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Sample records for greenside darter etheostoma

  1. Etheostoma brevirostrum (Holiday Darter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2015-01-01

    The life history of the Holiday Darter is incompletely known. Only reproductive behavior (Johnston and Shute 1997; Anderson 2009), habitat use, and spawning seasons (Anderson 2009) have been studied. However, based on similarity of life history attributes among snubnose darters (Carney and Burr 1989; Johnston and Haag 1996; Khudamrongsawat et al. 2005), the Holiday darter probably lives 3+ years and matures in the first year. It is likely a benthic omnivore, feeding primarily on chironomid (midge) larvae and other common orders of aquatic insects and occasional microcrustaceans. Spawning occurs from late March to early June, with most activity occurring in April. Based on four females from the Amicalola Creek system, fecundity ranged from 50 to 150 mature eggs, egg sizes ranged from 1.2mm to 1.6mm diameter. The Holiday Darter is an “egg attacher” (sensu Page and Swofford 1984). A spawning female is courted by multiple males, but a dominant (alpha) male aggressively rebuts encroaching males and defends a “roving territory” of the receptive female. The alpha male is the principal spawning partner although satellite males often rush a spawning pair. The receptive female slowly swims along the stream bottom, frequently stopping, apparently to assess substrate attributes, and selects each spawning site where only one or two eggs are spawned. The process is repeated and often covers several meters of stream bottom until the courted female finishes spawning and is abandoned by the alpha male. Water temperatures during spawning in Amicalola Creek and the upper Etowah River ranged 10 to 17° C (Anderson 2009).

  2. Population ecology of variegate darter (Etheostoma variatum) in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentina, Jane E.; Angermeier, Paul; Hallerman, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Variegate darters (Etheostoma variatum) were listed as endangered in Virginia in 1992. Reasons for listing included habitat degradation and concerns about current and future impacts of coal mining throughout their Virginia range. Prior to this research, little was known about variegate darter distribution, habitat use, or populations in Virginia. Two primary goals of this research were to gain knowledge about the current population ecology and the relationship between landscape-level factors (e.g., land cover changes, watershed size, isolation from other populations) on current and past variegate darter population sizes.We investigated distribution, habitat suitability, population genetics, and population size and structure of variegate darters in the upper Big Sandy River drainage, Buchanan, Dickenson, and Wise Co., Virginia. Our results indicate variegate darters are primarily found in the Levisa Fork, with highest densities and abundances between its confluence with Dismal Creek and the Virginia-Kentucky border. Sporadic occurrences in smaller tributaries to the Levisa and Tug forks indicate they exist more widely in low densities, especially near the confluence with the Tug and Levisa mainstems. Detection of variegate darters in smaller tributaries was inconsistent, with reach-level occupancy estimates varying among years. We detected young-of-year variegate darters every year we sampled, but age 1+ darters were indistinguishable from older darters based on standard length.Variegate darter population size and stability in Virginia were estimated via multiple methods, including site occupancy surveys, mark-recapture studies, and population genetic analysis. Using mark-recapture methods at five sites, we estimated overall population size in 2011 to be approximately 12,800 individuals in the 35-km reach between the Levisa Fork - Dismal Creek confluence and the Virginia-Kentucky border. Age structure seemed stable, with breeding adults and young-of-year collected

  3. Status of the dirty darter, Etheostoma olivaceum, and bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration)sp., with notes on fishes of the Caney Fork River system, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, S.R.; Simons, A.M.; Wood, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-six localities were sampled in the Caney Fork River system and adjacent Cumberland River tributaries. Etheostoma olivaceum was found in small creeks from nine tributaries of lower Caney Fork River and three tributaries of the Cumberland River in the Nashville Basin physiographic province. The species was most abundant around slab rocks and rubble over bedrock in slow to moderate current. Etheostoma olivaceum was common throughout its small range; however, given widespread habitat degradation from agriculture, the species should retain its open-quotes deemed in need of managementclose quotes status in Tennessee. The bluemask darter, Etheostoma (Doration) sp., was collected in slow to moderate current over sand and gravel in Collins River, Rocky River, Cane Creek, and Caney Fork River. All four populations were isolated upstream of Great Falls Reservoir in the Highland Rim physiographic province. The species was found in a 37-km reach of Collins River but was restricted to reaches of 0.2 to 4.3 km in the other three streams. Threats to the species include pesticides from plant nurseries, siltation, gravel dredging, and acid mine drainage. The authors recommend that the bluemask darter be listed as state and federally protected. Two new records were established for the rare Barrens darter, Etheostoma forbesi, in lower Collins River and Barren Fork River, and eight previously unknown records of the species were identified from older museum collections. 21 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Adams, Cynthia R; Lewis, Teresa D; Brandt, Thomas M; Cornman, Robert S; Sanders, Lakyn

    2016-12-22

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1). Copyright © 2016 Iwanowicz et al.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Aquareovirus That Infects the Endangered Fountain Darter, Etheostoma fonticola

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Adams, Cynthia R.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Brandt, Thomas M.; Cornman, Robert S.; Sanders, Lakyn

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1).

  6. Complete genome sequence of a novel aquareovirus that infects the endangered fountain darter, Etheostoma fonticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Adams, Cynthia; Lewis, Teresa D.; Brandt, Thomas M.; Cornman, Robert S.; Sanders, Lakyn R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome of a novel aquareovirus isolated from clinically normal fountain darters, Etheostoma fonticola, inhabiting the San Marcos River, Texas, USA. The complete genome consists of 23,958 bp consisting of 11 segments that range from 783 bp (S11) to 3,866 bp (S1).

  7. Population genetic structure and conservation genetics of threatened Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, James D.; Jelks, Howard L.; Tate, Bill; Johnson, Aria R.; Jordan, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Imperiled Okaloosa darters (Etheostoma okaloosae) are small, benthic fish limited to six streams that flow into three bayous of Choctawhatchee Bay in northwest Florida, USA. We analyzed the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci for 255 and 273 Okaloosa darters, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses and AMOVA reflect congruent population genetic structure in both mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA. This structure reveals historical isolation of Okaloosa darter streams nested within bayous. Most of the six streams appear to have exchanged migrants though they remain genetically distinct. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently reclassified Okaloosa darters from endangered to threatened status. Our genetic data support the reclassification of Okaloosa darter Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs) in the larger Tom's, Turkey, and Rocky creeks from endangered to threatened status. However, the three smaller drainages (Mill, Swift, and Turkey Bolton creeks) remain at risk due to their small population sizes and anthropogenic pressures on remaining habitat. Natural resource managers now have the evolutionary information to guide recovery actions within and among drainages throughout the range of the Okaloosa darter.

  8. Threshold responses of Blackside Dace (Chrosomus cumberlandensis) and Kentucky Arrow Darter (Etheostoma spilotum) to stream conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Floyd, Michael; Compton, Michael; McDonald, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Chrosomus cumberlandensis (Blackside Dace [BSD]) and Etheostoma spilotum (Kentucky Arrow Darter [KAD]) are fish species of conservation concern due to their fragmented distributions, their low population sizes, and threats from anthropogenic stressors in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the relationship between fish abundance and stream conductivity, an index of environmental quality and potential physiological stressor. We modeled occurrence and abundance of KAD in the upper Kentucky River basin (208 samples) and BSD in the upper Cumberland River basin (294 samples) for sites sampled between 2003 and 2013. Segmented regression indicated a conductivity change-point for BSD abundance at 343 μS/cm (95% CI: 123–563 μS/cm) and for KAD abundance at 261 μS/cm (95% CI: 151–370 μS/cm). In both cases, abundances were negligible above estimated conductivity change-points. Post-hoc randomizations accounted for variance in estimated change points due to unequal sample sizes across the conductivity gradients. Boosted regression-tree analysis indicated stronger effects of conductivity than other natural and anthropogenic factors known to influence stream fishes. Boosted regression trees further indicated threshold responses of BSD and KAD occurrence to conductivity gradients in support of segmented regression results. We suggest that the observed conductivity relationship may indicate energetic limitations for insectivorous fishes due to changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community composition.

  9. Evolution of the premaxillary fraenum and substratum in snubnose darters and allies (Percidae: Etheostoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccotto, P J; Mendelson, T C

    2015-10-01

    Darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae), a species-rich group of North American freshwater fishes, vary in the presence of a premaxillary fraenum, a strip of skin that connects the premaxillary bones to the snout, and it is hypothesized that this trait is a trophic adaptation to particular substrata. Ancestral state reconstructions and analyses of phylogenetic associations between presence of the premaxillary fraenum and preferred stream substratum were conducted in a clade of closely related darters (snubnose darters and allies) that vary in morphology and habitat preferences. The most recent common ancestor of this clade was inferred to possess a fraenum and to inhabit rocky substrata, consistent with previous hypotheses, but a significant correlation between fraenum presence and substratum type across the phylogeny was not found. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Evaluation of water quality threats to the endangered Okaloosa darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) in East Turkey Creek on Eglin Air Force Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, R E; Spade, D J; Knoebl, I; Hemming, J M; Tongue, M L; Szabo, N J; Kroll, K J; Tate, W B; Denslow, N D

