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Sample records for greensburg kansas clock

  1. Assessment of Biomass Pelletization Options for Greensburg, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.

    2010-05-01

    This report provides an overview of a technical report on an assessment NREL conducted in Greensburg, Kansas, to identify potential opportunities to develop a biomass pelletization or briquetting plant in the region. See NREL/TP-7A2-45843 for the Executive Summary of this report.

  2. Place attachment among retirees in Greensburg, Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey S; Cartlidge, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    On 4 May 2007 an ef-5 tornado leveled 95 percent of Greensburg, Kansas. Because city leaders encouraged everyone to use “green” building techniques as they rebuilt their homes and businesses, not only has the return to normalcy been exceedingly slow, but some of the town's older residents feel that officials have overlooked their needs. These minor episodes of discord enabled us to learn what features are most important to people in retirement. The features include identifiable landmarks, a space in which to socialize, and age-specific businesses. We assert that the lessons learned in Greensburg are applicable to other communities with a sizable older population. As baby boomers rapidly enter retirement they will seek places to live that are elder friendly and enable them to effectively bond with place. As previous research attests, people who have a strong attachment to place commonly have a good quality of life.

  3. From Tragedy to Triumph: Rebuilding Greensburg, Kansas To Be a 100% Renewable Energy City; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Billman, L.; Wallach, D.

    2010-08-01

    On May 4, 2007, Greensburg, Kansas, was hit by a 1.7-mile wide tornado with 200 mph-plus wind speeds. This tornado destroyed or severely damaged 90% of Greensburg?s structures. We discuss the progress made in rebuilding Greensburg, with a focus on the built environment and on meeting Greensburg?s goal of 100% renewable energy, 100% of the time. We also discuss key disaster recovery efforts that enabled Greensburg to reach this goal. Key strategies included a Sustainable Comprehensive Master Plan, an ordinance resolving that city-owned buildings achieve LEED Platinum and 42% energy savings, a strong focus on rebuilding 'right' with an integrated design process, attracting significant and sustained technical experts and national media attention, and linking renewable and energy efficiency technologies to business development. After three years, more than half the homes that have been rebuilt are rated at an average of 40% energy savings. All significant commercial buildings, including the school, hospital, banks, courthouse, and retail buildings, have been rebuilt to LEED Gold and Platinum standards and exceed 40% savings, with many exceeding 50% savings. Greensburg recently constructed a 12.5-MW community wind farm to provide all the remaining energy needed for its energy-efficient buildings and homes.

  4. NREL Helps Greensburg Set the Model for Green Communities (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-01

    After a massive tornado destroyed or severely damaged 95% of Greensburg, Kansas on May 4, 2007, key leaders in Greensburg and Kansas made a crucial decision not just to rebuild, but to remake the town as a model sustainable rural community. To help achieve that goal, experts from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) arrived in Greensburg in June 2007.

  5. Greensburg, Kansas: A Better, Greener Place to Live (Revised) (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-01

    This Brochure is for Greensburg city leadership (Chamber of Commerce, Mayor's Office, and others) to use to attract visitors and businesses to Greensburg, and to ensure the city?s commitment to sustainability. Content includes EERE subject matter and mentions DOE's role in rebuilding. The layout is designed to be used as a template for other cities in similar situations.

  6. Reaping a Harvest of Hope - Continuum Magazine | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaping a Harvest of Hope On May 4, 2007, an EF-5 tornado-the highest rating of tornados-tore Reaping a Harvest of Hope Five years after a devastating tornado, Greensburg, Kansas, has new energy and a city also relied on NREL's life-cycle cost analysis and its extensive energy project development and

  7. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  8. Kansas Electric Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital representation of the EletcircTransmission lines for the State of Kansas as maintained by the Kansas Corporation Commission. Data is...

  9. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  10. Science programs in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ariele R.; Kelly, Brian P.

    2017-05-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a non-regulatory Earth science agency within the Department of the Interior that provides impartial scientific information to describe and understand the health of our ecosystems and environment; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. The USGS cooperates with Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies in Kansas to deliver long-term data in real-time and interpretive reports describing what those data mean to the public and resource management agencies. USGS science programs in Kansas provide real-time groundwater monitoring at more than 23 locations; streamflow monitoring at more than 218 locations; water-quality and trends in the Little Arkansas and Kansas Rivers; inflows and outflows of sediment to/from reservoirs and in streams; harmful algal bloom research in the Kansas River, Milford Lake, and Cheney Reservoir; water-quantity and water-quality effects of artificial groundwater recharge for the Equus Beds Aquifer Storage and Recovery project near Wichita, Kansas; compilation of Kansas municipal and irrigation water-use data statewide; the occurrence, effects, and movement of environmental pesticides, antibiotics, algal toxins, and taste-and-odor compounds; and funding to the Kansas Water Resources Research Institute to further research and education through Kansas universities.

  11. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Upper Kansas River Watershed Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period as part of a...

  12. Kansas Playa Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital dataset provides information about the distribution, areal extent, and morphometry of playa wetlands throughout western Kansas. Playa wetlands were...

  13. Kansas Rivers TMDL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set includes all the streams in the Kansas 2006 Water Register that have established TMDLs as of October 17, 2006. The impairments and implementation...

  14. Introducing Kansas Lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andy; Bull, Tristan; Kimmell, Garrin; Perrins, Erik; Komp, Ed; Werling, Brett

    Kansas Lava is a domain specific language for hardware description. Though there have been a number of previous implementations of Lava, we have found the design space rich, with unexplored choices. We use a direct (Chalmers style) specification of circuits, and make significant use of Haskell overloading of standard classes, leading to concise circuit descriptions. Kansas Lava supports both simulation (inside GHCi), and execution via VHDL, by having a dual shallow and deep embedding inside our Signal type. We also have a lightweight sized-type mechanism, allowing for MATLAB style matrix based specifications to be directly expressed in Kansas Lava.

  15. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer) and Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  16. Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Cartographic Database (KCD) is an exact digital representation of selected features from the USGS 7.5 minute topographic map series. Features that are...

  17. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, State of Kansas (300m buffer) and Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  18. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  19. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, State of Kansas (300m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  20. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level IV, Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) Mapping Initiative was a two-phase mapping endeavor that occurred over a three-year period (2007-2009). Note that while...

  1. 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns, Level I, Kansas River Watershed (1,000m buffer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The 2005 Kansas Land Cover Patterns map represents Phase 1 of a two-phase mapping initiative occurring over a three-year period. The map is designed to be explicitly...

  2. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  3. Rebuilding for Sustainability: Case Studies in the Making (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billman, L.

    2013-06-01

    NREL has made significant contributions to communities suffering from natural disasters since 2007 in terms of technical assistance regarding energy efficiency and renewable energy options. NREL's work has covered all aspects of energy, including energy opportunities in community planning, policy design, new program design, and specific project design and implementation for energy related to electricity generation, building energy use, and transportation. This presentation highlights work done in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina; Greensburg, Kansas, following a devastating tornado; and New York and New Jersey following Hurricane Sandy.

  4. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  5. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  6. Lego clocks: building a clock from parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Michael; Simons, Mirre J P; Merrow, Martha

    2008-06-01

    A new finding opens up speculation that the molecular mechanism of circadian clocks in Synechococcus elongatus is composed of multiple oscillator systems (Kitayama and colleagues, this issue, pp. 1513-1521), as has been described in many eukaryotic clock model systems. However, an alternative intepretation is that the pacemaker mechanism-as previously suggested-lies primarily in the rate of ATP hydrolysis by the clock protein KaiC.

  7. Regulation of circadian clock transcriptional output by CLOCK:BMAL1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Alexandra J.

    2018-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock relies on the transcription factor CLOCK:BMAL1 to coordinate the rhythmic expression of 15% of the transcriptome and control the daily regulation of biological functions. The recent characterization of CLOCK:BMAL1 cistrome revealed that although CLOCK:BMAL1 binds synchronously to all of its target genes, its transcriptional output is highly heterogeneous. By performing a meta-analysis of several independent genome-wide datasets, we found that the binding of other transcription factors at CLOCK:BMAL1 enhancers likely contribute to the heterogeneity of CLOCK:BMAL1 transcriptional output. While CLOCK:BMAL1 rhythmic DNA binding promotes rhythmic nucleosome removal, it is not sufficient to generate transcriptionally active enhancers as assessed by H3K27ac signal, RNA Polymerase II recruitment, and eRNA expression. Instead, the transcriptional activity of CLOCK:BMAL1 enhancers appears to rely on the activity of ubiquitously expressed transcription factors, and not tissue-specific transcription factors, recruited at nearby binding sites. The contribution of other transcription factors is exemplified by how fasting, which effects several transcription factors but not CLOCK:BMAL1, either decreases or increases the amplitude of many rhythmically expressed CLOCK:BMAL1 target genes. Together, our analysis suggests that CLOCK:BMAL1 promotes a transcriptionally permissive chromatin landscape that primes its target genes for transcription activation rather than directly activating transcription, and provides a new framework to explain how environmental or pathological conditions can reprogram the rhythmic expression of clock-controlled genes. PMID:29300726

  8. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  9. Relativistic Ideal Clock

    OpenAIRE

    Bratek, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...

  10. 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — In 2008, an update of the 1990 Kansas Land Cover Patterns (KLCP) database was undertaken. The 1990 KLCP database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State...

  11. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EL13-84-000] Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest... 306 of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824e and 825e and Rule 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  12. Enactment of mandatory pharmacy technician certification in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Amber; Massey, Lindsay; Gill, Taylor; Burger, Gregory; Little, Jeff D

    2016-02-01

    The successful enactment of mandatory pharmacy technician certification in Kansas is described. In 2004, Kansas began requiring registration of all pharmacy technicians with the state board of pharmacy. Registration identified individuals working as pharmacy technicians but did not require any specific education or certification. In September 2012, the Kansas Board of Pharmacy created a task force of key stakeholders including pharmacists from multiple areas of practice, the University of Kansas School of Pharmacy, organizational leaders from the Kansas Council of Health-System Pharmacists (KCHP) and Kansas Pharmacists Association, and professional lobbyists. The goals of this task force were to research practices of technician certification in other states and to make recommendations to the state board of pharmacy on how Kansas could accomplish mandatory technician certification. The task force outlined the steps needed to achieve legislation that could be supported by the members. These topics included the creation of a technician trainee category, grandfathering certain technicians who had been practicing for a designated period of time, state board-approved exemptions, training requirements, age and education requirements, continuing-education requirements, and pharmacist:technician ratio. The recommendations were finalized at the August 2013 Kansas Pharmacy Summit, and the proposed legislation was introduced and passed during the 2014 legislative session. KCHP members learned many valuable lessons about advocacy and the legislative process with this initiative, including building relationships, working with legislators, and working with other professional organizations. The formation of a task force led to the successful passage of a bill granting the Kansas Board of Pharmacy the authority to issue regulations regarding mandatory pharmacy technician certification. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID) 2004-2005 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM)...

