). These results highlight the correlations between coral disease prevalence, seasonally varying environmental parameters and coral community composition. Given that diseases are likely to reduce the resilience of corals, seasonal patterns in disease prevalence deserve further research.

  20. TREATMENT OF GREY WATER USING CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Prashant Asirvadam; K. Dhivya Bharathi; P. Durairaj; M. Kaleeswaran; S. Abinaya

    2017-01-01

    The grey water is the waste water that is generated in the households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination. Sources of grey water include water from sinks, showers, baths, washing machine or dish washers. As grey water contains fewer pathogens than domestic waste, it is generally safer to handle and easier to treat and reuse onsite for toilet flushing, landscape or crop irrigation. The removal of toxic content in grey water in this era is one of the most needed process...

  1. Assembling and testing of laboratory scale grey water treatment system

    OpenAIRE

    Harju, Vilhelmiina

    2010-01-01

    Grey water management and reuse is slowly gaining importance in the management of water resources. The benefits of well organized grey water management is that it offers a tool for coping with water scarcity and reduces the amount of pollution to enter the hydrological cycle. Grey water management aims on using treated grey water in applications which do not require drinking water quality. These non-potable reuse applications include industrial processes, irrigation, toilet flushing and lau...

  2. Effects of lead in nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally dosed in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is a known environmental toxicant, and poisoning resulting from the ingestion of lead shot has been well-documented in many species of waterfowl. However, much less is known regarding exposure and effects of free environmental lead in species of birds other than waterfowl. In an attempt to evaluate toxicity of lead to herons and to determine the usefulness of feathers as a non-invasive exposure-monitoring tool, black-crowned night-heron nestlings were dosed with lead to determine its distribution among tissues, and its effects on biochemical biomarkers, growth, and survival. Five-day-old heron nestlings (one per nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia were given a single intra-peritoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; N=7) or one of three lead solutions (as lead nitrate) (10, 50, or 250 mg/kg body weight of nestling; N=7 per dose) chosen to represent levels below, at, and above those found in moderately-polluted environments. All nestlings treated with lead exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity compared to controls, and nestlings treated with the highest concentration showed a reduced carcass weight compared to controls. Of several measures of oxidative stress that were analyzed, significant differences were found between low- and high-dosed nestlings in hepatic total thiol and protein-bound sulfhydryl concentrations. No differences in survival were detected between dosed nestlings, controls, or uninjected siblings. Lead concentrations in several matrices, including feathers, are being determined to assess distribution among tissues and will also be examined for relationships with measures of effect.

  3. Grey-Box Modelling of Pharmacokinetic /Pharmacodynamic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  4. Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma

    2014-01-01

    There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…

  5. Kant's Second Thoughts on Colonialism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleingeld, Pauline; Flikschuh, Katrin; Ypi, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Kant is widely regarded as a fierce critic of colonialism. In Toward Perpetual Peace and the Metaphysics of Morals, for example, he forcefully condemns European conduct in the colonies as a flagrant violation of the principles of right. His earlier views on colonialism have not yet received much

  6. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  7. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea , respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10 6 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea . The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea . Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  8. Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.

  9. The future of grey-box fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelt, Isak

    2017-01-01

    Society are becoming more dependent on software, and more artifacts are being connected to the Internet each day [31]. This makes the work of tracking down vulnerabilities in software a moral obligation for software developers. Since manual testing is expensive [7], automated bug finding techniques are attractive within the quality assurance field, since it can save companies a lot of money. This thesis summarizes the research of an automated bug finding technique called grey-box fuzzing, wit...

  10. HONEY BEE COLONY PHEROMONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dražić

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pheromones are chemicals produced as liquids by specialised cells or glands and transmitted into the environment as liquids or gases. In contrary to hormones, which are excreted in organism and have effect exclusively on organism that produced them, pheromones are excreted outside organism and effect on different individuals of the same species. Pheromones mediate nearly all aspects of honeybee colony life including social defence, brood care, mating, orientation, foraging and reproduction. Pheromone investigation has high economic importance. With use of pheromones it is possible to manipulate with pest insects on crops or to direct honeybees during pollination on target plants.

  11. Searching and synthesising 'grey literature' and 'grey information' in public health: critical reflections on three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2016-09-29

    Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature. On three previous occasions, we have attempted to systematically search for and synthesise public health grey literature and information-both to summarise the extent and nature of particular classes of interventions and to synthesise results of evaluations. Here, we briefly describe these three 'case studies' but focus on our post hoc critical reflections on searching for and synthesising grey literature and information garnered from our experiences of these case studies. We believe these reflections will be useful to future researchers working in this area. Issues discussed include search methods, searching efficiency, replicability of searches, data management, data extraction, assessing study 'quality', data synthesis, time and resources, and differentiating evidence synthesis from primary research. Information on applied public health research questions relating to the nature and range of public health interventions, as well as many evaluations of these interventions, may be predominantly, or only, held in grey literature and grey information. Evidence syntheses on these topics need, therefore, to embrace grey literature and information. Many typical systematic review methods for searching, appraising, managing, and synthesising the evidence base can be adapted for use with grey literature and information. Evidence synthesisers should carefully consider the opportunities and problems offered by including grey literature and information

  12. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, C.; Fabregat, M.C.; Cotin, J.; Huertas, D.; Sole, M.; Quiros, L.; Sanpera, C.; Jover, L.; Ruiz, X.; Grimalt, J.O.; Pina, B.

    2010-01-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. - High levels of organochlorine and mercury levels in eggs and feathers were related with altered blood biomarkers of heron nesting chicks.

  13. Analysis of Colonial Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkowski, Michael; Cangany, Catherine; Jordan, Louis; Manukyan, Khachatur; Schultz, Zachary; Wiescher, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This project entailed studying the cellulose in paper, the ink, colorants, and other materials used to produce American colonial currency. The technique primarily used in this project was X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF). XRF mapping was used to provide both elemental analysis of large-scale objects as well as microscopic examination of individual pigment particles in ink, in addition to the inorganic additives used to prepare paper. The combination of elemental mapping with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopies permits an efficient analysis of the currency. These spectroscopic methods help identify the molecular composition of the pigments. This combination of atomic and molecular analytical techniques provided an in-depth characterization of the paper currency on the macro, micro, and molecular levels. We have identified several of pigments that were used in the preparation of inks and colorants. Also, different inorganic crystals, such as alumina-silicates, have been detected in different papers. The FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to determine the type of cellulose fiber used in the production of paper currency. Our future research will be directed toward revealing important historical relationships between currencies printed throughout the colonies. ISLA Da Vinci Grant.

  14. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  15. Colony Dimorphism in Bradyrhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester-Bradley, Rosemary; Thornton, Philip; Jones, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Ten isolates of Bradyrhizobium spp. which form two colony types were studied; the isolates originated from a range of legume species. The two colony types differed in the amount of gum formed or size or both, depending on the strain. Whole 7-day-old colonies of each type were subcultured to determine the proportion of cells which had changed to the other type. An iterative computerized procedure was used to determine the rate of switching per generation between the two types and to predict proportions reached at equilibrium for each strain. The predicted proportions of the wetter (more gummy) or larger colony type at equilibrium differed significantly between strains, ranging from 0.9999 (strain CIAT 2383) to 0.0216 (strain CIAT 2469), because some strains switched faster from dry to wet (or small to large) and others switched faster from wet to dry (or large to small). Predicted equilibrium was reached after about 140 generations in strain USDA 76. In all but one strain (CIAT 3030) the growth rate of the wetter colony type was greater than or similar to that of the drier type. The mean difference in generation time between the two colony types was 0.37 h. Doubling times calculated for either colony type after 7 days of growth on the agar surface ranged from 6.0 to 7.3 h. The formation of two persistent colony types by one strain (clonal or colony dimorphism) may be a common phenomenon among Bradyrhizobium strains. Images PMID:16347599

  16. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  17. Multiattribute Grey Target Decision Method Based on Soft Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the Multiattribute decision-making problems in which the evaluation attribute sets are different and the evaluating values of alternatives are interval grey numbers, a multiattribute grey target decision-making method in which the attribute sets are different was proposed. The concept of grey soft set was defined, and its “AND” operation was assigned by combining the intersection operation of grey number. The expression approach of new grey soft set of attribute sets considering by all decision makers were gained by applying the “AND” operation of grey soft set, and the weights of synthesis attribute were proved. The alternatives were ranked according to the size of distance of bull’s eyes of each alternative under synthetic attribute sets. The green supplier selection was illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model.

  18. Peering through the Review Process: Towards Transparency in Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Now that grey literature is readily catalogued, referenced, cited, and openly accessible to subject based communities as well as net users, the claims that grey literature is unpublished or non-published have sufficiently been put to rest. However, now that grey literature has met these former challenges and entered mainstream publishing, it requires in the spirit of science to have a system in place for the quality control of its content. This new challenge has recently been spurred by the I...

  19. Epilithic Cyanobacterial Communities of a Marine Tropical Beach Rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef): Diversity and Diazotrophy▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Beatriz; Bauer, Karolina; Bergman, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    The diversity and nitrogenase activity of epilithic marine microbes in a Holocene beach rock (Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia) with a proposed biological calcification “microbialite” origin were examined. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the dominant mat (a coherent and layered pink-pigmented community spread over the beach rock) and biofilms (nonstratified, differently pigmented microbial communities of small shallow depressions) were retrieved using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and a clone library was retrieved from the dominant mat. The 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological analyses revealed heterogeneity in the cyanobacterial distribution patterns. The nonheterocystous filamentous genus Blennothrix sp., phylogenetically related to Lyngbya, dominated the mat together with unidentified nonheterocystous filaments of members of the Pseudanabaenaceae and the unicellular genus Chroococcidiopsis. The dominance and three-dimensional intertwined distribution of these organisms were confirmed by nonintrusive scanning microscopy. In contrast, the less pronounced biofilms were dominated by the heterocystous cyanobacterial genus Calothrix, two unicellular Entophysalis morphotypes, Lyngbya spp., and members of the Pseudanabaenaceae family. Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides and Alphaproteobacteria phylotypes were also retrieved from the beach rock. The microbial diversity of the dominant mat was accompanied by high nocturnal nitrogenase activities (as determined by in situ acetylene reduction assays). A new DGGE nifH gene optimization approach for cyanobacterial nitrogen fixers showed that the sequences retrieved from the dominant mat were related to nonheterocystous uncultured cyanobacterial phylotypes, only distantly related to sequences of nitrogen-fixing cultured cyanobacteria. These data stress the occurrence and importance of nonheterocystous epilithic cyanobacteria, and it is hypothesized that such epilithic cyanobacteria

  20. Grey('s) Identity: Complications of Learning and Becoming in a Popular Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines an analysis of the American show "Grey's Anatomy" as an example of how popular culture represents identity and the process of professional identity construction in a medical workplace, particularly the surgical service of a large urban hospital. In discussing identity, she connects professional identity to…

  1. Current status and a short history of grey literature. Focusing on the international conference on grey literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)

  2. Grey Hair Evlsion Technique For Evaluating the Effect of Drugs For the Treatment of Premature Grey Hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND and others in the Coral Sea, Great Australian Bight and Tasman Sea from 2009-10-09 to 2012-11-28 (NODC Accession 0100062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0100062 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from HERON ISLAND, KANGAROO ISLAND, MARIA ISLAND, MOORING_HERON...

  4. Growth Mechanism of Microbial Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minhui; Martini, K. Michael; Kim, Neil H.; Sherer, Nicholas; Lee, Jia Gloria; Kuhlman, Thomas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    Experiments on nutrient-limited E. coli colonies, growing on agar gel from single cells reveal a power-law distribution of sizes, both during the growth process and in the final stage when growth has ceased. We developed a Python simulation to study the growth mechanism of the bacterial population and thus understand the broad details of the experimental findings. The simulation takes into account nutrient uptake, metabolic function, growth and cell division. Bacteria are modeled in two dimensions as hard circle-capped cylinders with steric interactions and elastic stress dependent growth characteristics. Nutrient is able to diffuse within and between the colonies. The mechanism of microbial colony growth involves reproduction of cells within the colonies and the merging of different colonies. We report results on the dynamic scaling laws and final state size distribution, that capture in semi-quantitative detail the trends observed in experiment. Supported by NSF Grant 0822613.

  5. Access to Grey Content: An Analysis of Grey Literature based on Citation and Survey Data, A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Boekhorst, Albert K. (UvA); Schöpfel, Joachim (INIST-CNRS); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2005-01-01

    Grey literature, an area of interest to special librarians and information professionals, can be traced back a half-century. However, grey literature as a specialized field in information studies is less than a decade old. At GL'97 in Luxembourg, grey literature was redefined "as information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishers (i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the pro...

  6. Grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs in a biased series two-photon centrosymmetric photorefractive crystals circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xuanmang; Wang, Jinlai; Jiang, Qichang; Liu, Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    Grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs are predicted in a biased series circuit consisting of two centrosymmetric photorefractive (PR) crystals with the two-photon PR effect. The numerical results show that two grey solitons in a soliton pair can affect each other by the light-induced current. The effects of the intensity of solitary waves and gating lights on the normalized profiles and the dynamical evolutions of solitons are discussed.

  7. On grey levels in random CAPTCHA generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Fraser; Kouritzin, Michael A.

    2011-06-01

    A CAPTCHA is an automatically generated test designed to distinguish between humans and computer programs; specifically, they are designed to be easy for humans but difficult for computer programs to pass in order to prevent the abuse of resources by automated bots. They are commonly seen guarding webmail registration forms, online auction sites, and preventing brute force attacks on passwords. In the following, we address the question: How does adding a grey level to random CAPTCHA generation affect the utility of the CAPTCHA? We treat the problem of generating the random CAPTCHA as one of random field simulation: An initial state of background noise is evolved over time using Gibbs sampling and an efficient algorithm for generating correlated random variables. This approach has already been found to yield highly-readable yet difficult-to-crack CAPTCHAs. We detail how the requisite parameters for introducing grey levels are estimated and how we generate the random CAPTCHA. The resulting CAPTCHA will be evaluated in terms of human readability as well as its resistance to automated attacks in the forms of character segmentation and optical character recognition.

  8. Grey Rod Test in HANARO Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, K. N.; Kim, B. G.; Kang, Y. H. (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Westinghouse/KAERI/KNF agreed to perform an irradiation test in the HANARO reactor to obtain irradiation data on the new grey rods that will be part of an AP1000 system. As a preliminary test, two samples containing pure Ag (Reference) and Ag-In-Cd materials provided by Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) were inserted in a KNF irradiation capsule of 07M-13N. The specimens were irradiated for 95.19days (4 cycles) in the CT test hole of the HANARO of a 30MW thermal output to have a fast neutron fluence of 1.11x10{sup 21}(n/cm{sup 2}) (E>1.0MeV). This report provides all the test conditions and data obtained during the irradiation test of the grey rods in HANARO requested by Westinghouse. The test was prepared according to the meeting minutes (June 26, 2007) and the on-going subject test was stopped midway by the request of Westinghouse.

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nitrate, phosphate, temperature and other variables collected from time series observations at Heron Island Reef Flat from 2010-06-01 to 2010-12-13 (NODC Accession 0127256)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains carbonate chemistry and environmental parameters data that were collected from a 200-day time series monitoring on the Heron Island...

  10. 78 FR 17183 - Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection: Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card... request: (1) An extension from the Office of Management and Budget; and (2) to merge the currently approved information collection 0596- 0222, ``Grey Towers Visitor Comment Card'' with 0596-0226, ``Forest...

  11. Effect of titanium on the near eutectic grey iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    The effect of Titanium on the microstructure of grey iron was investigated experimentally in this work. Tensile test bars of grey cast iron of near eutectic alloys containing 0.01, 0.1, 0.26 and 0.35% Ti, respectively were made in green sand moulds. Chemical analysis, metallographic investigation...

  12. Grey scale, the 'crispening effect', and perceptual linearization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belaïd, N.; Martens, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    One way of optimizing a display is to maximize the number of distinguishable grey levels, which in turn is equivalent to perceptually linearizing the display. Perceptual linearization implies that equal steps in grey value evoke equal steps in brightness sensation. The key to perceptual

  13. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpy, David R.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Pettis, Jeffrey S.

    2013-08-01

    Honey bee ( Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirically to confer significant adaptive advantages that result in higher colony productivity and survival. Moreover, honey bees are the primary insect pollinators used in modern commercial production agriculture, and their populations have been in decline worldwide. Here, we compare the mating frequencies of queens, and therefore, intracolony genetic diversity, in three commercial beekeeping operations to determine how they correlate with various measures of colony health and productivity, particularly the likelihood of queen supersedure and colony survival in functional, intensively managed beehives. We found the average effective paternity frequency ( m e ) of this population of honey bee queens to be 13.6 ± 6.76, which was not significantly different between colonies that superseded their queen and those that did not. However, colonies that were less genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e ≤ 7.0) were 2.86 times more likely to die by the end of the study when compared to colonies that were more genetically diverse (headed by queens with m e > 7.0). The stark contrast in colony survival based on increased genetic diversity suggests that there are important tangible benefits of increased queen mating number in managed honey bees, although the exact mechanism(s) that govern these benefits have not been fully elucidated.

  14. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ..., California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...: Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project (Madera County, California) lies... vegetation. Currently, vegetation within the Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project has changed from...

  15. Alternative Axiomatic Characterizations of the Grey Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirma Zeynep Alparslan Gok

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Shapley value, one of the most common solution concepts of cooperative game theory is defined and axiomatically characterized in different game-theoretic models. Certainly, the Shapley value can be used in interesting sharing cost/reward problems in the Operations Research area such as connection, routing, scheduling, production and inventory situations. In this paper, we focus on the Shapley value for cooperative games, where the set of players is finite and the coalition values are interval grey numbers. The central question in this paper is how to characterize the grey Shapley value. In this context, we present two alternative axiomatic characterizations. First, we characterize the grey Shapley value using the properties of efficiency, symmetry and strong monotonicity. Second, we characterize the grey Shapley value by using the grey dividends.

  16. Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija

    The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...

  17. Prediction of pipeline corrosion rate based on grey Markov models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Peng Guichu; Wang Yuemin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the model that combined by grey model and Markov model, the prediction of corrosion rate of nuclear power pipeline was studied. Works were done to improve the grey model, and the optimization unbiased grey model was obtained. This new model was used to predict the tendency of corrosion rate, and the Markov model was used to predict the residual errors. In order to improve the prediction precision, rolling operation method was used in these prediction processes. The results indicate that the improvement to the grey model is effective and the prediction precision of the new model combined by the optimization unbiased grey model and Markov model is better, and the use of rolling operation method may improve the prediction precision further. (authors)

  18. Limbic grey matter changes in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Xing, Yue; Schwarz, Stefan T; Auer, Dorothee P

    2017-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated. Structural brain networks were obtained using covariance analysis seeded in regions showing grey matter abnormalities in PD subject group. Patients displayed focally reduced grey matter density in the right amygdala, which was present from the earliest stages of the disease without further advance in mild-moderate disease stages. Right amygdala grey matter density showed negative correlation with autonomic dysfunction and positive with cognitive performance in patients, but no significant interrelations were found with anxiety scores. Patients with PD also demonstrated right amygdala structural disconnection with less structural connectivity of the right amygdala with the cerebellum and thalamus but increased covariance with bilateral temporal cortices compared with controls. Age-related grey matter change was also increased in PD preferentially in the limbic system. In conclusion, detailed brain morphometry in a large group of early PD highlights predominant limbic grey matter deficits with stronger age associations compared with controls and associated altered structural connectivity pattern. This provides in vivo evidence for early limbic grey matter pathology and structural network changes that may reflect extranigral disease spread in PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The

  19. Grey literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-12-21

    Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Unusual MRI findings in grey matter heteropia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Leclerc, X.; Pruvo, J.P.; Houlette, C.; Godefroy, O.

    1998-01-01

    We report unusual MRI patterns in patients with grey matter heterotopia. Standard T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo and inversion-recovery sequences were used in 22 patients presenting with seizures or developmental delay. The images were reviewed for signal change surrounding white matter and for atypical size, morphology or topography. We found 10 cases of subependymal heterotopias 11 of focal subcortical heterotopia and of diffuse subcortical heterotopia. On clinical or MRI grounds, 8 cases were considered unusual: 2 of the subependymal type, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with white matter abnormalities, 2 of focal subcortical heterotopia with no clinicoradiological correlation 1 of extensive hemispheric subcortical heterotopia and 1 of diffuse subcortical heterotopia confined to the frontal lobe. The classical classification of heterotopia enables easy radiological diagnosis even in cases with unusual patterns. In some cases, heterogeneity and high signal in surrounding white matter can be found. Cortical dysplasia is the most frequent associated malformation. (orig.)

  1. Repozitář a webový portál GreyGuide:Odpověď GreyNet na Deklaraci z Pisy

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    In December 2013, the GreyGuide was launched and in early 2014 GreyNet welcomed far reaching developments in its resource management. These developments are in line with the “Pisa Declaration on Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources (May 16, 2014)”. In compliance with this 15-point roadmap, a selection of GreyNet’s web-based content will now migrate to the GreyGuide allowing for seamless browse, search, and retrieval across its collections.

  2. Colonial Figures: Memories of Street Traders in the Colonial and Early Post-colonial Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri Lynn Gibbings

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores post-colonial memories about street traders among individuals who lived in the former colony of the Dutch East Indies. It argues that these narratives romanticize the relationship between Europeans and indigenous peoples. Street vendors are also used to differentiate between periods within colonial and post-colonial history. The nostalgic representation of interracial contact between Europeans and traders is contrasted with representations of other figures such as the Japanese and the nationalist. A recurring feature of these representations is the ability of Europeans to speak with street traders and imagine what they wanted and needed. The traders are remembered as a social type that transgressed politics and represented the neutrality of the economic sphere as a place for shared communication. The article concludes that the figure of the street vendor contributes to the nostalgic reinvention of the colony but is also used in narratives to differentiate between and mark changes across the colonial and post-colonial periods.

  3. Phylogeographic history of grey wolves in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykyy Ihor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While it is generally accepted that patterns of intra-specific genetic differentiation are substantially affected by glacial history, population genetic processes occurring during Pleistocene glaciations are still poorly understood. In this study, we address the question of the genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations for European grey wolves. Combining our data with data from published studies, we analysed phylogenetic relationships and geographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for 947 contemporary European wolves. We also compared the contemporary wolf sequences with published sequences of 24 ancient European wolves. Results We found that haplotypes representing two haplogroups, 1 and 2, overlap geographically, but substantially differ in frequency between populations from south-western and eastern Europe. A comparison between haplotypes from Europe and other continents showed that both haplogroups are spread throughout Eurasia, while only haplogroup 1 occurs in contemporary North American wolves. All ancient wolf samples from western Europe that dated from between 44,000 and 1,200 years B.P. belonged to haplogroup 2, suggesting the long-term predominance of this haplogroup in this region. Moreover, a comparison of current and past frequencies and distributions of the two haplogroups in Europe suggested that haplogroup 2 became outnumbered by haplogroup 1 during the last several thousand years. Conclusions Parallel haplogroup replacement, with haplogroup 2 being totally replaced by haplogroup 1, has been reported for North American grey wolves. Taking into account the similarity of diets reported for the late Pleistocene wolves from Europe and North America, the correspondence between these haplogroup frequency changes may suggest that they were associated with ecological changes occurring after the Last Glacial Maximum.

  4. Grey relevant analysis of sodium critical heat flux in annular channel and the establishing of grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Liao Yixiang; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    1999-12-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, grey mutual analysis is done to some parameters influencing sodium CHF. The results of CHF are predicted by using GM (1,1) model. The GM(1,h) model is made up for creating CHF model. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  5. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  6. Blood biomarkers and contaminant levels in feathers and eggs to assess environmental hazards in heron nestlings from impacted sites in Ebro basin (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, C; Fabregat, M C; Cotín, J; Huertas, D; Solé, M; Quirós, L; Sanpera, C; Jover, L; Ruiz, X; Grimalt, J O; Piña, B

    2010-03-01

    Blood biomarkers and levels of major pollutants in eggs and feathers were used to determine pollution effects in nestlings of the Purple Heron Ardea purpurea and the Little Egret Egretta garzetta, sampled on three Ebro River (NE Spain) areas: a reference site, a site affected by the effluents of a chlor-alkali industry and the river Delta. The two impacted heron populations showed mutually different pollutant and response patterns, suggesting different sources of contamination. In the population nesting near the chlor-alkali plant, elevated levels of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) in eggs, and mercury in feathers in A. purpurea chicks were related with reduced blood antioxidant defenses and increased levels of micronuclei. In Ebro Delta, high levels of plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase in A. purpurea chicks and high frequency of micronuclei in blood of both species were tentatively associated with intensive agricultural activities taking place in the area. These results provide the first evidence of a biological response in heron chicks to the release of pollutants at a chlor-alkali plant. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihui; Yin, Ge; Asplund, Lillemor; Stewart, Kathryn; Rantakokko, Panu; Bignert, Anders; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Qiu, Yanling; Ma, Zhijun; Bergman, Åke

    2017-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g -1 lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH- and MeO-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g -1 lw). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, T A; Shalabi, M; Wendland, C; Otterpohl, R

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of grey water treatment in a UASB reactor was investigated. The batch recirculation experiments showed that a maximum total-COD removal of 79% can be obtained in grey-water treatment in the UASB reactor. The continuous operational results of a UASB reactor treating grey water at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 12 and 8 hours at ambient temperature (14-24 degrees C) showed that 31-41% of total COD was removed. These results were significantly higher than that achieved by a septic tank (11-14%), the most common system for grey water pre-treatment, at HRT of 2-3 days. The relatively lower removal of total COD in the UASB reactor was mainly due to a higher amount of colloidal COD in the grey water, as compared to that reported in domestic wastewater. The grey water had a limited amount of nitrogen, which was mainly in particulate form (80-90%). The UASB reactor removed 24-36% and 10-24% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, in the grey water, due to particulate nutrients removal by physical entrapment and sedimentation. The sludge characteristics of the UASB reactor showed that the system had stable performance and the recommended HRT for the reactor is 12 hours.

  9. Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui

    2014-02-15

    Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  11. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H

    2003-10-01

    Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.

  12. Modification of grey scale in computer tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.

    1980-01-01

    Optimum perception of minute but relevant attenuation differences in CT images often requires display window settings so narrow that a considerable fraction of the image appears completely black or white and consequently without structure. In order to improve the display characteristics two principles of grey scale modification are presented. In one method the pixel contents are displayed unchanged within a selectable attenuation band but moved towards the limits of the band for pixels that are outside it. In the other the grey scale is arranged to a constant number of pixels per grey scale interval. (Auth.)

  13. The relative abundance of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) among other zwitterions in branching coral at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S M; Jones, Graham B; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-07-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surrounding Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for sample analysis with isotope dilution MS applied to quantify DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was ten times greater in A. aspera than A. valida, with this difference being maintained throughout the spring, summer and winter seasons. In contrast, glycine betaine was present in significantly higher concentrations in these species during the summer than the winter. Exposure of branch tips of A. aspera to air and hypo-saline seawater for up to 1 h did not alter the concentrations of DMSP present in the coral when compared with control samples. DMSP was the most abundant target zwitterion in the six Acropora species examined, ranging from 44-78% of all target zwitterions in A. millepora and A. aspera, respectively. In contrast, DMSP only accounted for 7% in S. pistillata, with glycine betaine and stachydrine collectively accounting for 88% of all target zwitterions in this species. The abundance of DMSP in the six Acropora species examined points to Acropora coral being an important source for the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur throughout the GBR, since this reef-building branching coral dominates the coral cover of the GBR. Graphical Abstract HILIC-MS extracted ion chromatogram showing zwitterionic metabolites from the branching coral Acropora isopora.