    2012-04-01

    The threatened Okaloosa darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) is found almost exclusively on the Eglin Air Force Base in the Choctawhatchee Bay watershed of Florida. Portions of this limited habitat are threatened with soil erosion, altered hydrology, and impaired water quality. In the present study, general water quality parameters (i.e., dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, temperature, relative turbidity, and primary productivity) were characterized in East Turkey Creek, which is a body of water potentially impacted by treated wastewater sprayfields, and Long Creek, an adjacent reference stream that does not border the sprayfields. Water quality was assessed during a 30-day exposure using passive samplers for both non-polar and polar effluent parameters. Because the Okaloosa darter was listed as endangered at the time of sampling we chose a closely related species from the same creeks, the sailfin shiner (Pteronotropis hypseleotris) in which to measure metal body burdens. Additionally, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were used for microarray analysis on gonad and liver tissues after 48 h exposures to water collected from the two creeks and brought into the laboratory. Waters from all sites, including reference sites, affected the expression of genes related to various biological processes including transcription and translation, cell cycle control, metabolism, and signaling pathways, suggesting that the sum of anthropogenic compounds in the site waters may cause a generalized stress response in both liver and testis, an effect that could be related to the generally low populations of the Okaloosa darter. Furthermore, effects of site waters on fish gene expression may be related to the impact of human activities other than the wastewater sprayfields, as nearby areas are closed to the public for military testing, training, and administrative activities and due to ordnance contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) Collected along an Urban Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Leslie M.; Tetreault, Gerald R.; Bahamonde, Paulina A.; Tanna, Rajiv N.; Bennett, Charles J.; McMaster, Mark E.; Servos, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE) and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals), measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured. PMID:27776151

  12. An Assessment of the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Biological Responses to Municipal Wastewater Effluent in Rainbow Darter (Etheostoma caeruleum Collected along an Urban Gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L M Fuzzen

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater effluent (MWWE and its constituents, such as chemicals of emerging concern, pose a potential threat to the sustainability of fish populations by disrupting key endocrine functions in aquatic organisms. While studies have demonstrated changes in biological markers of exposure of aquatic organisms to groups of chemicals of emerging concern, the variability of these markers over time has not been sufficiently described in wild fish species. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variability of biological markers in response to MWWE exposure and to test the consistency of these responses between seasons and among years. Rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum were collected in spring and fall seasons over a 5-year period in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In addition to surface water chemistry (nutrients and selected pharmaceuticals, measures were taken across levels of biological organization in rainbow darter. The measurements of hormone production, gonad development, and intersex severity were temporally consistent and suggested impaired reproduction in male fish collected downstream of MWWE outfalls. In contrast, ovarian development and hormone production in females appeared to be influenced more by urbanization than MWWE. Measures of gene expression and somatic indices were highly variable between sites and years, respectively, and were inconclusive in terms of the impacts of MWWE overall. Robust biomonitoring programs must consider these factors in both the design and interpretation of results, especially when spatial and temporal sampling of biological endpoints is limited. Assessing the effects of contaminants and other stressors on fish in watersheds would be greatly enhanced by an approach that considers natural variability in the endpoints being measured.

  13. Occupancy and abundance of the endangered yellowcheek darter in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, Daniel D.; Lynch, Dustin T.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowcheek Darter (Etheostoma moorei) is a rare fish endemic to the Little Red River watershed in the Boston Mountains of northern Arkansas. Remaining populations of this species are geographically isolated and declining, and the species was listed in 2011 as federally endangered. Populations have declined, in part, due to intense seasonal stream drying and inundation of lower reaches by a reservoir. We used a kick seine sampling approach to examine distribution and abundance of Yellowcheek Darter populations in the Middle Fork and South Fork Little Red River. We used presence data to estimate occupancy rates and detection probability and examined relationships between Yellowcheek Darter density and environmental variables. The species was found at five Middle Fork and South Fork sites where it had previously been present in 2003–2004. Occupancy rates were >0.6 but with wide 95% CI, and where the darters occurred, densities were typical of other Ozark darters but highly variable. Detection probability and density were positively related to current velocity. Given that stream drying has become more extreme over the past 30 years and anthropogenic threats have increased, regular monitoring and active management may be required to reduce extinction risk of Yellowcheek Darter populations.

  14. Occupancy modeling and estimation of the holiday darter species complex within the Etowah River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory B.; Freeman, Mary C.; Hagler, Megan M.; Freeman, Byron J.

    2012-01-01

    Documenting the status of rare fishes is a crucial step in effectively managing populations and implementing regulatory mechanisms of protection. In recent years, site occupancy has become an increasingly popular metric for assessing populations, but species distribution models that do not account for imperfect detection can underestimate the proportion of sites occupied and the strength of the relationship with a hypothesized covariate. However, valid detection requires temporal or spatial replication, which is often not feasible due to logistical or budget constraints. In this study, we used a method that allowed for spatial replication during a single visit to evaluate the current status of the holiday darter species complex, Etheostoma sp. cf. E. brevirostrum, within the Etowah River system. Moreover, the modeling approach used in this study facilitated comparisons of factors influencing stream occupancy as well as species detection within sites. The results suggest that there is less habitat available for the Etowah holiday darter form (Etheostoma sp. cf. E. brevirostrum B) than for the Amicalola holiday darter form (Etheostoma sp. cf. E. brevirostrum A). Additionally, occupancy models suggest that even small decreases in forest cover within these headwater systems adversely affect holiday darter populations.

  15. Male and female contributions to behavioral isolation in darters as a function of genetic distance and color distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Rachel L.; Zhou, Muchu; Catchen, Julian M.; Fuller, Rebecca C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Determining which reproductive isolating barriers arise first between geographically isolated lineages is critical to understanding allopatric speciation. We examined behavioral isolation among four recently diverged allopatric species in the orangethroat darter clade (Etheostoma: Ceasia). We also examined behavioral isolation between each Ceasia species and the sympatric rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum. We asked (1) is behavioral isolation present between allopatric Ceasia species, and how does this compare to behavioral isolation with E. caeruleum, (2) does male color distance and/or genetic distance predict behavioral isolation between species, and (3) what are the relative contributions of female choice, male choice, and male competition to behavioral isolation? We found that behavioral isolation, genetic differentiation, and male color pattern differentiation were present between allopatric Ceasia species. Males, but not females, discerned between conspecific and heterospecific mates. Males also directed more aggression toward conspecific rival males. The high levels of behavioral isolation among Ceasia species showed no obvious pattern with genetic distance or male color distance. However, when the E. caeruleum was included in the analysis, an association between male aggression and male color distance was apparent. We discuss the possibility that reinforcement between Ceasia and E. caeruleum is driving behavioral isolation among allopatric Ceasia species. PMID:28776645

  16. Male-driven reproductive and agonistic character displacement in darters and its implications for speciation in allopatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Rebecca C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Selection against hybridization can cause mating traits to diverge between species in sympatry via reproductive character displacement (RCD). Additionally, selection against interspecific fighting can cause aggressive traits to diverge between sympatric species via agonistic character displacement (ACD). By directly affecting conspecific recognition traits, RCD and ACD between species can also incidentally cause divergence in mating and fighting traits among populations within a species [termed cascade RCD (CRCD) and cascade ACD]. Here, we demonstrate patterns consistent with male-driven RCD and ACD in 2 groups of darters (orangethroat darter clade Ceasia and rainbow darter Etheostoma caeruleum). In both groups, males that occur in sympatry (between Ceasia and E. caeruleum) have higher levels of preference for mating and fighting with conspecifics over heterospecifics than do males from allopatry. This is consistent with RCD and ACD. We also found patterns consistent with CRCD and cascade ACD among species of Ceasia. Ceasia males that are sympatric to E. caeruleum (but allopatric to one another) also have heightened preferences for mating and fighting with conspecific versus heterospecific Ceasia. In contrast, Ceasia males that are allopatric to E. caeruleum readily mate and fight with heterospecific Ceasia. We suggest that RCD and ACD between Ceasia and E. caeruleum has incidentally led to divergence in mating and fighting traits among Ceasia species. This study is unique in that male preferences evolve via both RCD (male preference for conspecific females) and ACD (male preference to fight conspecific males) which leads to subsequent divergence among allopatric lineages. PMID:29492043

  17. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Carolyn J.M.; Knight, Brendan W.; McMaster, Mark E.; Munkittrick, Kelly R.; Oakes, Ken D.; Tetreault, Grald R.; Servos, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ 13 C and δ 15 N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. - Highlights: → Fish communities are altered by tertiary treated municipal wastewater exposure. → Relative abundance of the two dominant fish (darter) species changed downstream. → Differing stable isotope signatures in fish suggests shifting energy flow and diet. → The altered environment may allow resilient species a competitive advantage. → The system recovers quickly downstream. - Tertiary treated effluent altered fish community composition in a small receiving stream possibly as a result of altered availability of resources (diet) as indicated by stable isotopes.