  14. Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Kansas City Plant is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. AlliedSignal and its predecessors have been the operating contractors since 1949. The principal operation performed at the Kansas City Plant is the manufacture of non-nuclear components for nuclear weapons. This activity involves metals and plastics machining, plastics fabrication, plating, microelectronics, and electrical and mechanical assembly. No radioactive materials are machined or processed. This report presents information and data pertaining to the environmental monitoring program and compliance with environmental standards

  15. High Precision Clock Bias Prediction Model in Clock Synchronization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Time synchronization is a fundamental requirement for many services provided by a distributed system. Clock calibration through the time signal is the usual way to realize the synchronization among the clocks used in the distributed system. The interference to time signal transmission or equipment failures may bring about failure to synchronize the time. To solve this problem, a clock bias prediction module is paralleled in the clock calibration system. And for improving the precision of clock bias prediction, the first-order grey model with one variable (GM(1,1 model is proposed. In the traditional GM(1,1 model, the combination of parameters determined by least squares criterion is not optimal; therefore, the particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to optimize GM(1,1 model. At the same time, in order to avoid PSO getting stuck at local optimization and improve its efficiency, the mechanisms that double subgroups and nonlinear decreasing inertia weight are proposed. In order to test the precision of the improved model, we design clock calibration experiments, where time signal is transferred via radio and wired channel, respectively. The improved model is built on the basis of clock bias acquired in the experiments. The results show that the improved model is superior to other models both in precision and in stability. The precision of improved model increased by 66.4%~76.7%.

  16. Kansas Water Quality Action Targeting System (KATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This system is a revision of the original KATS system developed in 1990 as a tool to aid resource managers target Kansas valuable and vulnerable water resources for...

  17. Endangered Fish Species in Kansas: Historic vs Contemporary Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas state has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. Based on recent count, more than 140 fishes have been documented in Kansas rivers. And at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and thre...

  18. History of natural flows--Kansas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Elwood R.

    1958-01-01

    Through its Water Resources Division, the United States Geological Survey has become the major water-resources historian for the nation. The Geological Survey's collection of streamflow records in Kansas began on a very small scale in 1895 in response to some early irrigation interest, Since that time the program has grown, and we now have about 21 350 station-years of record accumulated. A station-year of record is defined as a continuous record of flow collected at a fixed point for a period of one year. Volume of data at hand, however, is not in itself an, adequate measure of its usefullness. An important element in historical streamflow data which enhances its value as a tool for the prediction of the future is the length of continuous records available in the area being studied. The records should be of sufficient length that they may be regarded as a reasonable sample of what has gone before and may be expected in the future. Table 1 gives a graphical inventory of the available streamflow records in Kansas. It shows that, in general, there is a fair coverage of stations with records of about thirty-seven years in length, This is not a long period as history goes but it does include considerable experience with floods and droughts.Although a large quantity of data on Kansas streamflow has been accumulated, hydrologists and planning engineers find that stream flow information for many areas of the State is considerably less than adequate. The problem of obtaining adequate coverage has been given careful study by the Kansas Water Resources Board in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey and a report entitled "Development of A Balanced Stream-Gaging Program For Kansas", has been published by the Board as Bulletin No. 4, That report presents an analysis of the existing stream-gaging program and recommendations for a program to meet the rapidly expanding needs for more comprehensive basic data.The Kansas River is formed near Junction City, Kansas, by the

  19. Kansas Adult Observational Safety Belt Usage Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Methodology of Adult Survey - based on the federal guidelines in the Uniform Criteria manual. The Kansas survey is performed at 548 sites on 6 different road types in 20 randomly selected counties which encompass 85% of the population of Kansas. The ...

  20. Clock Drawing in Spatial Neglect: A Comprehensive Analysis of Clock Perimeter, Placement, and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.

    2012-01-01

    Clock drawings produced by right-brain-damaged (RBD) individuals with spatial neglect often contain an abundance of empty space on the left while numbers and hands are placed on the right. However, the clock perimeter is rarely compromised in neglect patients’ drawings. By analyzing clock drawings produced by 71 RBD and 40 healthy adults, this study investigated whether the geometric characteristics of the clock perimeter reveal novel insights to understanding spatial neglect. Neglect participants drew smaller clocks than either healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. While healthy participants’ clock perimeter was close to circular, RBD participants drew radially extended ellipses. The mechanisms for these phenomena were investigated by examining the relation between clock-drawing characteristics and performance on six subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT). The findings indicated that the clock shape was independent of any BIT subtest or the drawing placement on the test sheet and that the clock size was significantly predicted by one BIT subtest: the poorer the figure and shape copying, the smaller the clock perimeter. Further analyses revealed that in all participants, clocks decreased in size as they were placed farther from the center of the paper. However, even when neglect participants placed their clocks towards the center of the page, they were smaller than those produced by healthy or non-neglect RBD participants. These results suggest a neglect-specific reduction in the subjectively available workspace for graphic production from memory, consistent with the hypothesis that neglect patients are impaired in the ability to enlarge the attentional aperture. PMID:22390278

  1. A GPS Satellite Clock Offset Prediction Method Based on Fitting Clock Offset Rates Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fuhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a satellite atomic clock offset prediction method based on fitting and modeling clock offset rates data. This method builds quadratic model or linear model combined with periodic terms to fit the time series of clock offset rates, and computes the model coefficients of trend with the best estimation. The clock offset precisely estimated at the initial prediction epoch is directly adopted to calculate the model coefficient of constant. The clock offsets in the rapid ephemeris (IGR provided by IGS are used as modeling data sets to perform certain experiments for different types of GPS satellite clocks. The results show that the clock prediction accuracies of the proposed method for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h achieve 0.43, 0.58, 0.90 and 1.47 ns respectively, which outperform the traditional prediction method based on fitting original clock offsets by 69.3%, 61.8%, 50.5% and 37.2%. Compared with the IGU real-time clock products provided by IGS, the prediction accuracies of the new method have improved about 15.7%, 23.7%, 27.4% and 34.4% respectively.

  2. Ecoregions of Kansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a...

  3. My Kansas Library on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a technology consultant for the Northeast Kansas Library System (NEKLS), shares the story of how the Kansas Library on the Web (KLOW) program was created. KLOW's story begins with the initial startup fund finding and the enthusiasm of the six pilot libraries. The middle of the story has to do with building a flexible,…

  4. Prediction of GNSS satellite clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broederbauer, V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characterisation and prediction of GNSS-satellite-clocks. A prerequisite to develop powerful algorithms for the prediction of clock-corrections is the thorough study of the behaviour of the different clock-types of the satellites. In this context the predicted part of the IGU-clock-corrections provided by the Analysis Centers (ACs) of the IGS was compared to the IGS-Rapid-clock solutions to determine reasonable estimates of the quality of already existing well performing predictions. For the shortest investigated interval (three hours) all ACs obtain almost the same accuracy of 0,1 to 0,4 ns. For longer intervals the individual predictions results start to diverge. Thus, for a 12-hours- interval the differences range from nearly 10 ns (GFZ, CODE) until up to some 'tens of ns'. Based on the estimated clock corrections provided via the IGS Rapid products a simple quadratic polynomial turns out to be sufficient to describe the time series of Rubidium-clocks. On the other hand Cesium-clocks show a periodical behaviour (revolution period) with an amplitude of up to 6 ns. A clear correlation between these amplitudes and the Sun elevation angle above the orbital planes can be demonstrated. The variability of the amplitudes is supposed to be caused by temperature-variations affecting the oscillator. To account for this periodical behaviour a quadratic polynomial with an additional sinus-term was finally chosen as prediction model both for the Cesium as well as for the Rubidium clocks. The three polynomial-parameters as well as amplitude and phase shift of the periodic term are estimated within a least-square-adjustment by means of program GNSS-VC/static. Input-data are time series of the observed part of the IGU clock corrections. With the estimated parameters clock-corrections are predicted for various durations. The mean error of the prediction of Rubidium-clock-corrections for an interval of six hours reaches up to 1,5 ns. For the 12-hours

  5. ASTER 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  6. MODIS 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  7. A Kansas Integrated Commercialization Information Network (KICIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, C.; And Others

    A consortium of Kansas economic development service providers is building a web of virtual satellite offices that will demonstrate the delivery of economic development services in all areas of Kansas. These "offices" will use the Internet and a novel information delivery system to reach small and medium-sized businesses and individuals…

  8. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joan F.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes water-use data collection and quantities of surface water and groundwater diverted for public supply in Kansas for the years 1990 through 2012. Data used in this fact sheet are from the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources and the Kansas Water Office. Water used for public supply represents about 10 percent of all reported water withdrawals in Kansas. Between 1990 and 2012, annual withdrawals for public supply ranged from a low of 121 billion gallons in 1993 to a high of 159 billion gallons in 2012. Differences in annual withdrawals were associated primarily with climatic fluctuations. Six suppliers distributed about one-half of the total water withdrawn for public supply, and nearly three-quarters of the surface water. Surface water represented between 52 and 61 percent of total annual withdrawals for public supply. The proportion of surface water obtained through contracts from Federal reservoirs increased from less than 5 percent in the 1990s to 8 percent in 2011 and 2012. More than 99 percent of the reported water withdrawn for public supply in Kansas in 2012 was metered, which was an increase from 92 percent in 1990. State population increased steadily from 2.5 million people in 1990 to 2.9 million in 2012. Recent estimates indicate that about 95 percent of the total population was served by public water supply; the remainder obtained water from other sources such as private wells. Average per capita water use as calculated for State conservation planning purposes varied by region of the State. The smallest regional average water use for the years 1990–2012 was 98 gallons per person per day in easternmost Kansas, and the largest regional average water use was 274 gallons per person per day in westernmost Kansas.

  9. Physiological links of circadian clock and biological clock of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chang, Hung-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles. With aging, circadian desynchrony occurs at the expense of peripheral metabolic pathologies and central neurodegenerative disorders with sleep symptoms, and genetic ablation of circadian genes in model organisms resembled the aging-related features. Notably, a number of studies have linked longevity nutrient sensing pathways in modulating circadian clocks. Therapeutic strategies that bridge the nutrient sensing pathways and circadian clock might be rational designs to defy aging.

  10. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Kansas City Quadrangle of Kansas and Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Kansas City quadrangle covers approximately 7400 square miles in northwestern Missouri and northeastern Kansas. It overlies the southeastern edge of the Forest City Basin, which contains predominantly Paleozoic sediments. Permian and Pennsylvanian formations cover much of the surface, but Quaternary sedimentation dominates certain regions of the quadrangle. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 102 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant and all appear to be related to cultural features. Magnetic data appears to correlate directly with underlying Precambrian material

  11. Entanglement of quantum clocks through gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Ruiz, Esteban; Giacomini, Flaminia; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-03-21

    In general relativity, the picture of space-time assigns an ideal clock to each world line. Being ideal, gravitational effects due to these clocks are ignored and the flow of time according to one clock is not affected by the presence of clocks along nearby world lines. However, if time is defined operationally, as a pointer position of a physical clock that obeys the principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics, such a picture is, at most, a convenient fiction. Specifically, we show that the general relativistic mass-energy equivalence implies gravitational interaction between the clocks, whereas the quantum mechanical superposition of energy eigenstates leads to a nonfixed metric background. Based only on the assumption that both principles hold in this situation, we show that the clocks necessarily get entangled through time dilation effect, which eventually leads to a loss of coherence of a single clock. Hence, the time as measured by a single clock is not well defined. However, the general relativistic notion of time is recovered in the classical limit of clocks.

  12. Landsat TM and ETM+ Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2000-2001 consists of terrain-corrected, precision rectified spring, summer, and fall Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and...

  13. A Light Clock Satisfying the Clock Hypothesis of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The design of the FMEL, a floor-mirrored Einstein-Langevin "light clock", is introduced. The clock provides a physically intuitive manner to calculate and visualize the time dilation effects for a spatially extended set of observers (an accelerated "frame") undergoing unidirectional acceleration or observers on a rotating cylinder of constant…

  14. Kansas Protects and Restores Wetlands, Streams and Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland Program Development Grant (WPDG) in 2007 when the Kansas State Conservation Commission began identifying team members interested in developing a framework for a comprehensive Kansas Wetland and Aquatic Resources Conservation Plan.