  14. Analysis of micronucleated erythrocytes in heron nestlings from reference and impacted sites in the Ebro basin (N.E. Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros, Laia; Ruiz, Xavier; Sanpera, Carolina; Jover, Lluis; Pina, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes was tested for 59 heron nestlings (Ardea purpurea, Egretta garzetta and Bubulcus ibis) sampled at two areas (polluted and reference) on the River Ebro (NE Spain) and at its Delta during Spring 2006. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed higher (three- to six-fold) MN counts in samples from the most polluted site relative to samples from the reference area. Samples from the Delta showed intermediate values. Age, morphometric parameters (weight, tarsus size and bill-head length) and maturation status showed no significant differences among the different populations for each species; nor were they correlated with MN levels. The data suggest that elevated levels of MN in chicks in impacted areas reflected the chemical pollution of their nesting sites. The use of nestlings for this assay appears to be a convenient, non-destructive method to assess the impact of pollution in natural bird populations. - Frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of waterbird nestlings correlates with chemical pollution loads in their nesting sites

  15. Geospatial Analysis of Grey Wolf Movement Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.

    2017-12-01

    The grey wolf is a top predator that lives across a diverse habitat, ranging from Europe to North America. They often hunt in packs, preferring caribou, deer and elk as prey. Currently, many gray wolves live in Denali National Park and Preserve. In this study, several wolf packs were studied in three distinct regions of Denali. The purpose of my research was to investigate the links between wolf habitat, movement patterns, and prey thresholds. These are needed for projecting future population, growth and distribution of wolves in the studied region. I also investigated the effect wolves have on the ecological structure of the communities they inhabit. In the study I carried out a quantitative analysis of wolf population trends and daily distance movement by utilizing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) in the program JmpPro12 (SAS Institute, Crary, NC) to assess regional differences in pack size, wolf density, average daily distance moved. I found a clear link between the wolf habitat and prey thresholds; the habitat directly influences the types of prey available. However there was no link between the daily distance movement, the wolf habitat and prey density.

  16. Application of entropy measurement technique in grey based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this study, four control variables are selected current, voltage, gas flow rate and ... Keywords: Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, Grey-Taguchi Method, Entropy ...... of metal inert gas welding on the corrosion and mechanical behaviour of.

  17. Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Physiology and Animal Production, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural ... Predation (47.37%) was the most important cause of nest failure. ... of conservation actions are essential to avoid future extinction of grey parrots.

  18. How to search for and use 'grey literature' in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Hardicre, Jayne; Devitt, Patric

    An ever-growing amount of grey literature is available to nurses, including oral presentations, personal communication, leaflets, newspapers and magazines, unpublished research, internal reports and minutes of meetings. It can be an invaluable research resource.

  19. Invenio: A Modern Digital Library for Grey Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Caffaro, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Grey literature has historically played a key role for researchers in the field of High- Energy Physics (HEP). Consequently CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) as the world’s largest particle physics laboratory has always been facing the challenge of distributing and archiving grey material. Invenio, an open-source repository software, has been developed as part of CERN’s institutional repository strategy to answer these needs. In this document we describe how the particular context of grey literature within the HEP community shaped the development of Invenio. We focus on the strategies that have been established in order to process grey material within the software and we analyse how it is used in a real production environment, the CERN Document Server (CDS).

  20. Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge | Eriksson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and ...

  1. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  2. Brain grey matter volume alterations in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingying; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jing; Kuang, Weihong; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Bi, Feng; Kendrick, Keith M; Gong, Qiyong

    2014-11-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have demonstrated that grey matter abnormalities are involved in the pathophysiology of late-life depression (LLD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis that integrated the reported VBM studies, to determine consistent grey matter alterations in individuals with LLD. A systematic search was conducted to identify VBM studies that compared patients with LLD and healthy controls. We performed a meta-analysis using the effect size signed differential mapping method to quantitatively estimate regional grey matter abnormalities in patients with LLD. We included 9 studies with 11 data sets comprising 292 patients with LLD and 278 healthy controls in our meta-analysis. The pooled and subgroup meta-analyses showed robust grey matter reductions in the right lentiform nucleus extending into the parahippocampus, the hippocampus and the amygdala, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right subcallosal gyrus as well as a grey matter increase in the right lingual gyrus. Meta-regression analyses showed that mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD were not significantly related to grey matter changes. The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the studies included were heterogeneous, and most participants were medicated. The present meta-analysis is, to our knowledge, the first to overcome previous inconsistencies in the VBM studies of LLD and provide robust evidence for grey matter alterations within fronto-striatal-limbic networks, thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of LLD. The mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD did not appear to have a measurable impact on grey matter changes, although we cannot rule out the contributory effects of medication.

  3. Colonial army recruitment patterns and post-colonial Military Coups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since time immemorial, societies, states and state builders have been challenged and transformed by the need and quest for military manpower. European states relied on conscript armies to 'pacify' and retain colonies in parts of the non-European world. These facts underscore the meticulous attention paid by the British to ...

  4. Colonial Bilingual Heritage and Post-Colonial Myths in Cameroon's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the study traces and shows that an uncritical support of the existing school bilingualism, a aspect of the general political objective of national unity and integration, hinges on a fictitious collective post-colonial dream about using the bilingual heritage of French and English, and the cultures that lie behind them, ...

  5. GreyGuide Portal and Repositories "Sharing knowledge as early as possible"

    OpenAIRE

    Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Barsotti, Alessia; Pardini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The GreyGuide - Repository and Guide to Good Practices and Resources in Grey Literature was launched in 2013 as a collaborative effort between GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. It aims at ?. Offering information professionals, practitioners, and students common ground for good practices and resources in grey literature; ?. Providing support for all stakeholders working on Grey Literature related research issues; ?. Being consistent with recommendations made in the Pisa Declaration on Policy...

  6. Dutch Colonial Nostalgia Across Decolonisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that nostalgia for colonialism in the Netherlands, the so called tempo doeloe culture, is not a specifically postcolonial phenomenon caused by the collapse of the Dutch empire in Asia. In fact, nostalgia for the Dutch East Indies can be traced back to the nineteenth century, when

  7. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  8. Affective Politics and Colonial Heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Britta Timm; Andersen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the spatial entanglement of colonial heritage struggles through a study of the Rhodes Must Fall student movement at the University of Cape Town and the University of Oxford. We explore affective politics and the role heritage can play in the landscape of body politics. We aim...

  9. Ant Colony Optimization for Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ast, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The very basis of this thesis is the collective behavior of ants in colonies. Ants are an excellent example of how rather simple behavior on a local level can lead to complex behavior on a global level that is beneficial for the individuals. The key in the self-organization of ants is communication

  10. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  11. An EGR performance evaluation and decision-making approach based on grey theory and grey entropy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xianghuan; Yang, Chuanlei; Wang, Hechun; Wang, Yinyan

    2018-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the main methods of reducing NOX emissions and has been widely used in marine diesel engines. This paper proposes an optimized comprehensive assessment method based on multi-objective grey situation decision theory, grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis to evaluate the performance and optimize rate determination of EGR, which currently lack clear theoretical guidance. First, multi-objective grey situation decision theory is used to establish the initial decision-making model according to the main EGR parameters. The optimal compromise between diesel engine combustion and emission performance is transformed into a decision-making target weight problem. After establishing the initial model and considering the characteristics of EGR under different conditions, an optimized target weight algorithm based on grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis is applied to generate the comprehensive evaluation and decision-making model. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a TBD234V12 turbocharged diesel engine, and the results clearly illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method for providing theoretical support and a reference for further EGR optimization.

  12. Grey water characterisation and pollutant loads in an urban slum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katukiza, A. Y.; Ronteltap, M.; Niwagaba, C. B.; Kansiime, F.; Lens, P. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L-1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L-1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L-1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 9 107 cfu (100 mL)-1 and 1.75 9 108 cfu (100 mL)-1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 9 106 cfu (100 mL)-1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, sodium adsorption ratio, oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p/0.05). The high loads of COD ([500 kg day-1), total suspended solids ([200 kg day-1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day-1 and 1.4 kg total phosphorus day-1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c-1 day-1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.

  13. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  14. Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2016-07-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  16. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. Later, we inoculated these colonies with spores of Paenibacillus larvae, the bacterium that causes a highly virulent disease of honeybee larvae (American foulbrood). We found that, on average, colonies headed by multiple-drone inseminated queens had markedly lower disease intensity and higher colony strength at the end of the summer relative to colonies headed by single-drone inseminated queens. These findings support the hypothesis that polyandry by social insect queens is an adaptation to counter disease within their colonies. PMID:17015336

  17. Melancthon Grey Wind Project environmental screening report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Canadian Hydro has proposed that the Melancthon and Grey Highlands Townships in Dufferin County, Ontario are ideally suited for the installation of a 240 MW wind farm. Assuming a turbine rating of 1.5 MW each, a total of 160 turbines could be installed. The utility has decided to undertake the project in up to 4 phases. This paper focuses on the construction and operation of a 75 MW wind turbine array (50, 1.5 MW turbines) dispersed over an area of about 3,511 hectares in the Melancthon Township. The total expected cost of the first phase is $130 million, with construction scheduled to begin in April 2005 for an in-service date of no later than March 31, 2006 to meet the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) funding requirements. This environmental screening report (ESR) was completed to help Canadian Hydro fulfill regulatory requirements. It presented the project summary, the estimated capacity of the wind farm, and construction schedule. The environmental setting was also presented along with power line routing. This ESR addressed issues that may impact surface and ground water quality, air quality, soil erosion, environmental noise and disposal of waste materials. Issues affecting migratory birds, agricultural resources, community characteristics, construction related traffic, public health, historical resources and viewscapes were also addressed. The general conclusion of the ESR is that the project can be constructed, operated and decommissioned in such a manner as to minimize potentially adverse effects on the environment while enhancing the positive effects both locally and provincially. Migratory bird deaths due to collision with turbines are expected to be negligible and the effects of breeding bird habitat have been minimized through proposed mitigation measures. Environmental noise levels are expected to be within the applicable noise criteria. There will be no negative effect on property values within the viewshed of the turbines. There are many net

  18. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-wai Kan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.

  19. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water: particle size effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, G P; Avery, L M; Stephenson, T; Jefferson, B

    2008-02-01

    The impact of water quality on the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water was investigated with reference to urban water reuse. Direct UV disinfection of grey water did not meet the stringent California State Title 22 criteria for unrestricted urban water reuse due to the presence of particulate material ranging from or = 2000 microm in size. Grey water was manipulated by settling to produce fractions of varying particle size distributions and blending was employed post-disinfection to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs). The efficacy of UV disinfection was found to be linked to the particle size of the grey water fractions. The larger particle size fractions with a mean particle size of 262 microm and above were observed to shield more coliforms from UV light than did the smaller particles with a mean particle size below 119 microm. Up to 70% of total coliforms in the larger particle size fractions were particle-associated following a UV dose (fluence) of 260 mJ.cm(-2) and would remain undetected by standard coliform enumeration techniques. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and recommendations made for grey water treatment to ensure removal of particle-associated indicator bacteria and pathogens prior to UV disinfection.

  20. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    podcasts.psu.edu/taxonomy/term/62]. Staple crops such as wheat , corn, and rice do not rely on insect pollination and are mostly wind pollinated...are interacting to weaken bee colonies and are allowing stress-related pathogens, such as fungi , thus causing a final collapse.27 Others note the...possible role of miticide resistance in bees. High levels of bacteria, viruses, and fungi have been found in the guts of the recoverable dead bees

  1. Honeybee immunity and colony losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The decline of honeybee colonies and their eventual collapse is a widespread phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere of the globe, which severely limits the beekeeping industry. This dramatic event is associated with an enhanced impact of parasites and pathogens on honeybees, which is indicative of reduced immunocompetence. The parasitic mite Varroa destructor and the vectored viral pathogens appear to play a key-role in the induction of this complex syndrome. In particular, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV is widespread and is now considered, along with Varroa, one of the major causes of bee colony losses. Several lines of evidence indicate that this mite/DWV association severely affects the immune system of honeybees and makes them more sensitive to the action of other stress factors. The molecular mechanisms underpinning these complex interactions are currently being investigated and the emerging information has allowed the development of a new functional model, describing how different stress factors may synergistically concur in the induction of bee immune alteration and health decline. This provides a new logical framework in which to interpret the proposed multifactorial origin of bee colony losses and sets the stage for a more comprehensive and integrated analysis of the effect that multiple stress agents may have on honeybees.

  2. Impacts of Triclosan in Grey water on Soil Microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, D.I; Felker, J.M; Baker, K.H

    2011-01-01

    The use of grey water for irrigation is becoming a common practice in arid regions such as the Southwestern US, the Middle East, Australia, and China. While grey water supplies nutrients to soil ecosystems, the possible impact of trace contaminants, particularly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has not been determined. This paper examined the impact of triclosan, an antibacterial agent commonly added to consumer products, on microbial populations and microbial diversity in soil irrigated with grey water. While there was no change in the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms in the soil, both the types and the antibiotic resistance of the microorganisms were significantly influenced by triclosan. The proportion of the microbial isolates resistant to antibiotics increased while at the same time, overall diversity of the microbial community decreased.

  3. Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana

    2017-10-01

    Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.

  4. Internet trade and threat of the grey area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ćwiąkała-Małys

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years it has been of great interest to tax, fiscal and customs authorities how trade and services provided over the Internet develop. A long time ago it was stated that the intense development of the Internet contributes to the expansion of the grey area. The grey area’s functioning is very unfavourable to the state economy, because although it creates GDP, it does not directly support the state budget. When considering reduced inflows to the state budget and increases in the deficit, it is reasonable to take any and all actions in order to limit the grey area in each field of social and economic life. Thus, the interest of specialized public authorities in this field should not raise any concerns.

  5. Converter of a continuous code into the Grey code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchar, A.I.; TrUbnikov, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a converter of a continuous code into the Grey code used in a 12-charged precision amplitude-to-digital converter to decrease the digital component of spectrometer differential nonlinearity to +0.7% in the 98% range of the measured band. To construct the converter of a continuous code corresponding to the input signal amplitude into the Grey code used is the regularity in recycling of units and zeroes in each discharge of the Grey code in the case of a continuous change of the number of pulses of a continuous code. The converter is constructed on the elements of 155 series, the frequency of continuous code pulse passing at the converter input is 25 MHz

  6. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti

    2016-01-01

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  7. Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.dhar@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)

    2016-01-15

    Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.

  8. Relationships among cytochromes P450 and dioxin equivalents in pipping heron embryos from Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillett, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay, WI; San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic P450 associated monooxygenases (AHH, EROD, BROD, ECOD) and P450 proteins (CYP1A, CYP2B) were induced up to 85-fold, and were associated with burdens of total PCBs and 11 AHH-active PCB congeners. Dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs) of sample extracts, derived by bioassay (H4I1E rat hepatoma cell) and mathematically (product of PCB congener concentration and relative TCDD potency), revealed greatest TCDD-EQs in Cat Island samples. TCDD-EQs were associated with P450s, especially BROD, EROD and CYP1A (r2 = 0.35 to 0.66). TCDD-EQs derived by bioassay were highly correlated with TCDD-EQs derived mathematically (r2 = 0.58 to 0.67) . Multiple regressions were also performed to investigate relationships among P450s and PCB congeners. In summary, these data demonstrate that hepatic P450s of heron embryos are biomarkers of exposure to dioxin-like compounds and provide further evidence that this species has considerable value for assessing wetland and estuarine contamination.

  9. Asymptotic variance of grey-scale surface area estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anne Marie

    Grey-scale local algorithms have been suggested as a fast way of estimating surface area from grey-scale digital images. Their asymptotic mean has already been described. In this paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the variance is studied in isotropic and sufficiently smooth settings, resulting...... in a general asymptotic bound. For compact convex sets with nowhere vanishing Gaussian curvature, the asymptotics can be described more explicitly. As in the case of volume estimators, the variance is decomposed into a lattice sum and an oscillating term of at most the same magnitude....

  10. Global population structure and demographic history of the grey seal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimova, A.; Phillips, C. D.; Fietz, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Although the grey seal Halichoerus grypus is one of the most familiar and intensively studied of all pinniped species, its global population structure remains to be elucidated. Little is also known about how the species as a whole may have historically responded to climate-driven changes in habitat...... a little over 10 000 years ago, consistent with the last proposed isolation of the Baltic Sea. Approximate Bayesian computation also identified genetic signals consistent with postglacial population expansion across much of the species range, suggesting that grey seals are highly responsive to changes...

  11. Modelling prey consumption and switching by UK grey seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Hammond, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) are adaptable generalist predatorswhose diet includes commercial fish species such as cod. Consumption by the seals may reduce the size of some fish stocks or have an adverse effect on stock recovery programmes, especially because predation may trap sparse prey...... populations in a “predator pit”. To assess the likely impact of such effects, it is important to know how consumption and consequent predation mortality respond to the changing availability of prey.Wepresent a model of grey seal consumption as a function of the availability of multiple prey types [a Multi...

  12. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus timneh using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL. The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  13. What's the risk? Identifying potential human pathogens within grey-headed flying foxes faeces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Henry

    Full Text Available Pteropus poliocephalus (grey-headed flying foxes are recognised vectors for a range of potentially fatal human pathogens. However, to date research has primarily focused on viral disease carriage, overlooking bacterial pathogens, which also represent a significant human disease risk. The current study applied 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, community analysis and a multi-tiered database OTU picking approach to identify faecal-derived zoonotic bacteria within two colonies of P. poliocephalus from Victoria, Australia. Our data show that sequences associated with Enterobacteriaceae (62.8% ± 24.7%, Pasteurellaceae (19.9% ± 25.7% and Moraxellaceae (9.4% ± 11.8% dominate flying fox faeces. Further colony specific differences in bacterial faecal colonisation patterns were also identified. In total, 34 potential pathogens, representing 15 genera, were identified. However, species level definition was only possible for Clostridium perfringens, which likely represents a low infectious risk due to the low proportion observed within the faeces and high infectious dose required for transmission. In contrast, sequences associated with other pathogenic species clusters such as Haemophilus haemolyticus-H. influenzae and Salmonella bongori-S. enterica, were present at high proportions in the faeces, and due to their relatively low infectious doses and modes of transmissions, represent a greater potential human disease risk. These analyses of the microbial community composition of Pteropus poliocephalus have significantly advanced our understanding of the potential bacterial disease risk associated with flying foxes and should direct future epidemiological and quantitative microbial risk assessments to further define the health risks presented by these animals.

  14. Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2009-05-15

    Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.

  15. Comparison of grey matter volume and thickness for analysing cortical changes in chronic schizophrenia: a matter of surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast, and curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes

    2015-02-28

    Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  17. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  18. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...

  19. Laser surface treatment of grey cast iron for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Tang, P.N.; de Boer, M.C.; de Oliveira, U.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; DeHosson, JTM; Brebbia, CA; Nishida, SI

    2005-01-01

    The surface of pearlitic grey cast iron was treated using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser beam with the final aim to improve its surface properties, mainly for automotive applications. Two kinds of laser surface treatments were experimentally applied. In the laser surface hardening approach the surface of cast

  20. Fos expression in the midbrain periaqueductal grey after trigeminovascular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoskin, KL; Bulmer, DCE; Lasalandra, M; Jonkman, A; Goadsby, PJ

    There is an accumulating body of evidence suggesting that the periaqueductal grey (PAG) is involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans have shown that the caudal ventrolateral midbrain, encompassing the ventrolateral PAG, has activations during

  1. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  2. A Survey of African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) Trade and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive field based African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) trade and trafficking survey lasting 14 days was undertaken on the request of the Pheasant Conservation Group; International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to determine the existence or non-existence of parrots trapping, ...

  3. Abundance, movements and habitat use by African Grey Parrots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populations of African Grey Parrots are threatened by increased forest loss and the pet trade. Budongo forest reserve has, for over 60 years, been subjected to selective logging. Mabira forest reserve faces human pressures characterised by extractive disturbances, and agricultural activities with increased boundary ...

  4. Leydig cell tumor in grey zone: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muheilan Mustafa Muheilan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Inguinal orchiectomy is the therapeutic decision of choice and long-term follow-up is necessary to exclude recurrence or metastasis. Cases which fall in the grey zone like ours need to be followed up carefully for metastasis instead of rushing into an early retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, with its potential risks and complications.

  5. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...

  6. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of grey matter heterotopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An MRI scan of the brain is the special investigation of choice for the correct diagnosis of GMH. The pathognomonic finding is that of heterotopic grey matter abnormally located within areas of white matter. Defective foetal neuronal migration between the third and fifth month of pregnancy can lead to GMH, which can present ...

  7. Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2017-08-30

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pupping habitat ofd grey seals in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Groot, de A.V.; Aarts, G.M.; Dijkman, E.M.; Kirkwood, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus grypus) started recolonising Dutch coastal haul-outs in the 1950s, after practically 500 years of rarity in the Dutch coastal zone which was caused mainly by human hunting. The first pup-birth was recorded in 1985 at the Wadden Sea sandbank of Engelschhoek.

  9. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  10. OpenSIGLE - Crossroads for Libraries, Research and Educational Institutions in the field of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); Henrot, Nathalie (INIST-CNRS); Schöpfel, Joachim (University of Lille); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2009-01-01

    This poster is based on a paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Grey Literature (GL10) in which GreyNet's collections of conference preprints were made accessible via the OpenSIGLE Repository. OpenSIGLE offers a unique distribution channel for European grey literature with roots dating back a quarter century. The experience of INIST as service provider and GreyNet as data provider will be further discussed including recent developments. The poster closes...

  11. Alternative Modernities for Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sunyoung Park. The Proletarian Wave: Literature and Leftist Culture in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 348 pp. $50 (cloth. Vladimir Tikhonov. Modern Korea and Its Others: Perceptions of the Neighbouring Countries and Korean Modernity. London: Routledge, 2016. 218 pp. $160 (cloth. It has become a global scholarly undertaking: how to rethink modernity so as to decouple it from Westernization (Chakrabarty 2000. Strategies have included foregrounding the plurality of history to disrupt linear progress; positing non-Western centers of modernity in, say, Moscow or Shanghai; and tracing anticolonial circuits connecting Asia to Africa to Latin America. The two recent books under review here add colonial-era Korea to such far-reaching discussions by situating the country across national boundaries. Interestingly, one connecting thread here is the alternative world system provided by the interwar, Soviet-oriented Left. The result is an unsettling of binaries that subsequently became entrenched during the Cold War: for example, north-south, socialist-nationalist, and, for literature, realist-modernist. But more broadly, pervading both books is the sense that history could have turned out differently—that revisiting northeast Asia’s porous borders in the early twentieth century reveals the Korean peninsula’s lost, internationalist potential...

  12. Escalated convergent artificial bee colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Shimpi Singh; Bansal, Jagdish Chand; Tiwari, Ritu

    2016-03-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) optimisation algorithm is a recent, fast and easy-to-implement population-based meta heuristic for optimisation. ABC has been proved a rival algorithm with some popular swarm intelligence-based algorithms such as particle swarm optimisation, firefly algorithm and ant colony optimisation. The solution search equation of ABC is influenced by a random quantity which helps its search process in exploration at the cost of exploitation. In order to find a fast convergent behaviour of ABC while exploitation capability is maintained, in this paper basic ABC is modified in two ways. First, to improve exploitation capability, two local search strategies, namely classical unidimensional local search and levy flight random walk-based local search are incorporated with ABC. Furthermore, a new solution search strategy, namely stochastic diffusion scout search is proposed and incorporated into the scout bee phase to provide more chance to abandon solution to improve itself. Efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested on 20 benchmark test functions of different complexities and characteristics. Results are very promising and they prove it to be a competitive algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence-based algorithms.

  13. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The skies over Northern India are filled with a thick soup of aerosol particles all along the southern edge of the Himalayan Mountains, and streaming southward over Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal. Notice that the air over the Tibetan Plateau to the north of the Himalayas is very clear, whereas the view of the land surface south of the mountains is obstructed by the brownish haze. Most of this air pollution comes from human activities. The aerosol over this region is notoriously rich in sulfates, nitrates, organic and black carbon, and fly ash. These particles not only represent a health hazard to those people living in the region, but scientists have also recently found that they can have a significant impact on the region's hydrological cycle and climate (click to read the relevant NASA press release). This true-color image was acquired on December 4, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. It is interesting to compare the image above with this earlier MODIS image over the region, acquired on October 23, 2001. Notice the difference in the clarity of the air over the region in the earlier image. Under the thick plume of aerosol, the Brahmaputra (upper right) and Ganges Rivers are still visible. The many mouths of the Ganges have turned the northern waters of the Bay of Bengal a murky brown as they empty their sediment-laden waters into the bay. Toward the upper lefthand corner of the image, there appears to be a fresh swath of snow on the ground just south of the Himalayas. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying

    2013-01-01

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.

  15. Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics,

  16. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  17. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana Stavropoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L. oil (DIT and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L and times of exposure (up to 120 h examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres.

  18. Queen promiscuity lowers disease within honeybee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeley, Thomas D; Tarpy, David R

    2006-01-01

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, but in some species each queen mates with numerous males to create a colony with a genetically diverse worker force. The adaptive significance of polyandry by social insect queens remains an evolutionary puzzle. Using the honeybee (Apis mellifera), we tested the hypothesis that polyandry improves a colony's resistance to disease. We established colonies headed by queens that had been artificially inseminated by either one or 10 drones. ...

  19. Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Tudhope

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting

  20. Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E

    2016-03-01

    This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing

  1. Understanding Long-Run African Growth : Colonial Institutions or Colonial Education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, J.; Bezemer, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term growth in developing countries has been explained in four frameworks: 'extractive colonial institutions' (Acemoglu et al., 2001), 'colonial legal origin' (La Porta et al., 2004), 'geography' (Gallup et al., 1998) and 'colonial human capital' (Glaeser et al., 2004). In this paper we test

  2. Prediction Model of Interval Grey Numbers with a Real Parameter and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey prediction models have become common methods which are widely employed to solve the problems with “small examples and poor information.” However, modeling objects of existing grey prediction models are limited to the homogenous data sequences which only contain the same data type. This paper studies the methodology of building prediction models of interval grey numbers that are grey heterogeneous data sequence, with a real parameter. Firstly, the position of the real parameter in an interval grey number sequence is discussed, and the real number is expanded into an interval grey number by adopting the method of grey generation. On this basis, a prediction model of interval grey number with a real parameter is deduced and built. Finally, this novel model is successfully applied to forecast the concentration of organic pollutant DDT in the atmosphere. The analysis and research results in this paper extend the object of grey prediction from homogenous data sequence to grey heterogeneous data sequence. Those research findings are of positive significance in terms of enriching and improving the theory system of grey prediction models.

  3. Post-Colonialism Perspectives on Educational Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Educational competition has always been the puzzle issue of educational researches. In this article, I analyze several aspects of educational competition within the perspective of post-colonialism discourse. In the political aspect, Taiwanese education is linked with political power, to present the post-colonial spirit by continuing dynastic…

  4. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  5. Thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada (Mugilidae caught in a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bror Jonsson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Two individuals of thinlip grey mullet Liza ramada were collected in a southern Norwegian brook (58° 22’ N, 8° 37’ E on 12th September 2007. The fish were 8.7 and 9.0 cm in total length, 6 and 7 g in total mass, and most probably in their first year of life. The nearest known spawning area of the species is south of the English Channel, meaning that they had probably moved at least 900 km across the North Sea during their first growth season. To our knowledge, this is the first published observation of the catadromous thinlip grey mullet from a Scandinavian freshwater course.

  6. Product and process innovation of grey cast iron brake discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorn, M. [Brembo S.P.A. (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The brake disc out of grey cast iron often seems to be playing the role of the ''underdog'' in the technical examinations of the entire brake system. This is also reflected by the 25 year history of the {mu}-club. In a total of 93 presentations in those 25 years, only 3 were related to the topic of grey cast iron discs. This is not a correct relation to the importance of this component within the brake system. The disc, although per definition with a lower specific load than the pad, has the major task to store and dissipate the heat in which the kinetic energy of the vehicle is transformed. The disc also has a significant effect on NVH behaviour, particularly in the low frequency range. It also has a permanent fight with its weight as an unsprung mass. (orig.)