  18. Spatial extent of analysis influences observed patterns of population genetic structure in a widespread darter species (Percidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentina, Jane E.; Angermeier, Paul L.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2018-01-01

    Connectivity among stream fish populations allows for exchange of genetic material and helps maintain genetic diversity, adaptive potential and population stability over time. Changes in species demographics and population connectivity have the potential to permanently alter the genetic patterns of stream fish, although these changes through space and time are variable and understudied in small‐bodied freshwater fish.As a spatially widespread, common species of benthic freshwater fish, the variegate darter (Etheostoma variatum) is a model species for documenting how patterns of genetic structure and diversity respond to increasing isolation due to large dams and how scale of study may shape our understanding of these patterns. We sampled variegate darters from 34 sites across their range in the North American Ohio River basin and examined how patterns of genetic structure and diversity within and between populations responded to historical population changes and dams within and between populations.Spatial scale and configuration of genetic structure varied across the eight identified populations, from tributaries within a watershed, to a single watershed, to multiple watersheds that encompass Ohio River mainstem habitats. This multiwatershed pattern of population structuring suggests genetic dispersal across large distances was and may continue to be common, although some populations remain isolated despite no apparent structural dispersal barriers. Populations with low effective population sizes and evidence of past population bottlenecks showed low allelic richness, but diversity patterns were not related to watershed size, a surrogate for habitat availability. Pairwise genetic differentiation (FST) increased with fluvial distance and was related to both historic and contemporary processes. Genetic diversity changes were influenced by underlying population size and stability, and while instream barriers were not strong determinants of genetic structuring or

  19. Isolation and Characterization of the Etheostoma tallapoosae (Teleostei: Percidae CENP-A Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leos G. Kral

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both centromeric alpha-satellite sequences as well as centromeric protein A (CENP-A are highly variable in eukaryotes. CENP-A, a histone H3 variant, is thought to act as the epigenetic “mark” for assembly of centromeric proteins. While most of the histone fold domain (HFD of the CENP-A is fairly well conserved, a portion of this HFD as well as the N-terminal tail show adaptive variation in both plants and animals. Such variation may establish reproductive barriers that may lead to speciation. The family Percidae contains over 200 species most of which are within the subfamily Etheostomatinae. This subfamily represents a species rich radiation of freshwater fishes in North America and these species exhibit both allopatric and sympatric distributions. In order to study the evolution of CENP-A in percid fish species, we have isolated and characterized the CENP-A gene from Etheostoma tallapoosae by PCR based gene walking. As a result of this study we have demonstrated that the Tallapoosa darter CENP-A gene HFD sequences can be isolated from genomic DNA by nested PCR in a manner that does not lead to the amplification of the highly sequence related histone H3 gene. We also demonstrated that PCR based walking can be subsequently used to isolate the rest of the CENP-A gene and adjacent gene sequences. These adjacent gene sequences provide us with a primer binding sites for PCR isolation of the CENP-A gene from other percid species of fishes. An initial comparison of three percid species shows that the N-terminal tail of the percid CENP-A gene shows adaptive evolution.

  20. 76 FR 48722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Cumberland Darter, Rush...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Cumberland darter, differentiating it from the Johnny darter by several diagnostic characteristics. Strange... (Strange 1998, p. 101). Thomas (2007, p. 3) provided the most recent information on status and distribution... known specifically about the life history of the rush darter, this information is available for the...

  1. Phylogeny and temporal diversification of darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Bossu, Christen M; Bradburd, Gideon S; Carlson, Rose L; Harrington, Richard C; Hollingsworth, Phillip R; Keck, Benjamin P; Etnier, David A

    2011-10-01

    Discussions aimed at resolution of the Tree of Life are most often focused on the interrelationships of major organismal lineages. In this study, we focus on the resolution of some of the most apical branches in the Tree of Life through exploration of the phylogenetic relationships of darters, a species-rich clade of North American freshwater fishes. With a near-complete taxon sampling of close to 250 species, we aim to investigate strategies for efficient multilocus data sampling and the estimation of divergence times using relaxed-clock methods when a clade lacks a fossil record. Our phylogenetic data set comprises a single mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene and two nuclear genes sampled from 245 of the 248 darter species. This dense sampling allows us to determine if a modest amount of nuclear DNA sequence data can resolve relationships among closely related animal species. Darters lack a fossil record to provide age calibration priors in relaxed-clock analyses. Therefore, we use a near-complete species-sampled phylogeny of the perciform clade Centrarchidae, which has a rich fossil record, to assess two distinct strategies of external calibration in relaxed-clock divergence time estimates of darters: using ages inferred from the fossil record and molecular evolutionary rate estimates. Comparison of Bayesian phylogenies inferred from mtDNA and nuclear genes reveals that heterospecific mtDNA is present in approximately 12.5% of all darter species. We identify three patterns of mtDNA introgression in darters: proximal mtDNA transfer, which involves the transfer of mtDNA among extant and sympatric darter species, indeterminate introgression, which involves the transfer of mtDNA from a lineage that cannot be confidently identified because the introgressed haplotypes are not clearly referable to mtDNA haplotypes in any recognized species, and deep introgression, which is characterized by species diversification within a recipient clade subsequent to the transfer of

  2. Effect of substrate size on sympatric sand darter benthic habitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Rizzo, Austin A.; Smith, Dustin M.

    2017-01-01

    The western sand darter, Ammocrypta clara, and the eastern sand darter, A. pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes that have undergone range-wide population declines, presumably owing to habitat loss. Habitat use studies have been conducted for the eastern sand darter, but literature on the western sand darter remains sparse. To evaluate substrate selection and preference, western and eastern sand darters were collected from the Elk River, West Virginia, one of the few remaining rivers where both species occur sympatrically. In the laboratory, individuals were given the choice to bury into five equally available and randomly positioned substrates ranging from fine sand to granule gravel (0.12–4.0 mm). The western sand darter selected for coarse and medium sand, while the eastern sand darter was more of a generalist selecting for fine, medium, and coarse sand. Substrate selection was significantly different (p = 0.02) between species in the same environment, where the western sand darter preferred coarser substrate more often compared to the eastern sand darter. Habitat degradation is often a limiting factor for many species of rare freshwater fish, and results from this study suggest that western and eastern sand darters may respond differently to variations in benthic substrate composition.

  3. User's manual for the vertical axis wind turbine performance computer code darter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimas, P. C.; French, R. E.

    1980-05-01

    The computer code DARTER (DARrieus, Turbine, Elemental Reynolds number) is an aerodynamic performance/loads prediction scheme based upon the conservation of momentum principle. It is the latest evolution in a sequence which began with a model developed by Templin of NRC, Canada and progressed through the Sandia National Laboratories-developed SIMOSS (SSImple MOmentum, Single Streamtube) and DART (SARrieus Turbine) to DARTER.

  4. 76 FR 18087 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Florida. Okaloosa darters are currently found in the tributaries and the main channels of the following... stream channel. The creeks with Okaloosa darters are generally shaded over most of their courses, with... eliminated sedimentation from roadway runoff. The Eglin golf course dominates land use in the Mill Creek...

  5. A multiscale investigation of habitat use and within-river distribution of sympatric sand darter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Strager, Michael P.; Rizzo, Austin A.

    2018-01-01

    The western sand darter Ammocrypta clara, and eastern sand darter Ammocrypta pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes of conservation concern. Past research has emphasized the importance of studying individual populations of conservation concern, while recent research has revealed the importance of incorporating landscape scale processes that structure habitat mosaics and local populations. We examined habitat use and distributions of western and eastern sand darters in the lower Elk River of West Virginia. At the sandbar habitat use scale, western sand darters were detected in sandbars with greater area, higher proportions of coarse grain sand and faster bottom current velocity, while the eastern sand darter used a wider range of sandbar habitats. The landscape scale analysis revealed that contributing drainage area was an important predictor for both species, while sinuosity, which presumably represents valley type, also contributed to the western sand darter’s habitat suitability. Sandbar quality (area, grain size, and velocity) and fluvial geomorphic variables (drainage area and valley type) are likely key driving factors structuring sand darter distributions in the Elk River. This multiscale study of within-river species distribution and habitat use is unique, given that only a few sympatric populations are known of western and eastern sand darters.

  6. Persistence of the longnose darter (P. nasuta) in Lee Creek, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, Michael R.; Long, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The longnose darter Percina nasuta (Bailey) is one of Oklahoma’s rarest fish species (1) and is listed by the state as endangered. Throughout the rest of its range, which includes Missouri, Arkansas and the far eastern portion of Oklahoma, the longnose darter is classified as “rare” or “threatened” (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 1). This species inhabits both slow- and fast-water habitats with cobble and gravel substrates in medium to large streams (7, 8, 1). Oklahoma populations of longnose darter are known to occur only in the Poteau River and Lee Creek drainages in Le Flore and Sequoyah counties, respectively (9, 10). Cross and Moore (9) collected longnose darters from the Poteau River in 1947. The species was not collected in a subsequent survey of the Poteau River in 1974 (11), possibly because of the effects from the Wister Dam, which was completed in 1949. Darters are especially susceptible to flow alterations from dams (2, 12). This, together with the 1992 completion of Lee Creek Reservoir in Arkansas, has raised concern for the Lee Creek population of longnose darters (13).

  7. Rapid allopatric speciation in logperch darters (Percidae: Percina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Benard, Michael F

    2004-12-01

    Theory predicts that clades diversifying via sympatric speciation will exhibit high diversification rates. However, the expected rate of diversification in clades characterized by allopatric speciation is less clear. Previous studies have documented significantly higher speciation rates in freshwater fish clades diversifying via sympatric versus allopatric modes, leading to suggestions that the geographic pattern of speciation can be inferred solely from knowledge of the diversification rate. We tested this prediction using an example from darters, a clade of approximately 200 species of freshwater fishes endemic to eastern North America. A resolved phylogeny was generated using mitochondrial DNA gene sequences for logperches, a monophyletic group of darters composed of 10 recognized species. Divergence times among logperch species were estimated using a fossil calibrated molecular clock in centrarchid fishes, and diversification rates in logperches were estimated using several methods. Speciation events in logperches are recent, extending from 4.20 +/- 1.06 million years ago (mya) to 0.42 +/- 0.22 mya, with most speciation events occurring in the Pleistocene. Diversification rates are high in logperches, at some nodes exceeding rates reported for well-studied adaptive radiations such as Hawaiian silverswords. The geographic pattern of speciation in logperches was investigated by examining the relationship between degree of sympatry and the absolute age of the contrast, with the result that diversification in logperches appears allopatric. The very high diversification rate observed in the logperch phylogeny is more similar to freshwater fish clades thought to represent examples of sympatric speciation than to clades representing allopatric speciation. These results demonstrate that the geographic mode of speciation for a clade cannot be inferred from the diversification rate. The empirical observation of high diversification rates in logperches demonstrates that

  8. Organochlorine contaminants in cormorant, darter, egret, and ibis eggs from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Henk; Polder, Anuschka; Venter, Belinda; Skaare, Janneche U

    2008-03-01

    During the last 15 years, no research has been published on the levels of pesticides in bird eggs from South Africa, despite the high levels found previously. We analysed eggs from African darter, cattle egret, reed cormorant, African sacred ibis, as well as single eggs from some other species, and found HCB, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at detectable levels. The presence of mirex in all species was unexpected, since this compound was never registered in South Africa. It also seemed as if terrestrial feeding birds had higher DDE:PCB ratios when compared with aquatic feeding birds. Except for chlordane, the African darter eggs had the highest levels of all other compounds (mean 370 and 300 ng g(-1) ww Sigma pesticides and Sigma PCBs, respectively). Multivariate analysis clearly distinguished the aquatic and terrestrially feeding birds on pollution profile. The African darter (aquatic feeding) and the cattle egret (terrestrial feeding) would be good indicator candidates. Eggshell thinning was detected in the African darter, and was associated with most of the compounds, including DDE and PCBs. We raise a concern that generally longer living birds in warmer climates, laying fewer eggs per clutch, might be at increased risk when compared with trophically similar birds exposed to equivalent levels of pollution in colder climates. Given the scarcity of water and the high biodiversity in Southern Africa, climate change will exert strong pressure, and any additional anthropogenic contamination at levels that can cause subtle behavioural, developmental and reproductive changes, can have serious effects.