  15. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  16. Uncertainty and control in the context of a category-five tornado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Walid A; Afifi, Tamara D; Merrill, Annie

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to illuminate the experience and management of uncertainty during a natural disaster. Interviews were conducted with 26 survivors of a category-five tornado that entirely demolished the small, rural town of Greensburg, Kansas. Three primary themes were found in the survivors' accounts. First, the survivors experienced rapidly shifting levels and kinds of uncertainty as they proceeded through the stages of the disaster. Second, the fluidity of much-needed information added to uncertainty. Third, the feeling of lack of control over outcomes of the disaster and its aftermath was pervasive and was often managed through reliance on communal coping. Recommendations for disaster-related intervention programs are suggested. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Circadian clock, cell cycle and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Özbayer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a few rhythms of our daily lives that we are under the influence. One of them is characterized by predictable changes over a 24-hour timescale called circadian clock. This cellular clock is coordinated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the anterior hypothalamus. The clock consist of an autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loop compose of four genes/proteins; BMAL1, Clock, Cyrptochrome, and Period. BMAL 1 and Clock are transcriptional factors and Period and Cyrptochrome are their targets. Period and Cyrptochrome dimerize in the cytoplasm to enter the nucleus where they inhibit Clock/BMAL activity.It has been demonstrate that circadian clock plays an important role cellular proliferation, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, checkpoints, apoptosis and cancer.

  18. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  19. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  20. Controllable clock circuit design in PEM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunhua; Wang Peihua; Hu Tingting; Feng Baotong; Shuai Lei; Huang Huan; Wei Shujun; Li Ke; Zhao Jingwei; Wei Long

    2011-01-01

    A high-precision synchronized clock circuit design will be presented, which can supply steady, reliable and anti-jamming clock signal for the data acquirement (DAQ) system of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM). This circuit design is based on the Single-Chip Microcomputer and high-precision clock chip, and can achieve multiple controllable clock signals. The jamming between the clock signals can be reduced greatly with the differential transmission. Meanwhile, the adoption of CAN bus control in the clock circuit can prompt the clock signals to be transmitted or masked simultaneously when needed. (authors)

  1. Controllable clock circuit design in PEM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yunhua; Wang Peilin; Hu Tingting; Feng Baotong; Shuai Lei; Huang Huan; Wei Shujun; Li Ke; Zhao Jingwei; Wei Long

    2010-01-01

    A high-precision synchronized clock circuit design will be presented, which can supply steady, reliable and anti-jamming clock signal for the data acquirement (DAQ) system of Positron Emission Mammography (PEM). This circuit design is based on the Single-Chip Microcomputer and high-precision clock chip, and can achieve multiple controllable clock signals. The jamming between the clock signals can be reduced greatly with the differential transmission. Meanwhile, the adoption of CAN bus control in the clock circuit can prompt the clock signals to be transmitted or masked simultaneously when needed. (authors)

  2. Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC, a subsidiary of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., for alleged violations at its facilities at 8012 East Truman Rd., Kansas C

  3. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  4. Kansas's forests, 2005: statistics, methods, and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; W. Keith Moser; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Kansas's forests was completed in 2005 after 8,868 plots were selected and 468 forested plots were visited and measured. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods and data quality estimates. Important resource statistics are included in the tables. A detailed analysis of Kansas inventory is presented...

  5. Streamflow alteration at selected sites in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Eng, Ken

    2017-06-26

    An understanding of streamflow alteration in response to various disturbances is necessary for the effective management of stream habitat for a variety of species in Kansas. Streamflow alteration can have negative ecological effects. Using a modeling approach, streamflow alteration was assessed for 129 selected U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the State for which requisite streamflow and basin-characteristic information was available. The assessment involved a comparison of the observed condition from 1980 to 2015 with the predicted expected (least-disturbed) condition for 29 streamflow metrics. The metrics represent various characteristics of streamflow including average flow (annual, monthly) and low and high flow (frequency, duration, magnitude).Streamflow alteration in Kansas was indicated locally, regionally, and statewide. Given the absence of a pronounced trend in annual precipitation in Kansas, a precipitation-related explanation for streamflow alteration was not supported. Thus, the likely explanation for streamflow alteration was human activity. Locally, a flashier flow regime (typified by shorter lag times and more frequent and higher peak discharges) was indicated for three streamgages with urbanized basins that had higher percentages of impervious surfaces than other basins in the State. The combination of localized reservoir effects and regional groundwater pumping from the High Plains aquifer likely was responsible, in part, for diminished conditions indicated for multiple streamflow metrics in western and central Kansas. Statewide, the implementation of agricultural land-management practices to reduce runoff may have been responsible, in part, for a diminished duration and magnitude of high flows. In central and eastern Kansas, implemented agricultural land-management practices may have been partly responsible for an inflated magnitude of low flows at several sites.

  6. KANSAS KIDS COUNT Data Book, 2000: Kansas Children at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This KIDS COUNT Data Book provides state and county data on the well-being of Kansas' children. The statistical portrait is based on 22 indicators of well-being: (1) births to single teens; (2) children living in poverty; (3) children receiving free school meals; (4) children in families receiving economic assistance; (5) childhood deaths; (6)…

  7. Automatic control of clock duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoxin (Inventor); Roper, Weston (Inventor); Seefeldt, James D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In general, this disclosure is directed to a duty cycle correction (DCC) circuit that adjusts a falling edge of a clock signal to achieve a desired duty cycle. In some examples, the DCC circuit may generate a pulse in response to a falling edge of an input clock signal, delay the pulse based on a control voltage, adjust the falling edge of the input clock signal based on the delayed pulse to produce an output clock signal, and adjust the control voltage based on the difference between a duty cycle of the output clock signal and a desired duty cycle. Since the DCC circuit adjusts the falling edge of the clock cycle to achieve a desired duty cycle, the DCC may be incorporated into existing PLL control loops that adjust the rising edge of a clock signal without interfering with the operation of such PLL control loops.

  8. Atomic and gravitational clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York; Goldman, I.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous-whose rates are related by a non-constant function βsub(a)-is demonstrated. The cosmological character of βsub(a) is also discussed. (author)

  9. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  10. A VMEbus clock system for accelerator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beechy, D.G.; McClure, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Because an accelerator has many systems which must operate with a high degree of synchronization, a clock signal is typically generated which carries timing information to the various accelerator components. This paper discusses two VMEbus modules designed to generate and receive this clock signal. Together they implement a clock system which can generate timing markers with 200 nanosecond resolution and can generate timing delays of over one hour with one microsecond resolution. The Clock Generator module contains both a time line generator programmed to produce clock events at specific times and eight programmable input channels to produce clock events when externally triggered. Additional clock events are generated directly from the VMEbus. Generators can be cascaded for added capability. The Clock Timer module receives the signal from the generator. It can be programmed to recognize specific clock events which act as triggers to the eight timing channels on the module. Each timing channel is programmed with a 32-bit delay value. The channels are clocked at 1 MHz. At the end of the delay period, a timer channel produces an output pulse and optionally can generate a bus interrupt

  11. An analysis of clock-shift experiments: is scatter increased and deflection reduced in clock-shifted homing pigeons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell

    1997-01-01

    Clock-shifting (altering the phase of the internal clock) in homing pigeons leads to a deflection in the vanishing bearing of the clock-shifted group relative to controls. However, two unexplained phenomena are common in clock-shift experiments: the vanishing bearings of the clock-shifted group are often more scattered (with a shorter vector length) than those of the control group, and the deflection of the mean bearing of the clock-shifted group from that of the controls is often smaller than expected theoretically. Here, an analysis of 55 clock-shift experiments performed in four countries over 21 years is reported. The bearings of the clock-shifted groups were significantly more scattered than those of controls and less deflected than expected, but these effects were not significantly different at familiar and unfamiliar sites. The possible causes of the effects are discussed and evaluated with reference to this analysis and other experiments. The most likely causes appear to be conflict between the directions indicated by the sun compass and either unshifted familiar visual landmarks (at familiar sites only) or the unshifted magnetic compass (possible at both familiar and unfamiliar sites).

  12. Molecular cogs of the insect circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasu, Naoto; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Tominaga, Yoshiya; Shimohigashi, Miki

    2003-08-01

    During the last five years, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of circadian systems, mainly by molecular genetic studies using the mouse and fly. Extensive evidence has revealed that the core clock machinery involves "clock genes" and "clock proteins" functioning as molecular cogs. These participate in transcriptional/translational feedback loops and many homologous clock-components in the fruit fly Drosophila are also expressed in mammalian clock tissues with circadian rhythms. Thus, the mechanisms of the central clock seem to be conserved across animal kingdom. However, some recent studies imply that the present widely accepted molecular models of circadian clocks may not always be supported by the experimental evidence.

  13. High Performance Clocks and Gravity Field Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J.; Dirkx, D.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Lion, G.; Panet, I.; Petit, G.; Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Time measured by an ideal clock crucially depends on the gravitational potential and velocity of the clock according to general relativity. Technological advances in manufacturing high-precision atomic clocks have rapidly improved their accuracy and stability over the last decade that approached the level of 10^{-18}. This notable achievement along with the direct sensitivity of clocks to the strength of the gravitational field make them practically important for various geodetic applications that are addressed in the present paper. Based on a fully relativistic description of the background gravitational physics, we discuss the impact of those highly-precise clocks on the realization of reference frames and time scales used in geodesy. We discuss the current definitions of basic geodetic concepts and come to the conclusion that the advances in clocks and other metrological technologies will soon require the re-definition of time scales or, at least, clarification to ensure their continuity and consistent use in practice. The relative frequency shift between two clocks is directly related to the difference in the values of the gravity potential at the points of clock's localization. According to general relativity the relative accuracy of clocks in 10^{-18} is equivalent to measuring the gravitational red shift effect between two clocks with the height difference amounting to 1 cm. This makes the clocks an indispensable tool in high-precision geodesy in addition to laser ranging and space geodetic techniques. We show how clock measurements can provide geopotential numbers for the realization of gravity-field-related height systems and can resolve discrepancies in classically-determined height systems as well as between national height systems. Another application of clocks is the direct use of observed potential differences for the improved recovery of regional gravity field solutions. Finally, clock measurements for space-borne gravimetry are analyzed along with

  14. Atomic clocks for geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlstäubler, Tanja E.; Grosche, Gesine; Lisdat, Christian; Schmidt, Piet O.; Denker, Heiner

    2018-06-01

    We review experimental progress on optical atomic clocks and frequency transfer, and consider the prospects of using these technologies for geodetic measurements. Today, optical atomic frequency standards have reached relative frequency inaccuracies below 10‑17, opening new fields of fundamental and applied research. The dependence of atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential makes atomic clocks ideal candidates for the search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new gravity field sensors. In this review, we introduce the concepts of optical atomic clocks and present the status of international clock development and comparison. Besides further improvement in stability and accuracy of today’s best clocks, a large effort is put into increasing the reliability and technological readiness for applications outside of specialized laboratories with compact, portable devices. With relative frequency uncertainties of 10‑18, comparisons of optical frequency standards are foreseen to contribute together with satellite and terrestrial data to the precise determination of fundamental height reference systems in geodesy with a resolution at the cm-level. The long-term stability of atomic standards will deliver excellent long-term height references for geodetic measurements and for the modelling and understanding of our Earth.

  15. Circadian rhythms and light responsiveness of mammalian clock gene, Clock and BMAL1, transcripts in the rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namihira, M; Honma, S; Abe, H; Tanahashi, Y; Ikeda, M; Honma, K

    1999-08-13

    Circadian expression and light-responsiveness of the mammalian clock genes, Clock and BMAL1, in the rat retina were examined by in situ hydbribization under constant darkness. A small but significant daily variation was detected in the Clock transcript level, but not in BMAL1. Light increased the Clock and BMAL1 expressions significantly when examined 60 min after exposure. The light-induced gene expression was phase-dependent for Clock and peaked at ZT2, while rather constant throughout the day for BMAL1. These findings suggest that Clock and BMAL1 play different roles in the generation of circadian rhytm in the retina from those in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Different roles are also suggested between the two genes in the photic signal transduction in the retina.