  7. Shape-based grey-level image interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keh-Shih Chuang; Chun-Yuan Chen; Ching-Kai Yeh

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) object data obtained from a CT scanner usually have unequal sampling frequencies in the x-, y- and z-directions. Generally, the 3D data are first interpolated between slices to obtain isotropic resolution, reconstructed, then operated on using object extraction and display algorithms. The traditional grey-level interpolation introduces a layer of intermediate substance and is not suitable for objects that are very different from the opposite background. The shape-based interpolation method transfers a pixel location to a parameter related to the object shape and the interpolation is performed on that parameter. This process is able to achieve a better interpolation but its application is limited to binary images only. In this paper, we present an improved shape-based interpolation method for grey-level images. The new method uses a polygon to approximate the object shape and performs the interpolation using polygon vertices as references. The binary images representing the shape of the object were first generated via image segmentation on the source images. The target object binary image was then created using regular shape-based interpolation. The polygon enclosing the object for each slice can be generated from the shape of that slice. We determined the relative location in the source slices of each pixel inside the target polygon using the vertices of a polygon as the reference. The target slice grey-level was interpolated from the corresponding source image pixels. The image quality of this interpolation method is better and the mean squared difference is smaller than with traditional grey-level interpolation. (author)

  8. Shape-based interpolation of multidimensional grey-level images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevera, G.J.; Udupa, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Shape-based interpolation as applied to binary images causes the interpolation process to be influenced by the shape of the object. It accomplishes this by first applying a distance transform to the data. This results in the creation of a grey-level data set in which the value at each point represents the minimum distance from that point to the surface of the object. (By convention, points inside the object are assigned positive values; points outside are assigned negative values.) This distance transformed data set is then interpolated using linear or higher-order interpolation and is then thresholded at a distance value of zero to produce the interpolated binary data set. In this paper, the authors describe a new method that extends shape-based interpolation to grey-level input data sets. This generalization consists of first lifting the n-dimensional (n-D) image data to represent it as a surface, or equivalently as a binary image, in an (n + 1)-dimensional [(n + 1)-D] space. The binary shape-based method is then applied to this image to create an (n + 1)-D binary interpolated image. Finally, this image is collapsed (inverse of lifting) to create the n-D interpolated grey-level data set. The authors have conducted several evaluation studies involving patient computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) data as well as mathematical phantoms. They all indicate that the new method produces more accurate results than commonly used grey-level linear interpolation methods, although at the cost of increased computation

  9. Hegemony and Accommodation in the History Curriculum in Colonial Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafela, Lily

    2014-01-01

    A reanalysis of colonial education is necessary in order to highlight its multifaceted and hybrid nature in specific colonial contexts. Although in general, colonial education served the socio-political needs of the colonial machinery, the colonial government's hegemonic authority over the school curriculum did not operate as a totalising project.…

  10. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  11. The trajectory prediction of spacecraft by grey method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiyue; Wang, Zhongyu; Zhang, Zili; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu

    2016-01-01

    The real-time and high-precision trajectory prediction of a moving object is a core technology in the field of aerospace engineering. The real-time monitoring and tracking technology are also significant guarantees of aerospace equipment. A dynamic trajectory prediction method called grey dynamic filter (GDF) which combines the dynamic measurement theory and grey system theory is proposed. GDF can use coordinates of the current period to extrapolate coordinates of the following period. At meantime, GDF can also keep the instantaneity of measured coordinates by the metabolism model. In this paper the optimal model length of GDF is firstly selected to improve the prediction accuracy. Then the simulation for uniformly accelerated motion and variably accelerated motion is conducted. The simulation results indicate that the mean composite position error of GDF prediction is one-fifth to that of Kalman filter (KF). By using a spacecraft landing experiment, the prediction accuracy of GDF is compared with the KF method and the primitive grey method (GM). The results show that the motion trajectory of spacecraft predicted by GDF is much closer to actual trajectory than the other two methods. The mean composite position error calculated by GDF is one-eighth to KF and one-fifth to GM respectively. (paper)

  12. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for medical...

  13. Transcriptome analysis of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Yao-Chung; Barnes, Andrew C; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2016-11-01

    Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is an economically important fish species in Taiwan mariculture industry. Moreover, grey mullet are common hosts of a bacterial infection by Lactococcus garvieae. However, until now the information related to the immune system of grey mullet is unclear. Therefore, to understand the molecular basis underlying the host immune response to L. garvieae infection, Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 was used to analyse the head kidney and spleen transcriptome of infected grey mullet. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 55,203 unigenes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles between bacterial challenge fish and control fish identified a total of 7192 from head kidney and 7280 in spleen differentially expressed genes (P grey mullet to Lactococcus garvieae, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in grey mullet. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Taxation, Corruption and Resistance in Igbominaland. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... While taxation definitely stimulated economic activities in Igbominaland at ...

  15. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines......In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  16. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  18. Rethinking the Role of Grey Literature in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Dobrica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential impact of the emerging Fourth Industrial Revolution on grey literature and the challenges it will bring to the information management profession. Based on analysis of the most prevalent current trends and developments, it appears we will need to rethink the defi nition of grey literature, its creation and types, processing, storage, sustainability and usability. Information professionals, including the grey literature ones, will require training and new knowl...

  19. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  20. Departures from radiative equilibrium in stellar atmospheres grey absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss some of the consequences of departures from radiative equilibrium in stellar atmospheres. Using a discrete ordinates method we solve the radiative transfer equation in a grey atmosphere subjected to a specified distribution of mechanical heating, and determine the resulting temperature changes in LTE and non LTE conditions. We show how radiative transfer leads to temperature changes in regions that are not directly heated, and how non LTE effects lead to an amplification of the temperature rise produced by a given distribution of heating. An attempt is made to resolve a controversy surrounding the estimation of excess radiative losses in the solar chromosphere. (orig.) [de

  1. A TEM Study on the Ti-Alloyed Grey Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of graphite flakes in titanium alloyed cast iron is studied using electron microscopy techniques. Dual beam SEM/FIB has been used for TEM sample preparation. A TEM study has been carried out on graphite flakes in grey cast iron using selected area electron diffraction. Based...... and that there is a high proportion of twins in the fine grained graphite. It appears that twinning and stacking faults are involved in the fine grained structure of the graphite. It is discussed how Ti addition affect crystal growth and may lead to formation of superfine graphite....

  2. HYPOCALCEMIC SYNDROME IN AFRICAN GREY PARROT (PSITTACUS ERITHACUS ERITHACUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Filipović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus was presented to the Surgery Clinic of Veterinary Faculty of the University of Sarajevo. The presenting complaint was several seizures observed two days ago. The bird was kept indoors without any other bird species, and fed whole-seed diet with no vitamin and mineral supplementation. Blood biochemistry analysis revealed hypocalcemia. The treatment consisted of oral administration of calcium and vitamins A and D. The applied therapy resulted in very fast positive response and prevented recurrence of seizures.

  3. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Parsons

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society

  4. Post-Colonial Theory and Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim B. Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested ‘colonial’ hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and collaborative values to offer a fuller range of human wisdom. The authors contend that post-colonialism theory calls for justice and seeks to speak to social and psychological suffering, exploitation, violence and enslavement done to the powerless victims of colonization around the world by challenging the superiority of dominant perspectives and seeking to re-position and empower the marginalized and subordinated. In similar ways, action research works to eradicate oppression, powerlessness and worthlessness by affirming solidarity with the oppressed, helping humans move from passive to active and by fundamentally reshaping power. Because both post-colonial theory and action research position the insider or oppressed in an ethic of efficacy, it values community, relationships, communication and equality, and is committed to reciprocity, reflexivity and reflection. Thus, both hold the potential to help reconstruct conditions for a more democratic and just society.

  5. Assessing the living and dead proportions of cold-water coral colonies: implications for deep-water Marine Protected Area monitoring in a changing ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Vad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral growth patterns result from an interplay of coral biology and environmental conditions. In this study colony size and proportion of live and dead skeletons in the cold-water coral (CWC Lophelia pertusa (Linnaeus, 1758 were measured using video footage from Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV transects conducted at the inshore Mingulay Reef Complex (MRC and at the offshore PISCES site (Rockall Bank in the NE Atlantic. The main goal of this paper was to explore the development of a simple method to quantify coral growth and its potential application as an assessment tool of the health of these remote habitats. Eighteen colonies were selected and whole colony and dead/living layer size were measured. Live to dead layer ratios for each colony were then determined and analysed. The age of each colony was estimated using previously published data. Our paper shows that: (1 two distinct morphotypes can be described: at the MRC, colonies displayed a ‘cauliflower-shaped’ morphotype whereas at the PISCES site, colonies presented a more flattened ‘bush-shaped’ morphotype; (2 living layer size was positively correlated with whole colony size; (3 live to dead layer ratio was negatively correlated to whole colony size; (4 live to dead layer ratio never exceeded 0.27. These results suggest that as a colony develops and its growth rate slows down, the proportion of living polyps in the colony decreases. Furthermore, at least 73% of L. pertusa colonies are composed of exposed dead coral skeleton, vulnerable to ocean acidification and the associated shallowing of the aragonite saturation horizon, with significant implications for future deep-sea reef framework integrity. The clear visual contrast between white/pale living and grey/dark dead portions of the colonies also gives a new way by which they can be visually monitored over time. The increased use of marine autonomous survey vehicles offers an important new platform from which such a surveying

  6. A prediction method based on grey system theory in equipment condition based maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Shengyuan; Yan, Shengyuan; Zhang, Hongguo; Zhang, Zhijian; Peng, Minjun; Yang, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Grey prediction is a modeling method based on historical or present, known or indefinite information, which can be used for forecasting the development of the eigenvalues of the targeted equipment system and setting up the model by using less information. In this paper, the postulate of grey system theory, which includes the grey generating, the sorts of grey generating and the grey forecasting model, is introduced first. The concrete application process, which includes the grey prediction modeling, grey prediction, error calculation, equal dimension and new information approach, is introduced secondly. Application of a so-called 'Equal Dimension and New Information' (EDNI) technology in grey system theory is adopted in an application case, aiming at improving the accuracy of prediction without increasing the amount of calculation by replacing old data with new ones. The proposed method can provide a new way for solving the problem of eigenvalue data exploding in equal distance effectively, short time interval and real time prediction. The proposed method, which was based on historical or present, known or indefinite information, was verified by the vibration prediction of induced draft fan of a boiler of the Yantai Power Station in China, and the results show that the proposed method based on grey system theory is simple and provides a high accuracy in prediction. So, it is very useful and significant to the controlling and controllable management in safety production. (authors)

  7. Greying of the human hair: a worldwide survey, revisiting the '50' rule of thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhard, S; Lozano, I; Loussouarn, G

    2012-10-01

    While numerous papers have reported on the biological mechanisms of human hair pigmentation and greying, epidemiological descriptions of both natural hair colour and the greying process, worldwide, remain scarce. To assess hair colour and greying in a large world sample of human subjects, and to revisit the validity of the 50/50/50 rule of thumb, which states that 'at age 50 years, 50% of the population has at least 50% grey hair'. The natural hair colour of 4192 healthy male and female volunteers was assessed using a sensorial expert evaluation through the comparison of each volunteer's hair with standard swatches. Hair colour was studied according to age, gender and ethnic or geographical origin. Overall we observed that between 45 and 65 years of age, 74% of people were affected by grey hair with a mean intensity of 27%. Men harboured significantly more grey hair than women. Both age at onset and rate of greying with age appeared to be clearly linked to ethnic/geographical origin. Subjects of Asian and African descent showed less grey hair than those of caucasian origin, at comparable ages, confirming previously reported data. Calculating the percentage of people showing at least 50% grey hair coverage at age 50 years leads to a global range of 6-23%, according to ethnic/geographical origin and natural hair colour: well below that expressed by the '50' rule of thumb. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Research on wind field algorithm of wind lidar based on BP neural network and grey prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Chun-Li; Luo, Xiong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ze-hou; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Xiao-ding; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the BP neural network and grey algorithm to forecast and study radar wind field. In order to reduce the residual error in the wind field prediction which uses BP neural network and grey algorithm, calculating the minimum value of residual error function, adopting the residuals of the gray algorithm trained by BP neural network, using the trained network model to forecast the residual sequence, using the predicted residual error sequence to modify the forecast sequence of the grey algorithm. The test data show that using the grey algorithm modified by BP neural network can effectively reduce the residual value and improve the prediction precision.

  9. Structural and functional connectivity underlying grey matter covariance: impact of developmental insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2018-05-15

    Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis. The effects of childhood maltreatment and age on average grey matter density and the expression of each SCN were calculated. Childhood maltreatment was linked to age-related decreases in grey matter density across a SCN that overlapped with the default mode and fronto-parietal networks. Resting state functional connectivity and structural connectivity were calculated in the study-specific SCN and across the whole brain. Grey matter covariance was significantly correlated with rsFC across the SCN, and rsFC fully mediated the relationship between grey matter covariance and structural connectivity in the non-maltreated group. A unique association of grey matter covariance with structural connectivity was detected amongst individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. Perturbation of grey matter development across the default mode and fronto-parietal networks following childhood maltreatment may have significant implications for mental well-being, given the networks' roles in self-referential activity. Cross-modal comparisons suggest reduced grey matter following childhood maltreatment could arise from deficient functional activity earlier in life.

  10. Cellular and ultrastructural characterization of the grey-morph phenotype in southern right whales (Eubalaena australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A

    2017-01-01

    Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.

  11. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  12. Characterization of blood biochemical markers during aging in the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus: impact of gender and season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchal Julia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematologic and biochemical data are needed to characterize the health status of animal populations over time to determine the habitat quality and captivity conditions. Blood components and the chemical entities that they transport change predominantly with sex and age. The aim of this study was to utilize blood chemistry monitoring to establish the reference levels in a small prosimian primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus. Method In the captive colony, mouse lemurs may live 10–12 years, and three age groups for both males and females were studied: young (1–3 years, middle-aged (4–5 years and old (6–10 years. Blood biochemical markers were measured using the VetScan Comprehensive Diagnostic Profile. Because many life history traits of this primate are highly dependent on the photoperiod (body mass and reproduction, the effect of season was also assessed. Results The main effect of age was observed in blood markers of renal functions such as creatinine, which was higher among females. Additionally, blood urea nitrogen significantly increased with age and is potentially linked to chronic renal insufficiency, which has been described in captive mouse lemurs. The results demonstrated significant effects related to season, especially in blood protein levels and glucose rates; these effects were observed regardless of gender or age and were likely due to seasonal variations in food intake, which is very marked in this species. Conclusion These results were highly similar with those obtained in other primate species and can serve as references for future research of the Grey Mouse Lemur.

  13. A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati

    2017-06-01

    It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.

  14. A 3-D radiation model for non-grey gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, Nevin; Doner, Nimeti

    2009-01-01

    A three-dimensional radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) coupled with spectral line-based weighted sum of grey gases (SLW) model for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media for use in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on the same approach was developed. The code was applied to three test problems: two containing isothermal homogenous/non-homogenous water vapor and one non-isothermal water vapor/carbon dioxide mixture. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by benchmarking its steady-state predictions against accurate results, calculated by ray tracing method with statistical narrow band model, available in the literature. Comparative testing with solutions of other methods is also provided. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with SLW model provides accurate solutions for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with CFD codes based on MOL

  15. Colony formation in the cyanobacterium Microcystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Man; Li, Ming; Reynolds, Colin S

    2018-02-22

    Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones. Unicellular Microcystis spp. can be induced to form colonies by adjusting biotic and abiotic factors in laboratory. Colony formation by cell division has been induced by zooplankton filtrate, high Pb 2+ concentration, the presence of another cyanobacterium (Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii), heterotrophic bacteria, and by low temperature and light intensity. Colony formation by cell adhesion can be induced by zooplankton grazing, high Ca 2+ concentration, and microcystins. We hypothesise that single cells of all Microcystis morphospecies initially form colonies with a similar morphology to those found in the early spring. These colonies gradually change their morphology to that of M. ichthyoblabe, M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa with changing environmental conditions. Colony formation provides Microcystis with many ecological advantages, including adaption to varying light, sustained growth under poor nutrient supply, protection from chemical stressors and protection from grazing. These benefits represent passive tactics responding to environmental stress. Microcystis colonies form at the cost of decreased specific growth rates compared with a unicellular habit. Large colony size allows Microcystis to attain rapid floating velocities (maximum recorded for a single colony, ∼ 10.08 m h -1 ) that enable them to develop and maintain a large biomass near the surface of eutrophic lakes, where they may shade

  16. Colonialism, customary law and the post-colonial state in Africa: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonialism became a fact of life in many African countries. An effect of colonialism especially in the former British colonized countries was the transplantation of the British legal system, which led to recognition of both systems and the gradual relegation of the indigenous system otherwise called customary law. The use and ...

  17. Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colonial Legal Reasoning in the Post-Colonial African State: A Critique and a Defense of the Argument from African Metaphysical Epistemology. ... Africa, as it has the advantageous result of helping in the search for truth concerning such offences, thereby promoting the delivery of effective legal justice, and thus contributing ...

  18. Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Essay A history of colonialism through post-colonial lenses: reading Mahmood Mamdani's citizen and subject. Sanya Osha. Abstract. No Abstract. The Nigerian Journal of Economic History Vol. 2, 1999: 155-161. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Synthetic quorum sensing in model microcapsule colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Henry; Balazs, Anna C.

    2017-08-01

    Biological quorum sensing refers to the ability of cells to gauge their population density and collectively initiate a new behavior once a critical density is reached. Designing synthetic materials systems that exhibit quorum sensing-like behavior could enable the fabrication of devices with both self-recognition and self-regulating functionality. Herein, we develop models for a colony of synthetic microcapsules that communicate by producing and releasing signaling molecules. Production of the chemicals is regulated by a biomimetic negative feedback loop, the “repressilator” network. Through theory and simulation, we show that the chemical behavior of such capsules is sensitive to both the density and number of capsules in the colony. For example, decreasing the spacing between a fixed number of capsules can trigger a transition in chemical activity from the steady, repressed state to large-amplitude oscillations in chemical production. Alternatively, for a fixed density, an increase in the number of capsules in the colony can also promote a transition into the oscillatory state. This configuration-dependent behavior of the capsule colony exemplifies quorum-sensing behavior. Using our theoretical model, we predict the transitions from the steady state to oscillatory behavior as a function of the colony size and capsule density.

  20. Colony collapse disorder: a descriptive study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Vanengelsdorp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two winters, there have been large-scale, unexplained losses of managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies in the United States. In the absence of a known cause, this syndrome was named Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD because the main trait was a rapid loss of adult worker bees. We initiated a descriptive epizootiological study in order to better characterize CCD and compare risk factor exposure between populations afflicted by and not afflicted by CCD. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 61 quantified variables (including adult bee physiology, pathogen loads, and pesticide levels, no single measure emerged as a most-likely cause of CCD. Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with a greater number of pathogens than control populations, suggesting either an increased exposure to pathogens or a reduced resistance of bees toward pathogens. Levels of the synthetic acaricide coumaphos (used by beekeepers to control the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were higher in control colonies than CCD-affected colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first comprehensive survey of CCD-affected bee populations that suggests CCD involves an interaction between pathogens and other stress factors. We present evidence that this condition is contagious or the result of exposure to a common risk factor. Potentially important areas for future hypothesis-driven research, including the possible legacy effect of mite parasitism and the role of honey bee resistance to pesticides, are highlighted.

  1. OpenSIGLE, Home to GreyNet's Research Community and its Grey Literature Collections: Initial Results and a Project Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Farace , Dominic ,; Frantzen , Jerry; Stock , Christiane; Henrot , Nathalie; Schöpfel , Joachim

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In 1980, some major European scientific information centres established the “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE) to provide access to European grey literature and to improve bibliographic coverage. August 23, 2006, the Luxemburg Register of Commerce and Societies published the liquidation of the association EAGLE that produced the SIGLE database until 2005. Nevertheless, the former EAGLE member consented to preserve the European co-operation fo...

  2. A Whiter Shade of Grey: A new approach to archaeological grey literature using the XML version of the TEI Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Falkingham

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has arisen through the author's interest in two contemporary issues within archaeology: the production and dissemination of grey literature and the potential of XML. Grey literature is examined, with specific reference to unpublished reports literature produced in the present climate of developer-funded archaeology in England. There are concerns about the accessibility of this literature, both from within and beyond the archaeological profession. The vast majority of reports are word-processed and then printed in hard-copy format for limited distribution. The original, digital document however, has largely been seen as a by-product. Awareness of the importance of these digital reports, and their preservation must be raised. Electronic means of delivery and dissemination via the World Wide Web offer huge potential and present opportunities for new ways of working. Archaeology is not alone in seeking to promote the accessibility of grey literature; indeed there are many disciplines that have created online initiatives aiming to do just this, utilising a variety of means and a range of electronic file formats. The use of XML technology appears to offer many advantages over traditional formats, such as word-processed, PDF and even (XHTML files, particularly with regard to the manipulation and presentation of encoded electronic text. Increasingly, XML technology is being used for electronic delivery and dissemination and the pros and cons of so doing are discussed in this article. This theme has been developed by the author through a 'proof of concept' practical case study of three unpublished grey literature archaeology reports from the North Yorkshire Historic Environment Record. XML documents have been created from the original word-processed electronic reports by the manual application of XML markup, the methodology for which was devised following the XML version of the Text Encoding Initiative's TEI P4 Guidelines. The level of

  3. A modified discrete algebraic reconstruction technique for multiple grey image reconstruction for limited angle range tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhiting; Guan, Yong; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiangyu; Li, Fahu; Guo, Pengfei; Tian, Yangchao

    2016-03-01

    The `missing wedge', which is due to a restricted rotation range, is a major challenge for quantitative analysis of an object using tomography. With prior knowledge of the grey levels, the discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (DART) is able to reconstruct objects accurately with projections in a limited angle range. However, the quality of the reconstructions declines as the number of grey levels increases. In this paper, a modified DART (MDART) was proposed, in which each independent region of homogeneous material was chosen as a research object, instead of the grey values. The grey values of each discrete region were estimated according to the solution of the linear projection equations. The iterative process of boundary pixels updating and correcting the grey values of each region was executed alternately. Simulation experiments of binary phantoms as well as multiple grey phantoms show that MDART is capable of achieving high-quality reconstructions with projections in a limited angle range. The interesting advancement of MDART is that neither prior knowledge of the grey values nor the number of grey levels is necessary.

  4. Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.

    2010-01-01

    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are

  5. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  6. Pricing rainbow, green, blue and grey water: tree cover and geopolitics of climatic teleconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van M.; Namirembe, S.; Catacutan, D.; Williamson, D.; Gebrekirstos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture (“rainbow water”) is the source of all green, blue and grey water flows. Current water-related legislation and policies have moved beyond blue (water allocation) and grey (waste water treatment) water concerns to incorporate the green water concept of additional water use by

  7. Prediction of sodium critical heat flux (CHF) in annular channel using grey systems theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan

    2001-01-01

    Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, the grey mutual analysis of some parameters influencing sodium CHF is carried out, and the CHF values are predicted by GM(1, 1) model. The GM(1, h) model is established for CHF prediction, and the predicted CHF values are good agreement with the experimental data

  8. Application of grey system theory to construction control for prestressed concrete continuous bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Lu, Zhean; Wang, Juanjuan

    2006-01-01

    Text in Chinese. - This paper discussed the application of the grey system theory for the construction control of bridges on the background of the construction of Fuhe Bridge in Huangpi county, Hubei province. The GM( 1,1) model was the most representative and widely applied grey prognosticate model

  9. Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.

  10. A model for planning the chemical integrated system under uncertainty by the grey programming approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2013-01-01

    demand, and the production capacity have been considered as mutative variables, then an improved model in which some parameters are not constant has been developed and a new method to solve the grey linear programming has been proposed. In the grey programming model, the value of credibility can...

  11. Encoding arbitrary grey-level optical landscapes for trapping and manipulation using GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonzo, Carlo Amadeo; Rodrigo, Peter John; Palima, Darwin

    2007-01-01

    review the analysis of the GPC method with emphasis on efficiently producing speckle-free two-dimensional grey-level light Patterns. Numerical simulations are applied to construct 8-bit grey-level optical potential landscapes with high fidelity and optical throughput via the GPC method. Three types...

  12. Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey......-box approach. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Analysis of grey-water used for irrigating vegetables and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of grey-water used for irrigating vegetables and possible effects on soils in the ... The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals found in the grey-water ... in order to lower the salt content and to improve the irrigation water quality.

  14. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  15. Forecasting Performance of Grey Prediction for Education Expenditure and School Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-Wen Vivian; Yin, Mu-Shang

    2012-01-01

    GM(1,1) and GM(1,1) rolling models derived from grey system theory were estimated using time-series data from projection studies by National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). An out-of-sample forecasting competition between the two grey prediction models and exponential smoothing used by NCES was conducted for education expenditure and…

  16. The geographical distribution of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Ma, Ya-Ping; Zhou, Qi-Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Savolaimen, Peter; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2016-11-18

    The grey wolf ( Canis lupus ) is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals, and its distribution and ecology in Europe and North America are largely well described. However, the distribution of grey wolf in southern China is still highly controversial. Several well-known western literatures stated that there are no grey wolves in southern China, while the presence of grey wolf across China has been indicated in A Guide to the Mammals of China , published by Princeton University Press. It is essential to solve this discrepancy since dogs may have originated from grey wolfs in southern China. Therefore, we systematically investigated Chinese literatures about wild animal surveys and identified more than 100 articles and books that included information of the distribution of grey wolves in China. We also surveyed the collections of three Chinese natural museums and found 26 grey wolf skins specimens collected across China. Moreover, we investigated the fossil records of wolf in China and identified 25 archaeological sites with wolf remains including south China. In conclusion, with the comprehensive summary of Chinese literatures, museum specimens and fossil records, we demonstrate that grey wolves does distribute across all parts of the Chinese mainland, including the most southern parts of China.

  17. Subcortical grey matter changes in untreated, early stage Parkinson's disease without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Kim, Min-Jik; Jang, Ji-Wan; Suh, Sang-Il; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Previous MRI studies have investigated cortical or subcortical grey matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yielding inconsistent findings between the studies. We therefore sought to determine whether focal cortical or subcortical grey matter changes may be present from the early disease stage. We recruited 49 untreated, early stage PD patients without dementia and 53 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical grey matter structures, respectively. Voxel-based morphometry showed neither reductions nor increases in grey matter volume in patients compared to controls. Compared to controls, PD patients had significant reductions in adjusted volumes of putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus (corrected p grey matter and clinical variables representing disease duration and severity. Our results suggest that untreated, early stage PD without dementia is associated with volume reduction and shape deformation of subcortical grey matter, but not with cortical grey matter reduction. Our findings of structural changes in the posterolateral putamen and ventromedial putamen/nucleus accumbens could provide neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of motor and limbic striatum, further implicating motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, respectively. Early hippocampal involvement might be related to the risk for developing dementia in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.

  19. Is colonialism history? The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development : The declining impact of colonial legacies on African institutional and economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the claim that colonial history has left an enduring imprint on Africa's institutional and economic development. The literature following Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson (2001) and Sokoloff and Engerman (2000) maintains that different types of colonialism affected the

  20. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  1. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  2. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  3. Grey Nurse Shark ( Carcharias taurus) Diving Tourism: Tourist Compliance and Shark Behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  4. Grey nurse shark (Carcharias taurus) diving tourism: Tourist compliance and shark behaviour at Fish Rock, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirby; Scarr, Mark; Scarpaci, Carol

    2010-11-01

    Humans can dive with critically endangered grey nurse sharks (Carcharias taurus) along the east coast of Australia. This study investigated both compliance of tourist divers to a code of conduct and legislation and the behaviour of grey nurse sharks in the presence of divers. A total of 25 data collection dives were conducted from December 2008 to January 2009. Grey nurse shark and diver behaviour were documented using 2-min scan samples and continuous observation. The proportion of time spent observing human-shark interactions was 9.4% of total field time and mean human-shark interaction time was 15.0 min. Results were used to gauge the effectiveness of current management practices for the grey nurse shark dive industry at Fish Rock in New South Wales, Australia. Grey nurse shark dive tourists were compliant to stipulations in the code of conduct and legislation (compliance ranged from 88 to 100%). The research detailed factors that may promote compliance in wildlife tourism operations such as the clarity of the stipulations, locality of the target species and diver perceptions of sharks. Results indicated that grey nurse sharks spent the majority of their time milling (85%) followed by active swimming (15%). Milling behaviour significantly decreased in the presence of more than six divers. Distance between sharks and divers, interaction time and number of sharks were not significantly correlated with grey nurse shark school behaviour. Jaw gaping, rapid withdrawal and stiff or jerky movement were the specific behaviours of grey nurse sharks that occurred most frequently and were associated with distance between divers and sharks and the presence of six or more divers. Revision of the number of divers allowed per interaction with a school of grey nurse sharks and further research on the potential impacts that shark-diving tourism may pose to grey nurse sharks is recommended.