  9. 75 FR 5263 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... channels of Toms, Turkey, Mill, Swift, East Turkey, and Rocky Creeks. Approximately 90 percent of the 457... the stream channel. The creeks with Okaloosa darters are generally shaded over most of their courses... a stream after a rain) of stream sedimentation. Eglin AFB [[Page 5266

  10. The influence of life-history strategy on genetic differentiation and lineage divergence in darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluker, Brook L; Kuhajda, Bernard R; Harris, Phillip M

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies determined that darters with specialized breeding strategies can exhibit deep lineage divergence over fine geographic scales without apparent physical barriers to gene flow. However, the extent to which intrinsic characteristics interact with extrinsic factors to influence population divergence and lineage diversification in darters is not well understood. This study employed comparative phylogeographic and population genetic methods to investigate the influence of life history on gene flow, dispersal ability, and lineage divergence in two sympatric sister darters with differing breeding strategies. Our results revealed highly disparate phylogeographic histories, patterns of genetic structure, and dispersal abilities between the two species suggesting that life history may contribute to lineage diversification in darters, especially by limiting dispersal among large river courses. Both species also showed striking differences in demographic history, indicating that extrinsic factors differentially affected each species during the Pleistocene. Collectively, our results indicate that intrinsic and extrinsic factors have influenced levels of gene flow among populations within both species examined. However, we suggest that life-history strategy may play a more important role in lineage diversification in darters than previously appreciated, a finding that has potentially important implications for understanding diversification of the rich North American freshwater fish fauna. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Developmental effects of mercury on Etheostoma caeruleum and E. spectabile: Predictable biomarkers of stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.R. [Southeast Missouri State Univ., Cape Girardeau, MO (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    Etheostoma caeruleum and E. spectabile are sympatric teleostean species of the Family Percidae. The ova diameters and incubation times are different: E. caeruleum (1.9mm and 12-d), E. spectabile (1.2mm and 8-d). For both species, cleavage stage (4--8 cell), mid-blastula, mid-neurula, and early-eye stage embryos were exposed to + {minus}1 a 24-h static-renewal test of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 {micro}gHg {sup ++}L{sup {minus}1} to assess the effects of stage-specific initial mercury exposure on the embryo-larval responses. In addition, cleavage stage embryos were exposed to a 1-d, 2-d, and 4-d static-renewal toxicity test to determine the influence that exposure duration to mercury has on embryolarval responses. Five replicates of 10 embryos each were incubated at 18 C for each concentration and exposure variation. Embryos were allowed to develop until all had hatched or died. Four embryonic responses were assessed for each species and exposure protocol: 96-h LC50, AB50, SH50 and VH50. The typical nonstressor specific terata were noted for each species with an increase in percent of embryos expressing abnormal developmental patterns with increase mercury concentrations and severity of exposure. These included dwarfism, cephalic complications, ophthalmic abnormalities, cardiovascular abnormalities, various edema, and haemorrhagia. Hatching success and viability of hatch were likewise reduced with increasing severity of exposure and mercury concentration. Previously undetected terata that were observed in the first hatch included scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis, synarthrodic jaws, and grossly enlarged yolk sacs.

  12. Captive propagation, reproductive biology, and early life history of the Diamond Darter (Crystallaria cincotta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Crystal L.; Rakes, Patrick L.; Shute, John R.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive biology and early life history data are critical for the conservation and management of rare fishes. During 2008–2012 a captive propagation study was conducted on the Diamond Darter, Crystallaria cincotta, a rare species with a single extant population in the lower Elk River, West Virginia. Water temperatures during spawning ranged from 11.1–23.3 C. Females and males spawned with quick vibrations, burying eggs in fine sand in relatively swift clean depositional areas. Egg size was 1.8–1.9 mm, and embryos developed within 7 to 11 d. Diamond Darters were 6.7–7.2 mm total length (TL) at hatch. Larvae ranged from 9.0–11.0 mm TL following a 5–10 d period of yolk sac absorption. Larvae had relatively large mouth gapes and teeth and were provided brine shrimp Artemia sp., Ceriodaphnia dubia neonates, marine Brachionus rotifers, and powdered foods (50–400 µm) but did not appear to feed in captivity, except for one observation of larval cannibalization. Larvae survived for a maximum of 10 d. To increase larval survival and reduce the possibility of cannibalism, other alternative food sources are needed during captive propagation.

  13. A holistic approach to taxonomic evaluation of two closely related endangered freshwater mussel species, the oyster mussel Epioblasma capsaeformis and tan riffleshell Epioblasma florentina walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.W.; Neves, R.J.; Ahlstedt, S.A.; Hallerman, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Species in the genus Epioblasma have specialized life history requirements and represent the most endangered genus of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the world. A genetic characterization of extant populations of the oyster mussel E. capsaeformis and tan riffleshell E. florentina walkeri sensu late was conducted to assess taxonomic validity and to resolve conservation issues for recovery planning. These mussel species exhibit pronounced phenotypic variation, but were difficult to characterize phylogenetically using DNA sequences. Monophyletic lineages, congruent with phenotypic variation among species, were obtained only after extensive analysis of combined mitochondrial (1396 bp of 16S, cytochrome-b, and ND1) and nuclear (515 bp of ITS-1) DNA sequences. In contrast, analysis of variation at 10 hypervariable DNA microsatellite loci showed moderately to highly diverged populations based on FST and R ST values, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.39 and 0.15 to 0.71, respectively. Quantitative variation between species was observed in fish-host specificity, with transformation success of glochidia of E. capsaeformis significantly greater (P<0.05) on greenside darter Etheostoma blennioides, and that of E. f. walkeri significantly greater (P<0.05) on fantail darter Etheostoma flabellare. Lengths of glochidia differed significantly (P<0.001) among species and populations, with mean sizes ranging from 241 to 272 ??m. The texture and colour of the mantle-pad of E. capsaeformis sensu stricto is smooth and bluish-white, whereas that of E. f. walkeri is pustuled and brown, with tan mottling. Based on extensive molecular, morphological and life history data, the population of E. capsaeformis from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA is proposed as a separate species, and the population of E. f. walkeri from Indian Creek, upper Clinch River, Virginia, USA is proposed as a distinct subspecies.

  14. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.; Jadhav, Jyoti P.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent

  15. Treatment of textile effluent in a developed phytoreactor with immobilized bacterial augmentation and subsequent toxicity studies on Etheostoma olmstedi fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Khandare, Rahul V. [School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon (India); Waghmare, Pankajkumar R.; Jagadale, Ashwini D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Jadhav, Jyoti P., E-mail: jpj_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India); Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A phytoreactor was developed and augmented with immobilized bacteria. • This consortium showed enhanced treatment than the individual species. • Oxido-reductases from P. crinitum and B. pumilus could decolorize the effluent. • Characterization of effluent samples endorsed the efficacy of consortial strategy. • Toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the consortium treated effluent. - Abstract: A static hydroponic bioreactor using nursery grown plants of Pogonatherum crinitum along with immobilized Bacillus pumilus cells was developed for the treatment of textile wastewater. Independent reactors with plants and immobilized cells were also kept for performance and efficacy evaluation. The effluent samples characterized before and after their treatment showed that the plant–bacterial consortium reactor was more efficient than those of individual plant and bacterium reactors. COD, BOD, ADMI, conductivity, turbidity, TDS and TSS of the textile effluent was found to be reduced by 78, 70, 93, 4, 90, 13 and 70% respectively within 12 d by the consortial set. HPTLC analysis revealed the transformation of the textile effluent to new products. The phytotoxicity study on Phaeseolus mungo and Sorghum vulgare seeds showed reduced toxicity of treated effluents. The animal toxicity study performed on Etheostoma olmstedi fishes showed the toxic nature of untreated effluent giving extreme stress to fishes leading to death. Histology of fish gills exposed to treated effluent was found to be less affected. The oxidative stress related enzymes like superoxide dismutase and catalase were found to show decreased activities and less lipid peroxidation in fishes exposed to treated effluent.