  16. 76 FR 63940 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Kansas resulting from flooding... Act for Public Assistance and Hazard Mitigation will be limited to 75 percent of the total eligible... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Kansas (FEMA-4035-DR), dated September 23, 2011, and related...

  17. Light and the human circadian clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas; Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Allebrandt, Karla V

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock can only reliably fulfil its function if it is stably entrained. Most clocks use the light-dark cycle as environmental signal (zeitgeber) for this active synchronisation. How we think about clock function and entrainment has been strongly influenced by the early concepts of the

  18. A network of (autonomic) clock outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Perreau-Lenz, S.; Buijs, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each dependent on the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. A major question is still how these individual oscillators are organized into a biological clock that

  19. Towards Self-Clocked Gated OCDMA Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S.; Osadola, T.; Glesk, I.

    2013-02-01

    A novel incoherent OCDMA receiver with incorporated all-optical clock recovery for self-synchronization of a time gate for the multi access interferences (MAI) suppression and minimizing the effect of data time jitter in incoherent OCDMA system was successfully developed and demonstrated. The solution was implemented and tested in a multiuser environment in an out of the laboratory OCDMA testbed with two-dimensional wavelength-hopping time-spreading coding scheme and OC-48 (2.5 Gbp/s) data rate. The self-clocked all-optical time gate uses SOA-based fibre ring laser optical clock, recovered all-optically from the received OCDMA traffic to control its switching window for cleaning the autocorrelation peak from the surrounding MAI. A wider eye opening was achieved when the all-optically recovered clock from received data was used for synchronization if compared to a static approach with the RF clock being generated by a RF synthesizer. Clean eye diagram was also achieved when recovered clock is used to drive time gating.

  20. Landsat TM and ETM+ 2002-2003 Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Satellite Image Database (KSID):2002-2003 consists of image data gathered by three sensors. The first image data are terrain-corrected, precision...

  1. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  2. Could Atomic clocks be affected by neutrinos?

    CERN Document Server

    Hanafi, Hanaa

    2016-01-01

    An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electronic transition frequency of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard in order to derive a time standard since time is the reciprocal of frequency. If the electronic transition frequencies are in an "optical region", we are talking in this case about optical atomic clocks. If they are in an "microwave region" these atomic clocks are made of the metallic element cesium so they are called Cesium atomic clocks. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known despite the different perturbations that can affect them, a lot of researches were made in this domain to show how the transitions can be different for different type of perturbations..Since atomic clocks are very sensitive devices, based on coherent states (A coherent state tends to loose coherence after interacting). One question can arise (from a lot of questions) which is why cosmic neutrinos are not affecting these clocks? The answer to this question requir...

  3. A network of (autonomic) clock outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Perreau-Lenz, S.; Buijs, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) is composed of thousands of oscillator neurons, each of which is dependent on the cell-autonomous action of a defined set of circadian clock genes. A major question is still how these individual oscillators are organized into a biological clock

  4. Fate and transport of cyanobacteria and associated toxins and taste-and-odor compounds from upstream reservoir releases in the Kansas River, Kansas, September and October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Loving, Brian L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria cause a multitude of water-quality concerns, including the potential to produce toxins and taste-and-odor compounds. Toxins and taste-and-odor compounds may cause substantial economic and public health concerns and are of particular interest in lakes, reservoirs, and rivers that are used for drinking-water supply, recreation, or aquaculture. The Kansas River is a primary source of drinking water for about 800,000 people in northeastern Kansas. Water released from Milford Lake to the Kansas River during a toxic cyanobacterial bloom in late August 2011 prompted concerns about cyanobacteria and associated toxins and taste-and-odor compounds in downstream drinking-water supplies. During September and October 2011 water-quality samples were collected to characterize the transport of cyanobacteria and associated compounds from upstream reservoirs to the Kansas River. This study is one of the first to quantitatively document the transport of cyanobacteria and associated compounds during reservoir releases and improves understanding of the fate and transport of cyanotoxins and taste-and-odor compounds downstream from reservoirs. Milford Lake was the only reservoir in the study area with an ongoing cyanobacterial bloom during reservoir releases. Concentrations of cyanobacteria and associated toxins and taste-and-odor compounds in Milford Lake (upstream from the dam) were not necessarily indicative of outflow conditions (below the dam). Total microcystin concentrations, one of the most commonly occurring cyanobacterial toxins, in Milford Lake were 650 to 7,500 times higher than the Kansas Department of Health and Environment guidance level for a public health warning (20 micrograms per liter) for most of September 2011. By comparison, total microcystin concentrations in the Milford Lake outflow generally were less than 10 percent of the concentrations in surface accumulations, and never exceeded 20 micrograms per liter. The Republican River, downstream from

  5. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  6. Ramona, Kansas, Corrective Action Monitoring Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report describes groundwater monitoring in 2015 for the property at Ramona, Kansas, on which a grain storage facility was formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). The monitoring was implemented on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory and was conducted as specified in the Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Plan (Argonne 2012) approved by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2012).

  7. Circadian clocks, epigenetics, and cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Masri, Selma; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between circadian rhythm and cancer has been suggested for more than a decade based on the observations that shift work and cancer incidence are linked. Accumulating evidence implicates the circadian clock in cancer survival and proliferation pathways. At the molecular level, multiple control mechanisms have been proposed to link circadian transcription and cell-cycle control to tumorigenesis.The circadian gating of the cell cycle and subsequent control of cell proliferation is an area of active investigation. Moreover, the circadian clock is a transcriptional system that is intricately regulated at the epigenetic level. Interestingly, the epigenetic landscape at the level of histone modifications, DNA methylation, and small regulatory RNAs are differentially controlled in cancer cells. This concept raises the possibility that epigenetic control is a common thread linking the clock with cancer, though little scientific evidence is known to date.This review focuses on the link between circadian clock and cancer, and speculates on the possible connections at the epigenetic level that could further link the circadian clock to tumor initiation or progression.

  8. Pitfalls of Insulin Pump Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to raise awareness about the importance of ensuring that insulin pumps internal clocks are set up correctly at all times. This is a very important safety issue because all commercially available insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled (though this is controversial), nor equipped with automatically adjusting internal clocks. Special attention is paid to how basal and bolus dose errors can be introduced by daylight savings time changes, travel across time zones, and am-pm clock errors. Correct setting of insulin pump internal clock is crucial for appropriate insulin delivery. A comprehensive literature review is provided, as are illustrative cases. Incorrect setting can potentially result in incorrect insulin delivery, with potential harmful consequences, if too much or too little insulin is delivered. Daylight saving time changes may not significantly affect basal insulin delivery, given the triviality of the time difference. However, bolus insulin doses can be dramatically affected. Such problems may occur when pump wearers have large variations in their insulin to carb ratio, especially if they forget to change their pump clock in the spring. More worrisome than daylight saving time change is the am-pm clock setting. If this setting is set up incorrectly, both basal rates and bolus doses will be affected. Appropriate insulin delivery through insulin pumps requires correct correlation between dose settings and internal clock time settings. Because insulin pumps are not GPS-enabled or automatically time-adjusting, extra caution should be practiced by patients to ensure correct time settings at all times. Clinicians and diabetes educators should verify the date/time of insulin pumps during patients’ visits, and should remind their patients to always verify these settings. PMID:25355713

  9. GPS satellite clock determination in case of inter-frequency clock biases for triple-frequency precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiang; Geng, Jianghui

    2017-12-01

    Significant time-varying inter-frequency clock biases (IFCBs) within GPS observations prevent the application of the legacy L1/L2 ionosphere-free clock products on L5 signals. Conventional approaches overcoming this problem are to estimate L1/L5 ionosphere-free clocks in addition to their L1/L2 counterparts or to compute IFCBs between the L1/L2 and L1/L5 clocks which are later modeled through a harmonic analysis. In contrast, we start from the undifferenced uncombined GNSS model and propose an alternative approach where a second satellite clock parameter dedicated to the L5 signals is estimated along with the legacy L1/L2 clock. In this manner, we do not need to rely on the correlated L1/L2 and L1/L5 ionosphere-free observables which complicates triple-frequency GPS stochastic models, or account for the unfavorable time-varying hardware biases in undifferenced GPS functional models since they can be absorbed by the L5 clocks. An extra advantage over the ionosphere-free model is that external ionosphere constraints can potentially be introduced to improve PPP. With 27 days of triple-frequency GPS data from globally distributed stations, we find that the RMS of the positioning differences between our GPS model and all conventional models is below 1 mm for all east, north and up components, demonstrating the effectiveness of our model in addressing triple-frequency observations and time-varying IFCBs. Moreover, we can combine the L1/L2 and L5 clocks derived from our model to calculate precisely the L1/L5 clocks which in practice only depart from their legacy counterparts by less than 0.006 ns in RMS. Our triple-frequency GPS model proves convenient and efficient in combating time-varying IFCBs and can be generalized to more than three frequency signals for satellite clock determination.

  10. Kansas business plan for commercial vehicle operations using intelligent transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-29

    This state business plan is the product of a cooperative effort between state agencies, the Federal Highway Administration, Kansas Turnpike Authority, and the Kansas Motor Carrier Association. The plan represents a shared commitment to move forward w...

  11. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-09-27

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs.

  12. Decamp Clock Board Firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.

    2007-01-01

    Decamp (Dark Energy Survey Camera) is a new instrument designed to explore the universe aiming to reveal the nature of Dark Energy. The camera consists of 72 CCDs and 520 Mpixels. The readout electronics of DECam is based on the Monsoon system. Monsoon is a new image acquisition system developed by the NOAO (National Optical Astronomical Observatory) for the new generation of astronomical cameras. The Monsoon system uses three types of boards inserted in a Eurocard format based crate: master control board, acquisition board and clock board. The direct use of the Monsoon system for DECam readout electronics requires nine crates mainly due to the high number of clock boards needed. Unfortunately, the available space for DECam electronics is constrained to four crates at maximum. The major drawback to achieve such desired compaction degree resides in the clock board signal density. This document describes the changes performed at CIEMAT on the programmable logic of the Monsoon clock board aiming to meet such restricted space constraints. (Author) 5 refs

  13. Toward A Neutral Mercury Optical Lattice Clock: Determination of the Magic Wavelength for the Ultraviolet clock Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sinda

    2012-01-01

    A lattice clock combines the advantages of ion and neutral atom based clocks, namely the recoil and first order Doppler free spectroscopy allowed by the Lamb-Dicke regime. This lattice light field shifts the energy levels of the clock transition. However a wavelength can be found where the light-shift of the clock states cancelled to first order. In this thesis, we present the latest advances in optical lattice clock with mercury atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the current performances of different optical clock are currently under development, we focus on the concept of optical lattice clock and the features of the mercury that make him an excellent candidate for the realization of an optical lattice clock achievement the uncertainty of the level of 10 -17 . The second part is devoted to the characterization of the mercury MOT, using a sensitive detection system, which allowed us to evaluate the temperature of different isotopes present in the MOT and have a good evidence of sub-Doppler cooling for the fermionic isotopes. The third part of this these, present the experimental aspects of the implementation and the development of the laser source required for trapping mercury atoms operating near the predicted magic wavelength. Finally, we report on the Lamb-Dicke spectroscopy of the 1S0 →3 P0 clock transition in the 199 Hg atoms confined in lattice trap. With use of the ultra-stable laser system, linked to LNE-SYRTE primary frequency reference, we have determined the center frequency of the transition for a range of lattice wavelengths and different lattice depths. Analyzing these measurement, we have carried out the first experimental determination of the magic wavelength, which is the crucial step towards achieving a highly accurate frequency standard using mercury. (author)

  14. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Kansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  15. Internal Clock Drift Estimation in Computer Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Marouani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most computers have several high-resolution timing sources, from the programmable interrupt timer to the cycle counter. Yet, even at a precision of one cycle in ten millions, clocks may drift significantly in a single second at a clock frequency of several GHz. When tracing the low-level system events in computer clusters, such as packet sending or reception, each computer system records its own events using an internal clock. In order to properly understand the global system behavior and performance, as reported by the events recorded on each computer, it is important to estimate precisely the clock differences and drift between the different computers in the system. This article studies the clock precision and stability of several computer systems, with different architectures. It also studies the typical network delay characteristics, since time synchronization algorithms rely on the exchange of network packets and are dependent on the symmetry of the delays. A very precise clock, based on the atomic time provided by the GPS satellite network, was used as a reference to measure clock drifts and network delays. The results obtained are of immediate use to all applications which depend on computer clocks or network time synchronization accuracy.