  5. An EPQ model with imperfect items using interval grey numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Aydemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic economic production quantity (EPQ model has been widely used to determine the optimal production quantity. However, the analysis for finding an EPQ model has many weaknesses which lead many researchers and practitioners to make extensions in several aspects on the original EPQ model. The basic assumption of EPQ model is that 100% of manufactured products are non-defective that is not valid for many production processes generally. The purpose of this paper is to develop an EPQ model with grey demand rate and cost values with maximum backorder level allowed with the good quality items in units under an imperfect production process. The imperfect items are considered to be low quality items which are sold to a particular purchaser at a lower price and, the others are reworked and scrapped. A mathematical model is developed and then an industrial example is presented on the wooden chipboard production process for illustration of the proposed model.

  6. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; Caldwell, Pat; Braun, Uwe; Harrington, Thomas C

    2006-01-01

    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 & ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA gene, elongation factor 1-alpha, histone H3, actin and calmodulin gene regions suggest that Groups I and II are two distinct species. Furthermore, Cercospora zeae-maydis (Group I) can be distinguished from C. zeina sp. nov. (Group II) by its faster growth rate on artificial media, the ability to produce cercosporin, longer conidiophores, and broadly fusiform conidia. A PCR-based test that distinguishes the two species was developed using species-specific primers designed from the histone H3 gene.

  7. Selecting an optimal mixed products using grey relationship model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Faezy Razi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated supplier selection and inventory management using grey relationship model (GRM as well as multi-objective decision making process. The proposed model of this paper first ranks different suppliers based on GRM technique and then determines the optimum level of inventory by considering different objectives. To show the implementation of the proposed model, we use some benchmark data presented by Talluri and Baker [Talluri, S., & Baker, R. C. (2002. A multi-phase mathematical programming approach for effective supply chain design. European Journal of Operational Research, 141(3, 544-558.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper is capable of handling different criteria for supplier selection.

  8. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  9. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  10. Parameter Estimation in Stochastic Grey-Box Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and flexible parameter estimation scheme for grey-box models in the sense of discretely, partially observed Ito stochastic differential equations with measurement noise is presented along with a corresponding software implementation. The estimation scheme is based on the extended...... Kalman filter and features maximum likelihood as well as maximum a posteriori estimation on multiple independent data sets, including irregularly sampled data sets and data sets with occasional outliers and missing observations. The software implementation is compared to an existing software tool...... and proves to have better performance both in terms of quality of estimates for nonlinear systems with significant diffusion and in terms of reproducibility. In particular, the new tool provides more accurate and more consistent estimates of the parameters of the diffusion term....

  11. Nonrelativistic grey Sn-transport radiative-shock solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J. M.; Morel, J. E.; Lowrie, R. B.

    2017-01-01

    We present semi-analytic radiative-shock solutions in which grey Sn-transport is used to model the radiation, and we include both constant cross sections and cross sections that depend on temperature and density. These new solutions solve for a variable Eddington factor (VEF) across the shock domain, which allows for interesting physics not seen before in radiative-shock solutions. Comparisons are made with the grey nonequilibrium-diffusion radiative-shock solutions of Lowrie and Edwards [1], which assumed that the Eddington factor is constant across the shock domain. It is our experience that the local Mach number is monotonic when producing nonequilibrium-diffusion solutions, but that this monotonicity may disappear while integrating the precursor region to produce Sn-transport solutions. For temperature- and density-dependent cross sections we show evidence of a spike in the VEF in the far upstream portion of the radiative-shock precursor. We show evidence of an adaptation zone in the precursor region, adjacent to the embedded hydrodynamic shock, as conjectured by Drake [2, 3], and also confirm his expectation that the precursor temperatures adjacent to the Zel’dovich spike take values that are greater than the downstream post-shock equilibrium temperature. We also show evidence that the radiation energy density can be nonmonotonic under the Zel’dovich spike, which is indicative of anti-diffusive radiation flow as predicted by McClarren and Drake [4]. We compare the angle dependence of the radiation flow for the Sn-transport and nonequilibriumdiffusion radiation solutions, and show that there are considerable differences in the radiation flow between these models across the shock structure. Lastly, we analyze the radiation flow to understand the cause of the adaptation zone, as well as the structure of the Sn-transport radiation-intensity solutions across the shock structure.

  12. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  13. Control of chilling tendency in grey cast iron reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliu Ojo Seidu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In grey cast iron remelt and recycling, white iron can result in the cast product if careful control of the chilling tendency is not ensured. Many jobbing foundries are constrained in furnace types and available foundry additives that the operation always results in white irons. This study is towards ensuring grey iron is reproduced from cast iron scrap auto engine blocks, when using a diesel fired rotary furnace and a FeSi alloy for structural modification (inoculation. With varying addition rate of the FeSi alloy to the tapped molten metal, chill wedge tests were performed on two different wedge samples of type W (according to ASTM A367- wedge test with cooling modulus of 0.45 cm (W3½ and 0.54 cm (W4. The carbon equivalents for the test casts were within hypoeutectic range (3.85 wt. (% to 4.11 wt. (%. In the W4 wedge sample, at 2.0 wt. (% addition rate of the FeSi alloy, the relative clear chill was totally reduced to zero from 19.76%, while the relative mottled chill was brought down to 9.59% from 33.71%. The microstructure from the cast at this level of addition was free of carbidic phases; it shows randomly oriented graphite flakes evenly distributed in the iron matrix. Hardness assessment shows that increasing rate of FeSi addition results in decreasing hardness, with maximum effect at 2.0 wt. (% addition. With equivalent aspect ratio (cooling modulus in a target cast product, this addition rate for this FeSi alloy under this furnace condition will attain graphitized microstructure in the cast product.

  14. Public health interventions and behaviour change: reviewing the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, H; Hardiker, N R; McGrath, M; McQuarrie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study identified and reviewed grey literature relating to factors facilitating and inhibiting effective interventions in three areas: the promotion of mental health and well-being, the improvement of food and nutrition, and interventions seeking to increase engagement in physical activity. Sourcing, reviewing and analysis of relevant grey literature. Evidence was collected from a variety of non-traditional sources. Thirty-six pieces of documentary evidence across the three areas were selected for in-depth appraisal and review. A variety of approaches, often short-term, were used both as interventions and outcome measures. Interventions tended to have common outcomes, enabling the identification of themes. These included improvements in participant well-being as well as identification of barriers to, and promoters of, success. Most interventions demonstrated some positive impact, although some did not. This was particularly the case for more objective measures of change, such as physiological measurements, particularly when used to evaluate short-term interventions. Objective health measurement as part of an intervention may act as a catalyst for future behaviour change. Time is an important factor that could either promote or impede the success of interventions for both participants and facilitators. Likewise, the importance of involving all stakeholders, including participants, when planning health promoting interventions was established as an important indicator of success. Despite its limited scope, this review suggests that interventions can be more efficient and effective. For example, larger-scale, longer-term interventions could be more efficient, whilst outcomes relating to the implementation and beyond could provide a clearer picture of effectiveness. Additionally, interventions and evaluations must be flexible, evolve in partnership with local communities, and reflect local need and context. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health

  15. Early Developmental Program Shapes Colony Morphology in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Mamou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When grown on a solid surface, bacteria form highly organized colonies, yet little is known about the earliest stages of colony establishment. Following Bacillus subtilis colony development from a single progenitor cell, a sequence of highly ordered spatiotemporal events was revealed. Colony was initiated by the formation of leading-cell chains, deriving from the colony center and extending in multiple directions, typically in a “Y-shaped” structure. By eradicating particular cells during these early stages, we could influence the shape of the resulting colony and demonstrate that Y-arm extension defines colony size. A mutant in ymdB encoding a phosphodiesterase displayed unordered developmental patterns, indicating a role in guiding these initial events. Finally, we provide evidence that intercellular nanotubes contribute to proper colony formation. In summary, we reveal a “construction plan” for building a colony and provide the initial molecular basis for this process.

  16. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiró Santos, Joyce; Coelho, Flávio Codeço; Bliman, Pierre-Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB) in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB). Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  17. Behavioral Modulation of Infestation by Varroa destructor in Bee Colonies. Implications for Colony Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce de Figueiró Santos

    Full Text Available Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD has become a global problem for beekeepers and for the crops that depend on bee pollination. While many factors are known to increase the risk of colony collapse, the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is considered to be the most serious one. Although this mite is unlikely to cause the collapse of hives itself, it is the vector for many viral diseases which are among the likely causes for Colony Collapse Disorder. The effects of V. destructor infestation differ from one part of the world to another, with greater morbidity and higher colony losses in European honey bees (EHB in Europe, Asia and North America. Although this mite has been present in Brazil for many years, there have been no reports of colony losses amongst Africanized Honey Bees (AHB. Studies carried out in Mexico have highlighted different behavioral responses by the AHB to the presence of the mite, notably as far as grooming and hygienic behavior are concerned. Could these explain why the AHB are less susceptible to Colony Collapse Disorder? In order to answer this question, we have developed a mathematical model of the infestation dynamics to analyze the role of resistance behavior by bees in the overall health of the colony, and as a consequence, its ability to face epidemiological challenges.

  18. Grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, S; McDonald, S; Clarke, M; Egger, M

    2007-04-18

    The inclusion of grey literature (i.e. literature that has not been formally published) in systematic reviews may help to overcome some of the problems of publication bias, which can arise due to the selective availability of data. To review systematically research studies, which have investigated the impact of grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to 20 May 2005), the Science Citation Index (June 2005) and contacted researchers who may have carried out relevant studies. A study was considered eligible for this review if it compared the effect of the inclusion and exclusion of grey literature on the results of a cohort of meta-analyses of randomized trials. Data were extracted from each report independently by two reviewers. The main outcome measure was an estimate of the impact of trials from the grey literature on the pooled effect estimates of the meta-analyses. Information was also collected on the area of health care, the number of meta-analyses, the number of trials, the number of trial participants, the year of publication of the trials, the language and country of publication of the trials, the number and type of grey and published literature, and methodological quality. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. All five studies showed that published trials showed an overall greater treatment effect than grey trials. This difference was statistically significant in one of the five studies. Data could be combined for three of the five studies. This showed that, on average, published trials showed a 9% greater treatment effect than grey trials (ratio of odds ratios for grey versus published trials 1.09; 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Overall there were more published trials included in the meta-analyses than grey trials (median 224 (IQR 108-365) versus 45(IQR 40-102)). Published trials had more participants on average. The most

  19. Project Final Report: HPC-Colony II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL; Kale, Laxmikant V [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center

    2013-11-01

    This report recounts the HPC Colony II Project which was a computer science effort funded by DOE's Advanced Scientific Computing Research office. The project included researchers from ORNL, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The topic of the effort was adaptive system software for extreme scale parallel machines. A description of findings is included.

  20. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  1. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  2. Teaching the History of Colonial Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leon G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliographic review essay on the topic of colonial Peru organized according to the following topics: Pre-Columbian Peru, 5500 B.C.- 1532; the conquest of Peru, 1532-1572; Peru under the Hapsburgs, 1516-1700; Bourbon Peru, 1700-1808; and the coming of independence, 1808-1821. The essay is based on a bibliography composed largely of…

  3. PRE-COLONIAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    ideas between places and over-time and mediate relationship and interactions between individuals and ... International Journal of Development and Management Review (INJODEMAR) Vol. 9, No 1 ..... Colonial Times, “Ahiajoku Lecture Series, Owerri: Ministry of Information, Youth and Sports Government Press. Afigbo A.E ...

  4. Policing native pleasures: a colonial history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Naheem

    2012-12-01

    The moral modality of colonial power is still with us when it comes to the recreation of sexual norms of traditional or feudal society. We can examine the emergent properties of colonial knowledge anew by exploring how the colonial regime's strategic attention of regulating brothels in India differed from the analytic of power Foucault described for sexuality in European society. It turns out that amongst other things, public anxieties about the failure of adaptation by South Asians are incapable of leaving sexuality aside as a key interpretive device for their culture. The British preoccupation with reproducing the dynamics of the bourgeois matrimonial market on foreign soil in the mid-nineteenth century similarly necessitated a sociological pretext for racial purity. However, the kind of knowledge a typical traveller and employee of the East India Company brought to the Victorian public from his own researches in the brothels and streets of colonial India, which revealed how popular prostitution was as a vice amongst the officer class, was also more than a welcome imaginary relief from Christian morality; it was an alternative vision of modernity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  5. Hyphal growth and colony expansion (Forum Commentary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Semenov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Bailey et al. have used a quite simple but elegant experimental method and developed innovative concepts about phase transitions in colony behavior based on non-linearity of invasion probability with distance between substrate particles. This proves again the old adage that significant scientific

  6. 128 COLONIALISM: NEXUS FOR MYRIAD RELIGIOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times, the version of Christians we have, who also practice ATR is ... Colonialism is not a new concept in the history of Africa. .... of their kits and kin still living. ..... believe that God could be reached through different media. ..... Hornby, A.S., (2006), Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, New York,.

  7. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell-cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony.

  8. Buckling instability in ordered bacterial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Denis; Mather, William; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Danino, Tal; Hasty, Jeff; Orozco-Fuentes, Sirio; Tsimring, Lev S

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial colonies often exhibit complex spatio-temporal organization. This collective behavior is affected by a multitude of factors ranging from the properties of individual cells (shape, motility, membrane structure) to chemotaxis and other means of cell–cell communication. One of the important but often overlooked mechanisms of spatio-temporal organization is direct mechanical contact among cells in dense colonies such as biofilms. While in natural habitats all these different mechanisms and factors act in concert, one can use laboratory cell cultures to study certain mechanisms in isolation. Recent work demonstrated that growth and ensuing expansion flow of rod-like bacteria Escherichia coli in confined environments leads to orientation of cells along the flow direction and thus to ordering of cells. However, the cell orientational ordering remained imperfect. In this paper we study one mechanism responsible for the persistence of disorder in growing cell populations. We demonstrate experimentally that a growing colony of nematically ordered cells is prone to the buckling instability. Our theoretical analysis and discrete-element simulations suggest that the nature of this instability is related to the anisotropy of the stress tensor in the ordered cell colony

  9. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  10. 178 MULTIPLE COLONIALISM IN WESTERN SAHARA Macharia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Civil War, the colony had also been a possible bargaining chip with Adolph Hitler when ... Morocco gave rise to an Army of Liberation that inspired the Sahrawi to fight ..... or defense, matters, and promised the Sahrawi the right to vote for their ...

  11. A multi-omics based ecological analysis of coastal marine sediments from Gladstone, in Australia's Central Queensland, and Heron Island, a nearby fringing platform reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, D J; Crosswell, J; Karpe, A V; Ahmed, W; Williams, M; Morrison, P D; Metcalfe, S; Staley, C; Sadowsky, M J; Palombo, E A; Steven, A D L

    2017-12-31

    The impact of anthropogenic factors arising from point and non-point pollution sources at a multi commodity marine port and its surrounding ecosystems were studied using sediment samples collected from a number of onshore (Gladstone Harbour and Facing Island) and offshore (Heron Island and Fitzroy Reefs) sites in Australia's Central Queensland. Sediment samples were analyzed for trace metals, organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emerging chemicals of concern (ECC) and sterols. Similarly, the biological and biochemical interaction between the reef and its environment was analyzed by the multi-omic tools of next-generation sequencing characterization of the bacterial community and microbial community metabolic profiling. Overall, the trace elements were observed at the lower end of the Australian environmental guideline values at the offshore sites, while higher values were observed for the onshore locations Nickel and copper were observed above the high trigger value threshold at the onshore sites. The levels of PAH were below limits of detection across all sites. However, some of the ECC and sterols were observed at higher concentrations at both onshore and offshore locations, notably, the cholesterol family sterols and 17α-ethynylestradiol. Multi-omic analyses also indicated possible thermal and photo irradiation stressors on the bacterial communities at all the tested sites. The observed populations of γ-proteobacteria were found in combination with an increased pool of fatty acids that indicate fatty acid synthesis and utilisation of the intermediates of the shikimate pathways. This study demonstrates the value of applying a multi-omics approach for ecological assessments, in which a more detailed assessment of physical and chemical contaminants and their impact on the community bacterial biome is obtained. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecotoxicological assessment of grey water treatment systems with Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Soeter, A M; Kools, S A E; Kraak, M H S; Parsons, J R; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2012-03-15

    In order to meet environmental quality criteria, grey water was treated in four different ways: 1) aerobic 2) anaerobic+aerobic 3) aerobic+activated carbon 4) aerobic+ozone. Since each treatment has its own specific advantages and disadvantages, the aim of this study was to compare the ecotoxicity of differently treated grey water using Chironomus riparius (96 h test) and Daphnia magna (48 h and 21d test) as test organisms. Grey water exhibited acute toxicity to both test organisms. The aerobic and combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment eliminated mortality in the acute tests, but growth of C. riparius was still affected by these two effluents. Post-treatment by ozone and activated carbon completely removed the acute toxicity from grey water. In the chronic toxicity test the combined anaerobic+aerobic treatment strongly affected D. magna population growth rate (47%), while the aerobic treatment had a small (9%) but significant effect. Hence, aerobic treatment is the best option for biological treatment of grey water, removing most of the toxic effects of grey water. If advanced treatment is required, the treatment with either ozone or GAC were shown to be very effective in complete removal of toxicity from grey water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Grey matter alterations in patients with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Roa-Sanchez, Pedro; Speckter, Herwin; Fermin-Delgado, Rafael; Perez-Then, Eddy; Oviedo, Jairo; Stoeter, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare heritable disease marked by dystonia and loss of movement control. In contrast to the well-known "Eye-of-the-Tiger" sign affecting the globus pallidus, little is known about other deviations of brain morphology, especially about grey matter changes. We investigated 29 patients with PKAN and 29 age-matched healthy controls using Magnet Resonance Imaging and Voxel-Based Morphometry. As compared to controls, children with PKAN showed increased grey matter density in the putamen and nucleus caudatus and adults with PKAN showed increased grey matter density in the ventral part of the anterior cingulate cortex. A multiple regression analysis with dystonia score as predictor showed grey matter reduction in the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal lobule, pars triangularis and small frontal and temporal areas and an analysis with age as predictor showed grey matter decreases in the putamen, nucleus caudatus, supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate cortex. The grey matter increases may be regarded as a secondary phenomenon compensating the increased activity of the motor system due to a reduced inhibitory output of the globus pallidus. With increasing age, the grey matter reduction of cortical midline structures however might contribute to the progression of dystonic symptoms due to loss of this compensatory control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. State-of-the-evidence reviews: advantages and challenges of including grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen M; Premji, Shahirose; Hayden, K Alix; Serrett, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, health policy decision-makers and professionals are turning to research-based evidence to support decisions about policy and practice. Systematic reviews are useful for gathering, summarizing, and synthesizing published and unpublished research about clearly defined interventions. State-of-the-evidence reviews are broader than traditional systematic reviews and may include not only published and unpublished research, but also published and unpublished non-research literature. Decisions about whether to include this "grey literature" in a review are challenging and lead to many questions about whether the advantages outweigh the challenges. The primary purpose of this article is to describe what constitutes grey literature, and methods to locate it and assess its quality. The secondary purpose is to discuss the core issues to consider when making decisions to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review. A recent state-of-the-evidence review is used as an exemplar to present advantages and challenges related to including grey literature in a review. Despite the challenges, in the exemplar, inclusion of grey literature was useful to validate the results of a research-based literature search. Decisions about whether to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review are complex. A checklist to assist in decision-making was created as a tool to assist the researcher in determining whether it is advantageous to include grey literature in a review.

  15. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  16. Colonial Army Formats in Africa and Post-Colonial Military Coups:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSOS USER

    The centralised and autocratic features of Caliphate rule were .... latter's participation in the affairs of their respective societies, and leadership ..... deployment of the army by the NPC for internal colonial-style repression duties in the Middle Belt ...

  17. Does the inclusion of grey literature influence estimates of intervention effectiveness reported in meta-analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, L; Pham, B; Tugwell, P; Moher, D

    2000-10-07

    The inclusion of only a subset of all available evidence in a meta-analysis may introduce biases and threaten its validity; this is particularly likely if the subset of included studies differ from those not included, which may be the case for published and grey literature (unpublished studies, with limited distribution). We set out to examine whether exclusion of grey literature, compared with its inclusion in meta-analysis, provides different estimates of the effectiveness of interventions assessed in randomised trials. From a random sample of 135 meta-analyses, we identified and retrieved 33 publications that included both grey and published primary studies. The 33 publications contributed 41 separate meta-analyses from several disease areas. General characteristics of the meta-analyses and associated studies and outcome data at the trial level were collected. We explored the effects of the inclusion of grey literature on the quantitative results using logistic-regression analyses. 33% of the meta-analyses were found to include some form of grey literature. The grey literature, when included, accounts for between 4.5% and 75% of the studies in a meta-analysis. On average, published work, compared with grey literature, yielded significantly larger estimates of the intervention effect by 15% (ratio of odds ratios=1.15 [95% CI 1.04-1.28]). Excluding abstracts from the analysis further compounded the exaggeration (1.33 [1.10-1.60]). The exclusion of grey literature from meta-analyses can lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effectiveness. In general, meta-analysts should attempt to identify, retrieve, and include all reports, grey and published, that meet predefined inclusion criteria.

  18. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Chuck J.; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows® operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh®, or Linux® operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size wo...

  19. Ireland – a test case of Post-colonialism / Post colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murray

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Contextualisation This review attempts to set the stage for post-colonial theorising, in the light of alternative representations of ‘whiteness’, on issues of gender, race and language within the discourse of equality. In this paper Ireland and the Irish provide a backdrop against which the nature and impact of colonialism on the colonised and the coloniser are explored. Many challenging questions emerge about the ideological basis of post colonial theory, not least when traditional paradigms of racism, as conveyed by the black / white dichotomy, are examined: Ireland presents a context, it is argued, where subjugation is of white on white. Linked to this is the language of the coloniser, a powerful hegemonic force which, in some situations, has been nurtured by the colonised and later developed into a text which is unique, producing a new literature which, it is asserted, truly invokes the ‘post colonial’. Abstract: Post-colonialism – essentially a critique of colonialism, is characterised by a process of disengagement from the colonial epoch and has taken many forms. In this article a set of phenomena are examined that have become inscribed in the cultures of the colonised with a view to identifying alternative cultural origins and dispositions recovered in this post-colonial era. Ireland and the Irish provide the background context of this exploration into perspectives generated by the peripheral or post-colonial nations. Globalisation, too, has had a role to play in the increasing de-territorialisation of communities as a result of cross-frontier mobility, increased intra-community mobility and new communication technologies. A critical reflection on the process of disengagement leads the author to conclude that we must come to recognise new cultural forms which are accepting of a heterogeneous and inclusive society: one which is not characterised by difference.

  20. Study on grey theoretical model of passive residual heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Yang Ruichang; Su, G.H.; Jia Dounan; Sugiyama, K.

    2004-01-01

    Natural Circulation Passive Residual Heat Removal System is treated as a Grey System by taking into account of its complexity and uncertainty of effect for factors each other. The magnitude and degree of some factors are confirmed by grey incidence analysis method; The one-one relationship of some variables is built by GM (1, 1) model; The relationship between key factor and other effect factors is built (1, 4) model. Grey model shows its more advantage of precision through comparing with multivariate model. (author)

  1. International Conference on Grey Systems and intelligent Services (IEEE GSIS 2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sifeng; Advances in Grey Systems Research

    2010-01-01

    This book contains contributions by some of the leading researchers in the area of grey systems theory and applications. All the papers included in this volume are selected from the contributions physically presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, November 11 – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This event was jointly sponsored by IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, Natural Science Foundation of China, and Grey Systems Society of China. Additionally, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics also invested heavily in this event with its direct and indirect financial and administrative supports.

  2. Functioning heterotopic grey matter? Increased blood flow with voluntary movement and sensory stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimodozono, M.; Kawahira, K.; Tanaka, N.

    1995-01-01

    Heterotopic grey matter has never been reported to have any neuronal function other than as an epileptic focus. However, recent advances in measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebral metabolism have enabled us to assess localised function and functional changes of the brain. We saw a patient with cerebral haemorrhage with bilateral heterotopic grey matter. No neurological deficits or seizures were present before the haemorrhage. To establish the function of the heterotopic grey matter, we studied changes in their rCBF during voluntary movement and sensory stimulation of unilateral extremities using xenon-CT (Xe-CT). (orig.)

  3. Nondestructive testing of hardness of grey iron casts by upper harmonics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, R.E.; Ivanenko, T.G.; Kuznetsky, S.S.; Mutovin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The relation between microstructure of grey iron and his surface hardness on the one hand and magnetic characteristics on the other hand has been investigated on toroidal samples. It is shown that surface hardness of grey iron and parameter a in Froelich formula are dependent linearly on the total surface of graphite inclusions. The conclusion was made that the testing of the grey iron hardness better to make by using the phase of the upper harmonics of the output signal of the overlain transducer. The coefficient of the linear correlation between readings corresponding device and the hardness is 0.86. (orig.)

  4. Non-Grey Radiation Modeling using Thermal Desktop/Sindaworks TFAWS06-1009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin R.; Paine, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the non-grey radiation modeling capabilities of Cullimore and Ring's Thermal Desktop(Registered TradeMark) Version 4.8 SindaWorks software. The non-grey radiation analysis theory implemented by Sindaworks and the methodology used by the software are outlined. Representative results from a parametric trade study of a radiation shield comprised of a series of v-grooved shaped deployable panels is used to illustrate the capabilities of the SindaWorks non-grey radiation thermal analysis software using emissivities with temperature and wavelength dependency modeled via a Hagen-Rubens relationship.

  5. Prediction on corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system based on optimized grey theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Jiang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, the pre- diction error from the grey theory is greater, so a new method, optimized grey theory was presented in the paper. A comparison among predicted results from present and other methods was carried out, and it is seem that optimized grey theory is correct and effective for the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, and it provides a fundamental basis for the maintenance of pipe in nuclear power system. (authors)

  6. 21 CFR 866.2180 - Manual colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2180 Manual colony counter. (a) Identification. A manual colony counter is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  7. Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues ... Genetic Algorithm (MO-GA) for dynamic job scheduling that .... Information Networking and Applications Workshops. [7]. M. Dorigo & T.

  8. Conflict and conflict resolution in Africa: Engaging the colonial factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintaining colonial-style approaches to African conflicts at the expense of a ... Educational Leadership at the College of Education and Human Services, University of .... Colonial rule was the antithesis of democracy, because it was premised.

  9. Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honeybee colony marketing and its implications for queen rearing and beekeeping development in Werieleke ... Thus, colony marketing is an important venture in Werieleke district of Tigray region. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Growth pattern of the surface of fungus Aspergillus colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    1992-05-01

    Aspergillus oryzae colonies were grown under various glucose concentrations, temperatures, and agar concentrations, and the effects on the pattern were investigated. Patterns of colony were found to vary from uniform to diffusion-limited aggregation type.

  11. A Decision-Making Method with Grey Multi-Source Heterogeneous Data and Its Application in Green Supplier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yaoguo; Mao, Wenxin

    2018-01-01

    In view of the multi-attribute decision-making problem that the attribute values are grey multi-source heterogeneous data, a decision-making method based on kernel and greyness degree is proposed. The definitions of kernel and greyness degree of an extended grey number in a grey multi-source heterogeneous data sequence are given. On this basis, we construct the kernel vector and greyness degree vector of the sequence to whiten the multi-source heterogeneous information, then a grey relational bi-directional projection ranking method is presented. Considering the multi-attribute multi-level decision structure and the causalities between attributes in decision-making problem, the HG-DEMATEL method is proposed to determine the hierarchical attribute weights. A green supplier selection example is provided to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method. PMID:29510521

  12. A Decision-Making Method with Grey Multi-Source Heterogeneous Data and Its Application in Green Supplier Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Dang, Yaoguo; Mao, Wenxin

    2018-03-03

    In view of the multi-attribute decision-making problem that the attribute values are grey multi-source heterogeneous data, a decision-making method based on kernel and greyness degree is proposed. The definitions of kernel and greyness degree of an extended grey number in a grey multi-source heterogeneous data sequence are given. On this basis, we construct the kernel vector and greyness degree vector of the sequence to whiten the multi-source heterogeneous information, then a grey relational bi-directional projection ranking method is presented. Considering the multi-attribute multi-level decision structure and the causalities between attributes in decision-making problem, the HG-DEMATEL method is proposed to determine the hierarchical attribute weights. A green supplier selection example is provided to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method.