  16. Population demographics and life history of the round hickorynut (Obovaria subrotunda) in the Duck River, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlo, Chase A.; Layzer, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Population characteristics and life history aspects of healthy mussel populations are poorly understood. The reproductive cycle, age and growth, and population structure of Obovaria subrotunda were examined at four sites in the middle Duck River, Tennessee. Obovaria subrotunda was confirmed to be a bradytictic species, spawning in the late summer and holding glochidia in the gills for 11 mo until the following summer. Fecundity was positively related to mussel length (R2  =  0.75) and ranged from 7122 to 76,584 glochidia. Fourteen species of fish found in the Duck River, in the families Percidae, Cyprinidae, and Cottidae, were infested with glochidia in the laboratory to examine potential hosts. Juveniles transformed onEtheostoma blennioides (greenside darter), E. obama (spangled darter), E. flabellare (fantail darter), and Cottus carolinae (banded sculpin). Analyses of shell thin-sections indicated that males grew faster and obtained a larger size than females. Individuals live to at least 14 y old. Females became sexually mature at age one. Four sites were quantitatively sampled using a systematic design with three random starts. The observed ratio of adult males to females (0.9∶1) did not differ significantly from 1∶1. Results of the quantitative sampling showed an increase in density compared to earlier studies and a high proportion of 1 to 5 y old O. subrotunda.

  17. Snail darters and sacred places: creative application of the endangered species act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, Robert Andrew

    2013-11-01

    Rather than exploring how indigenous people have been alienated from resources by environmental policies, this paper explores how indigenous peoples have worked with environmental organizations to use the broad protections provided by environmental laws to protect cultural resources. The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, along with other concerned groups, partnered with environmentalists in opposing the destruction of the endangered snail darter's critical habitat by the Tennessee Valley Authority's Tellico Dam. The dam had been opposed by a shifting alliance of Cherokees, local farmers, trout fisherman, and environmentalists since it was announced in 1963. A previous lawsuit by this coalition delayed the project from 1972 to 1974 under the National Environmental Policy Act. The Endangered Species Act provided this coalition with a powerful tool for opposing the destruction of burial grounds and sacred village sites throughout the lower Little Tennessee River valley. The coalition of environmental organizations, Cherokees, and others was ultimately unsuccessful in stopping the dam from being built, but was successful in establishing a strict precedent for the enforcement of the Endangered Species Act. The lawsuit also created a space for the Eastern Band to negotiate for the return of Cherokee remains and halt the removal of any additional burials. In this situation, the strategic support of environmental regulation enabled the Eastern Band to exert some degree of control over the fate of cultural resources in the valley, and also demonstrates the significant role American Indian peoples played in one of the seminal events of the environmental movement during the 1970s.

  18. Factors influencing detection of the federally endangered Diamond Darter Crystallaria cincotta: Implications for long-term monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Austin A.; Brown, Donald J.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Population monitoring is an essential component of endangered species recovery programs. The federally endangered Diamond Darter Crystallaria cincotta is in need of an effective monitoring design to improve our understanding of its distribution and track population trends. Because of their small size, cryptic coloration, and nocturnal behavior, along with limitations associated with current sampling methods, individuals are difficult to detect at known occupied sites. Therefore, research is needed to determine if survey efforts can be improved by increasing probability of individual detection. The primary objective of this study was to determine if there are seasonal and diel patterns in Diamond Darter detectability during population surveys. In addition to temporal factors, we also assessed five habitat variables that might influence individual detection. We used N-mixture models to estimate site abundances and relationships between covariates and individual detectability and ranked models using Akaike's information criteria. During 2015 three known occupied sites were sampled 15 times each between May and Oct. The best supported model included water temperature as a quadratic function influencing individual detectability, with temperatures around 22 C resulting in the highest detection probability. Detection probability when surveying at the optimal temperature was approximately 6% and 7.5% greater than when surveying at 16 C and 29 C, respectively. Time of Night and day of year were not strong predictors of Diamond Darter detectability. The results of this study will allow researchers and agencies to maximize detection probability when surveying populations, resulting in greater monitoring efficiency and likely more precise abundance estimates.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Fiber Optic Diverse Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-24

    greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki stomias ) have been extirpated from Monument Creek and its tributaries. Both species have been considered...Arkansas darter (Etheostoma cragini), Black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes), Greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki stomias ), Gunnison’s

  20. The heron that laid the golden egg: metals and metalloids in ibis, darter, cormorant, heron, and egret eggs from the Vaal River catchment, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schyff, V; Pieters, R; Bouwman, H

    2016-06-01

    Metal pollution issues are afforded the highest priority in developing countries. Only one previous study has addressed metals in African bird eggs. We determined the concentration of metals and metalloids in bird eggs from four sites in the Vaal River catchment (VRC) of South Africa to provide data on the current situation. We analysed 16 pools of 77 heron, ibis, darter, egret, and cormorant eggs for 18 metals and metalloids using ICP-MS. We found high concentrations of gold (Au), uranium (U), thallium (Tl), and platinum (Pt) in Grey Heron eggs from Baberspan. Great white egrets from Bloemhof Dam had high concentrations of mercury (Hg). Multivariate analyses revealed strong associations between Au and U, and between palladium (Pd) and Pt. The toxic reference value (TRV) for Hg was exceeded in seven pools. Selenium exceeded its TRV in one pool; in the same pool, copper (Cu) reached its TRV. Compared with other studies, VRC bird eggs had high concentrations of contaminants. Based on these high concentrations, human health might be at risk as Grey Herons and humans share similar food and are therefore exposed to the same contaminants.

  1. Oyster Shell Dredging in Gulf of Mexico Waters, St. Mary and Terrebonne Parishes, Louisiana. Final Environmental Impact Statement and Appendixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    sabinae Sabine shiner x Notropis texanus weed shiner x Notropis volucellus mimic shiner X Ogeocephalus radiatus polka-dot bat fish x Oligoplites saurus ...Elope saurus ladyfish x x Erimyzon oblongus creek chubsucker x Esox americanus vermiculatus grass pickerel x Etheostoma chiorosomum, bluntnose darter

  2. 75 FR 36035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Cumberland Darter, Rush Darter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ....C. 1531, et seq.), including whether the benefits of designation would outweigh threats to the... been found at the head of riffles in smaller gravel substrate (Wine et al. 2000, p. 3). During non... on the undersides of larger rubble in swift water (McDaniel 1984, p. 82). Wine and Blumenshine (2002...

  3. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  4. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  5. Geographic variation in host fish use and larval metamorphosis for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Barbara (St. John); Ferreri, C. Paola; Lellis, William A.; Wicklow, Barry J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Host fishes play a crucial role in survival and dispersal of freshwater mussels (Unionoida), particularly rare unionids at conservation risk. Intraspecific variation in host use is not well understood for many mussels, including the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the USA.Host suitability of 33 fish species for dwarf wedgemussel glochidia (larvae) from the Delaware and Connecticut river basins was tested in laboratory experiments over 9 years. Relative suitability of three different populations of a single host fish, the tessellated darter (Etheostoma olmstedi), from locations in the Connecticut, Delaware, and Susquehanna river basins, was also tested.Connecticut River basin A. heterodon metamorphosed into juvenile mussels on tessellated darter, slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr. Delaware River basin mussels metamorphosed using these three species, as well as brown trout (Salmo trutta), banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), striped bass (Morone saxatilis), and shield darter (Percina peltata). Atlantic salmon, striped bass, and sculpins were highly effective hosts, frequently generating 5+ juveniles per fish (JPF) and metamorphosis success (MS; proportion of attaching larvae that successfully metamorphose) ≥ 0.4, and producing juveniles in repeated trials.In experiments on tessellated darters, mean JPF and MS values decreased as isolation between the mussel source (Connecticut River) and each fish source increased; mean JPF = 10.45, 6.85, 4.14, and mean MS = 0.50, 0.41, and 0.34 in Connecticut, Delaware, and Susquehanna river darters, respectively. Host suitability of individual darters was highly variable (JPF = 2–11; MS = 0.20–1.0).The results show that mussel–host fish compatibility in A. heterodon differs among Atlantic coastal rivers, and suggest that hosts including anadromous Atlantic salmon and striped bass may help sustain A. heterodon in parts of

  6. Concentration of elements in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  7. 78 FR 45074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Diamond Darter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... educational purposes; (C) Disease or predation; (D) The inadequacy of existing regulations; or (E) Other... scientifically sound data, assumptions, and analyses. We invited these peer reviewers to comment on our listing... degradation associated with increases in sewage, industrial discharges, and mining effluents entering the...

  8. 75 FR 19988 - Watercress Darter National Wildlife Refuge, Jefferson County, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... knowledge base and develop cooperation among interest groups. Restoration of natural systems, native communities, and healthy environments would be emphasized, thus promoting regionally a high quality of life... [[Page 19989

  9. 75 FR 80524 - Watercress Darter National Wildlife Refuge, Jefferson County, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... expand the knowledge base and assist in developing cooperation between interest groups. Restoration of... high-quality of life. Monitoring environmental parameters and flora and fauna will be incorporated into an integrated study to gain knowledge on the health of the refuge ecosystem. Education and outreach...

  10. 77 FR 43905 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... of Policy and Directives Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, MS 2042... conservation of the species, should be included in the designation and why; (c) Special management... Ohio and the Ohio River (Mishne 2008, p. 1; Trautman 1981, p. 646). Pearson and Krumholtz (1984, p. 252...

  11. 78 FR 19172 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... may submit written comments by one of the following methods: (1) Electronically: Go to the Federal e... proposed critical habitat designation, or by appointment, during normal business hours, at the U.S. Fish..., and Edmonson, Hart, and Green Counties, Kentucky. That proposal had a 60- day comment period, ending...