  16. Photoperiodic plasticity in circadian clock neurons in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakiko eShiga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Since Bünning’s observation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism in the runner bean Phaseolus multiflorus in 1936, many studies have shown that photoperiodism is based on the circadian clock system. In insects, involvement of circadian clock genes or neurons has been recently shown in the photoperiodic control of developmental arrests, diapause. Based on molecular and neuronal studies in Drosophila melanogaster, photoperiodic changes have been reported for expression patterns of the circadian clock genes, subcellular distribution of clock proteins, fiber distribution, or the number of plausible clock neurons in different species. Photoperiod sets peaks of per or tim mRNA abundance at lights-off in Sarcophaga crassipalpis, Chymomyza costata and Protophormia terraenovae. Abundance of per and Clock mRNA changes by photoperiod in Pyrrhocoris apterus. Subcellular Per distribution in circadian clock neurons changes with photoperiod in P. terraenovae. Although photoperiodism is not known in Leucophaea maderae, under longer day length, more stomata and longer commissural fibers of circadian clock neurons have been found. These plastic changes in the circadian clock neurons could be an important constituent for photoperiodic clock mechanisms to integrate repetitive photoperiodic information and produce different outputs based on day length.

  17. Hemoglobin Kansas found by electrophoretic diagnosis in Brazil Hemoglobina Kansas diagnosticada através de eletroforese no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Bonini-Domingos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hemoglobin variants with abnormal oxygen affinity have been reported so far from various regions of the world. They can be classified by their oxygen affinity and 15 variants with low oxygen affinity have been reported. A number of hemoglobin mutants which show an abnormal affinity for oxygen have been reported, but only few cases of hemoglobin Kansas. All cases reported so far are from Japan or in Japanese families. In this paper we describe a Brazilian patient with cyanosis and hemoglobin Kansas diagnosed by an electrophoretical procedure.Hemoglobinas variantes com afinidade anormal ao oxigênio têm sido encontradas em várias partes do mundo. Pela sua afinidade ao oxigênio, estas hemoglobinas variantes têm sido classificadas e 15 variantes com baixa afinidade relatadas. Numerosas hemoglobinas mutantes com afinidade anormal têm também sido relatadas, mas somente poucos casos de Hemoglobina Kansas. Os casos são de pacientes procedentes do Japão, ou de famílias com descendentes japoneses. Neste relato descrevemos um paciente com manifestações de cianose que teve o seu diagnóstico confirmado através da eletroforese.

  18. Sleep Loss Reduces the DNA-Binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to Specific Clock Genes in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Mongrain, Valerie; La Spada, Francesco; Curie, Thomas; Franken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD) could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory s...

  19. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds.Figure 1Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler.

  20. Ultradian feeding in mice not only affects the peripheral clock in the liver, but also the master clock in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Satish; Raingard, Hélène; Dumont, Stéphanie; Kalsbeek, A.; Vuillez, Patrick; Challet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Restricted feeding during the resting period causes pronounced shifts in a number of peripheral clocks, but not the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By contrast, daily caloric restriction impacts also the light-entrained SCN clock, as indicated by shifted oscillations of clock

  1. 77 FR 24147 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 359.4, Missouri River, Kansas City, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... Operation Regulation; Mile 359.4, Missouri River, Kansas City, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... River, mile 359.4, at Kansas City, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow the replacement of... Railroad Drawbridge, across the Missouri River, mile 359.4, at Kansas City, Missouri to remain in the...

  2. An optical clock to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Andrew D.

    2018-05-01

    Bringing next-generation atomic clocks out of the lab is not an easy task, but doing so will unlock many new possibilities. As a crucial first step, a portable atomic clock has now been deployed for relativistic geodesy measurements in the Alps.

  3. 40 CFR 131.34 - Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Federally Promulgated Water Quality Standards § 131.34 Kansas. (a) In addition to the State-adopted use... Creek 10270102 88 Secondary Contact Recreation Sand Creek 10270102 65 Secondary Contact Recreation...

  4. 77 FR 72737 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Mile 359.4, Missouri River, Kansas City, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Operation Regulation; Mile 359.4, Missouri River, Kansas City, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice... River, mile 359.4, at Kansas City, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow the replacement of 64... deviation for the Harry S. Truman Railroad Drawbridge, across the Missouri River, mile 359.4, at Kansas City...

  5. Processing of visually presented clock times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, P; Park, D C

    1980-11-01

    The encoding and representation of visually presented clock times was investigated in three experiments utilizing a comparative judgment task. Experiment 1 explored the effects of comparing times presented in different formats (clock face, digit, or word), and Experiment 2 examined angular distance effects created by varying positions of the hands on clock faces. In Experiment 3, encoding and processing differences between clock faces and digitally presented times were directly measured. Same/different reactions to digitally presented times were faster than to times presented on a clock face, and this format effect was found to be a result of differences in processing that occurred after encoding. Angular separation also had a limited effect on processing. The findings are interpreted within the framework of theories that refer to the importance of representational codes. The applicability to the data of Bank's semantic-coding theory, Paivio's dual-coding theory, and the levels-of-processing view of memory are discussed.

  6. Sexting in Kansas Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Dale R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study about sexting, the sending of sexually explicit or illicit photos or video between cell phones, in Kansas public schools. An on-line survey asked superintendents to report if they have had an occurrence of sexting in their district. They were also asked if they felt sexting is currently a problem in their…

  7. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. →Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. → Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. →Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. → The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  8. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi, E-mail: shimizut@obihiro.ac.jp [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hitoshi [Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Miyazaki, Koyomi [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  9. The Implementation of E1 Clock Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ziyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clock transform and recovery is of significant importance in microwave TDM service, and it is always extracted from the E1 line data stream in most cases. However, intrinsically uncertain delay and jitter caused by packet transmission of E1 data information, may lead to the indexes of the data recovery clock exceed the clock performance template. Through analysis of the E1 clock indexes and measuring methods, this paper proposes a new clock recovery method. The method employs two buffers, the first RAM is used as a buffer to deduct excess information, and the second FIFO is used as a buffer to recovery the clock and data. The first buffer has a feedback from the second one, and is able to actively respond to changes in the data link and requests from the second one. The test results validate the effectiveness of the method, and the corresponding scheme is also valuable for the other communication systems.

  10. A model of guarded recursion with clock synchronisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizjak, Aleš; Møgelberg, Rasmus Ejlers

    2015-01-01

    productivity to be captured in types. The calculus uses clocks representing time streams and clock quantifiers which allow limited and controlled elimination of modalities. The calculus has since been extended to dependent types by Møgelberg. Both works give denotational semantics but no rewrite semantics....... In previous versions of this calculus, different clocks represented separate time streams and clock synchronisation was prohibited. In this paper we show that allowing clock synchronisation is safe by constructing a new model of guarded recursion and clocks. This result will greatly simplify the type theory...... by removing freshness restrictions from typing rules, and is a necessary step towards defining rewrite semantics, and ultimately implementing the calculus....

  11. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  12. Kansas Kids Count Data Book, 1998. A Project of Kansas Action for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    The Kids Count Data Book examines trends in the well-being of Kansas children. The statistical portrait is based on trends in 22 indicators of child well-being, grouped into 5 areas: (1) economic well-being--births to single teens, free school meals, family economic assistance, child poverty rates; (2) physical health and safety--childhood deaths,…

  13. Kansas Kids Count Data Book, 1999. A Project of Kansas Action for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    The Kids Count Data Book examines trends in the well-being of Kansas children. This statistical portrait is based on trends in 22 indicators of child well-being, grouped into 5 areas: (1) economic well-being--births to single teens, child poverty rates, free school meals, and family economic assistance; (2) physical health and safety--childhood…

  14. Space experiments with high stability clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessot, R.F.C.

    1993-01-01

    Modern metrology depends increasingly on the accuracy and frequency stability of atomic clocks. Applications of such high-stability oscillators (or clocks) to experiments performed in space are described and estimates of the precision of these experiments are made in terms of clock performance. Methods using time-correlation to cancel localized disturbances in very long signal paths and a proposed space borne four station VLBI system are described. (TEC). 30 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  15. Structural nature of the Humboldt fault zone in northeastern Nemaha County, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stander, T.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey has conducted a major re-evaluation of the geology and seismicity of Kansas in connection with design criteria for dams, nuclear-power plants, and other earthquake-sensitive structures. Northeast Kansas was chosen as a study area because of the concentration of seismic activity and the stratigraphic evidence for the maximum amount of vertical displacement of the humboldt fault. This study determines the nature of the deformation on the Humboldt fault and resolves its lateral position and total vertical throw in the near-surface

  16. Geodesy and metrology with a transportable optical clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian; Denker, Heiner; Voigt, Christian; Timmen, Ludger; Rolland, Antoine; Baynes, Fred N.; Margolis, Helen S.; Zampaolo, Michel; Thoumany, Pierre; Pizzocaro, Marco; Rauf, Benjamin; Bregolin, Filippo; Tampellini, Anna; Barbieri, Piero; Zucco, Massimo; Costanzo, Giovanni A.; Clivati, Cecilia; Levi, Filippo; Calonico, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Optical atomic clocks, due to their unprecedented stability1-3 and uncertainty3-6, are already being used to test physical theories7,8 and herald a revision of the International System of Units9,10. However, to unlock their potential for cross-disciplinary applications such as relativistic geodesy11, a major challenge remains: their transformation from highly specialized instruments restricted to national metrology laboratories into flexible devices deployable in different locations12-14. Here, we report the first field measurement campaign with a transportable 87Sr optical lattice clock12. We use it to determine the gravity potential difference between the middle of a mountain and a location 90 km away, exploiting both local and remote clock comparisons to eliminate potential clock errors. A local comparison with a 171Yb lattice clock15 also serves as an important check on the international consistency of independently developed optical clocks. This campaign demonstrates the exciting prospects for transportable optical clocks.

  17. Long-Term Clock Behavior of GPS IIR Satellites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Marvin; Dass, Todd; Rajan, John; Gilmour, Paul

    2007-01-01

    .... Rubidium clocks, as opposed to cesium clocks, have significant long-term drift. The current literature describes an initial model of drift aging for rubidium atomic clocks followed by a long-term characteristic...

  18. Forests of Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  19. Forests of Kansas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory,...