  13. The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. ... It also needs to redress problems of social and economic inequality that exist in South Africa as hangovers from this country's colonial and apartheid-era past. Keywords: Zuma, rape, Kipling, colonialism, ...

  14. Military labour mobilisation in colonial Lesotho during World War II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1940, Great Britain's wartime exploitation of the human and material resources of its colonial empire was extended to colonial Lesotho (then known as Basutoland). The aim of this article, therefore, is to trace the four-year military labour mobilisation process in that colony, with special attention to the timing, number and ...

  15. Deconstructive Pedagogy and Ideological Demystification in Post-Colonial Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina

    2016-01-01

    With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…

  16. The Genesis of Public Relations in British Colonial Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosaleen

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates how the British Colonial Office employed public relations strategies as they administered the British colony of Northern Rhodesia before, during, and after World War II. Demonstrates how civil servants in London and colonial officials implemented public relations policies, strategies, and tactics on an ad hoc basis, covering political…

  17. Scientific Support of Terrorist Actions by Commercial Grey Area Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzung, W.

    2007-01-01

    The publication of the Al-Quaida handbook and time and time again notes of the possibility for getting special scientific knowledge from the internet have decreased the attention for an other important source of scientific support for terrorist education and/or actions. This is the commercial available and distributed grey area literature provided by a huge amount of (book) sellers and publishing houses. Most of this literature (hard copies and CDs) with dangerous subject matter is published in the US and may be ordered fast and with low costs using the internet. This kind of support for real and potential terrorists stands strongly in contradiction to the official policy and the 'unconditional' war against terrorism. With the presented poster the above described problem should be a little bit put in the focus of the CBMTS community and so to the authorities, too. By means of selected examples from different branches, such as Narcotics, Explosives, unusual Killing Methods, special Poisons / Toxins and, last not least, CW agents inclusive application methods and devices the highly charged situation is tried to shown. (author)

  18. A Conceptual Grey Analysis Method for Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mikela Chatzimichailidou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Concerning engineers, project management is a crucial field of research and development. Projects of high uncertainty and scale are characterized by risk, primarily related to their completion time. Thus, safe duration estimations, throughout the planning of a project, are a key objective for project managers. However, traditional linear approaches fail to include and sufficiently serve the dynamic nature of activities duration. On this ground, attention should be paid to designing and implementing methodologies that approximate the duration of the activities during the phase of planning and scheduling too. The grey analysis mathematical modeling seems to gain grounds, since it gradually becomes a well-adapted and up-to-date technique for numerous scientific sectors. This paper examines the contribution of the logic behind the aforementioned analysis, aiming to predict possible future divergences of task durations in big construction projects. Based on time observations of critical instances, a conceptual method is developed for making duration estimations and communicating deviations from the original schedule, in a way that approximations will fit reality better. The whole procedure endeavors to investigate the decrease of uncertainty, regarding project completion time and reduce, up to a scale, a possible inaccurate estimation of a project manager. The utmost effort is about exploiting the gained experience and eliminating the “hedgehog syndrome”. This is attainable by designing a reliable, easily updated, and readable information system. An enlightening example is to be found in the last section.

  19. Linear multifrequency-grey acceleration recast for preconditioned Krylov iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, Jim E.; Brian Yang, T.-Y.; Warsa, James S.

    2007-01-01

    The linear multifrequency-grey acceleration (LMFGA) technique is used to accelerate the iterative convergence of multigroup thermal radiation diffusion calculations in high energy density simulations. Although it is effective and efficient in one-dimensional calculations, the LMFGA method has recently been observed to significantly degrade under certain conditions in multidimensional calculations with large discontinuities in material properties. To address this deficiency, we recast the LMFGA method in terms of a preconditioned system that is solved with a Krylov method (LMFGK). Results are presented demonstrating that the new LMFGK method always requires fewer iterations than the original LMFGA method. The reduction in iteration count increases with both the size of the time step and the inhomogeneity of the problem. However, for reasons later explained, the LMFGK method can cost more per iteration than the LMFGA method, resulting in lower but comparable efficiency in problems with small time steps and weak inhomogeneities. In problems with large time steps and strong inhomogeneities, the LMFGK method is significantly more efficient than the LMFGA method

  20. African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Austin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between “settler” and “peasant” economies.

  1. Teaching South Asia beyond Colonial Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Caton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the methodological innovations of Subaltern Studies in the 1980s and 1990s, most historians’ familiarity with South Asian history is limited to the colonial or modern period. While the subalternist view is undoubtedly useful, it does not provide much help in thinking about what came before or after the colonial period. This limited context may prove to be a problem for a non-specialist constructing a full course in South Asian history or adding South Asia content to a course that seeks to break down area studies or nation-state boundaries. This article provides a starting point for such an enterprise. It reviews the South Asian history textbooks available in the market and identifies some of the scholarship that would suit courses or units organized by theme or by a larger Asian geography. It also reviews some of the collections of primary sources that could be used in such coursework.

  2. Ant colony optimization and constraint programming

    CERN Document Server

    Solnon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic which has been successfully applied to a wide range of combinatorial optimization problems. The author describes this metaheuristic and studies its efficiency for solving some hard combinatorial problems, with a specific focus on constraint programming. The text is organized into three parts. The first part introduces constraint programming, which provides high level features to declaratively model problems by means of constraints. It describes the main existing approaches for solving constraint satisfaction problems, including complete tree search

  3. Grey water characterization and treatment for reuse in an arid environment

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, E.; Bani-Melhem, K.

    2012-01-01

    Grey water from a university facilities building in Cairo, Egypt was analysed for basic wastewater parameters. Mean concentrations were calculated based on grab samples over a 16-month period. Values for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients

  4. A Novel Grey Wave Method for Predicting Total Chinese Trade Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total trade volume of a country is an important way of appraising its international trade situation. A prediction based on trade volume will help enterprises arrange production efficiently and promote the sustainability of the international trade. Because the total Chinese trade volume fluctuates over time, this paper proposes a Grey wave forecasting model with a Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter to forecast it. This novel model first parses time series into long-term trend and short-term cycle. Second, the model uses a general GM (1,1 to predict the trend term and the Grey wave forecasting model to predict the cycle term. Empirical analysis shows that the improved Grey wave prediction method provides a much more accurate forecast than the basic Grey wave prediction method, achieving better prediction results than autoregressive moving average model (ARMA.

  5. Vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of normal cervical lymph nodes: variations with nodal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Michael; Ahuja, Anil; Brook, Fiona; Metreweli, Constantine

    2001-01-01

    AIM: This study was undertaken to investigate variations in the vascularity and grey-scale sonographic features of cervical lymph nodes with their size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High resolution grey-scale sonography and power Doppler sonography were performed in 1133 cervical nodes in 109 volunteers who had a sonographic examination of the neck. Standardized parameters were used in power Doppler sonography. RESULTS: About 90% of lymph nodes with a maximum transverse diameter greater than 5 mm showed vascularity and an echogenic hilus. Smaller nodes were less likely to show vascularity and an echogenic hilus. As the size of the lymph nodes increased, the intranodal blood flow velocity increased significantly (P 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide a baseline for grey-scale and power Doppler sonography of normal cervical lymph nodes. Sonologists will find varying vascularity and grey-scale appearances when encountering nodes of different sizes. Ying, M. et al. (2001)

  6. Modeling imperfectly repaired system data via grey differential equations with unequal-gapped times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Renkuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that grey differential equation models are useful in repairable system modeling. The arguments starts with the review on GM(1,1) model with equal- and unequal-spaced stopping time sequence. In terms of two-stage GM(1,1) filtering, system stopping time can be partitioned into system intrinsic function and repair effect. Furthermore, we propose an approach to use grey differential equation to specify a semi-statistical membership function for system intrinsic function times. Also, we engage an effort to use GM(1,N) model to model system stopping times and the associated operating covariates and propose an unequal-gapped GM(1,N) model for such analysis. Finally, we investigate the GM(1,1)-embed systematic grey equation system modeling of imperfectly repaired system operating data. Practical examples are given in step-by-step manner to illustrate the grey differential equation modeling of repairable system data

  7. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure...... sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without...... sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls...

  8. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  9. Review Essay: Governmentality in Late Colonial Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Em

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Fujitani, Race for Empire: Koreans as Japanese and Japanese as Americans during World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. 520 pp. $65 (cloth.Jun Uchida, Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011. 500 pp. $50 (cloth.In South Korea, more so than in most other postcolonial countries, the issue of sovereignty and the colonial past remains a central feature of politics. Most recently, during a televised presidential debate on December 4, 2012, Lee Jung-hee of the Unified Progressive Party said something that likely had never been said on South Korean television: “Takaki Masao signed an oath of loyalty [to the Emperor of Japan], in his own blood, to become an officer in the Japanese [Imperial] Army. You know who he is. His Korean name is Park Chung Hee.” Lee Jung-hee then made the connection between that colonial past and the willingness to sell out the nation’s sovereignty in the present. The conservative candidate Park Geun-hye, the daughter of the late President Park Chung Hee who ruled South Korea from 1961 through 1979, and members of Park’s Saenuri Party, remain true to their “roots”: these “descendants of pro-Japanese collaborators and dictators” (again sold out South Korea’s sovereignty (on November 22, 2011 when they rammed the US-ROK Free Trade Agreement through the National Assembly.

  10. Colony stimulating factors and their clinical implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    1989-01-01

    Granulocytes and macrophage are dependent for their production and/or functional activation in vitro on the presence of a family of glycoproteins. They are generally called colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) because of their capacity to stimulate colony formation in semi-solid cultures, and are currently classified into four distinct subtypes, that is, Multi-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF, according to the cell type of colonies formed under their stimulation or their target cell specificity. All of the murine and human CSF subtypes and the genes for them have become available in a purified form and in a large scale, and now allow us to investigate their interactions, the mechanisms for their actions, the cell-cell interactions leading to their production and secretion, and their actions in vivo. Furthermore, the preclinical and/or clinical studies which were carried out using the purified CSFs strongly indicate that human CSFs will be effective strategies for preventing and treating opportunistic bacterial and fungal infection as a major cause of death in granulocytopenic patients. (author)

  11. Application of grey incidence analysis to connection between human errors and root cause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yinxiang; Yu Ren; Zhou Gang; Chen Dengke

    2008-01-01

    By introducing grey incidence analysis, the relatively important impact of root cause upon human errors was researched in the paper. On the basis of WANO statistic data and grey incidence analysis, lack of alternate examine, bad basic operation, short of theoretical knowledge, relaxation of organization and management and deficiency of regulations are the important influence of root cause on human err ors. Finally, the question to reduce human errors was discussed. (authors)

  12. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman A.; Ghrair, Ayoup M.; Megdal, Sharon B.

    2012-01-01

    Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their ...

  13. Behavioral Pattern of Endemic Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros gingalensis) within the Breeding and Nonbreeding Seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Wijerathne, Iresha; Wickramasinghe, Sriyani

    2018-01-01

    The hornbills are among the most extraordinary looking birds in the world. Out of two species of hornbill, the Ocyceros gingalensis is the only endemic grey hornbill in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted in Mihintale Sanctuary which is comprised of secondary dry mixed evergreen forest patches and semiurbanized area from 2013 to 2015. Ad libitum focal animal sampling was used to construct an ethogram for the behavior of Sri Lanka grey hornbill (SLGh). The study recorded 35 behavioral events i...

  14. Characterising the grey matter correlates of leukoaraiosis in cerebral small vessel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lambert

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that SVD severity is associated with regional cortical thinning. Furthermore a quantitative measure of SVD severity (WMH volume can be predicted from grey matter measures, supporting an association between white and grey matter damage. The pattern of cortical thinning and volumetric decline is distinctive for SVD severity compared to ageing. These results, taken together, suggest that there is a phenotypic pattern of atrophy associated with SVD severity.

  15. The initiatives of a library association for the promotion of grey literature

    OpenAIRE

    Alberani, V. (ISS); De Castro Pietrangeli, P. (ISS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    The main initiatives taken in Italy by the Italian Library Association (AIB) for the development and promotion of grey literature since the recommendations of the seminar of York and following the Italian adhesion to EAGLE (through the Central Library of the Italian National Research Council-CNR) are presented, i.e.: survey the main Italian producers of GL through the application and creation of international and national standards; evaluate the use of grey literature in scientific communicat...

  16. Presentation of the paper “Open access repositories as channel of publication scientific grey literature”

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Fernández, Tránsito; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Merlo Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation of the paper entitled “Open access repositories as channel of publication scientific grey literature” in the TEEM 2015 International Conference held in Porto (Portugal) in October 7-9, 2015. In this paper we describe how the open access repositories are valid channels for the publication of scientific grey literature. Technological development facilitates the communication of scientific knowledge, allowing expand distribution channels and significantly reducing tra...

  17. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10–67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations’ websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews. PMID:26379270

  18. Grey matter volume in adolescents with anorexia nervosa and associated eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Monzon, Beatriz; Henderson, Luke A; Madden, Sloane; Macefield, Vaughan G; Touyz, Stephen; Kohn, Michael R; Clarke, Simon; Foroughi, Nasim; Hay, Phillipa

    2017-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder of complex aetiology. Previous neuroimaging studies have found consistent global reductions in global grey matter volume of underweight girls with AN; however, differences in regional grey matter volumes are less consistent. The aims of this study were to investigate grey matter regional volumes of adolescent girls with AN before and after weight recovery and the relationship of any changes with clinical characteristics. We collected high-resolution T1-weighted images from 26 underweight girls with AN before weight gain and 20 healthy control volunteers. Clinical features were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. AN subjects displayed reduced grey matter volumes in the insula, amygdala, prefrontal, hippocampal and cingulate cortices and the precuneus, relative to healthy controls. In a subset of 10 AN subjects who were followed after weight recovery, grey matter volumes increased to near-control levels in the orbito- and medial prefrontal, insular, left hippocampal and mid- and posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus. The recovery of the right anterior thalamus and the left orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with improvements in eating concerns and shape concerns, respectively. However, large parts of the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate nuclei and right hippocampus did not display any grey matter recovery following a short-term of treatment. These results show that in adolescents with AN, some brain regions display marked recovery in grey matter volume following weight recovery, whereas others do not, considering grey mater recovery possibly linked to symptom improvement. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Participation of the dorsal periaqueductal grey matter in the hypoxic ventilatory response in unanaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L T; Biancardi, V; Vieira, E B; Leite-Panissi, C; Bícego, K C; Gargaglioni, L H

    2014-07-01

    Although periaqueductal grey matter activation is known to elicit respiratory and cardiovascular responses, the role of this midbrain area in the compensatory responses to hypoxia is still unknown. To test the participation of the periaqueductal grey matter in cardiorespiratory and thermal responses to hypoxia in adult male Wistar rats, we performed a chemical lesion of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial or the ventrolateral/lateral periaqueductal grey matter using ibotenic acid. Pulmonary ventilation, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature were measured in unanaesthetized rats during normoxic and hypoxic exposure (5, 15, 30 min, 7% O2). An ibotenic acid lesion of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial periaqueductal grey matter caused a higher increase in pulmonary ventilation (67.1%, 1730±282.5 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) compared to the Sham group (991.4±194 mL kg(-1) min(-1)) after 15 min in hypoxia, whereas for the ventrolateral/Lateral periaqueductal grey matter lesion, no differences were observed between groups. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature were not affected by a dorsolateral/dorsomedial or ventrolateral/lateral periaqueductal grey matter lesion. Middle to caudal portions of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial periaqueductal grey matter neurones modulate the hypoxic ventilatory response, exerting an inhibitory modulation during low O2 situations. In addition, the middle to caudal portions of the dorsolateral/dorsomedial or ventrolateral/lateral periaqueductal grey matter do not appear to exert a tonic role on cardiovascular or thermal parameters during normoxic and hypoxic conditions. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10-67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations' websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews.

  1. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wagner, Gernot; Apfalter, Petra; Maier, Manfred

    2011-11-28

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are published in peer-reviewed journals. The grey

  2. Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.

  3. The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)

  4. Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winward, Gideon P; Avery, Lisa M; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Adequate disinfection of grey water prior to reuse is important to prevent the potential transmission of disease-causing microorganisms. Chlorine is a widely utilised disinfectant and as such is a leading contender for disinfection of grey water intended for reuse. This study examined the impact of organics and particles on chlorine disinfection of grey water, measured by total coliform inactivation. The efficacy of disinfection was most closely linked with particle size. Larger particles shielded total coliforms from inactivation and disinfection efficacy decreased with increasing particle size. Blending to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs) following chlorine disinfection revealed that up to 91% of total coliforms in chlorinated grey water were particle associated. The organic concentration of grey water affected chlorine demand but did not influence the disinfection resistance of total coliforms when a free chlorine residual was maintained. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and it is recommended that grey water treatment systems target suspended solids removal to ensure removal of PACs prior to disinfection.

  5. Grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Zhenchang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Yan, Fei; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown brain reorganizations after early deprivation of auditory sensory. However, changes of grey matter connectivity have not been investigated in prelingually deaf adolescents yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents and 16 age-and gender-matched normal controls, and extracted the grey matter volume as the structural characteristic from 14 regions of interest involved in auditory, language or visual processing to investigate the changes of grey matter connectivity within and between auditory, language and visual systems. Sparse inverse covariance estimation (SICE) was utilized to construct grey matter connectivity between these brain regions. The results show that prelingually deaf adolescents present weaker grey matter connectivity within auditory and visual systems, and connectivity between language and visual systems declined. Notably, significantly increased brain connectivity was found between auditory and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents. Our results indicate "cross-modal" plasticity after deprivation of the auditory input in prelingually deaf adolescents, especially between auditory and visual systems. Besides, auditory deprivation and visual deficits might affect the connectivity pattern within language and visual systems in prelingually deaf adolescents.

  6. Towards a Holistic Cortical Thickness Descriptor: Heat Kernel-Based Grey Matter Morphology Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Yalin

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a heat kernel based regional shape descriptor that may be capable of better exploiting volumetric morphological information than other available methods, thereby improving statistical power on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. The mechanism of our analysis is driven by the graph spectrum and the heat kernel theory, to capture the volumetric geometry information in the constructed tetrahedral meshes. In order to capture profound brain grey matter shape changes, we first use the volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator to determine the point pair correspondence between white-grey matter and CSF-grey matter boundary surfaces by computing the streamlines in a tetrahedral mesh. Secondly, we propose multi-scale grey matter morphology signatures to describe the transition probability by random walk between the point pairs, which reflects the inherent geometric characteristics. Thirdly, a point distribution model is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the grey matter morphology signatures and generate the internal structure features. With the sparse linear discriminant analysis, we select a concise morphology feature set with improved classification accuracies. In our experiments, the proposed work outperformed the cortical thickness features computed by FreeSurfer software in the classification of Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, on publicly available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The multi-scale and physics based volumetric structure feature may bring stronger statistical power than some traditional methods for MRI-based grey matter morphology analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differences in regional grey matter volumes in currently ill patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Abel, Larry Allen; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Hughes, Matthew Edward

    2018-01-01

    Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. AN participants were found to have reduced grey matter volumes in a number of areas including regions of the basal ganglia (including the ventral striatum), and parietal and temporal cortices. Body mass index (BMI) and global scores on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) were also found to correlate with grey matter volumes in a region of the brainstem (including the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) in AN, and predicted 56% of the variance in grey matter volumes in this area. The brain regions associated with grey matter reductions in AN are consistent with regions responsible for cognitive deficits associated with the illness including anhedonia, deficits in affect perception and saccadic eye movement abnormalities. Overall, the findings suggest reduced grey matter volumes in AN that are associated with eating disorder symptomatology. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Morphological Diversity of the Colony Produced by Bacteria Proteus mirabilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Akio; Shimada, Yuji; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Matsushita, Mitsugu; Matsuyama, Tohey

    1996-08-01

    Morphological changes of colonies have been investigatedfor a bacterial strain of Proteus mirabilis, which is a famous speciesfor producing concentric-ring-like colonies. It was found that colony patterns can be classified into three types,i.e., cyclic spreading, diffusion-limited growth (DLA-like)and three-dimensional growth (inside the agar medium) patterns. Cyclic spreading patterns can further be classifiedinto three subgroups, i.e., concentric-ring, homogeneous and spatiotemporal patterns. These subgroups were classified by examining the development of colony structure after colonies spread all over petri-dishes. Comparison of the results with thoseof another bacterial species Bacillus subtilis is also discussed.

  9. Life in the colonies: learning the alien ways of colonial organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Judith E

    2010-12-01

    Who needs to go to outer space to study alien beings when the oceans of our own planet abound with bizarre and unknown creatures? Many of them belong to sessile clonal and colonial groups, including sponges, hydroids, corals, octocorals, ascidians, bryozoans, and some polychaetes. Their life histories, in many ways unlike our own, are a challenge for biologists. Studying their ecology, behavior, and taxonomy means trying to “think like a colony” to understand the factors important in their lives. Until the 1980s, most marine ecologists ignored these difficult modular organisms. Plant ecologists showed them ways to deal with the two levels of asexually produced modules and genetic individuals, leading to a surge in research on the ecology of clonal and colonial marine invertebrates. Bryozoans make excellent model colonial animals. Their life histories range from ephemeral to perennial. Aspects of their lives such as growth, reproduction, partial mortality due to predation or fouling, and the behavior of both autozooids and polymorphs can be studied at the level of the colony, as well as that of the individual module, in living colonies and over time.

  10. Engaging With Colonial Archives: Reflections Of An End-User

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olukoju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Official and/or public archives were a byproduct of colonial rule in Africa. (Archives are a byproduct of administrative governance everywhere. Given the density and diversity of colonial archival records, historians have tended to rely on them for the study of the colonial period. Publications on the use of archives have not captured the perspective of end-users, who often face peculiar challenges in the use of colonial and metropolitan archives. This paper provides an end-user perspective on colonial archives in Nigeria and the United Kingdom. It highlights the challenges of data collection and prospects of optimal use of archival source material. The discussion is of general application to users of colonial archives especially in the former British colonies in Africa.

  11. Experimental Study for Automatic Colony Counting System Based Onimage Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junlong; Li, Wenzhe; Wang, Guoxin

    Colony counting in many colony experiments is detected by manual method at present, therefore it is difficult for man to execute the method quickly and accurately .A new automatic colony counting system was developed. Making use of image-processing technology, a study was made on the feasibility of distinguishing objectively white bacterial colonies from clear plates according to the RGB color theory. An optimal chromatic value was obtained based upon a lot of experiments on the distribution of the chromatic value. It has been proved that the method greatly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the colony counting and the counting result is not affected by using inoculation, shape or size of the colony. It is revealed that automatic detection of colony quantity using image-processing technology could be an effective way.

  12. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres...... in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses...

  13. Status of Baltic grey seals: Population assessment and extinction risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C Harding

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus population in the Baltic Sea is recovering after a century of bounty hunting and 3 decades of low fertility rates caused by environmental pollution. A conservative estimate of the population size in 2003 was 19,400 animals, and available data suggest an annual rate of increase of 7.5% since 1990. The growing population has led to increased interactions with the fishery, and demands are being raised for the re-introduction of the hunt. We provide a demographic analysis and a risk assessment of the population, and make recommendations on how to decrease the risk of over exploitation. Although hunting increases the risk of quasi-extinction, the risk can be significantly reduced by the choice of a cautious hunting regime. The least hazardous regimes allow no hunting below a ‘security level’ in population size. Obviously, to implement such a hunting regime detailed knowledge of the population size and growth rate is required. It is not possible to estimate “true” risks for quasi-extinction, but we used an approach where the relative difference for different scenarios can be compared. With a security level at 5,000 females, the population quasi-extinction risk increases 50 fold at an annual hunt of 500 females compared with a scenario with no hunting. The risk of quasi-extinction is very sensitive to declines in the mean growth rate and to increased variance in growth rate. The variance in the population estimates over the last 14 years imply that it would take 9 years to detect a declinefrom 1.075 to 1.027 in the rate of population increase. We also show how the age composition of killed animals influences the impact of the hunt. The overall recommendation is that hunting should be kept to a minimum, carefully documented and accompanied by close population monitoring.

  14. Central diabetes insipidus in an African Grey parrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Simon R; Wood, Catherine; de Matos, Ricardo; Ledbetter, Eric C; Morrisey, James K

    2010-08-15

    A 5.5-year-old sexually intact female African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated for a 1-year history of pronounced polyuria and polydipsia. The bird also had a 1-month history of signs of mild depression and mydriasis. Physical examination revealed a thin body condition and incomplete bilateral mydriasis. Other examination findings as well as CBC and screening radiography results were unremarkable. Plasma biochemical analysis revealed mild hypernatremia. The bird had a 3.3% loss in body weight over 170 minutes during a water deprivation test, and urine osmolality remained low. After IM administration of 0.9 microg of desmopressin, the rate of weight loss decreased substantially and urine osmolality increased 300% over the following 200 minutes. Initial attempts to treat the bird with orally administered desmopressin failed to correct the polydipsia and polyuria. Ultimately, IM administration of 24 microg of desmopressin/kg (10.9 microg/lb) every 12 hours yielded a noticeable reduction in water consumption and urine production over a 6- to 8-hour period. Eight months later, the bird was returned for a recheck examination, at which time it was in good health and continued to respond to the medication. Despite continued response to the medication, right-sided internal ophthalmoparesis was detected 16 months after the initial diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, central diabetes insipidus in birds has not been reported. The condition should be considered in birds with clinical signs of disease similar to those in mammals. Long-term IM administration of desmopressin may be a viable treatment option.

  15. Grey forecasting model for CO2 emissions: A Taiwan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiun-Sin; Liou, Fen-May; Huang, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. → The CARMA indicates that the Taichung coal-fired power plants had the highest CO 2 emissions in the world. → GM(1,1) prediction accuracy is fairly high. → The results show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. -- Abstract: Among the various greenhouse gases associated with climate change, CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. The latest data from Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA) shows that the coal-fired power plant in Taichung, Taiwan emitted 39.7 million tons of CO 2 in 2007 - the highest of any power plant in the world. Based on statistics from Energy International Administration, the annual CO 2 emissions in Taiwan have increased 42% from 1997 until 2006. Taiwan has limited natural resources and relies heavily on imports to meet its energy needs, and the government must take serious measures control energy consumption to reduce CO 2 emissions. Because the latest data was from 2009, this study applied the grey forecasting model to estimate future CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 2010 until 2012. Forecasts of CO 2 emissions in this study show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. Overall, the GM(1,1) predicted further increases in CO 2 emissions over the next 3 years. Although Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations and is not bound by the Kyoto Protocol, the findings of this study provide a valuable reference with which the Taiwanese government could formulate measures to reduce CO 2 emissions by curbing the unnecessary the consumption of energy.

  16. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  17. Intraspecific Variation among Social Insect Colonies: Persistent Regional and Colony-Level Differences in Fire Ant Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Bockoven

    Full Text Available Individuals vary within a species in many ecologically important ways, but the causes and consequences of such variation are often poorly understood. Foraging behavior is among the most profitable and risky activities in which organisms engage and is expected to be under strong selection. Among social insects there is evidence that within-colony variation in traits such as foraging behavior can increase colony fitness, but variation between colonies and the potential consequences of such variation are poorly documented. In this study, we tested natural populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, for the existence of colony and regional variation in foraging behavior and tested the persistence of this variation over time and across foraging habitats. We also reared single-lineage colonies in standardized environments to explore the contribution of colony lineage. Fire ants from natural populations exhibited significant and persistent colony and regional-level variation in foraging behaviors such as extra-nest activity, exploration, and discovery of and recruitment to resources. Moreover, colony-level variation in extra-nest activity was significantly correlated with colony growth, suggesting that this variation has fitness consequences. Lineage of the colony had a significant effect on extra-nest activity and exploratory activity and explained approximately half of the variation observed in foraging behaviors, suggesting a heritable component to colony-level variation in behavior.