  12. 75 FR 37350 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Vermilion Darter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... section, below) the deadline for submitting an electronic comment is 11:59 p.m. Eastern Daylight Savings Time on this date. ADDRESSES: Written Comments:You may submit comments by one of the following methods..., 2001 (66 FR 59367). At the time of listing, the Service found that designation of critical habitat was...

  13. Transferability of habitat suitability criteria for fishes in warmwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Bowen, Z.H.; Crance, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    We developed habitat suitability criteria and tested their transferability for nine fishes inhabiting unregulated Piedmont and Coastal Plain streams in Alabama. Cr iteria for optimal habitat were defined as ranges of depth, velocity, substrate type and cover type for which a species' suitability index (proportional abundance divided by proportional habitat availability, scaled from 0 to 1) equalled or exceeded 0.4. We evaluated the transferability of criteria between study sites by testing the null hypothesis that species occurrence in a sample was independent of whether or not the sample was taken in optimal habitat. We also tested criteria transference to a large, flow-regulated river sampled during low flow periods. Depth, velocity and most substrate criteria developed for the bronze darter Percina palmaris successfully transferred between unregulated streams and to the flow-regulated river samples. All criteria developed for a pair of closely related, allopatric darter species, Etheostoma chuckwachattee and E. jordani, transferred sucessfully when applied between species (in the unregulated sites) and to the regulated river samples. In contrast, criteria for the Alabama shiner Cyprinella callistia failed nearly all tests of transferability. Criteria for E. stigmaeum, P. nigrofasciata, an undescribed Percina species, and a pair of related, allopatric Cyprinella species transferred inconsistently. The species with good criteria transference had high suitability indices for shallow depths, fast current velocities and coarse substrates, characteristic of riffle species. We suggest that microhabitat criteria for riffle fishes are more likely to provide a transferable measure of habitat quality than criteria for fishes that, although restricted to fluvial habitats, commonly occupy a variety of pool and riffle habitats.

  14. From "Duck Factory" to "Fish Factory": Climate induced changes in vertebrate communities of prairie pothole wetlands and small lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kyle I.; Mushet, David M.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region’s myriad wetlands and small lakes contribute to its stature as the “duck factory” of North America. The fishless nature of the region’s aquatic habitats, a result of frequent drying, freezing, and high salinity, influences its importance to waterfowl. Recent precipitation increases have resulted in higher water levels and wetland/lake freshening. In 2012–13, we sampled chemical characteristics and vertebrates (fish and salamanders) of 162 Prairie Pothole wetlands and small lakes. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling, principal component analysis, and bootstrapping techniques to reveal relationships. We found fish present in a majority of sites (84 %). Fish responses to water chemistry varied by species. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brook sticklebacks (Culaea inconstans) occurred across the broadest range of conditions. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) occurred in a smaller, chemically defined, subset. Iowa darters (Etheostoma exile) were restricted to the narrowest range of conditions. Tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) rarely occurred in lakes with fish. We also compared our chemical data to similar data collected in 1966–1976 to explore factors contributing to the expansion of fish into previously fishless sites. Our work contributes to a better understanding of relationships between aquatic biota and climate-induced changes in this ecologically important area.

  15. Instream flow assessment of streams draining the Arbuckle-Simpson Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilheimer, Titus S.; Fisher, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of high quality water is critical to both humans and ecosystems. A recent proposal was made by rapidly expanding municipalities in central Oklahoma to begin transferring groundwater from the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, a sensitive sole-source aquifer in south-central Oklahoma. Concerned citizens and municipalities living on and getting their drinking water from the Arbuckle-Simpson lobbied the legislature to pass a temporary moratorium on groundwater transfer to allow for a comprehensive study of the aquifer and its ecosystems. We conducted an instream flow assessment using Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) on springs and streams with four spring-dependent species: two minnows, southern redbelly dace (Phoxinus erthyrogaster) and redspot chub (Nocomis asper); and two darters, least darter (Etheostoma microperca) and orangethroat darter (Etheostoma spectabile). Spring habitats are unique compared to other river habitats because they have constant flow and temperature, small and isolated habitat patches, and a general lack of predators. Our study sites included two spring-fed streams, one larger stream with high groundwater inputs, and a river with both groundwater and surface water inputs that is adjacent to the small spring-fed streams. These habitats meet the criteria for groundwater dependent ecosystems because they would not exist without the surface expression of groundwater. A total of 99 transects in all four sites were surveyed for channel elevation, and three sets of water surface elevation and water velocity were measured. Habitat suitability criteria were derived for the species at each site using nonparametric confidence limits based on underwater observations made by snorkelers. Simulations of flow were focused on declines in discharge, which is the expected effect of the proposed groundwater diversion. Our results show that only a small proportion of the total available area in each habitat is considered to be preferred habitat

  16. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  17. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... causes of diamond darter habitat loss. Water quality degradation and siltation also played key roles. See... quantitatively define specific water quality standards required by the diamond darter. These organizations noted... conductivity poses to the diamond [[Page 52368

  18. Karyotype divergence and spreading of 5S rDNA sequences between genomes of two species: darter and emerald gobies ( Ctenogobius , Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Filho, P A; Bertollo, L A C; Cioffi, M B; Costa, G W W F; Molina, W F

    2014-01-01

    Karyotype analyses of the cryptobenthic marine species Ctenogobius boleosoma and C. smaragdus were performed by means of classical and molecular cytogenetics, including physical mapping of the multigene 18S and 5S rDNA families. C. boleosoma has 2n = 44 chromosomes (2 submetacentrics + 42 acrocentrics; FN = 46) with a single chromosome pair each carrying 18S and 5S ribosomal sites; whereas C. smaragdus has 2n = 48 chromosomes (2 submetacentrics + 46 acrocentrics; FN = 50), also with a single pair bearing 18S rDNA, but an extensive increase in the number of GC-rich 5S rDNA sites in 21 chromosome pairs. The highly divergent karyotypes among Ctenogobius species contrast with observations in several other marine fish groups, demonstrating an accelerated rate of chromosomal evolution mediated by both chromosomal rearrangements and the extensive dispersion of 5S rDNA sequences in the genome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. 76 FR 62259 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... electronic mail, a petition from the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), Alabama Rivers Alliance, Clinch... electronic mail to Noah Greenwald at CBD, we acknowledged receipt of the Petition. On May 10, 2010, we... the petition. Crystal Darter (Crystallaria asprella) The crystal darter is a slender, cigar-shaped...

  20. 77 FR 63603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cumberland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... selection criteria. We did not receive any comments from peer reviewers related to the yellowcheek darter or... restaurants, motels, grocery stores, gas stations, and feed stores, and corresponding losses in local and...

  1. Pelagic larval duration predicts extinction risk in a freshwater fish clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Morgan; Keck, Benjamin P; Ruble, Crystal; Petty, Melissa; Shute, J R; Rakes, Patrick; Hulsey, C Darrin

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) can influence evolutionary processes ranging from dispersal to extinction in aquatic organisms. Using estimates of PLD obtained from species of North American darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae), we demonstrate that this freshwater fish clade exhibits surprising variation in PLD. Comparative analyses provide some evidence that higher stream gradients favour the evolution of shorter PLD. Additionally, similar to patterns in the marine fossil record in which lower PLD is associated with greater extinction probability, we found a reduced PLD in darter lineages was evolutionarily associated with extinction risk. Understanding the causes and consequences of PLD length could lead to better management and conservation of organisms in our increasingly imperiled aquatic environments.

  2. Acceleration effects on missile aerodynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Practical requirements are now arising in which significant acceleration takes place during flight; 5th generation missiles, such as A-Darter, execute turns at 100 g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity, and thrust from propulsion systems may...

  3. Pelagic larval duration predicts extinction risk in a freshwater fish clade

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Morgan; Keck, Benjamin P.; Ruble, Crystal; Petty, Melissa; Shute, J. R.; Rakes, Patrick; Hulsey, C. Darrin

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) can influence evolutionary processes ranging from dispersal to extinction in aquatic organisms. Using estimates of PLD obtained from species of North American darters (Percidae: Etheostomatinae), we demonstrate that this freshwater fish clade exhibits surprising variation in PLD. Comparative analyses provide some evidence that higher stream gradients favour the evolution of shorter PLD. Additionally, similar to patterns in the marine fossil record in which lower ...

  4. CSIR in aerospace: An engine for future industrial growth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Kavendra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available for industry impact 3 A brief summary of previous and current activities in SA aerospace Argos-II Airborne Observation System SumbandilaSat Satellite 4 RAVIN Light Aircraft JS1 Championship Glider Sling Light Sport Aircraft AIRBUS SUPPLIER... BOEING SUPPLIER SAAB Light Fighter Aircraft Airbus Military Transport Agusta Military Helicopter A brief summary of previous and current activities in SA aerospace A-Darter Short Range Air to Air Missile 5 Test flight centre Alkantpan...

  5. Review of fish diversity in the Lake Huron basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Steen, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lake Huron has a rich aquatic habitat diversity that includes shallow embayments, numerous tributaries, shallow mid-lake reef complexes, archipelagos, and profundal regions. These habitats provide support for warm, cool, and cold water fish communities. Diversity of fishes in Lake Huron reflects post-glaciation colonization events, current climate conditions, accidental and intentional introductions of non-indigenous species, and extinctions. Most extinction events have been largely associated with habitat alterations, exploitation of fisheries, and interactions with non-indigenous species. The most recent historical survey of extirpated and imperiled species conducted in the late 1970s identified 79 fish species in Lake Huron proper and about 50 additional species in tributaries. Of those 129 species, 20 are now considered extirpated or imperiled. Extirpated species include Arctic grayling, paddlefish, weed shiner, deepwater cisco, blackfin cisco, shortnose cisco, and kiyi. Six species have declined appreciably due to loss of clear-water stream habitat: the river redhorse, river darter, black redhorse, pugnose shiner, lake chubsucker, redside dace, eastern sand darter, and channel darter. While numerous agencies, universities, and other organizations routinely monitor nearshore and offshore fish distribution and abundance, there is a need for more rigorous examination of the distribution and abundance of less-common species to better understand their ecology. This information is critical to the development of management plans aimed at ecosystem remediation and restoration.