  20. Sound Clocks and Sonic Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Scott L.; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-10-01

    Sound propagation within certain non-relativistic condensed matter models obeys a relativistic wave equation despite such systems admitting entirely non-relativistic descriptions. A natural question that arises upon consideration of this is, "do devices exist that will experience the relativity in these systems?" We describe a thought experiment in which `acoustic observers' possess devices called sound clocks that can be connected to form chains. Careful investigation shows that appropriately constructed chains of stationary and moving sound clocks are perceived by observers on the other chain as undergoing the relativistic phenomena of length contraction and time dilation by the Lorentz factor, γ , with c the speed of sound. Sound clocks within moving chains actually tick less frequently than stationary ones and must be separated by a shorter distance than when stationary to satisfy simultaneity conditions. Stationary sound clocks appear to be length contracted and time dilated to moving observers due to their misunderstanding of their own state of motion with respect to the laboratory. Observers restricted to using sound clocks describe a universe kinematically consistent with the theory of special relativity, despite the preferred frame of their universe in the laboratory. Such devices show promise in further probing analogue relativity models, for example in investigating phenomena that require careful consideration of the proper time elapsed for observers.

  1. 78 FR 70934 - Trespassing on DOE Property: Kansas City Plant Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... than $5,000.' By operation of law, the Criminal Fine Improvements Act of 1987, Public Law 100-185, 101 Stat. 1279 (1987), increased the fine amounts from $1000/$5000 to $5000/$100,000. See, e.g., U.S. v..., Director, Security & Information Technology Systems, NNSA Kansas City Plant, 14520 Botts Road, Kansas City...

  2. Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Mongrain

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory sequences of target clock genes in mice. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, we first showed that, as reported for the liver, DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to target clock genes changes in function of time-of-day in the cerebral cortex. Tissue extracts were collected at ZT0 (light onset, -6, -12, and -18, and DNA enrichment of E-box or E'-box containing sequences was measured by qPCR. CLOCK and BMAL1 binding to Cry1, Dbp, Per1, and Per2 depended on time-of-day, with maximum values reached at around ZT6. We then observed that SD, performed between ZT0 and -6, significantly decreased DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp, consistent with the observed decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was also decreased by SD, although SD is known to increase Per2 expression in the cortex. DNA-binding to Per1 and Cry1 was not affected by SD. Our results show that the sleep-wake history can affect the clock molecular machinery directly at the level of chromatin binding thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2 and likely other targets. Although the precise dynamics of the relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive, the results also suggest that part of the reported circadian changes in DNA-binding of core clock components in tissues peripheral to the suprachiasmatic nuclei could, in fact, be sleep-wake driven.

  3. Sleep loss reduces the DNA-binding of BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 to specific clock genes in the mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongrain, Valérie; La Spada, Francesco; Curie, Thomas; Franken, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that clock genes contribute to the homeostatic aspect of sleep regulation. Indeed, mutations in some clock genes modify the markers of sleep homeostasis and an increase in homeostatic sleep drive alters clock gene expression in the forebrain. Here, we investigate a possible mechanism by which sleep deprivation (SD) could alter clock gene expression by quantifying DNA-binding of the core-clock transcription factors CLOCK, NPAS2, and BMAL1 to the cis-regulatory sequences of target clock genes in mice. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we first showed that, as reported for the liver, DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to target clock genes changes in function of time-of-day in the cerebral cortex. Tissue extracts were collected at ZT0 (light onset), -6, -12, and -18, and DNA enrichment of E-box or E'-box containing sequences was measured by qPCR. CLOCK and BMAL1 binding to Cry1, Dbp, Per1, and Per2 depended on time-of-day, with maximum values reached at around ZT6. We then observed that SD, performed between ZT0 and -6, significantly decreased DNA-binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to Dbp, consistent with the observed decrease in Dbp mRNA levels after SD. The DNA-binding of NPAS2 and BMAL1 to Per2 was also decreased by SD, although SD is known to increase Per2 expression in the cortex. DNA-binding to Per1 and Cry1 was not affected by SD. Our results show that the sleep-wake history can affect the clock molecular machinery directly at the level of chromatin binding thereby altering the cortical expression of Dbp and Per2 and likely other targets. Although the precise dynamics of the relationship between DNA-binding and mRNA expression, especially for Per2, remains elusive, the results also suggest that part of the reported circadian changes in DNA-binding of core clock components in tissues peripheral to the suprachiasmatic nuclei could, in fact, be sleep-wake driven.

  4. Novel transcriptional networks regulated by CLOCK in human neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Miles R; Berto, Stefano; Liu, Yuxiang; Werthmann, Gordon; Douglas, Connor; Usui, Noriyoshi; Gleason, Kelly; Tamminga, Carol A; Takahashi, Joseph S; Konopka, Genevieve

    2017-11-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying human brain evolution are not fully understood; however, previous work suggested that expression of the transcription factor CLOCK in the human cortex might be relevant to human cognition and disease. In this study, we investigated this novel transcriptional role for CLOCK in human neurons by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing for endogenous CLOCK in adult neocortices and RNA sequencing following CLOCK knockdown in differentiated human neurons in vitro. These data suggested that CLOCK regulates the expression of genes involved in neuronal migration, and a functional assay showed that CLOCK knockdown increased neuronal migratory distance. Furthermore, dysregulation of CLOCK disrupts coexpressed networks of genes implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, and the expression of these networks is driven by hub genes with human-specific patterns of expression. These data support a role for CLOCK-regulated transcriptional cascades involved in human brain evolution and function. © 2017 Fontenot et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Logistic and linear regression model documentation for statistical relations between continuous real-time and discrete water-quality constituents in the Kansas River, Kansas, July 2012 through June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2016-04-06

    The Kansas River is a primary source of drinking water for about 800,000 people in northeastern Kansas. Source-water supplies are treated by a combination of chemical and physical processes to remove contaminants before distribution. Advanced notification of changing water-quality conditions and cyanobacteria and associated toxin and taste-and-odor compounds provides drinking-water treatment facilities time to develop and implement adequate treatment strategies. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office (funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund), and the City of Lawrence, the City of Topeka, the City of Olathe, and Johnson County Water One, began a study in July 2012 to develop statistical models at two Kansas River sites located upstream from drinking-water intakes. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated and discrete-water quality samples have been collected on the Kansas River at Wamego (USGS site number 06887500) and De Soto (USGS site number 06892350) since July 2012. Continuous and discrete water-quality data collected during July 2012 through June 2015 were used to develop statistical models for constituents of interest at the Wamego and De Soto sites. Logistic models to continuously estimate the probability of occurrence above selected thresholds were developed for cyanobacteria, microcystin, and geosmin. Linear regression models to continuously estimate constituent concentrations were developed for major ions, dissolved solids, alkalinity, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus species), suspended sediment, indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, and enterococci), and actinomycetes bacteria. These models will be used to provide real-time estimates of the probability that cyanobacteria and associated compounds exceed thresholds and of the concentrations of other water-quality constituents in the Kansas River. The models documented in this report are useful for characterizing changes

  6. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  7. Analysis of endangered Kansas fish species distribution during historical and contemporary periods (pre- and post-1969)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Kansas has more freshwater fish species than other states in the west and northern US. More than 140 fishes have recently been documented in Kansas rivers; of these, at least five are categorized as endangered species in Kansas (and threatened species ...

  8. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillard, X.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr 87 using the 1 S 0 → 3 P 0 transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr 87 atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10 -15 and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10 -15 level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr 88 by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10 -14 . (author)

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  10. Transcripts from the Circadian Clock: Telling Time and Season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Brand (Karl)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe all know it when we wake mere moments before an alarm clock is scheduled to wake us: our body clock made the alarm clock redundant. This phenomenon is driven by an endogenous timer known as the biological, or circadian clock. Each revolution of the Earth about its own axis produces

  11. Biological timing and the clock metaphor: oscillatory and hourglass mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, L; Meyer-Grahle, U; Ruoff, P

    2001-05-01

    Living organisms have developed a multitude of timing mechanisms--"biological clocks." Their mechanisms are based on either oscillations (oscillatory clocks) or unidirectional processes (hourglass clocks). Oscillatory clocks comprise circatidal, circalunidian, circadian, circalunar, and circannual oscillations--which keep time with environmental periodicities--as well as ultradian oscillations, ovarian cycles, and oscillations in development and in the brain, which keep time with biological timescales. These clocks mainly determine time points at specific phases of their oscillations. Hourglass clocks are predominantly found in development and aging and also in the brain. They determine time intervals (duration). More complex timing systems combine oscillatory and hourglass mechanisms, such as the case for cell cycle, sleep initiation, or brain clocks, whereas others combine external and internal periodicities (photoperiodism, seasonal reproduction). A definition of a biological clock may be derived from its control of functions external to its own processes and its use in determining temporal order (sequences of events) or durations. Biological and chemical oscillators are characterized by positive and negative feedback (or feedforward) mechanisms. During evolution, living organisms made use of the many existing oscillations for signal transmission, movement, and pump mechanisms, as well as for clocks. Some clocks, such as the circadian clock, that time with environmental periodicities are usually compensated (stabilized) against temperature, whereas other clocks, such as the cell cycle, that keep time with an organismic timescale are not compensated. This difference may be related to the predominance of negative feedback in the first class of clocks and a predominance of positive feedback (autocatalytic amplification) in the second class. The present knowledge of a compensated clock (the circadian oscillator) and an uncompensated clock (the cell cycle), as well

  12. The Square Light Clock and Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J. Ronald; Amiri, Farhang

    2012-01-01

    A thought experiment that includes a square light clock is similar to the traditional vertical light beam and mirror clock, except it is made up of four mirrors placed at a 45[degree] angle at each corner of a square of length L[subscript 0], shown in Fig. 1. Here we have shown the events as measured in the rest frame of the square light clock. By…

  13. A precise clock distribution network for MRPC-based experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Cao, P.; Shang, L.; An, Q.

    2016-01-01

    In high energy physics experiments, the MRPC (Multi-Gap Resistive Plate Chamber) detectors are widely used recently which can provide higher-resolution measurement for particle identification. However, the application of MRPC detectors leads to a series of challenges in electronics design with large number of front-end electronic channels, especially for distributing clock precisely. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a universal scheme of clock transmission network for MRPC-based experiments with advantages of both precise clock distribution and global command synchronization. For precise clock distributing, the clock network is designed into a tree architecture with two stages: the first one has a point-to-multipoint long range bidirectional distribution with optical channels and the second one has a fan-out structure with copper link inside readout crates. To guarantee the precision of clock frequency or phase, the r-PTP (reduced Precision Time Protocol) and the DDMTD (digital Dual Mixer Time Difference) methods are used for frequency synthesis, phase measurement and adjustment, which is implemented by FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) in real-time. In addition, to synchronize global command execution, based upon this clock distribution network, synchronous signals are coded with clock for transmission. With technique of encoding/decoding and clock data recovery, signals such as global triggers or system control commands, can be distributed to all front-end channels synchronously, which greatly simplifies the system design. The experimental results show that both the clock jitter (RMS) and the clock skew can be less than 100 ps.

  14. 77 FR 21760 - Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-19-000] Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Baseline Filing Take notice that on March 30, 2012, Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division (Atmos) submitted a baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for...