  18. Globalization in the post - colonial world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikova Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new interpretation of globalization within the boundaries of the author’s concept of soft globalization, which exploits a normatively attractive alternative to the concept of the Empire. It is argued here that the conditions of development of contemporary post - colonial world communities do not require any unification in the form of the Empire, but instead the creation of a non repressive mechanism of social regulation - the implementation of a form of soft globalization, a globalization with a mental form are expedient here. Historically, globalization occurred in a strict material(i.e. economical and military form that prompted the conditions for the evolution of civilization as the Empire: a case in which the development of the world occurs under the power of a single dominating state. Imperialistic politics leads to colonial politics formation. The history of the phenomena of civilization shows many instances of Empire globalization. Globalization in the Empire form was already observed at the time of the Roman Empire. At this time processes of development inside the Empire were manifestations of globalization in its highest cultural shape. But ancient Rome was also a social and political experiment that acquired the attributes of a purely material globalization in the end, and historically brought about the irreversible crash of the Roman Empire itself. Contemporary fluctuations referring to the process of globalization can be registered in the US’s attempts of material domination inside this or that existing case of civilization, which causes colonialism appearance. The main idea stressed in the paper is that only a mental globalization could succeed in the end.

  19. Combined Final Report for Colony II Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Laxmikant [University of Illinois; Jones, Terry [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moreira, Jose [IBM Corp.

    2013-10-23

    (This report was originally submmited by the lead PI (Terry Jones, ORNL) on October 22, 2013 to the program manager, Lucy Nowell. It is being submitted from University of Illinois in accordance with instructions). HPC Colony II seeks to provide portable performance for leadership class machines. Our strategy is based on adaptive system software that aims to make the intelligent decisions necessary to allow domain scientists to safely focus on their task at hand and allow the system software stack to adapt their application to the underlying architecture. This report describes the research undertaken towards these objectives and the results obtained over the performance period of the project.

  20. Mamary neoplasia in a closed beagle colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Shabestari, L.; Williams, J.; Mays, C.W.; Angus, W.; McFarland, S.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence rate of mammary neoplasia in a large colony of beagles and its relationship to internal skeletal and/or liver radiation, age, relatively late ovariectomy (4 years and older), endometritis, parity status, and adrenal weight was examined. Of these various factors, age was the only condition that was clearly correlated with changes in the mammary tumor incidence. The rate became significant at approximately eight years of age and increased progressively throughout the successively older age classes. Within the female dogs, the incidence of mammary cancer was higher that that of any other form of spontaneous malignancy

  1. Colonial Subjectification: Foucault, Christianity and Governmentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Petterson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foucault’s concept of pastoral power is envisioned as a technique of power developed from the medieval period and carried through into modern political rationalities. As such, it is an old power technique – which originated in Christian institutions – in a new political shape, which he coined governmentality. This article uses Foucault’s genealogy of pastoral power and governmentality to discuss the intersection of domination and technology of self in the Greenlandic colonial context and to bring out the central role of religion in Foucault’s conceptualisation of governmentality.

  2. Image Edge Tracking via Ant Colony Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruowei; Wu, Hongkun; Liu, Shilong; Rahman, M. A.; Liu, Sanchi; Kwok, Ngai Ming

    2018-04-01

    A good edge plot should use continuous thin lines to describe the complete contour of the captured object. However, the detection of weak edges is a challenging task because of the associated low pixel intensities. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) has been employed by many researchers to address this problem. The algorithm is a meta-heuristic method developed by mimicking the natural behaviour of ants. It uses iterative searches to find the optimal solution that cannot be found via traditional optimization approaches. In this work, ACO is employed to track and repair broken edges obtained via conventional Sobel edge detector to produced a result with more connected edges.

  3. In the Post-Colonial Waiting Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    ready for sovereignty. It explores a number of European overseas countries and territories. More specifically, it focuses on French dependencies in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and North Atlantic Greenland constitutionally connected to Denmark. The immediate aim of anti-colonial struggles was to make...... acknowledge. A number of overseas territories take alternative routes to agency; not by resisting the norm of sovereignty - but by creatively articulating it beyond its claim to represent an 'either/or' distinction. The chapter demonstrates that territories not formally decolonized may very well perform...

  4. Forecasting the natural gas demand in China using a self-adapting intelligent grey model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Bo; Li, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Reasonably forecasting demands of natural gas in China is of significance as it could aid Chinese government in formulating energy policies and adjusting industrial structures. To this end, a self-adapting intelligent grey prediction model is proposed in this paper. Compared with conventional grey models which have the inherent drawbacks of fixed structure and poor adaptability, the proposed new model can automatically optimize model parameters according to the real data characteristics of modeling sequence. In this study, the proposed new model, discrete grey model, even difference grey model and classical grey model were employed, respectively, to simulate China's natural gas demands during 2002–2010 and forecast demands during 2011–2014. The results show the new model has the best simulative and predictive precision. Finally, the new model is used to forecast China's natural gas demand during 2015–2020. The forecast shows the demand will grow rapidly over the next six years. Therefore, in order to maintain the balance between the supplies and the demands for the natural gas in the future, Chinese government needs to take some measures, such as importing huge amounts of natural gas from abroad, increasing the domestic yield, using more alternative energy, and reducing the industrial reliance on natural gas. - Highlights: • A self-adapting intelligent grey prediction model (SIGM) is proposed in this paper. • The SIGM has the advantage of working with exponential functions and linear functions. • The SIGM solves the drawbacks of fixed structure and poor adaptability of grey models. • The demand of natural gas in China is successfully forecasted using the SIGM model. • The study findings can help Chinese government reasonably formulate energy policies.

  5. Multiple sclerosis deep grey matter: the relation between demyelination, neurodegeneration, inflammation and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Lukas; Simeonidou, Constantina; Steinberger, Günther; Hametner, Simon; Grigoriadis, Nikolaos; Deretzi, Georgia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra; Lassmann, Hans; Frischer, Josa M

    2014-12-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffuse degenerative processes in the deep grey matter have been associated with clinical disabilities. We performed a systematic study in MS deep grey matter with a focus on the incidence and topographical distribution of lesions in relation to white matter and cortex in a total sample of 75 MS autopsy patients and 12 controls. In addition, detailed analyses of inflammation, acute axonal injury, iron deposition and oxidative stress were performed. MS deep grey matter was affected by two different processes: the formation of focal demyelinating lesions and diffuse neurodegeneration. Deep grey matter demyelination was most prominent in the caudate nucleus and hypothalamus and could already be seen in early MS stages. Lesions developed on the background of inflammation. Deep grey matter inflammation was intermediate between low inflammatory cortical lesions and active white matter lesions. Demyelination and neurodegeneration were associated with oxidative injury. Iron was stored primarily within oligodendrocytes and myelin fibres and released upon demyelination. In addition to focal demyelinated plaques, the MS deep grey matter also showed diffuse and global neurodegeneration. This was reflected by a global reduction of neuronal density, the presence of acutely injured axons, and the accumulation of oxidised phospholipids and DNA in neurons, oligodendrocytes and axons. Neurodegeneration was associated with T cell infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in microglia and profound accumulation of iron. Thus, both focal lesions as well as diffuse neurodegeneration in the deep grey matter appeared to contribute to the neurological disabilities of MS patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Staging of cortical and deep grey matter functional connectivity changes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim A; Eijlers, Anand J C; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Schoonheim, Menno M

    2018-02-01

    Functional connectivity is known to increase as well as decrease throughout the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could represent different stages of the disease. In addition, functional connectivity changes could follow the atrophy pattern observed with disease progression, that is, moving from the deep grey matter towards the cortex. This study investigated when and where connectivity changes develop and explored their clinical and cognitive relevance across different MS stages. A cohort of 121 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 122 with late RRMS and 53 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) as well as 96 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity changes were investigated for (1) within deep grey matter connectivity, (2) connectivity between the deep grey matter and cortex and (3) within-cortex connectivity. A post hoc regional analysis was performed to identify which regions were driving the connectivity changes. Patients with late RRMS and SPMS showed increased connectivity of the deep grey matter, especially of the putamen and palladium, with other deep grey matter structures and with the cortex. Within-cortex connectivity was decreased, especially for temporal, occipital and frontal regions, but only in SPMS relative to early RRMS. Deep grey matter connectivity alterations were related to cognition and disability, whereas within-cortex connectivity was only related to disability. Increased connectivity of the deep grey matter became apparent in late RRMS and further increased in SPMS. The additive effect of cortical network degeneration, which was only seen in SPMS, may explain the sudden clinical deterioration characteristic to this phase of the disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Bite injuries of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauniaux, Thierry; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Loos, Pauline; Bourgain, Jean-Luc; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Coignoul, Freddy; Haelters, Jan; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Pezeril, Sylvain; Desmecht, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Bite-like skin lesions on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) have been suspected to be caused by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), and a few field observations have been reported. Bite-like skin lesions observed on stranded animals were characterized by two main components: large flaps of loose or missing skin and blubber with frayed edges and puncture lesions. Definitive demonstration of predation by a grey seal was not reported so far in those stranded animals. In this study, five stranded porpoises with bite-like skin lesions were swabbed for genetic investigations. In addition, the head of a recently dead grey seal was used to mimic bite-like skin injuries on a porpoise carcass. Subsequently, the artificial skin injuries were swabbed, along with the gum of the seal used for inflicting them (positive controls). Total DNA was extracted from the swabs and was used to retrieve a fragment of mitochondrial DNA by PCR. Primers were designed to amplify a specific stretch of mitochondrial DNA known to differ between grey seals and porpoises. The amplicon targeted was successfully amplified from the positive control and from two of the stranded porpoises, and grey seal-specific mitochondrial DNA was retrieved from all those samples. We conclude that (1) it is possible to detect grey seal DNA from dead porpoises even after several days in seawater and (2) bite-like skin lesions found on dead porpoises definitively result from grey seals attacks. The attacks are most likely linked with predation although, in a number of cases, scavenging and aggressive behaviour cannot be excluded.

  8. CHRISTIANITY AND COLONIALISM IN SOME ENGLISH SHORT STORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Iskarna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Colonial and postcolonial studies are often linked to the power domination of the West upon the East in the way that the East economically, politically, and socially oppressed. Colonialism is often associated with three elements, the explorers dealing with geographical information, missionaries approaching the local people culturally, and the colonial administrators ruling the colony. Gold, glory, and gospel are the European’s concern. However, in representing the relation between Christianity and colonialism there is critical dialectic amongst historians, anthropologists, Christian missions, or cultural critics. Some propose that Christianity is considered to be the religious arm of colonialism. Others state that Christianity is spread without any secular interest as it is a great commandment of Jesus Christ. A few believe that Christianity give critical resistance against colonialism. The relation between Christianity and colonialism cannot be simplified as being neutral, in complicity, or in opposition. So, it is worth-discussing to understand how European writers construct the relation between Christianity and colonialism in their literary work. How Christianity is constructed and how Christianity is related to colonialism will be discussed in this paper. Using postcolonial paradigm, two English short stories will be analyzed in that way. They are Rudyard Kipling’s “Lispeth” and Doris Lessing’s “No Witchcraft for Sale”.

  9. Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Nonmodel rodents are widely used as subjects for both basic and applied biological research, but the genetic diversity of the study individuals is rarely quantified. University-housed colonies tend to be small and subject to founder effects and genetic drift; so they may be highly inbred or show substantial genetic divergence from other colonies, even those derived from the same source. Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. Here we use high throughput sequencing to demonstrate genetic divergence in three isolated colonies of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) even though they were all established recently from the same source. We also show that genetic diversity in allegedly “outbred” colonies of nonmodel rodents (gerbils, hamsters, house mice, deer mice, and rats) varies considerably from nearly no segregating diversity to very high levels of polymorphism. We conclude that genetic divergence in isolated colonies may play an important role in the “replication crisis.” In a more positive light, divergent rodent colonies represent an opportunity to leverage genetically distinct individuals in genetic crossing experiments. In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. PMID:29242387

  10. Political instability and discontinuity in Nigeria: The pre-colonial past and public goods provision under colonial and post-colonial political orders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, K.I.; Dalrymple-Smith, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relative importance of pre-colonial institutional capacity and the effects of periods of peace and stability on long-term development outcomes in Nigeria. We use data on education, health, and public works at a provincial level from a variety of colonial and Nigerian state

  11. Effect of fluid motion on colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa, generally occurring in large colonies under natural conditions, mainly exists as single cells in laboratory cultures. The mechanisms involved in colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa and their roles in algal blooms remain unknown. In this study, based on previous research findings that fluid motion may stimulate the colony formation in green algae, culture experiments were conducted under axenic conditions in a circular water chamber where the flow rate, temperature, light, and nutrients were controlled. The number of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa, the number of cells per colony, and the colonial characteristics in various growth phases were observed and measured. The results indicated that the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa, which was not observed under stagnant conditions, was evident when there was fluid motion, with the number of cells per largest colony reaching 120 and the proportion of the number of cells in colonial form to the total number of cells and the mean number of cells per colony reaching their peak values at a flow rate of 35 cm/s. Based on the analysis of colony formation process, fluid motion stimulates the colony formation in Microcystis aeruginosa in the lag growth phase, while flushes and disaggregates the colonies in the exponential growth phase. The stimulation effect in the lag growth phase may be attributable to the involvement of fluid motion in a series of physiological processes, including the uptake of trace elements and the synthesis and secretion of polysaccharides. In addition, the experimental groups exhibiting typical colonial characteristics in the lag growth phase were found to have higher cell biomass in the later phase.

  12. Grey-Markov prediction model based on background value optimization and central-point triangular whitenization weight function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Dang, Yaoguo; Li, Bingjun

    2018-01-01

    Grey-Markov forecasting model is a combination of grey prediction model and Markov chain which show obvious optimization effects for data sequences with characteristics of non-stationary and volatility. However, the state division process in traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model is mostly based on subjective real numbers that immediately affects the accuracy of forecasting values. To seek the solution, this paper introduces the central-point triangular whitenization weight function in state division to calculate possibilities of research values in each state which reflect preference degrees in different states in an objective way. On the other hand, background value optimization is applied in the traditional grey model to generate better fitting data. By this means, the improved Grey-Markov forecasting model is built. Finally, taking the grain production in Henan Province as an example, it verifies this model's validity by comparing with GM(1,1) based on background value optimization and the traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model.

  13. Disrupting the Coloniality of Being: Toward De-Colonial Ontologies in Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This essay works to bridge conversations in philosophy of education with decolonial theory. The author considers Margonis' (1999, 2011a, b) use of Rousseau (1979) and Heidegger (1962) in developing an ontological attitude that counters social hierarchies and promotes anti-colonial relations. While affirming this effort, the essay outlines a…

  14. The regulation of British colonial lunatic asylums and the origins of colonial psychiatry, 1860-1864.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sally

    2010-05-01

    In this paper I outline a brief period in the history of the British Empire, during which colonial lunatic asylum policy began to be formulated. I begin with a scandal that erupted in Jamaica and suggest that this set in motion processes that led to critical changes in asylum administration. The first of these processes was an audit of hospitals and asylums in the colonies. The results of the audit and the policy that emerged from it marked the beginning of systematic regulation of lunatic asylum practice across the British Empire. It revealed a formulation of policy that was intended to cut across the self-governing regimes that had up to this point been allowed to evolve. Drawing on the work of Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose, I argue that the policy and the practices associated with it contribute to an understanding of the emergence of the psy-sciences in colonial settings. They illustrate the establishment of a panoptic gaze on previously neglected insane spaces. Systematic surveillance constituted government at a distance and made colonial lunacy administration a governable discursive space. The regulation of the medical officers, lunatic attendants, and hospital boards began the process of creating a professional psychiatric workforce. I conclude with a discussion of the implications and the mixed impact of this policy change for the mentally ill across the empire, over the ensuing decades.

  15. Economic mobility in a colonial and post-colonial economy: the case of Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Bas; Földvári, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite a consensus about the main factors influencing economic mobility in Indonesia, such as labor-market opportunities and childhood circumstances, virtually nothing is known about how these factors increased economic standing in the colonial and postcolonial periods. The use of height data as a

  16. JAX Colony Management System (JCMS): an extensible colony and phenotype data management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Chuck J; McFarland, Mike; Ames, Abigail; Sundberg, Beth; Springer, Dave; Blauth, Peter; Bult, Carol J

    2010-04-01

    The Jackson Laboratory Colony Management System (JCMS) is a software application for managing data and information related to research mouse colonies, associated biospecimens, and experimental protocols. JCMS runs directly on computers that run one of the PC Windows operating systems, but can be accessed via web browser interfaces from any computer running a Windows, Macintosh, or Linux operating system. JCMS can be configured for a single user or multiple users in small- to medium-size work groups. The target audience for JCMS includes laboratory technicians, animal colony managers, and principal investigators. The application provides operational support for colony management and experimental workflows, sample and data tracking through transaction-based data entry forms, and date-driven work reports. Flexible query forms allow researchers to retrieve database records based on user-defined criteria. Recent advances in handheld computers with integrated barcode readers, middleware technologies, web browsers, and wireless networks add to the utility of JCMS by allowing real-time access to the database from any networked computer.

  17. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  18. The genealogy and genetic viability of reintroduced Yellowstone grey wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Earl, Dent A; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-01-01

    The recovery of the grey wolf in Yellowstone National Park is an outstanding example of a successful reintroduction. A general question concerning reintroduction is the degree to which genetic variation has been preserved and the specific behavioural mechanisms that enhance the preservation of genetic diversity and reduce inbreeding. We have analysed 200 Yellowstone wolves, including all 31 founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the 10-year reintroduction period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (1995 H(0) = 0.69; 2004 H(0) = 0.73) with low levels of inbreeding (1995 F(IS) = -0.063; 2004 F(IS) = -0.051) and throughout, the population expanded rapidly (N(1995) = 21; N(2004) = 169). Pedigree-based effective population size ratios did not vary appreciably over the duration of population expansion (1995 N(e)/N(g) = 0.29; 2000 N(e)/N(g) = 0.26; 2004 N(e)/N(g) = 0.33). We estimated kinship and found only two of 30 natural breeding pairs showed evidence of being related (average r = -0.026, SE = 0.03). We reconstructed the genealogy of 200 wolves based on genetic and field data and discovered that they avoid inbreeding through a wide variety of behavioural mechanisms including absolute avoidance of breeding with related pack members, male-biased dispersal to packs where they breed with nonrelatives, and female-biased subordinate breeding. We documented a greater diversity of such population assembly patterns in Yellowstone than previously observed in any other natural wolf population. Inbreeding avoidance is nearly absolute despite the high probability of within-pack inbreeding opportunities and extensive interpack kinship ties between adjacent packs. Simulations showed that the Yellowstone population has levels of genetic variation similar to that of a population managed for high variation and low inbreeding, and greater than that expected for random breeding within packs or across the entire breeding pool. Although short

  19. Go Grey - A Laundry to Landscape Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, S.

    2017-12-01

    California residents have dealt with severe drought and high water bills for the few past years[1]. The objective of our project is to use the concept of greywater irrigation to build a low cost, adaptable, and easy to install irrigation system to collect the greywater from the washing machine and use it to water the plants. This system can reduce a household's water usage, extend the life of a septic system, and save time on watering plants by recycling the water from the washing machine. Our simple system requires PVC pipes, a three-way water diverter (valve), a mesh coffee filter, and a water (rain) barrel. The water from the washing machine travels through the three-way valve, which diverts it either to the garden or to the sewer. The PVC pipes lead outside to the garden, where the water barrel is located. The water goes through the mesh coffee filter that is attached on top of the barrel, so that lint and other impurities can be filtered out. The water collected in the barrel will travel through drip irrigation or through a hose to directly water the roots of the plants. This fully functional greywater system was successfully constructed and tested through various trails. We used a Kenmore standard 4.5 cubic feet front load high efficiency washer which uses less water compared to the traditional washers and measured the water collected in water barrel after each wash. Irrespective of the size of the load, the amount of water collected from each wash remained almost the same.. However, we collected enough grey water from each washer load to fill the rain barrel and water the plants in the garden. We were able apply the concept of greywater irrigation successfully to build our own low cost, adaptable, and easy to install greywater system that can be used in any household to water plants in the garden. Our system recycles the water from the washer instead of just wasting it thereby reducing a household's water usage and water bill especially during the time of

  20. Fish skin bacteria: Colonial and cellular hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, N; Rosenberg, E

    1987-05-01

    Bacteria were desorbed from the skin of healthy, fast-swimming fish by several procedures, including brief exposure to sonic oscillation and treatment with nontoxic surface active agents. The surface properties of these bacteria were studied by measuring their adhesion to hexadecane, as well as by a newly developed, simple method for studying the hydrophobicity of bacterial lawns. This method, referred to as the "Direction of Spreading" (DOS) method, consists of recording the direction to which a water drop spreads when introduced at the border between bacterial lawns and other surfaces. Of the 13 fish skin isolates examined, two strains were as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method. Suspended cells of one of these strains adhered strongly to hexadecane (84%), whereas cells of the other strain adhered poorly (13%). Another strain which was almost as hydrophobic as polystyrene by the DOS method did not adhere to hexadecane at all. Similarly, lawns of three other strains were more hydrophobic than glass by the DOS method, but cell suspensions prepared from these colonies showed little or no adhesion to hexadecane. The high colonial but relatively low cellular hydrophobicity could be due to a hydrophobic slime that is removed during the suspension and washing procedures. The possibility that specific bacteria assist in fish locomotion by changing the surface properties of the fish skin and by producing drag-reducing polymers is discussed.

  1. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  2. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  3. Yellowing and bleaching of grey hair caused by photo and thermal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richena, M; Silveira, M; Rezende, C A; Joekes, I

    2014-09-05

    Yellowing is an undesirable phenomenon that is common in people with white and grey hair. Because white hair has no melanin, the pigment responsible for hair colour, the effects of photodegradation are more visible in this type of hair. The origin of yellowing and its relation to photodegradation processes are not properly established, and many questions remain open in this field. In this work, the photodegradation of grey hair was investigated as a function of the wavelength of incident radiation, and its ultrastructure was determined, always comparing the results obtained for the white and black fibres present in grey hair with the results of white wool. The results presented herein indicate that the photobehaviour of grey hair irradiated with a mercury lamp or with solar radiation is dependent on the wavelength range of the incident radiation and on the initial shade of yellow in the sample. Two types of grey hair were used: (1) blended grey hair (more yellow) and (2) grey hair from a single-donor (less yellow). After exposure to a full-spectrum mercury lamp for 200 h, the blended white hair turned less yellow (the yellow-blue difference, Db(*) becomes negative, Db(*)=-6), whereas the white hair from the single-donor turned slightly yellower (Db(*)=2). In contrast, VIS+IR irradiation resulted in bleaching in both types of hair, whereas a thermal treatment (at 81 °C) caused yellowing of both types of hair, resulting in a Db(*)=3 for blended white hair and Db(*)=9 for single-donor hair. The identity of the yellow chromophores was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results obtained with this technique were contradictory, however, and it was not possible to obtain a simple correlation between the sample shade of yellow and the absorption spectra. In addition, the results are discussed in terms of the morphology differences between the pigmented and non-pigmented parts of grey hair, the yellowing and bleaching effects of grey hair, and the occurrence of dark

  4. First recorded loss of an emperor penguin colony in the recent period of Antarctic regional warming: implications for other colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Trathan

    Full Text Available In 1948, a small colony of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was discovered breeding on Emperor Island (67° 51' 52″ S, 68° 42' 20″ W, in the Dion Islands, close to the West Antarctic Peninsula (Stonehouse 1952. When discovered, the colony comprised approximately 150 breeding pairs; these numbers were maintained until 1970, after which time the colony showed a continuous decline. By 1999 there were fewer than 20 pairs, and in 2009 high-resolution aerial photography revealed no remaining trace of the colony. Here we relate the decline and loss of the Emperor Island colony to a well-documented rise in local mean annual air temperature and coincident decline in seasonal sea ice duration. The loss of this colony provides empirical support for recent studies (Barbraud & Weimerskirch 2001; Jenouvrier et al 2005, 2009; Ainley et al 2010; Barber-Meyer et al 2005 that have highlighted the vulnerability of emperor penguins to changes in sea ice duration and distribution. These studies suggest that continued climate change is likely to impact upon future breeding success and colony viability for this species. Furthermore, a recent circumpolar study by Fretwell & Trathan (2009 highlighted those Antarctic coastal regions where colonies appear most vulnerable to such changes. Here we examine which other colonies might be at risk, discussing various ecological factors, some previously unexplored, that may also contribute to future declines. The implications of this are important for future modelling work and for understanding which colonies actually are most vulnerable.

  5. Modelling the Errors of EIA’s Oil Prices and Production Forecasts by the Grey Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Hasantash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grey theory is about systematic analysis of limited information. The Grey-Markov model can improve the accuracy of forecast range in the random fluctuating data sequence. In this paper, we employed this model in energy system. The average errors of Energy Information Administrations predictions for world oil price and domestic crude oil production from 1982 to 2007 and from 1985 to 2008 respectively were used as two forecasted examples. We showed that the proposed Grey-Markov model can improve the forecast accuracy of original Grey forecast model.

  6. Coalescing colony model: Mean-field, scaling, and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Giulia; Mallick, Kirone; Barthelemy, Marc

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the coalescing model where a `primary' colony grows and randomly emits secondary colonies that spread and eventually coalesce with it. This model describes population proliferation in theoretical ecology, tumor growth, and is also of great interest for modeling urban sprawl. Assuming the primary colony to be always circular of radius r (t ) and the emission rate proportional to r (t) θ , where θ >0 , we derive the mean-field equations governing the dynamics of the primary colony, calculate the scaling exponents versus θ , and compare our results with numerical simulations. We then critically test the validity of the circular approximation for the colony shape and show that it is sound for a constant emission rate (θ =0 ). However, when the emission rate is proportional to the perimeter, the circular approximation breaks down and the roughness of the primary colony cannot be discarded, thus modifying the scaling exponents.

  7. Research on prediction of agricultural machinery total power based on grey model optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Zhou, Jin; Zheng, Chang-zheng

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflex and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. It is the power source of agricultural production, and is the main factors to enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity expand production scale and increase the income of the farmers. Its demand is affected by natural, economic, technological and social and other "grey" factors. Therefore, grey system theory can be used to analyze the development of agricultural machinery total power. A method based on genetic algorithm optimizing grey modeling process is introduced in this paper. This method makes full use of the advantages of the grey prediction model and characteristics of genetic algorithm to find global optimization. So the prediction model is more accurate. According to data from a province, the GM (1, 1) model for predicting agricultural machinery total power was given based on the grey system theories and genetic algorithm. The result indicates that the model can be used as agricultural machinery total power an effective tool for prediction.

  8. Optimization of PID Parameters Utilizing Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi Method and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Iffah Mohamed; Arifin Mat Piah, Kamal; Yusoff, Wan Azhar Wan; Romlay, Fadhlur Rahman Mohd

    2018-03-01

    Controller that uses PID parameters requires a good tuning method in order to improve the control system performance. Tuning PID control method is divided into two namely the classical methods and the methods of artificial intelligence. Particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is one of the artificial intelligence methods. Previously, researchers had integrated PSO algorithms in the PID parameter tuning process. This research aims to improve the PSO-PID tuning algorithms by integrating the tuning process with the Variable Weight Grey- Taguchi Design of Experiment (DOE) method. This is done by conducting the DOE on the two PSO optimizing parameters: the particle velocity limit and the weight distribution factor. Computer simulations and physical experiments were conducted by using the proposed PSO- PID with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE and the classical Ziegler-Nichols methods. They are implemented on the hydraulic positioning system. Simulation results show that the proposed PSO-PID with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE has reduced the rise time by 48.13% and settling time by 48.57% compared to the Ziegler-Nichols method. Furthermore, the physical experiment results also show that the proposed PSO-PID with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE tuning method responds better than Ziegler-Nichols tuning. In conclusion, this research has improved the PSO-PID parameter by applying the PSO-PID algorithm together with the Variable Weight Grey-Taguchi DOE method as a tuning method in the hydraulic positioning system.