  6. Los Anhingidae (Aves: Suliformes) del Neógeno de América del Sur: sistemática, filogenia y paleobiología

    OpenAIRE

    Diederle, Juan M.

    2015-01-01

    Los Anhingidae están integrados por aves acuáticas conocidas vulgarmente como anhingas o biguá-víboras (darters o snakebirds en inglés), incluidas en el orden Suliformes. Estas aves llegan a pesar de 1,05-1,81 kg y no tienen dimorfismo sexual en tamaño. Son buenas voladoras y se caracterizan por alternar planeos prolongados y utilizar corrientes termales de aire ascendentes para elevarse. En tierra caminan torpemente, mientras que en el agua pueden nadar y bucear hábilmente propulsadas por su...

  7. Range Roads: Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Natural Resources Conservation Service as Lakeland Series soils. Other surface soils found at Eglin include the Tifton and Troup Series (Albertson et...feet) USCS Class Clay (%) K-Factor Lakeland 0-40 SP-SM 1-8 0.17 40-80 SP, SP-SM 1-6 Tifton 0-16 SM 10-20 0.20 16-34 SM 13-22 34-60 SM...Revised Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 4, Atlanta, GA . April 1998. Jelks, H. L. and K. A. Shawn, 1998. Draft Okaloosa Darter

  8. Estimating species occurrence, abundance, and detection probability using zero-inflated distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Seth J; Freeman, Mary C

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have developed methods to account for imperfect detection of species with either occupancy (presence absence) or count data using replicated sampling. We show how these approaches can be combined to simultaneously estimate occurrence, abundance, and detection probability by specifying a zero-inflated distribution for abundance. This approach may be particularly appropriate when patterns of occurrence and abundance arise from distinct processes operating at differing spatial or temporal scales. We apply the model to two data sets: (1) previously published data for a species of duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and (2) data for a stream fish species, Etheostoma scotti. We show that in these cases, an incomplete-detection zero-inflated modeling approach yields a superior fit to the data than other models. We propose that zero-inflated abundance models accounting for incomplete detection be considered when replicate count data are available.

  9. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed on Percina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, or Gambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  10. Constructing Integrable High-pressure Full-current Free-boundary Stellarator Magnetohydrodynamic Equilibrium Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.; Strickler, D.J.; Hirshman, S.P.; Ku, L-P; Lazarus, E.; Brooks, A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Boozer, A.H.; Fu, G-Y.; Neilson, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schluter currents, diamagnetic currents, and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver [Reiman and Greenside, Comp. Phys. Comm. 43 (1986) 157] which iterate s the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Reiman, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8 (May 2001) 2083

  11. Constructing integrable high-pressure full-current free-boundary stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, S.R.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    For the (non-axisymmetric) stellarator class of plasma confinement devices to be feasible candidates for fusion power stations it is essential that, to a good approximation, the magnetic field lines lie on nested flux surfaces; however, the inherent lack of a continuous symmetry implies that magnetic islands responsible for breaking the smooth topology of the flux surfaces are guaranteed to exist. Thus, the suppression of magnetic islands is a critical issue for stellarator design, particularly for small aspect ratio devices. Pfirsch-Schlueter currents, diamagnetic currents and resonant coil fields contribute to the formation of magnetic islands, and the challenge is to design the plasma and coils such that these effects cancel. Magnetic islands in free-boundary high-pressure full-current stellarator magnetohydrodynamic equilibria are suppressed using a procedure based on the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver (Reiman and Greenside 1986 Comput. Phys. Commun. 43 157) which iterates the equilibrium equations to obtain the plasma equilibrium. At each iteration, changes to a Fourier representation of the coil geometry are made to cancel resonant fields produced by the plasma. The changes are constrained to preserve certain measures of engineering acceptability and to preserve the stability of ideal kink modes. As the iterations continue, the coil geometry and the plasma simultaneously converge to an equilibrium in which the island content is negligible, the plasma is stable to ideal kink modes, and the coils satisfy engineering constraints. The method is applied to a candidate plasma and coil design for the National Compact Stellarator eXperiment (Reiman et al 2001 Phys. Plasma 8 2083). (author)

  12. Extensive dispersal of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex) inferred from genetic marker data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul; Hallerman, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal ecology of most stream fishes is poorly characterised, complicating conservation efforts for these species. We used microsatellite DNA marker data to characterise dispersal patterns and effective population size (Ne) for a population of Roanoke logperchPercina rex, an endangered darter (Percidae). Juveniles and candidate parents were sampled for 2 years at sites throughout the Roanoke River watershed. Dispersal was inferred via genetic assignment tests (ATs), pedigree reconstruction (PR) and estimation of lifetime dispersal distance under a genetic isolation-by-distance model. Estimates of Ne varied from 105 to 1218 individuals, depending on the estimation method. Based on PR, polygamy was frequent in parents of both sexes, with individuals spawning with an average of 2.4 mates. The sample contained 61 half-sibling pairs, but only one parent–offspring pair and no full-sib pairs, which limited our ability to discriminate natal dispersal of juveniles from breeding dispersal of their parents between spawning events. Nonetheless, all methods indicated extensive dispersal. The AT indicated unrestricted dispersal among sites ≤15 km apart, while siblings inferred by the PR were captured an average of 14 km and up to 55 km apart. Model-based estimates of median lifetime dispersal distance (6–24 km, depending on assumptions) bracketed AT and PR estimates, indicating that widely dispersed individuals do, on average, contribute to gene flow. Extensive dispersal of P. rex suggests that darters and other small benthic stream fishes may be unexpectedly mobile. Monitoring and management activities for such populations should encompass entire watersheds to fully capture population dynamics.

  13. Evidence of population resistance to extreme low flows in a fluvial-dependent fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rachel A.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme low streamflows are natural disturbances to aquatic populations. Species in naturally intermittent streams display adaptations that enhance persistence during extreme events; however, the fate of populations in perennial streams during unprecedented low-flow periods is not well-understood. Biota requiring swift-flowing habitats may be especially vulnerable to flow reductions. We estimated the abundance and local survival of a native fluvial-dependent fish species (Etheostoma inscriptum) across 5 years encompassing historic low flows in a sixth-order southeastern USA perennial river. Based on capturemark-recapture data, the study shoal may have acted as a refuge during severe drought, with increased young-of-the-year (YOY) recruitment and occasionally high adult immigration. Contrary to expectations, summer and autumn survival rates (30 days) were not strongly depressed during low-flow periods, despite 25%-80% reductions in monthly discharge. Instead, YOY survival increased with lower minimum discharge and in response to small rain events that increased low-flow variability. Age-1+ fish showed the opposite pattern, with survival decreasing in response to increasing low-flow variability. Results from this population dynamics study of a small fish in a perennial river suggest that fluvial-dependent species can be resistant to extreme flow reductions through enhanced YOY recruitment and high survival

  14. Stream classification of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River System to support modeling of aquatic habitat response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Caroline M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    benefit of hydrological, soil erosion, and coarser ecological modeling. Reach attributes are summarized for each segment. In six subbasins segments are assigned additional attributes about barriers (usually impoundments) to fish migration and stream isolation. Segments in the six sub-basins are also attributed with percent urban area for the watershed upstream from the stream segment for each decade from 2010–2100 from models of urban growth. On a broader scale, for application in a coarse-scale species-response model, the stream-network information is aggregated and summarized by 256 drainage subbasins (Hydrologic Response Units) used for watershed hydrologic and stream-temperature models. A model of soil erodibility based on the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation also was developed at this scale to parameterize a model to evaluate stream condition. The reach-scale network was classified using multivariate clustering based on modeled channel width, valley width, and mean reach gradient as variables. The resulting classification consists of a 6-cluster and a 12-cluster classification for every reach in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint Basin. We present an example of the utility of the classification that was tested using the occurrence of two species of darters and two species of minnows in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, the blackbanded darter and Halloween darter, and the bluestripe shiner and blacktail shiner.

  15. SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT 2000 (SEPTEMBER 2001).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORTORY; PROJECT MANAGER BARBARA COX

    2001-09-27

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) strives for excellence in both its science research and its facility operations. BNL manages its world-class scientific research with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues through its internationally recognized Environmental Management System (EMS) and award-winning community relations program. The Site Environmental Report 2000 (SER) summarizes the status of the Laboratory's environmental programs and performance, including the steady progress towards cleaning up the Laboratory site and fully integrating environmental stewardship into all facets of BNL's mission. BNL's motto, ''Exploring Earth's Mysteries... Protecting its Future,'' describes how the Laboratory approaches its work, with balance between science and the environment. One of the newest initiatives at the Laboratory, the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve, will permanently preserve 530 acres (212 hectares) of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens, a unique ecosystem of forests and wetlands. The Reserve sets aside 10% of BNL property for conservation and ecological research through a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The Reserve provides habitat for approximately 27 endangered, threatened, or species of special concern, including the state-endangered eastern tiger salamander, state-threatened banded sunfish, and swamp darter, along with a number of other species found onsite, such as the wild turkey and red-tailed hawk.