  15. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2009-07-22

    Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  16. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V Buhusi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  17. A Novel Method of Clock Synchronization in Distributed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gun; Niu, Meng-jie; Chai, Yang-shun; Chen, Xin; Ren, Yan-qiu

    2017-04-01

    Time synchronization plays an important role in the spacecraft formation flight and constellation autonomous navigation, etc. For the application of clock synchronization in a network system, it is not always true that all the observed nodes in the network are interconnected, therefore, it is difficult to achieve the high-precision time synchronization of a network system in the condition that a certain node can only obtain the measurement information of clock from a single neighboring node, but cannot obtain it from other nodes. Aiming at this problem, a novel method of high-precision time synchronization in a network system is proposed. In this paper, each clock is regarded as a node in the network system, and based on the definition of different topological structures of a distributed system, the three control algorithms of time synchronization under the following three cases are designed: without a master clock (reference clock), with a master clock (reference clock), and with a fixed communication delay in the network system. And the validity of the designed clock synchronization protocol is proved by both stability analysis and numerical simulation.

  18. Kansas City Transportation and Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Kansas City Transportation Local-Scale Air Quality Study (KC-TRAQS) to learn more about local community air quality in three neighborhoods in Kansas City, KS.

  19. Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel, Georg...oeaw.ac.at Nikolaus Kerö Oregano Systems, Mohsgasse 1, 1030 Wien, Austria E-mail: nikolaus.keroe@oregano.at Abstract Clock synchronization ...is a service widely used in distributed networks to coordinate data acquisition and actions. As the requirement to achieve tighter synchronization

  20. A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdat, C; Grosche, G; Quintin, N; Shi, C; Raupach, S M F; Grebing, C; Nicolodi, D; Stefani, F; Al-Masoudi, A; Dörscher, S; Häfner, S; Robyr, J-L; Chiodo, N; Bilicki, S; Bookjans, E; Koczwara, A; Koke, S; Kuhl, A; Wiotte, F; Meynadier, F; Camisard, E; Abgrall, M; Lours, M; Legero, T; Schnatz, H; Sterr, U; Denker, H; Chardonnet, C; Le Coq, Y; Santarelli, G; Amy-Klein, A; Le Targat, R; Lodewyck, J; Lopez, O; Pottie, P-E

    2016-08-09

    Leveraging the unrivalled performance of optical clocks as key tools for geo-science, for astronomy and for fundamental physics beyond the standard model requires comparing the frequency of distant optical clocks faithfully. Here, we report on the comparison and agreement of two strontium optical clocks at an uncertainty of 5 × 10(-17) via a newly established phase-coherent frequency link connecting Paris and Braunschweig using 1,415 km of telecom fibre. The remote comparison is limited only by the instability and uncertainty of the strontium lattice clocks themselves, with negligible contributions from the optical frequency transfer. A fractional precision of 3 × 10(-17) is reached after only 1,000 s averaging time, which is already 10 times better and more than four orders of magnitude faster than any previous long-distance clock comparison. The capability of performing high resolution international clock comparisons paves the way for a redefinition of the unit of time and an all-optical dissemination of the SI-second.

  1. Coalbed methane production base established in Southeast Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that revenue from coalbed methane gas sales is growing and currently far exceeds that of what little conventional gas is produced in southeastern Kansas. And this only 2-1/2 years after Stroud Oil Properties, Wichita, brought in the first coalbed methane well in the Sycamore Valley in Montgomery County 6 miles north of Independence. Another operator contributing to the success is Conquest Oil, Greeley, Colo. Conquest acquired a lease with 20 old wells near Sycamore, recompleted five of them in Weir coal, and has installed a compressor. It hopes to being selling a combined 300 Mcfd soon. Great Eastern Energy, Denver, reportedly can move 2 MMcfd from its Sycamore Valley holdings. The fever is spreading into Northeast Kansas, where a venture headed by Duncan Energy Co. and Farleigh Oil Properties, also of Denver, plan 12 coalbed methane wildcats. The two companies received in October 1991 from the Kansas Corporation Commission (KCC) a 40 acre well spacing for seven counties and an exclusion from burdensome gas testing procedures. The test procedures are on the books but not applicable to coal gas wells

  2. Programmable Clock Waveform Generation for CCD Readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Castilla, J.; Martinez, G.; Marin, J.

    2006-07-01

    Charge transfer efficiency in CCDs is closely related to the clock waveform. In this paper, an experimental framework to explore different FPGA based clock waveform generator designs is described. Two alternative design approaches for controlling the rise/fall edge times and pulse width of the CCD clock signal have been implemented: level-control and time-control. Both approaches provide similar characteristics regarding the edge linearity and noise. Nevertheless, dissimilarities have been found with respect to the area and frequency range of application. Thus, while the time-control approach consumes less area, the level control approach provides a wider range of clock frequencies since it does not suffer capacitor discharge effect. (Author) 8 refs.

  3. Routine environment audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri. During this audit the activities the audit team conducted included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted October 24-November 4, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,{close_quotes} establishes the mission of EH-24, which is to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  4. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  5. Cryptochrome mediates light-dependent magnetosensitivity of Drosophila's circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taishi Yoshii

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960, magnetic fields have been discussed as Zeitgebers for circadian clocks, but the mechanism by which clocks perceive and process magnetic information has remained unknown. Recently, the radical-pair model involving light-activated photoreceptors as magnetic field sensors has gained considerable support, and the blue-light photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY has been proposed as a suitable molecule to mediate such magnetosensitivity. Since CRY is expressed in the circadian clock neurons and acts as a critical photoreceptor of Drosophila's clock, we aimed to test the role of CRY in magnetosensitivity of the circadian clock. In response to light, CRY causes slowing of the clock, ultimately leading to arrhythmic behavior. We expected that in the presence of applied magnetic fields, the impact of CRY on clock rhythmicity should be altered. Furthermore, according to the radical-pair hypothesis this response should be dependent on wavelength and on the field strength applied. We tested the effect of applied static magnetic fields on the circadian clock and found that flies exposed to these fields indeed showed enhanced slowing of clock rhythms. This effect was maximal at 300 muT, and reduced at both higher and lower field strengths. Clock response to magnetic fields was present in blue light, but absent under red-light illumination, which does not activate CRY. Furthermore, cry(b and cry(OUT mutants did not show any response, and flies overexpressing CRY in the clock neurons exhibited an enhanced response to the field. We conclude that Drosophila's circadian clock is sensitive to magnetic fields and that this sensitivity depends on light activation of CRY and on the applied field strength, consistent with the radical pair mechanism. CRY is widespread throughout biological systems and has been suggested as receptor for magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds. The present data establish the circadian clock of Drosophila as a model system

  6. A strontium lattice clock with reduced blackbody radiation shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masoudi, Ali Khalas Anfoos

    2016-09-30

    Optical clocks have been quickly moving to the forefront of the frequency standards field due to their high spectral resolution, and therefore the potential high stability and accuracy. The accuracy and stability of the optical clocks are nowadays two orders of magnitude better than microwave Cs clocks, which realize the SI second. Envisioned applications of highly accurate optical clocks are to perform tests of fundamental physics, for example, searching for temporal drifts of the fine structure constant α, violations of the Local Position Invariance (LPI), dark matter and dark energy, or to performance relativistic geodesy. In this work, the uncertainty of a strontium lattice clock, based on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in {sup 87}Sr, due to the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift has been reduced to less than 1 x 10{sup -18} by more than one order of magnitude compared to the previous evaluation of the BBR shift uncertainty in this clock. The BBR shift has been reduced by interrogating the atoms in a cryogenic environment. The systematic uncertainty of the cryogenic lattice clock is evaluated to be 1.3 x 10{sup -17} which is dominated by the uncertainty of the AC Stark shift of the lattice laser and the uncertainty contribution of the BBR shift is negligible. Concerning the instability of the clock, the detection noise of the clock has been measured, and a model linking noise and clock instability has been developed. This noise model shows that, in our lattice clock, quantum projection noise is reached if more than 130 atoms are interrogated. By combining the noise model with the degradation due to the Dick effect reflecting the frequency noise of the interrogation laser, the instability of the clock is estimated to be 1.6 x 10{sup -16}/√(τ/s) in regular operation. During this work, several high-accuracy comparisons to other atomic clocks have been performed, including several absolute frequency measurements. The Sr clock transition frequency

  7. NPAS2 Compensates for Loss of CLOCK in Peripheral Circadian Oscillators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Landgraf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterodimers of CLOCK and BMAL1 are the major transcriptional activators of the mammalian circadian clock. Because the paralog NPAS2 can substitute for CLOCK in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian pacemaker, CLOCK-deficient mice maintain circadian rhythms in behavior and in tissues in vivo. However, when isolated from the SCN, CLOCK-deficient peripheral tissues are reportedly arrhythmic, suggesting a fundamental difference in circadian clock function between SCN and peripheral tissues. Surprisingly, however, using luminometry and single-cell bioluminescence imaging of PER2 expression, we now find that CLOCK-deficient dispersed SCN neurons and peripheral cells exhibit similarly stable, autonomous circadian rhythms in vitro. In CLOCK-deficient fibroblasts, knockdown of Npas2 leads to arrhythmicity, suggesting that NPAS2 can compensate for loss of CLOCK in peripheral cells as well as in SCN. Our data overturn the notion of an SCN-specific role for NPAS2 in the molecular circadian clock, and instead indicate that, at the cellular level, the core loops of SCN neuron and peripheral cell circadian clocks are fundamentally similar.

  8. FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE CLOCK 3111T/C SINGLE-NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Ozburn

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions are prominently associated with Bipolar Disorder (BD. Circadian rhythms are regulated by the molecular clock, a family of proteins that function together in a transcriptional-translational feedback loop. The CLOCK protein is a key transcription factor of this feedback loop, and previous studies have found that manipulations of the Clock gene are sufficient to produce manic-like behavior in mice (Roybal et al., 2007. The Clock 3111T/C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1801260 is a genetic variation of the human Clock gene that is significantly associated with increased frequency of manic episodes in BD patients (Benedetti et al., 2003. The 3111T/C SNP is located in the 3’ untranslated region of the Clock gene. In this study, we sought to examine the functional implications of the human Clock 3111T/C SNP by transfecting a mammalian cell line (mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from Clock -/- knockout mice with pcDNA plasmids containing the human Clock gene with either the T or C SNP at position 3111. We then measured circadian gene expression over a 24 hour time period. We found that the Clock3111C SNP resulted in higher mRNA levels than the Clock 3111T SNP. Further, we found that Per2, a transcriptional target of CLOCK, was also more highly expressed with Clock 3111C expression, indicating the 3’UTR SNP affects the expression, function and stability of Clock mRNA.

  9. Fast Clock Recovery for Digital Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit extracts clock signal from random non-return-to-zero data stream, locking onto clock within one bit period at 1-gigabitper-second data rate. Circuit used for synchronization in opticalfiber communications. Derives speed from very short response time of gallium arsenide metal/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET's).

  10. En Garde: Fencing at Kansas City's Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, 1991-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poos, Bradley W.

    2015-01-01

    Central High School in Kansas City, Missouri is one of the oldest schools west of the Mississippi and the first public high school built in Kansas City. Kansas City's magnet plan resulted in Central High School being rebuilt as the Central Computers Unlimited/Classical Greek Magnet High School, a school that was designed to offer students an…

  11. Do Caucasian and Asian clocks tick differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barbosa

    Full Text Available The Period 3 and Clock genes are important components of the mammalian molecular circadian system. Studies have shown association between polymorphisms in these clock genes and circadian phenotypes in different populations. Nevertheless, differences in the pattern of allele frequency and genotyping distribution are systematically observed in studies with different ethnic groups. To investigate and compare the pattern of distribution in a sample of Asian and Caucasian populations living in Brazil, we evaluated two well-studied polymorphisms in the clock genes: a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR in PER3 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in CLOCK. The aim of this investigation was to search for clues about human evolutionary processes related to circadian rhythms. We selected 109 Asian and 135 Caucasian descendants. The frequencies of the shorter allele (4 repeats in the PER3 gene and the T allele in the CLOCK gene among Asians (0.86 and 0.84, respectively were significantly higher than among Caucasians (0.69 and 0.71, respectively. Our results directly confirmed the different distribution of these polymorphisms between the Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups. Given the genetic differences found between groups, two points became evident: first, ethnic variations may have implications for the interpretation of results in circadian rhythm association studies, and second, the question may be raised about which evolutionary conditions shaped these genetic clock variations.