  9. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, P. P.

    2006-07-01

    A grey fuzzy optimization model is developed for water quality management of river system to address uncertainty involved in fixing the membership functions for different goals of Pollution Control Agency (PCA) and dischargers. The present model, Grey Fuzzy Waste Load Allocation Model (GFWLAM), has the capability to incorporate the conflicting goals of PCA and dischargers in a deterministic framework. The imprecision associated with specifying the water quality criteria and fractional removal levels are modeled in a fuzzy mathematical framework. To address the imprecision in fixing the lower and upper bounds of membership functions, the membership functions themselves are treated as fuzzy in the model and the membership parameters are expressed as interval grey numbers, a closed and bounded interval with known lower and upper bounds but unknown distribution information. The model provides flexibility for PCA and dischargers to specify their aspirations independently, as the membership parameters for different membership functions, specified for different imprecise goals are interval grey numbers in place of a deterministic real number. In the final solution optimal fractional removal levels of the pollutants are obtained in the form of interval grey numbers. This enhances the flexibility and applicability in decision-making, as the decision-maker gets a range of optimal solutions for fixing the final decision scheme considering technical and economic feasibility of the pollutant treatment levels. Application of the GFWLAM is illustrated with case study of the Tunga-Bhadra river system in India.

  11. Nutrient Removal of Grey Water from Wet Market Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Danial; Mohd Razman Salim; Salmiati

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity has become an important issue in this world today. Water reuse is known as one of the strategies to overcome this problem. Grey water is one of the sources of reused water. Several researches were carried out on water reuse, but limited attention was focused on reusing grey water from wet market, which contains high nutrient and organic matters. This study was carried out on nutrient removal from grey water using sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The grey water sample was taken from a wet market (Pasar Peladang, Skudai). About 1L of grey water was fed into the reactor with a total volume of 4L. Anoxic-aerobic phase were divided with a ratio of 30 % - 70 % of total time respectively. Mixing was maintained at 30 rpm during the start of each cycle until settling phase to achieve uniform condition. Influent and effluent were set for 30 minutes. The SBR was operated with 3 cycles/ day, temperature 30 degree Celsius, cycle time 8 hours and hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.2 days. Aeration at 35 L/ min was induced for ammonia conversion and assisting nitrification.. The results show that the bacteria growing in alternating anoxic/ aerobic systems could remove organic substrates and nutrient. The COD, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus removal efficiencies were maximum at the levels of 94 %, 88 % and 70 % respectively. Anaerobic-Aerobic-Anoxic phase was proposed to increase the removal percentage. (author)

  12. Analysis and design of a Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor for energy management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Albert W.L.; Chi, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to use electricity efficiently, a demand control management system is one of the effective ways to reduce energy consumption and electric bills. An electricity demand control system is used as a means to monitor and manage the usage of electricity effectively. Moreover, it is a useful tool for avoiding penalties beyond the contracted demand value of electricity with the electric power company. In this project, we developed a Taguchi-Grey based predictor to forecast the demand value of electricity on line. In a Grey prediction, the parameter settings are highly relevant to the accuracy of forecasting. A Taguchi method was employed to optimize the parameter settings for the Grey based electricity demand value predictor. Our experimental results show that the optimal parameter settings of the Grey prediction are α=0.4, five point modeling and three minute sampling time of the data acquisition system. The improved Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor in conjunction with the PC based electricity demand control system is a cost effective and efficient means to manage the usage of electricity

  13. Playing Super Mario 64 increases hippocampal grey matter in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L West

    Full Text Available Maintaining grey matter within the hippocampus is important for healthy cognition. Playing 3D-platform video games has previously been shown to promote grey matter in the hippocampus in younger adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training (i.e., Super Mario 64 on grey matter in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC of older adults. Older adults who were 55 to 75 years of age were randomized into three groups. The video game experimental group (VID; n = 8 engaged in a 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months. Additionally, an active control group took a series of self-directed, computerized music (piano lessons (MUS; n = 12, while a no-contact control group did not engage in any intervention (CON; n = 13. After training, a within-subject increase in grey matter within the hippocampus was significant only in the VID training group, replicating results observed in younger adults. Active control MUS training did, however, lead to a within-subject increase in the DLPFC, while both the VID and MUS training produced growth in the cerebellum. In contrast, the CON group displayed significant grey matter loss in the hippocampus, cerebellum and the DLPFC.

  14. Assessing the geographic origin of the invasive grey squirrel using DNA sequencing: Implications for management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire D. Stevenson-Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis has become a major pest species causing negative effects to forestry and biodiversity. This study aims to assess the origin of grey squirrel within Cumbria using phylogeographic analysis to aid in management and control. The work reported analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences in the D-Loop gene of 73 grey squirrel individuals from multiple locations in the UK. The results indicate that individuals in north Cumbria are derived from individuals from Scotland and North East England. Other individuals in north Cumbria share a unique haplotype with south Cumbria and Lancashire suggesting a southerly origin and movement around or over the Cumbrian Mountain range which is thought of as a barrier to movements. The assessment of invasive species geographical origin and the identification of potential wildlife transit corridors through natural barriers are becoming more important as species shift range in response to environmental and ecological changes. With the grey squirrel population expansion also occurring in Italy, the European red squirrel may become threatened across its entire range. It is crucial to understand the population origins of the invasive grey squirrel and landscape usage to successfully manage the incursion routes and control the population.

  15. Application of Grey-TOPSIS approach to evaluate value chain performance of tea processing chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Nyaoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an effective method to measure value chain performance and rank them based on qualitative criteria and to determine the ranking order of the various forms of performance under study. This approach integrates the advantage of grey systems theory and TOPSIS to evaluate and rank value chain performance. Grey-TOPSIS approach has been applied to measure and rank the value chain performance of various firms. The results indicate that the proposed model is useful to facilitate multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM problem under the environment of uncertainty and vagueness. The model also provides an appropriate ranking order based on the available alternatives. The Grey-TOPSIS approach that will be useful to the managers to use for solving the similar type of decision-making problems in their firms in the future has been discussed. Even though, the problem of choosing a suitable performance option is often addressed in practice and research, very few studies are available in the literature of Grey-TOPSIS decision models. Also, Grey-TOPSIS model application in the tea processing firms is non-existence hence this study is the very first to apply this model in evaluating value chain performance in the tea processing firms.

  16. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  17. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  18. Early grey matter changes in structural covariance networks in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppen, Emma M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Roos, Raymund A C

    2016-01-01

    Progressive subcortical changes are known to occur in Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Less is known about the occurrence and cohesion of whole brain grey matter changes in HD. We aimed to detect network integrity changes in grey matter structural covariance networks and examined relationships with clinical assessments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data of premanifest HD ( n  = 30), HD patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) was used to identify ten structural covariance networks based on a novel technique using the co-variation of grey matter with independent component analysis in FSL. Group differences were studied controlling for age and gender. To explore whether our approach is effective in examining grey matter changes, regional voxel-based analysis was additionally performed. Premanifest HD and HD patients showed decreased network integrity in two networks compared to controls. One network included the caudate nucleus, precuneous and anterior cingulate cortex (in HD p  covariance might be a sensitive approach to reveal early grey matter changes, especially for premanifest HD.

  19. Comparative sensitivity of harbour and grey seals to several environmental contaminants using in vitro exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, M.M.; Frouin, H.; Pillet, S.; Lesage, V.; De Guise, S.; Fournier, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ), mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ), methylmercury chloride (CH 3 HgCl), and PCBs on lymphocyte proliferation in phocids. PBMCs isolated from harbour and grey seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of contaminants. A reduction of viability occurred when cells were exposed to 10 -4 M HgCl 2 or CH 3 HgCl or to 50 ppm of Aroclor 1254. In both grey and harbour seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was suppressed when their cells were incubated with 5 x 10 -5 M CdCl 2 or 10 -4 M HgCl 2 . An inhibition of proliferation occurred with CH 3 HgCl from 10 -6 M in grey seals and from 10 -5 M in harbour seals. In grey seals, Aroclor 1254 reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 15 ppm. In both harbour and grey seals, CH 3 HgCl was ten times more immunotoxic that HgCl 2 . From IC 50 , chemicals were ranked in terms of toxicity as followed: CH 3 HgCl > CdCl 2 > HgCl 2 > Aroclor 1254.

  20. Playing Super Mario 64 increases hippocampal grey matter in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Konishi, Kyoko; Benady-Chorney, Jessica; Bohbot, Veronique D; Peretz, Isabelle; Belleville, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining grey matter within the hippocampus is important for healthy cognition. Playing 3D-platform video games has previously been shown to promote grey matter in the hippocampus in younger adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training (i.e., Super Mario 64) on grey matter in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of older adults. Older adults who were 55 to 75 years of age were randomized into three groups. The video game experimental group (VID; n = 8) engaged in a 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months. Additionally, an active control group took a series of self-directed, computerized music (piano) lessons (MUS; n = 12), while a no-contact control group did not engage in any intervention (CON; n = 13). After training, a within-subject increase in grey matter within the hippocampus was significant only in the VID training group, replicating results observed in younger adults. Active control MUS training did, however, lead to a within-subject increase in the DLPFC, while both the VID and MUS training produced growth in the cerebellum. In contrast, the CON group displayed significant grey matter loss in the hippocampus, cerebellum and the DLPFC.

  1. Principle Study of Head Meridian Acupoint Massage to Stress Release via Grey Data Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the scientific study of the effectiveness and action principle of head meridian acupoint massage by applying the grey data model analysis approach. First, the head massage procedure for massaging the important head meridian acupuncture points including Taiyang, Fengfu, Tianzhu, Fengqi, and Jianjing is formulated in a standard manner. Second, the status of the autonomic nervous system of each subject is evaluated by using the heart rate variability analyzer before and after the head massage following four weeks. Afterward, the physiological factors of autonomic nerves are quantitatively analyzed by using the grey data modeling theory. The grey data analysis can point out that the status of autonomic nervous system is greatly improved after the massage. The order change of the grey relationship weighting of physiological factors shows the action principle of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves when performing head massage. In other words, the grey data model is able to distinguish the detailed interaction of the autonomic nervous system and the head meridian acupoint massage. Thus, the stress relaxing effect of massaging head meridian acupoints is proved, which is lacked in literature. The results can be a reference principle for massage health care in practice.

  2. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior.

  3. Improved Ant Colony Clustering Algorithm and Its Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Clustering analysis is used in many disciplines and applications; it is an important tool that descriptively identifies homogeneous groups of objects based on attribute values. The ant colony clustering algorithm is a swarm-intelligent method used for clustering problems that is inspired by the behavior of ant colonies that cluster their corpses and sort their larvae. A new abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm using a data combination mechanism is proposed to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy of the ant colony clustering algorithm. The abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm is used to cluster benchmark problems, and its performance is compared with the ant colony clustering algorithm and other methods used in existing literature. Based on similar computational difficulties and complexities, the results show that the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm produces results that are not only more accurate but also more efficiently determined than the ant colony clustering algorithm and the other methods. Thus, the abstraction ant colony clustering algorithm can be used for efficient multivariate data clustering. PMID:26839533

  4. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  5. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  6. Enhancement of erythroid colony growth in culture by hemin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, P.N.; Meints, R.H.; Mesner, K.

    1979-01-01

    Hemin was found to enhance the growth of murine erythroid colonies in culture. In the presence of 100 mU/ml erythropoietin (EPO), the addition of hemin (0.05-0.2 mM) resulted in the growth of twice as many colonies as were obtained with EPO alone. Hemin also significantly increased erythroid colony formation in culture in the absence of added EPO. Hemoblobin synthesis as measured by the incorporation of 59 Fe into cyclohexanone extractable heme was augmented in culture by hemin. Neither Δ-aminolevulinic acid, a hemin precursor, nor FeCl 3 increased colony number. (author)

  7. Rethinking the Colonial State: Configurations of Power, Violence, and Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Søren; Ivarsson, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The main theme of this special volume is the colonial state and its governmental practices. This chapter introduces and contextualizes the contributions by providing a brief induction to recent developments within the study of the colonial state. It then presents the contributions under three per...... perspectives which represent separate yet interrelated themes relevant for the understanding of the colonial state: practices, violence, and agency. Hereby, we also accentuate the value of a non-state-centric approach to the analysis of the colonial state....

  8. Central Asia, Euro-centrism and Colonialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargis T. Nurulla-Khodzhaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article should not be dismissed as yet another attempt to construct a renewed round ofrevisionism in history. On the contrary, it aims to explore the possibility of scaling down the dominant Eurocentric epistemology that served as a basis for a stereotypical frame of knowledge about Central Asia. The majority of researchers of the region do not deem the need to review the scale of contradictory clashes created by the notion of Eurocentrism. The latter is reflected in numerous articles about the frozen (and sadly deadlock dilemma on why and how were the lands of Tajiks, Uzbeks and Kazakhs divided. By publishing conventional analyses on the region's "clumsy separation", experts illustrate their subaltern, narrowly framed by the colonial world, knowledge and hence, remain as gravestones of the Eurocentric methodology. In the process of such explication, the most important role is allocated to the modern culture, which encouraged the formation of the paradox, represented to us via the paraphrased Soviet aphorism: modernity and coloniality are twin brothers. The initiation of the process of decolonizing the mind within the five republics of the region is possible. One of the solutions involves recognizing the integrity of the pluralist-cycled culture and philosophy of the region. The proposed act will allow shrinking the focus on the knowledge within the limited national units and frames (thus, lessening the degree of'fetishism of the national identity', and rather creating conditions for designing the "bridge", linking different cultures, ideologies and institutional spaces in Central Asia, as a transnational intellectual matrix. The aforementioned theory will provide a basis and structure for empirical facts, and, therefore, drive the researchers from merely constituting to critically thinking, and consequently, inspire to come upon new approaches and fields of study, connecting them with the existing, colonial experiences. It is

  9. Grey gurnard ( Eutrigla gurnadus ) in the North Sea: an emerging key predator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floeter, J.; Kempf, A.; Vinther, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Grey gurnard (Eutrigla gurnadus) is a widely distributed demersal species in the North Sea that has been ranked frequently among the 10 dominant species. Since the late 1980s, grey gurnard catch rates in the international bottom trawl surveys showed a pronounced increase and it was included...... as an "other predator" in the North Sea multispecies virtual population analysis (MSVPA) in 1997. The MSVPA results estimated grey gurnard to be responsible for approximately 60% of the total predation mortality on age-0 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Long-term MSVPA predictions led to the extinction of North...... Sea cod. As a possible technical reason, the Holling type II functional response implemented in the model was discussed. In the current analysis, it was demonstrated that the Holling type II functional response was not responsible for the extinction of cod in the model, which was rather a true effect...

  10. Does predation by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) affect Bothnian Sea herring stock estimates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gårdmark, Anna; Östman, Örjan; Nielsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    when accounting for seal predation, this did not change the conclusions about drivers of herring dynamics. Accounting for grey seal predation is important for abundance estimates of old herring, but currently not for SSB estimates, given the great uncertainties in the standard assessment. The grey seal...... fivefold since 1985. Its main prey, herring (Clupea harrengus), is a key species for fisheries in the region. Yet, current stock assessments assume constant natural mortality, leading to a risk of biased stock estimates with increasing predation and misleading analyses of herring population dynamics. We...... estimated grey seal predation from diet data and reanalysed herring spawning stock biomass (SSB) during 1973–2009. Accounting for predation increased the herring SSB 16% (maximum 19%), but this was within the confidence intervals when ignoring predation. Although mortality in older individuals was inflated...

  11. Development of Piagetian object permanence in a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperberg, I M; Willner, M R; Gravitz, L B

    1997-03-01

    The authors evaluated the ontogenetic performance of a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) on object permanence tasks designed for human infants. Testing began when the bird was 8 weeks old, prior to fledging and weaning. Because adult grey parrots understand complex invisible displacements (I. M. Pepperberg & F. A. Kozak, 1986), the authors continued weekly testing until the current subject completed all of I. C. Uzgiris and J. Hunt's (1975) Scale 1 tasks. Stage 6 object permanence with respect to these tasks emerged at 22 weeks, after the bird had fledged but before it was completely weaned. Although the parrot progressed more rapidly overall than other species that have been tested ontogenetically, the subject similarly exhibited a behavioral plateau part way through the study. Additional tests, administered at 8 and 12 months as well as to an adult grey parrot, demonstrated, respectively, that these birds have some representation of a hidden object and understand advanced invisible displacements.

  12. Grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Batchelli, L; Balaguer, M D; Puig, S; Colprim, J

    2013-01-01

    Grey water has long been considered a promising option for dealing with water scarcity and reuse. However, factors such as lack of macronutrients and low carbon content make its treatment challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the applicability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology to on-site grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation. The results demonstrated that the regenerated water complied with microbiological parameters concerning restriction of solids and organic matter removal. Denitrification was not fully accomplished, but ammonium was totally oxidised and low concentrations of nitrates were achieved. Effluent with good appearance and no odour was used in an experimental study to irrigate a grid system containing natural and artificial grass sections. The conclusion is that SBR technology offers a promising treatment for grey water.

  13. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

  14. Prediction of multi performance characteristics of wire EDM process using grey ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanan, Somasundaram; Nair, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Super alloys are used to fabricate components in ultra-supercritical power plants. These hard to machine materials are processed using non-traditional machining methods like Wire cut electrical discharge machining and needs attention. This paper details about multi performance optimization of wire EDM process using Grey ANFIS. Experiments are designed to establish the performance characteristics of wire EDM such as surface roughness, material removal rate, wire wear rate and geometric tolerances. The control parameters are pulse on time, pulse off time, current, voltage, flushing pressure, wire tension, table feed and wire speed. Grey relational analysis is employed to optimise the multi objectives. Analysis of variance of the grey grades is used to identify the critical parameters. A regression model is developed and used to generate datasets for the training of proposed adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The developed prediction model is tested for its prediction ability.

  15. Isolation of Brucella pinnipedialis from Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Nylund, Minna; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Heikkinen, Petra; Kauhala, Kaarina; Jay, Maryne; Isomursu, Marja

    2017-10-01

    Brucella infection in seals was reported for the first time in 1994 around the coast of Scotland. Since then, marine mammal Brucella infections were found to be widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Two Brucella species affect marine mammals: Brucella pinnipedialis in pinnipeds and Brucella ceti in cetaceans. We examined the livers of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Finnish coast (n=122) hunted, found dead, or killed as by-catch in fishing gear in 2013-15 as part of population health monitoring. We detected B. pinnipedialis in the livers of three grey seals. The bacterium was isolated from livers displaying parasitic cholangitis. We also detected Brucella DNA in liver flukes (Pseudamphistomum truncatum) obtained from a Brucella-infected grey seal, suggesting that flukes might be possible vectors of this pathogen in the marine environment.

  16. Optimisation of wire-cut EDM process parameter by Grey-based response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Soota, Tarun; Kumar, Jitendra

    2018-03-01

    Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is one of the advanced machining processes. Response surface methodology coupled with Grey relation analysis method has been proposed and used to optimise the machining parameters of WEDM. A face centred cubic design is used for conducting experiments on high speed steel (HSS) M2 grade workpiece material. The regression model of significant factors such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current, and wire feed is considered for optimising the responses variables material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness and Kerf width. The optimal condition of the machining parameter was obtained using the Grey relation grade. ANOVA is applied to determine significance of the input parameters for optimising the Grey relation grade.

  17. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  18. Time evolution of hadronization and grey tracks in DIS off nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the grey tracks produced in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) off nuclei provides important information on the space-time development of hadronization in nuclear medium. This method is complementary to the measurement of nuclear attenuation of leading inclusive hadrons. While the latter is focused on the hadronization dynamics for the quite rare process of leading hadrons production, the former covers the main bulk of inelastic events, and its Q 2 dependence is a very sensitive tool to discriminate between different models of hadronization. Employing the model of perturbative hadronization developed earlier, we calculate the Q 2 and x Bj dependences of the number of collisions and relate it to the mean number of grey tracks, using an empirical relation obtained from the analysis of data from the Fermilab E665 experiment on DIS of muons off the Xe nucleus. We found the number of grey tracks to rise steeply with Q 2 in good agreement with the experimental data

  19. Scaling in multiplicity distributions of heavy, black and grey prongs in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Torsti, J.J.; Valtonen, E.

    1979-01-01

    The validity of Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling hypothesis was examined in the case of heavy, black, and grey prongs in proton-emulsion collisions ('heavy' means 'either black or grey'). The average multiplicities of these prongs were computed in the region 0.1-400 GeV for the nuclei C, N, O, S, Br, Ag, and I. After the inclusion of the energy-dependent excitation probability of the nuclei of the form P* = b 0 + b 1 ln E 0 into the model, experimental multiplicity distributions in the energy region 6-300 GeV agreed satisfactorily with the scaling hypothesis. The ratio of the dispersion D (D = √ 2 >- 2 ) to the average multiplicity in the scaling functions of heavy, balck, and grey prongs was estimated to be 0.86, 0.84, and 1.04, respectively, in the high energy region. (Auth.)

  20. High-order solution methods for grey discrete ordinates thermal radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maginot, Peter G., E-mail: maginot1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ragusa, Jean C., E-mail: jean.ragusa@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Morel, Jim E., E-mail: morel@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    This work presents a solution methodology for solving the grey radiative transfer equations that is both spatially and temporally more accurate than the canonical radiative transfer solution technique of linear discontinuous finite element discretization in space with implicit Euler integration in time. We solve the grey radiative transfer equations by fully converging the nonlinear temperature dependence of the material specific heat, material opacities, and Planck function. The grey radiative transfer equations are discretized in space using arbitrary-order self-lumping discontinuous finite elements and integrated in time with arbitrary-order diagonally implicit Runge–Kutta time integration techniques. Iterative convergence of the radiation equation is accelerated using a modified interior penalty diffusion operator to precondition the full discrete ordinates transport operator.

  1. Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Henny, Charles J.; Hill, Elwood F.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year study (1997-2006) was conducted to evaluate reproduction and health of aquatic birds in the Carson River Basin of northwestern Nevada (on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Natural Priorities List) due to high mercury (Hg) concentrations from past mining activities. This part of the study evaluated physiological associations with blood Hg in young snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and organ biochemistry and histopathological effects in snowy egrets on Lahontan Reservoir (LR) from the period 2002-2006. LR snowy egret geometric mean total Hg concentrations (μg/g ww) ranged from 1.5 to 4.8 for blood, 2.4 to 3.1 liver, 1.8 to 2.5 kidneys, 1.7 to 2.4 brain, and 20.5 to 36.4 feathers over these years. For night-herons, mean Hg for blood ranged from 1.6 to 7.4. Significant positive correlations were found between total Hg in blood and five plasma enzyme activities of snowy egrets suggesting hepatic stress. Histopathological findings revealed vacuolar changes in hepatocytes in LR snowy egrets as well as correlation of increased liver inflammation with increasing blood and tissue Hg. Hepatic oxidative effects were manifested by decreased hepatic total thiol concentration and glutathione reductase activity and elevated hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. However, other hepatic changes indicated compensatory mechanisms in response to oxidative stress, including decreased oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration and decreased ratio of GSSG to reduced glutathione. In young black-crowned night-herons, fewer correlations were apparent. In both species, positive correlations between blood total Hg and plasma uric acid and inorganic phosphorus were suggestive of renal stress, which was supported by histopathological findings. Both oxidative effects and adaptive responses to oxidative stress were apparent in kidneys and brain. Vacuolar change and inflammation in

  2. Quantitative ultrasonography of the periventricular white and grey matter of the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaart, R A; Thijssen, J M; Rotteveel, J J; Valckx, F M; van Geemen, A J

    1999-05-01

    This study addresses the value of operator-independent computer processing of ultrasonograms of the developing brain. With this aim, routine cranial ultrasonograms obtained from 39 term and preterm infants without clinical or sonographic evidence of brain damage were analyzed by five observers. The procedure, respectively, included: 1. the definition of four regions of interest (ROI), one white matter and one grey matter area on each side of the brain; 2. digitization of the sonogram data within these ROIs; 3. correction for the equipment settings, using data from a tissue-mimicking phantom as a reference; and 4. calculation of four sonogram characteristics (i.e., mean echo level, MEAN, signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, and axial and lateral correlation, CORAX and CORLAT, of the echo level co-occurrence matrix). Significant differences between both sides of the brain or a significant influence of ROI size were not found. The interobserver spread was considerable, but less than the intersubject spread. Two sonogram characteristics seemed strongly correlated in white and grey matter (CORAX and CORLAT) and another only in white matter (SNR with CORAX and CORLAT). MEAN seemed not to be correlated with any other characteristic. Furthermore, it was found that maturation equally decreases white and grey matter MEAN and, thus, hardly affects the ratio between the two. An effect on the other sonogram characteristics was only found in the white matter (i.e., an increase of SNR and a decrease of CORAX and CORLAT). Except for MEAN, the grey matter sonogram characteristics seem hardly affected by maturation. In view of these findings, we conclude that quantitative ultrasonography reveals white and grey matter maturation and, furthermore, provides a conceptional-age-independent reference (MEAN white:grey matter ratio) that might be found to facilitate the detection of pathologic brain alterations.

  3. Trends and Consumption Structures of China’s Blue and Grey Water Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water footprint has become a common method to study the water resources utilization in recent years. By using input–output analysis and dilution theory, the internal water footprint, blue water footprint and grey water footprint of China from 2002 to 2012 were estimated, and the consumption structure of water footprint and virtual water trade were analyzed. The results show: (1 From 2002 to 2012, the average annual internal water footprint was 3.83 trillion m3 in China, of which the blue water footprint was 0.25 trillion m3, and the grey water footprint was 3.58 trillion m3 (with Grade III water standard accounting; both the internal water footprint and grey water footprint experienced decreasing trends from 2002 to 2012, except for a dramatic increase in 2010; (2 Average annual virtual blue water footprint was the greatest in agriculture (39.2%, while tertiary industry (27.5% and food and tobacco processing (23.7% were the top two highest for average annual virtual grey water footprint; (3 Virtual blue water footprint in most sectors showed increasing trends due to the increase of final demand, while virtual grey water footprint in most sectors showed decreasing trends due to the decreases of total return water coefficients and conversion coefficients of virtual grey water footprint; (4 For water resources, China was self-reliant: the water used for producing the products and services to meet domestic consumption was taken domestically; meanwhile, China exported virtual water to other countries, which aggravated the water stress in China.

  4. The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.

  5. Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A

    2016-06-01

    Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.