  16. Mist-netting records of some pest and non-pest rice field birds of the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimon Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    An initial survey was conducted to determine the status of bird population in the Muda rice area of Kedah. Sighting records as well as netting and bird ringing in conjunction with Capture-Recapture method were carried out on two occasions during the planting seasons of June 1993 and August 1994, respectively. On the former occasion, a total of 25 birds were captured by mist?netting at Kampung Kangkong, Mucla, of which 14 comprised of grainivores: twelve specimens of baya weavers or ciak tempua, Ploceusphilippinus and two specimens of scaly-breasted munias or, pipit pinang (Lonchura punctulata). Some nine specimens of white-throated kingfisher or pekaka belukar (Halcyon smyrnensis), a magpie robin or murai kampung (Copsychus sauiaris) and a greater painted snipe or meragi (Rostratula benghalensis) were also ringed and released. A 33% recapture success was recorded during the three-day netting period. On the second occasion, some 15 specimens comprising members of Columbidae, Ploceidae, Motacillidae, Alcedinidae, Apodidae and Caprimulgidae were mist-netted at Alor Serdang, Kota Sarang Semut, Muda. Likewise, the highest number netted (7) were the ubiquitous pest and commensal species, viz; baya weavers, ciak urasia and Richards pipit; followed by four white-breasted kingfishers, two peaceful doves, a house swift and a large-tailed nightjar. Details of vital statistics for each specimen captured were recorded and the results of our field observations showed that insectivores and darters were more likely to be netted than waterbirds and ground dwelling species. (Author)

  17. Composition and Dynamics of Migratory and Resident Avian Population in Wintering Wetlands from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve wetlands occurring in four different ecozones in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, were selected for studying the winter composition and dynamics of avian populations. Wetland information was collected from office records of the UP Forest department. Bird populations were estimated by transect method and block-in-flock-in-sector method for woodland and aquatic birds, respectively. Across the twelve selected wetlands a total of 486,182 individuals belonging to 161 species of birds on 15,592 ha were recorded during the winter of 2010-11. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between wetland characteristics and avian populations. Aquatic vegetation, surrounding vegetation, water availability and climate were found as important factors related to avian populations. January was found to be the peak of bird assemblage, while winter times before and after January were the waxing and waning period, respectively. Species richness and species diversity of aquatic birds varied between 18-58 and 1.90-3.20, respectively, and of all bird species between 23-109, and 1.73-3.81, respectively. The density of aquatic birds ranged between 17-384 ha-1. The most common migratory birds in wetlands were Northern Pintail, Common Teal and Greylag Goose. Common resident birds included Asian Openbill, Darter, Little Egret, Common Coot, Little Cormorant, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Indian Pond Heron, Common Moorhen, Purple Swamphen, Cattle Egret, Indian Sarus Crane and White-throated Kingfisher. For improved conservation of aquatic avian fauna, management prescriptions are suggested for wetlands under current management which could also be extended to other wetlands, whereas conservation of avian fauna to be the emphasis.

  18. Status of wetland birds of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary (76036-76046 E and 29052-30000 N, situated in Kurukshetra District of Haryana provides an important wintering ground for a diverse range of wetland birds. This study was carried out from April 2009 to March 2012 to document the diversity of wetland birds. Altogether 57 species of wetland birds belonging to 37 genera and 16 families were recorded from the study area. Family Anatidae dominated the wetland bird community with 13 species. Among recorded species, 33 were winter migrants, two summer migrants and 22 were resident species. The winter migratory birds did not arrive at this wetland in one lot and at one time. Instead, they displayed a definite pattern specific to species for arrival and departure. They appeared at the wetland during mid-October and stayed up to early April. The composition of birds in major feeding guilds in the study area showed that the insectivore guild was the most common with 35.09% species, followed by carnivore (29.82%, omnivore (19.30%, herbivore (10.53% and piscivore (5.26%. Among the birds recorded in this study area, Darter (Anhinga melanogaster and Painted Stork (Mycterialeucocephala were Near Threatened species. Comb Duck (Sarkidiornismelanotos, listed in Appendix II of CITES, was also spotted in the sanctuary. The spotting of these threatened bird species highlights the importance of Chhilchhila Wildlife Sanctuary as a significant wetland bird habitat in Haryana. However, anthropogenic activities like fire wood collection, livestock grazing, cutting of emergent and fringe vegetation and improper management of the wetland are major threats to the ecology of this landscape.

  19. Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River basin, Alabama and Tennessee, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2003-01-01

    Response of fish communities to cropland density and natural environmental setting were evaluated at 20 streams in the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion of the lower Tennessee River Basin during the spring of 1999. Sites were selected to represent a gradient of cropland densities in basins draining about 30 to 100 square miles. Fish communities were sampled by using a combination of seining and electrofishing techniques. A total of 10,550 individual fish, representing 63 species and 15 families, were collected during the study and included the families Cyprinidae (minnows), 18 species; Percidae (perch and darters), 12 species; and Centrarchidae (sunfish), 12 species. Assessments of environmental characteristics, including instream and terrestrial data and land-cover data, were conducted for each site. Instream measurements, such as depth, velocity, substrate type, and embeddedness, were recorded at 3 points across 11 equidistant transects at each site. Terrestrial measurements, such as bank angle, canopy angle, and canopy closure percentage, were made along the stream bank and midchannel areas. Water-quality data collected included pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, water temperature, nutrients, and fecal-indicator bacteria. Substrate embeddedness was the only variable correlated with both cropland density and fish communities (as characterized by ordination scores and several community level metrics). Multivariate and nonparametric correlation techniques were used to evaluate fish-community responses to physical and chemical factors associated with a cropland-density gradient, where the gradient was defined as the percentage of the basin in row crops. Principal component analysis and correspondence analysis suggest that the Eastern Highland Rim Ecoregion is composed of three subgroups of sites based on inherent physical and biological differences. Data for the subgroup containing the largest number of sites were then re-analyzed, revealing that several

  20. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 3, Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    , all streams of sufficient water were sampled using various methods of electroshocking. Two listed species were identified during the surveys: the Allegheny snaketail dragonfly (formerly a C2 federal candidate species found at six of the stream survey sites) and the tangerine darter (a Tennessee state special concern species found at two of the stream survey sites).

  1. Immobilization of free-ranging male pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) with carfentanil citrate and naltrexone hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tuomi, P.A.; Garner, Gerald W.; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2003-01-01

    Collins, CO 80524) was administered by dart with a 10-cm needle to the lumbar region. Most animals received a dose of 2.7 or 3.0 mg of carfentanil. One animal received a second dose after the first syringe apparently burst on impact. Induction times were measured as being the time at which the animal collapsed, failed to respond to external stimuli, or as the time when the darter stood up and moved towards the animal.

  2. Monitoring of endangered Roanoke logperch (Percina rex) in Smith River upstream from the Philpott Reservoir on U.S. Army Corps of Engineers property near Martinsville, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James H.; Angermeier, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to continue annual monitoring of Roanoke logperch (Percina rex), an endangered fish, in the Smith River immediately upstream from Philpott Reservoir. This river reach is owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), which must ensure that appropriate actions are undertaken to aid in recovery of logperch. Monitoring of fish abundance and habitat conditions provides a means for assessing the species’ status and its responses to USACE management actions. The Roanoke logperch is a large darter (Percidae: Etheostomatinae) endemic to the Roanoke, Dan, and Nottoway River basins of Virginia and North Carolina, where it occupies third- to sixth-order streams containing relatively silt-free substrate (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Because of its rarity, small range, and vulnerability to siltation, the Roanoke logperch was listed in 1989 as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) (U.S. Federal Register 54:34468-34472). Within the Dan basin, Roanoke logperch have long been known to occupy the Smith River and one of its largest tributaries, Town Creek (Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994). Logperch also recently were discovered in other tributaries of the Dan River, including North Carolina segments of the Mayo River, Cascade Creek, Big Beaver Island Creek, Wolf Island Creek (William Hester, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, personal commun., 2012). Within the Smith River, Roanoke logperch are present both upstream and downstream from Philpott Reservoir, a hydroelectric and water storage project owned and operated by the USACE. Although logperch have not been observed in the reservoir itself, the species is relatively abundant in a free-flowing, ≈ 2.5-km-long segment of Smith River upstream from the reservoir on USACE property (Lahey and Angermeier, 2006). This segment is bounded on the downstream end by the lentic conditions of the reservoir and on the upstream end by White Falls, a natural waterfall that presumably allows fish passage

  3. The desperate dozen: Fishes on the brink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    as the diamond darter, are now suffering from the same water quality issues that cause harm to humans. Fishes that were once used for commercial gain, such as the Alabama sturgeon, are now too rare for harvest. We have ignored our freshwater to the point where we no longer remember that rivers used to be more common than reservoirs in the Southeast, and our diversity was a resource worth protecting. It is SFC’s goal to use this list to raise awareness of the plight of our freshwater habitats in the Southeast, which include rivers, creeks, wetlands, springs, and caves. The current crisis requires education, communication, and coordination among our neighbors. We have to learn how to prevent harm to our watersheds and develop new collaborations between private and public entities to promote wise development. By highlighting these twelve species, ranging from the spring pygmy sunfish to the Alabama sturgeon, we hope to encourage these partnerships to address the needs of our freshwater animals and hopefully prevent them from slipping quietly into extinction. SFC created a list of the most imperiled southeastern fishes by considering species with the highest risk of extinction. Criteria used, in order of importance, was distribution (a single population ranked highest), low abundance, and severity of threats. After the ranking based on level of imperilment, species were arranged in phylogenetic order so that all would receive equal attention. Experts on each species provided brief accounts on the Desperate Dozen, which include background, distribution, abundance, threats, and proposed conservation actions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) was not consulted in SFC’s identification of the Desperate Dozen fishes, as we intentionally chose to work as an independent scientific panel under the criteria stated above.

  4. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material