  6. Whole genome grey and white matter DNA methylation profiles in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose Vicente; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Moran, Sebastian; Sayols, Sergi; Sandoval, Juan; Ferrer, Isidre; Esteller, Manel; Gräff, Johannes

    2017-06-01

    The brain's neocortex is anatomically organized into grey and white matter, which are mainly composed by neuronal and glial cells, respectively. The neocortex can be further divided in different Brodmann areas according to their cytoarchitectural organization, which are associated with distinct cortical functions. There is increasing evidence that brain development and function are governed by epigenetic processes, yet their contribution to the functional organization of the neocortex remains incompletely understood. Herein, we determined the DNA methylation patterns of grey and white matter of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 9), an important region for higher cognitive skills that is particularly affected in various neurological diseases. For avoiding interindividual differences, we analyzed white and grey matter from the same donor using whole genome bisulfite sequencing, and for validating their biological significance, we used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and pyrosequencing in ten and twenty independent samples, respectively. The combination of these analysis indicated robust grey-white matter differences in DNA methylation. What is more, cell type-specific markers were enriched among the most differentially methylated genes. Interestingly, we also found an outstanding number of grey-white matter differentially methylated genes that have previously been associated with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, as well as Multiple and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented here thus constitute an important resource for future studies not only to gain insight into brain regional as well as grey and white matter differences, but also to unmask epigenetic alterations that might underlie neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Complement is activated in progressive multiple sclerosis cortical grey matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Lewis M; Neal, James W; Loveless, Sam; Michailidou, Iliana; Ramaglia, Valeria; Rees, Mark I; Reynolds, Richard; Robertson, Neil P; Morgan, B Paul; Howell, Owain W

    2016-06-22

    The symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are caused by damage to myelin and nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. Inflammation is tightly linked with neurodegeneration, and it is the accumulation of neurodegeneration that underlies increasing neurological disability in progressive MS. Determining pathological mechanisms at play in MS grey matter is therefore a key to our understanding of disease progression. We analysed complement expression and activation by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridisation in frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded post-mortem tissue blocks from 22 progressive MS cases and made comparisons to inflammatory central nervous system disease and non-neurological disease controls. Expression of the transcript for C1qA was noted in neurons and the activation fragment and opsonin C3b-labelled neurons and glia in the MS cortical and deep grey matter. The density of immunostained cells positive for the classical complement pathway protein C1q and the alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb was significantly increased in cortical grey matter lesions in comparison to control grey matter. The number of cells immunostained for the membrane attack complex was elevated in cortical lesions, indicating complement activation to completion. The numbers of classical (C1-inhibitor) and alternative (factor H) pathway regulator-positive cells were unchanged between MS and controls, whilst complement anaphylatoxin receptor-bearing microglia in the MS cortex were found closely apposed to cortical neurons. Complement immunopositive neurons displayed an altered nuclear morphology, indicative of cell stress/damage, supporting our finding of significant neurodegeneration in cortical grey matter lesions. Complement is activated in the MS cortical grey matter lesions in areas of elevated numbers of complement receptor-positive microglia and suggests that complement over-activation may contribute to the worsening pathology that underlies the

  8. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  9. Optic disc detection using ant colony optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcy A.; Monteiro, Fernando C.

    2012-09-01

    The retinal fundus images are used in the treatment and diagnosis of several eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. This paper proposes a new method to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically, due to the fact that the knowledge of the OD location is essential to the automatic analysis of retinal images. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is an optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behaviour of some ant species that has been applied in image processing for edge detection. Recently, the ACO was used in fundus images to detect edges, and therefore, to segment the OD and other anatomical retinal structures. We present an algorithm for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the Gabor wavelet transform, entropy and ACO algorithm. Forty images of the retina from DRIVE database were used to evaluate the performance of our method.

  10. Modelling the morphology of migrating bacterial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, A.; Tokihiro, T.; Badoual, M.; Grammaticos, B.

    2010-08-01

    We present a model which aims at describing the morphology of colonies of Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus subtilis. Our model is based on a cellular automaton which is obtained by the adequate discretisation of a diffusion-like equation, describing the migration of the bacteria, to which we have added rules simulating the consolidation process. Our basic assumption, following the findings of the group of Chuo University, is that the migration and consolidation processes are controlled by the local density of the bacteria. We show that it is possible within our model to reproduce the morphological diagrams of both bacteria species. Moreover, we model some detailed experiments done by the Chuo University group, obtaining a fine agreement.

  11. Dynamics of the Presence of Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus in Honey Bee Colonies with Colony Collapse Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Hou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a particular case of collapse of honey bee colonies, are still unresolved. Viruses including the Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV were associated with CCD. We found an apiary with colonies showing typical CCD characteristics that bore high loads of IAPV, recovered some colonies from collapse and tested the hypothesis if IAPV was actively replicating in them and infectious to healthy bees. We found that IAPV was the dominant pathogen and it replicated actively in the colonies: viral titers decreased from April to September and increased from September to December. IAPV extracted from infected bees was highly infectious to healthy pupae: they showed several-fold amplification of the viral genome and synthesis of the virion protein VP3. The health of recovered colonies was seriously compromised. Interestingly, a rise of IAPV genomic copies in two colonies coincided with their subsequent collapse. Our results do not imply IAPV as the cause of CCD but indicate that once acquired and induced to replication it acts as an infectious factor that affects the health of the colonies and may determine their survival. This is the first follow up outside the US of CCD-colonies bearing IAPV under natural conditions.

  12. Grey Water Reuse for Agricultural Purposes in the Jordan Valley: Household Survey Results in Deir Alla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon B. Megdal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Installation of decentralized grey water treatment systems in small rural communities contributes to a more sustainable water supply. In order to gauge community attitudes about collection and use of grey water, a door-to-door survey in the farming community of Deir Alla, Jordan was conducted by Royal Scientific Society interviewers. Outcomes of a detailed survey, designed specifically for this project, offer insights on people’s views on general water and wastewater issues, as well as their motivation, practices and concerns related to using grey water treatment for a portion of their household wastewater and reuse of the treated grey water for irrigation. A total of 47 respondents from different socio-economic background, aged over 18 years, from this community in the Jordan valley took part in the survey. The level of formal education of the respondents was low, and most of households’ incomes were below the poverty line in Jordan. Most of the respondents reported that the quality of water supplied by public network is acceptable, but the quantity is insufficient to meet their demand, with supplies being delivered to the household once a week. Respondents relied on the public water network as a first-most important resource (85.1%, and 57.4% of the respondent relied on private water tankers as a second-most important resource in addition to the public network. However, 6% of the respondents relied only on private water tankers with no access to the public network. Storage tanks are common practice in all the houses in order to store enough water for at least one week. The survey responses provide evidence that rural communities are willing to accept reuse of treated grey water for irrigation. Furthermore, some of people in the studied area are willing to learn more about grey water treatment and reuse in order to operate grey water systems for irrigation purposes. Water scarcity in this rural area of Jordan is the main determinant of

  13. Hybrid Algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization and Grey Wolf Optimizer for Improving Convergence Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly hybrid nature inspired algorithm called HPSOGWO is presented with the combination of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO. The main idea is to improve the ability of exploitation in Particle Swarm Optimization with the ability of exploration in Grey Wolf Optimizer to produce both variants’ strength. Some unimodal, multimodal, and fixed-dimension multimodal test functions are used to check the solution quality and performance of HPSOGWO variant. The numerical and statistical solutions show that the hybrid variant outperforms significantly the PSO and GWO variants in terms of solution quality, solution stability, convergence speed, and ability to find the global optimum.

  14. Grey Tienshan Urumqi Glacier No.1 and light-absorbing impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Wang, Feiteng; Li, Zhongqin; Li, Yamin

    2016-01-01

    The Tienshan Urumqi Glacier No.1 (TUG1) usually shows ?grey? surfaces in summers. Besides known regional warming, what should be responsible for largely reducing its surface albedo and making it look ?grey?? A field campaign was conducted on the TUG1 on a selected cloud-free day of 2013 after a snow fall at night. Fresh and aged snow samples were collected in the field, and snow densities, grain sizes, and spectral reflectances were measured. Light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) including black ...

  15. Antibiotic resistance in primary care in Austria - a systematic review of scientific and grey literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are

  16. Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanoma and skin melanocytes in Grey horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Campagne, Cécile; Sundström, Elisabeth; Sousa, Pedro; Imran, Saima; Seltenhammer, Monika; Pielberg, Gerli; Olsson, Mats J; Egidy, Giorgia; Andersson, Leif; Golovko, Anna

    2014-11-21

    Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway, occurring in the vast majority of melanocytic neoplasms, has a pivotal role in melanoma development. Different mechanisms underlie this activation in different tumour settings. The Grey phenotype in horses, caused by a 4.6 kb duplication in intron 6 of Syntaxin 17 (STX17), is associated with a very high incidence of cutaneous melanoma, but the molecular mechanism behind the melanomagenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of the ERK pathway in melanoma development in Grey horses. Grey horse melanoma tumours, cell lines and normal skin melanocytes were analyzed with help of indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting for the expression of phospho-ERK1/2 in comparison to that in non-grey horse and human counterparts. The mutational status of BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes in Grey horse melanomas was determined by direct sequencing. The effect of RAS, RAF and PI3K/AKT pathways on the activation of the ERK signaling in Grey horse melanoma cells was investigated with help of specific inhibitors and immunoblotting. Individual roles of RAF and RAS kinases on the ERK activation were examined using si-RNA based approach and immunoblotting. We found that the ERK pathway is constitutively activated in Grey horse melanoma tumours and cell lines in the absence of somatic activating mutations in BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes or alterations in the expression of the main components of the pathway. The pathway is mitogenic and is mediated by BRAF, CRAF and KRAS kinases. Importantly, we found high activation of the ERK pathway also in epidermal melanocytes, suggesting a general predisposition to melanomagenesis in these horses. These findings demonstrate that the presence of the intronic 4.6 kb duplication in STX17 is strongly associated with constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanocytic cells in Grey horses in the absence of somatic mutations commonly linked to the activation of this

  17. Application of improved degree of grey incidence analysis model in fault diagnosis of steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinwen; Ren Xin

    2014-01-01

    In order to further reduce the misoperation after the faults occurring of nuclear-powered system in marine, the model based on weighted degree of grey incidence of optimized entropy and fault diagnosis system are proposed, and some simulation experiments about the typical faults of steam generator of nuclear-powered system in marine are conducted. And the results show that the diagnosis system based on improved degree of grey incidence model is more stable and its conclusion is right, and can satisfy diagnosis in real time, and higher faults subjection degrees resolving power can be achieved. (authors)

  18. Beyond PubMed: Searching the "Grey Literature" for Clinical Trial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrome, Leslie

    2014-07-01

    Clinical trial results have been traditionally communicated through the publication of scholarly reports and reviews in biomedical journals. However, this dissemination of information can be delayed or incomplete, making it difficult to appraise new treatments, or in the case of missing data, evaluate older interventions. Going beyond the routine search of PubMed, it is possible to discover additional information in the "grey literature." Examples of the grey literature include clinical trial registries, patent databases, company and industrywide repositories, regulatory agency digital archives, abstracts of paper and poster presentations on meeting/congress websites, industry investor reports and press releases, and institutional and personal websites.

  19. Performance evaluation of services quality in higher education institutions using modified SERVQUAL approach with grey analytic hierarchy process (G-AHP and multilevel grey evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zareinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s climate of fierce competition, there is a necessity to pay especial attention on customer demands either in manufacturing or service sector. Managers in service sector are under pressure in terms of environmental factors, they focus on customers’ satisfaction and this has led to the continuous improvement in the performance of service organizations. Meanwhile, customers’ expectations should be properly understood and measured. There have been various efforts to measure the quality of services using the SERVQUAL model. In this study, we try to investigate the concepts and factors influencing the quality of services according to modified SERVQUAL model and then utilize the proposed model of Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (G-AHP and Multilevel Grey Evaluation in order to evaluate the quality of services in the framework of Grey Systems Theory (GST. In order to propose our method, we will conduct a case study of the performance of service quality in higher education institutions of Isfahan-Iran.

  20. Diversity of cultivable bacteria involved in the formation of macroscopic microbial colonies (Cave silver on the walls of a cave in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagajana Herzog Velikonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karstic caves often support white, yellow, grey or pink microbial colonies that are termed ‘cave silver’ by speleologists. Using various sample pre-treatments and culture media, a wide variety of bacteria associated with these colonies were recovered from a cave in Slovenia, Pajsarjeva jama. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in viable counts, while pre-treatments had the opposite effect with the exception of microwave irradiation. While all growth media yielded viable counts, the maximal counts were observed on a low-nutrient TWA medium. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of OTU representatives, the majority of the 80 isolates examined belonged to Streptomyces (25%, Micrococcus (16% and Rhodococcus (10% Other abundant groups were Pseudomonas (9%, Agrobacterium (8%, Lysobacter (6% and Paenibacillus (5%, while members of genera Microbacterium, Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Kocuria, Oerskovia, Sphingomonas, Aerococcus, and Bosea represented a minor portion of cultivable diversity encountered. Members of Streptomyces and Agrobacterium were common to all samples. Although these microorganisms readily form colonies under laboratory conditions, they were unrelated to abundant environmental phylotypes recovered from same samples in a previous study. However, the comparative 16S rRNA analysis showed that microorganisms highly related to the ones obtained in this study were cultivated from other subterranean environments indicating that they might represent true microbial cave dwellers.

  1. Between Past and Present: The Sociopsychological Constructs of Colonialism, Coloniality and Postcolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomicic, Ana; Berardi, Filomena

    2018-03-01

    If one of the major aspirations of postcolonial theory is to re-establish a balance in the relationship between the (former) colonizer and the colonized by engaging the voices of the "subaltern", and on the other hand to illuminate how power relations of the present are embedded in history (Mills 2007), we argue that important theoretical insights might inform research by anchoring post-colonial theory within a sociopsychological framework. While there is a growing corpus of sociopsychological research articles focusing on how major geopolitical events and historical processes bear on people's lives, we aim to investigate the theoretical potential of postcolonial theory within the disciplines aiming at a sociopsychological approach. By focusing on the social dynamics of power imbalances, post-colonial theory finds its operational meaning: the feelings stemming from actions committed in the past are indeed crucial in determining reparatory attitudes and policies towards members of former colonized groups. Firstly, drawing from the sociopsychological scientific production related to consequences of colonial past, seen in recent years as a growing research interest in the field, we will explore patterns and trends through a thematic analysis of literature. Social Psychology as well as adjacent disciplines can greatly benefit from this theoretical fertilization, especially in the way post-colonial ideologies relate to the symbolic promotion versus exclusion of indigenous culture (Sengupta et al., International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 506-517, 2012). Furthermore, by comparing and contrasting the ideological cosmologies relating to this particular topic, this study aims to establish the state of knowledge in the field, to identify how research methods and thematic fields are paired, to find "gaps" and create spaces for research that become integrative of postcolonial theory. While focusing on academic production, we also hope to contribute to develop

  2. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029

  3. Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of grey water for reuse requirements and treatment alternatives: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.; Fayyed, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the potentials and requirements for grey water reuse in Jordan. The results revealed that urban, rural and dormitory grey water production rate and concentration of TS, BOD5, COD and pathogens varied between 18-66 L cap(-1) d(-1), 848-1,919, 200-1,056, and

  4. Application of the grey correlative analysis to predicting uranium-mineralized faults in middle Miaoershan intrusive mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minqiang; Zhou Lilin; Kang Zili

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of summarizing the features of metallogenic faults of uranium ore field in middle Miaoershan intrusive mass, the method of grey system theory is used to analyze the grey correlation of tectonic conditions of 37 major silicified fault zones in this area. The faults are discriminated and sought optimally for the potential faults of prospecting, good results are obtained

  5. The relationship of waist circumference and body mass index to grey matter volume in community dwelling adults with mild obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y K; Sasaki, H; Takao, H; Yoshikawa, T; Hayashi, N; Mori, H; Kunimatsu, A; Aoki, S; Ohtomo, K

    2018-02-01

    Previous work has shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with low grey matter volume. However, evidence on the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and brain volume is relatively scarce. Moreover, the influence of mild obesity (as indexed by WC and BMI) on brain volume remains unclear. This study explored the relationships between WC and BMI and grey matter volume in a large sample of Japanese adults. The participants were 792 community-dwelling adults (523 men and 269 women). Brain magnetic resonance images were collected, and the correlation between WC or BMI and global grey matter volume were analysed. The relationships between WC or BMI and regional grey matter volume were also investigated using voxel-based morphometry. Global grey matter volume was not correlated with WC or BMI. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed significant negative correlations between both WC and BMI and regional grey matter volume. The areas correlated with each index were more widespread in men than in women. In women, the total area of the regions significantly correlated with WC was slightly greater than that of the regions significantly correlated with BMI. Results show that both WC and BMI were inversely related to regional grey matter volume, even in Japanese adults with somewhat mild obesity. Especially in populations with less obesity, such as the female participants in current study, WC may be more sensitive than BMI as a marker of grey matter volume differences associated with obesity.

  6. Review of relationships between grey-tone co-occurrence, semivariance, and autocorrelation based image texture analysis approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and

  7. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-05-01

    Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia.

  8. Colonial Modernity and the African Worldview: Theorising and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    concept of hegemony and Jean and John Comaroff's concept of cultural and colonial encounters are used to assist in teasing out deeper meaning in the encounter between the Ndebele and the early Christian missionaries prior to inscription of settler colonialism in the area lying between the Limpopo and Zambezi Rivers.

  9. Embodying colonial photography: remembering violence in Tabee Toean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about bodily interactions with photographs. Taking an interview with a veteran from the Dutch colonial army filmed for the documentary Tabee Toean (1995) as its case study, it focuses on the ways in which this man frames these images of colonial warfare through three types of bodily

  10. Mass spectral molecular networking of living microbial colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watrous, J.; Roach, P.; Alexandrov, T.; Heath, B.S.; Yang, J.Y.; Kersten, R.D.; Voort, van der M.; Pogliano, K.; Gross, H.; Raaijmakers, J.; Moore, B.S.; Laskin, J.; Bandeira, N.; Dorrestein, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Integrating the governing chemistry with the genomics and phenotypes of microbial colonies has been a “holy grail” in microbiology. This work describes a highly sensitive, broadly applicable, and cost-effective approach that allows metabolic profiling of live microbial colonies directly from a Petri

  11. Colony differences in termiticide transfer studies, a role for behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2010-01-01

    Donor-recipient termiticide transfer laboratory tests were performed by using destructive sampling with two delayed-action non-repellent (DANR) termiticides against each of three colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Two of the three colonies showed no response to indoxacarb, but all three showed a response to chlorantraniliprole. These results indicate that...

  12. Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and ... Infections levels were higher in the coastal region than in the interior. ... of the impact of this pathogen to the Kenyan honey bee colonies with a view of ... Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  13. Colony strength and queen replacement in Melipona marginata (Apidae: Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de M. P. Kleinert

    Full Text Available Physogastric queens of Melipona marginata were removed from their colonies in order to verify the acceptance of a new queen by workers. Colony strength was evaluated according to queen oviposition rate and comb diameters. Replacement was observed seven times. Its occurrence and speed related positively to colony strength, independently of queen's age. In weak colonies, queen replacement was observed only once, following colony population increase that occurred after introduction of combs from another colony. Worker oviposition after queen removal was observed three times: in a strong colony with virgin queens and males, and in two of the weak colonies. In the first two or three days of new queen oviposition, during which most of the eggs were eaten by the queen, worker oviposition preceded almost all provisioning and oviposition processes (POPs. After this period, worker oviposition decreased until it reached around 25% of the POPs. Daily oviposition rate of young queens decreased or was even interrupted by hatching of their first brood.

  14. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between...

  15. Colonial Military Intelligence in the Zulu Rebellion, 1906 | Thompson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Zulu Rebellion of 1906, the Natal Militia defeated the Zulu rebels without British imperial forces having to intervene in the conflict. The colonial forces were well adapted to the local circumstances, but in one important respect they drew heavily on imperial experience, namely military field intelligence. Colonial military ...

  16. Colonial conquest in central Madagascar : who resisted what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Abbink, G.J.; Bruijn, M.E. de.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    A rising against French colonial rule in central Madagascar (1895-1898) appeared in the 1970s as a good example of resistance to colonialism, sparked by France's occupation of Madagascar. Like many similar episodes in other parts of Africa, it was a history that appeared, in the light of later

  17. Breeding site selection by colonial waterbirds given various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of active colonial waterbird nests at a series of four small constructed wetlands in Cape Town was counted monthly from 1999 to 2008. In total 491 pairs belonging to 11 waterbird species were involved. Between 1997 and 2004 a number of different artificial structures were used to attract colonial waterbirds to ...

  18. Indian Education in the American Colonies, 1607-1783.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    Indian schooling in colonial America was continuously immersed in the exchange between cultures that involved religion, land ownership, disease, alcohol, and warfare, and was molded by trade in furs and hides, and Indian slaves. In the past two decades American scholars have begun to reinterpret colonial North American Indian history and the…

  19. Generation of mutation hotspots in ageing bacterial colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekowska, Agnieszka; Wendel, Sofie; Nørholm, Morten

    How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation:...

  20. 'Mill's Liberal Project and Defence of Colonialism from a Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aims to show that Mill's views on colonial rule were largely informed by his principle of liberty which, in turn, was based on his qualitative utilitarianism. The driving force behind his colonialism, as with his work in general, was his unwavering belief in the importance of human progress and development. Mill never believed ...

  1. Heralding the Other: Sousa, Simulacra, and Settler Colonialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of music and music education in the perpetuation of settler colonialism (a particular colonial configuration predicated on the expulsion of indigenous people and occupation of indigenous land) within the United States. Using Baudrillard's notion of simulacra, or "false truths," to look at racialized…

  2. Countering Coloniality in Educational Research: From Ownership to Answerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this theoretical article, I argue for a relational stance on learning as a way of reckoning with educational research as part of the settler colonial structure of the United States. Because of my geopolitical location to the United States as a settler colony, I begin by contrasting the stances of anticolonial and decolonial. I then analyze the…

  3. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  4. The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of sustainable development in post-colonial African states: a review of Adamu Usman's Sieged. ... This paper discusses and contributes to debates on the critical governance challenges faced by post-colonial African states such as bribery and corruption, lack of democratic and participatory governance, ...

  5. The Colonial Situation: Complicities and Distinctions from the Surrealist Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pablo Gómez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, taking as baseline the thought of Aimé Césaire and Franz Fanon —keeping in mind the closeness of the Negritude movement with surrealism—, we propose to approach the modernity/coloniality problem, appealing to the denominated surrealist image of beauty. In the first part the colonial situation is approached, in the second the colonial situation from the logic of surrealist image, and in the third the possibility of a decolonial universal or pluriversal is raised. In general terms, exploring the existent link between the “surrealist image” and the colonial structure of modernity —that generates the denominated colonial situation—, we aspire to approach what could be a decolonial aesthetic that, as general problem, will be tackled in later works.

  6. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

    2013-01-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

  7. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2013-08-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy 'other' of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the 'despoiling' or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout.

  8. Application of complex inoculants in improving the process-ability of grey cast iron for cylinder blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Wei-ming

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of several complex inoculants on mechanical properties, process-ability and sensibility of grey cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. The experimental results showed that the grey cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40%RE complex inoculants has tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and improved metallurgy quality. While the grey cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80%Sr compound inoculants has the best process-ability, the lowest cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The wear amount of the drill increases correspondingly with the increase of the microhardness difference of matrix structure, indicating the great effect of homogeneousness of matrix structure in the grey cast iron on the machinability of the grey cast iron.

  9. No rainbow for grey bamboo sharks: evidence for the absence of colour vision in sharks from behavioural discrimination experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Rick, I P; Plischke, K

    2014-11-01

    Despite convincing data collected by microspectrophotometry and molecular biology, rendering sharks colourblind cone monochromats, the question of whether sharks can perceive colour had not been finally resolved in the absence of any behavioural experiments compensating for the confounding factor of brightness. The present study tested the ability of juvenile grey bamboo sharks to perceive colour in an experimental design based on a paradigm established by Karl von Frisch using colours in combination with grey distractor stimuli of equal brightness. Results showed that contrasts but no colours could be discriminated. Blue and yellow stimuli were not distinguished from a grey distractor stimulus of equal brightness but could be distinguished from distractor stimuli of varying brightness. In addition, different grey stimuli were distinguished significantly above chance level from one another. In conclusion, the behavioural results support the previously collected physiological data on bamboo sharks, which mutually show that the grey bamboo shark, like several marine mammals, is a cone monochromate and colourblind.

  10. HLA-DRB*1501 associations with magnetic resonance imaging measures of grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Pardini, Matteo; Tur, Carmen; Mok, Kin Y; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Yousry, Tarek A; Houlden, Henry; Hardy, John; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2016-05-01

    The HLA-DRB*1501 haplotype influences the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is not known how it affects grey matter pathology. To assess HLA-DRB(*)1501 effects on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cortical grey matter pathology. Whole and lesional cortical grey matter volumes, lesional and normal-appearing grey matter magnetization transfer ratio were measured in 85 people with MS and 36 healthy control subjects. HLA-DRB(*)1501 haplotype was determined by genotyping (rs3135388). No significant differences were observed in MRI measures between the HLA-DRB(*)1501 subgroups. The HLA-DRB(*)1501 haplotype is not strongly associated with MRI-visible grey matter pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A

    2010-10-06

    In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  12. For the youth : juvenile delinquency, colonial civil society and the late colonial state in the Netherlands Indies, 1872-1942

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Annelieke

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation project focuses on forced re-education policies for juvenile delinquents in the Netherlands Indies (now Indonesia) and uses this topic to show the interaction between a 'modernizing' Dutch colonial state and the growth of a colonial civil society, between approximately 1872 and

  13. Collective Memories of Portuguese Colonial Action in Africa: Representations of the Colonial Past among Mozambicans and Portuguese Youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Feijó

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Social representations of the colonization and decolonization processes among young people from a former European colonial power (Portugal and from an African ex-colony (Mozambique were investigated through surveys using open- and closed-ended questions about national history, focusing on the identity functions of collective memories. Hegemonic and contested representations were found of the most prominent events related to Portuguese colonization of Mozambique, arousing a range of collective emotions. A central place is occupied by memories of the Colonial War, which ended with the Carnation Revolution in Portugal and the subsequent independence of the Portuguese African colonies. Overall, the depiction of colonialism was more negative for Mozambican than for Portuguese participants. The violent effects of colonial action were very salient in Mozambican memories, which stressed the most oppressive aspects of the colonial period, associated with slave trade and brutal repression. On the Portuguese side, the idealization of the voyages of discovery persisted, obscuring the most violent effects of colonial expansion. However, collective memories of colonization of former colonizer and former colonized do not simply stand opposed. Both Mozambican and Portuguese participants reported ambivalent feelings towards the colonization process.

  14. Effectiveness of formaldehyde in Caligus infection of laboratory reared grey mullet, Mugil cephalus (L)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Mortality due to infection by a copepod ectoparasite, Caligus bombayensis (R) was recorded in laboratory reared grey mullet. Spread of infection was rapid and most of infected fish died within 4 days and the entire batch died in 6-10 days. Treatment...

  15. Integrating grey and green infrastructure to improve the health and well-being of urban populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Mary E. Northridge; Sara S. Metcalf

    2012-01-01

    One of the enduring lessons of cities is the essential relationship between grey infrastructure (e.g., streets and buildings) and green infrastructure (e.g., parks and open spaces). The design and management of natural resources to enhance human health and well-being may be traced back thousands of years to the earliest urban civilizations. From the irrigation projects...

  16. Food and feeding habits of grey Mullets (Pisces: Mugilidae) in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and feeding habits of grey mullets (Mugilidae) in the River Volta and River Pra estuaries in Ghana were studied between February 1997 and July 1998 as part of efforts to encourage their culture. Stomach contents of fish samples, obtained with a cast net and a drag net, were analysed using the 'points' and frequency ...

  17. Altered grey matter volume and cortical thickness in patients with schizo-obsessive comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Lai-Quan; Xie, Wen-Lan

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22...

  18. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  19. Phylogeography of Eastern Grey Kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, Suggests a Mesic Refugium in Eastern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A Coghlan

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies around the world have identified refugia where fauna were able to persist during unsuitable climatic periods, particularly during times of glaciation. In Australia the effects of Pleistocene climate oscillations on rainforest taxa have been well studied but less is known about the effects on mesic-habitat fauna, such as the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus. The eastern grey kangaroo is a large mammal that is common and widespread throughout eastern Australia, preferring dry mesic habitat, rather than rainforest. As pollen evidence suggests that the central-eastern part of Australia (southeast Queensland and northern New South Wales experienced cycles of expansion in mesic habitat with contraction in rainforests, and vice versa during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, we hypothesise that the distribution of the eastern grey kangaroo was affected by these climate oscillations and may have contracted to mesic habitat refugia. From 375 mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from across the distribution of eastern grey kangaroos we obtained 108 unique haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified two clades in Queensland, one of which is newly identified and restricted to a small coastal region in southern Queensland north of Brisbane, known as the Sunshine Coast. The relatively limited geographic range of this genetically isolated clade suggests the possibility of a mesic habitat refugium forming during rainforest expansion during wetter climate cycles. Other potential, although less likely, reasons for the genetic isolation of the highly distinct clade include geographic barriers, separate northward expansions, and strong local adaptation.

  20. The simple modelling method for storm- and grey-water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simple modelling method for storm- and grey-water quality management applied to Alexandra settlement. ... objectives optimally consist of educational programmes, erosion and sediment control, street sweeping, removal of sanitation system overflows, impervious cover reduction, downspout disconnections, removal of ...