  12. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  13. Transmission delays in hardware clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Ramanathan, P.

    1988-01-01

    Various methods, both with software and hardware, have been proposed to synchronize a set of physical clocks in a system. Software methods are very flexible and economical but suffer an excessive time overhead, whereas hardware methods require no time overhead but are unable to handle transmission delays in clock signals. The effects of nonzero transmission delays in synchronization have been studied extensively in the communication area in the absence of malicious or Byzantine faults. The authors show that it is easy to incorporate the ideas from the communication area into the existing hardware clock synchronization algorithms to take into account the presence of both malicious faults and nonzero transmission delays.

  14. Serpentinization and the origin of hydrogen gas in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coveney, R.M. Jr.; Goebel, E.D.; Zeller, E.J.; Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Angino, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen gas occurs in ten Kansas wells near the Mid-Continent rift system. Since 1982, two wells have yielded small amounts of gases containing an average of 29-37 mole % H/sub 2/, the remainder being chiefly N/sub 2/ with only traces of hydrocarbons. Isotopic compositions for hydrogen (delta D = -740 to -836 per thousand) imply near-ambient (about 10/sup 0/C) equilibration temperatures for the gases, which are among the most deuterium-depleted in nature and resemble the H/sub 2/-rich gases described from ophiolites in Oman. Isotopic values for the Kansas N/sub 2/ differ slightly from those of the atmosphere, but not enough to rule out an atmospheric origin. Because they are low in CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/, expected byproducts of biogenic activity, the gases are probably abiogenic in origin. The existence of such gases near a major rift system, containing mafic rocks, and not far from known kimberlites is consistent with an origin from reactions involving Fe/sup +2/ oxidation, for example during serpentinization. Because the gases may be associated with kimberlites and deep-seated rifting, mantle outgassing is possible, but such an origin would be difficult to reconcile with the low isotopic temperatures. The H/sub 2/ gases from Kansas (and elsewhere) seem to be too low in pressure to have commercial value. However, neither the Kansas gases nor those from other H/sub 2/ occurrences have been adequately examined to assess their importance as potential resources. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Comparisons of mental clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A

    1978-02-01

    Subjects in three experiments were presented with pairs of clock times and were required to choose the one in which the hour and minute hand formed the smaller angle. In Experiments 1 and 2, the times were presented digitally, necessitating a transformation into symbolic representations from which the angular size difference could be inferred. The results revealed orderly symbolic distance effects so that comparison reaction time increased as the angular size difference decreased. Moreover, subjects generally reported using imagery to make the judgment, and subjects scoring high on test of imagery ability were faster than those scoring low on such tests. Experiment 3 added a direct perceptual condition in which subjects compared angles between pairs of hands on two drawn (analog) clocks, as well as a mixed condition involving one digital and one analog clock time. The results showed comparable distance effects for all conditions. In addition, reaction time increased from the perceptual, to the mixed, to the pure-digital condition. These results are consistent with predictions from an image-based dual-coding theory.

  16. A New Trapped Ion Clock Based on Hg-201(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Burt, E. A.; Lea, S. N.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-01-01

    There are two stable odd isotopes of mercury with singly ionized hyperfine structure suitable for a microwave clock: Hg-199(+) and Hg-201(+). Virtually all trapped mercury ion clocks to date have used the 199 isotope. We have begun to investigate the viability of a trapped ion clock based on Hg-201(+). We have measured the unperturbed frequency of the (S-2)(sub 1/2) F = 1, m(sub F) = 0 to (S-2)(sub 1/2) F = 2, m(sub F) = 0 clock transition to be 29.9543658211(2) GHz. In this paper we describe initial measurements with Hg-201(+) and new applications to clocks and fundamental physics.

  17. 77 FR 23244 - Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Revised Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR12-22-000] Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division; Notice of Revised Baseline Filing Take notice that on April 10, 2012, Atmos Energy Colorado/Kansas Division (Atmos) filed a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating...

  18. Public and Opinion Leader Willingness to Fund Obesity-Focused Policies in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Curry, Laurel E; Homsi, Ghada; Williams, Pamela A; Glasgow, LaShawn M; Van Hersh, Deanna; Willett, Jeffrey; Rogers, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Obesity increases the risk for leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Midwestern and southern states have the highest obesity rates-in Kansas, one in every three adults is obese. We compared the willingness of Kansas adults and opinion leaders to pay more in taxes to fund obesity prevention policies. In 2014, we asked a representative sample of 2,203 Kansas adults (response rate 15.7%) and 912 opinion leaders (response rate 55%) drawn from elected office and other sectors, including business and health, whether they would pay an additional $50 in annual taxes to support five policies that improve access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity. We used adjusted Wald tests to compare public and opinion leaders' responses, and regression analysis to assess whether differences in respondents' gender, age, location (urban/rural), race/ethnicity, and political stance affected results. Adjusting for demographic differences, Kansas adults were more willing than opinion leaders to pay $50 in taxes for each of the five policy interventions. This study demonstrates a willingness among residents of a fiscally conservative state to pay increased taxes for policies that could reduce population obesity rates. Health professionals, including nurses, can use these findings to educate policy makers in Kansas and geopolitically similar states about widespread public support for obesity prevention policies. Public health and other nurses could also apply our methods to assess support for obesity prevention policies in their jurisdictions.

  19. Evidence for widespread dysregulation of circadian clock progression in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod Shilts

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous daily rhythms in mammalian physiology are guided by progression of the circadian clock. In mice, systemic disruption of the clock can promote tumor growth. In vitro, multiple oncogenes can disrupt the clock. However, due to the difficulties of studying circadian rhythms in solid tissues in humans, whether the clock is disrupted within human tumors has remained unknown. We sought to determine the state of the circadian clock in human cancer using publicly available transcriptome data. We developed a method, called the clock correlation distance (CCD, to infer circadian clock progression in a group of samples based on the co-expression of 12 clock genes. Our method can be applied to modestly sized datasets in which samples are not labeled with time of day and coverage of the circadian cycle is incomplete. We used the method to define a signature of clock gene co-expression in healthy mouse organs, then validated the signature in healthy human tissues. By then comparing human tumor and non-tumor samples from twenty datasets of a range of cancer types, we discovered that clock gene co-expression in tumors is consistently perturbed. Subsequent analysis of data from clock gene knockouts in mice suggested that perturbed clock gene co-expression in human cancer is not caused solely by the inactivation of clock genes. Furthermore, focusing on lung cancer, we found that human lung tumors showed systematic changes in expression in a large set of genes previously inferred to be rhythmic in healthy lung. Our findings suggest that clock progression is dysregulated in many solid human cancers and that this dysregulation could have broad effects on circadian physiology within tumors. In addition, our approach opens the door to using publicly available data to infer circadian clock progression in a multitude of human phenotypes.

  20. Vane clocking effects in an embedded compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Nicole Leanne

    The objective of this research was to experimentally investigate the effects of vane clocking, the circumferential indexing of adjacent vane rows with similar vane counts, in an embedded compressor stage. Experiments were performed in the Purdue 3-Stage Compressor, which consists of an IGV followed by three stages. The IGV, Stator 1, and Stator 2 have identical vane counts of 44, and the effects of clocking were studied on Stage 2. The clocking configuration that located the upstream vane wake on the Stator 2 leading edge was identified with total pressure measurements at the inlet to Stator 2 and confirmed with measurements at the exit of Stator 2. For both loading conditions, the total temperature results showed that there was no measurable change associated with vane clocking in the amount of work done on the flow. At design loading, the change in stage efficiency with vane clocking was 0.27 points between the maximum and minimum efficiency clocking configurations. The maximum efficiency configuration was the case where the Stator 1 wake impinged on the Stator 2 leading edge. This condition produced a shallower and thinner Stator 2 wake compared to the clocking configuration that located the wake in the middle of the Stator 2 passage. By locating the Stator 1 wake at the leading edge, it dampened the Stator 2 boundary layer response to inlet fluctuations associated with the Rotor 2 wakes. At high loading, the change in Stage 2 efficiency increased to 1.07 points; however, the maximum efficiency clocking configuration was the case where the Stator 1 wake passed through the middle of the downstream vane passage. At high loading, the flow physics associated with vane clocking were different than at design loading because the location of the Stator 1 wake fluid on the Stator 2 leading edge triggered a boundary layer separation on the suction side of Stator 2 producing a wider and deeper wake. Vane clocking essentially affects the amount of interaction between the

  1. Math Clock: Perangkat Penunjuk Waktu Kreatif untuk Olahraga Otak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Boy Hertantyo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain is one of the most vital parts for humans, with the number of brain function that is needed for the body, the brain becomes a very important part of the human body. If there is damage to the brain will certainly cause the performance of the human body will not run properly. Because of that, it’s very important to maintain brain health. There is a way to maintain brain health, for example is by doing brain exercise. Examples of brain exercise is to do simple math calculations or doing brain games like sudoku. Because of that, created a tool that can help the brain to maintain brain exercise. The tool is called math clock. Making math clock tool consists of hardware and software. The hardware consists of RTC as real time data input, ATmega328 as microcontroller and dot matrix 32x16 as a tool to display the output that has been processed by the microcontroller. The software is built using C with Arduino IDE. Math clock will process the data from RTC then processed it, in microcontroller so when output displayed on dot matrix, output will be simple mathematical operation with real time clock data on it. Test results show that, math clock is capable of displaying a simple mathematical calculation operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The mathematical operation that display on math clock, appears to be random, so it’s not triggered by same mathematical operation. In math clock the display will change every 20 second, so in 1 minute there are 3 different kinds of mathematical operations. The results of questionnaires of 10 different students, showed 9 out of 10 students said math clock is a tool that easy to use as a clock. Math clock will be alternative for doing brain exercise every day.

  2. Electromagnetic synchronisation of clocks with finite separation in a rotating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.M.; Moses, H.E.; Rosenblum, A.; Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA

    1984-01-01

    For clocks on the vertices of a triangle, it is shown that clock synchronisation using electromagnetic signals between finitely spaced clocks in a rotating frame leads to the same synchronisation error as a closely spaced band of clocks along the same light path. In addition, the above result is generalised to n equally spaced clocks. (author)

  3. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  4. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10 -18 and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  5. Improvement of an Atomic Clock using Squeezed Vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, I.; Lange, K; Peise, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , the vacuum noise restricts the precision of the interferometer to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel clock configuration that surpasses the SQL by squeezing the vacuum in the empty input state. We create a squeezed vacuum state containing an average of 0.......75 atoms to improve the clock sensitivity of 10000 atoms by 2.05+0.34−0.37  dB. The SQL poses a significant limitation for today’s microwave fountain clocks, which serve as the main time reference. We evaluate the major technical limitations and challenges for devising a next generation of fountain clocks...

  6. The mammalian retina as a clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosini, Gianluca; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2002-01-01

    Many physiological, cellular, and biochemical parameters in the retina of vertebrates show daily rhythms that, in many cases, also persist under constant conditions. This demonstrates that they are driven by a circadian pacemaker. The presence of an autonomous circadian clock in the retina of vertebrates was first demonstrated in Xenopus laevis and then, several years later, in mammals. In X. laevis and in chicken, the retinal circadian pacemaker has been localized in the photoreceptor layer, whereas in mammals, such information is not yet available. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to the identification of a group of genes that are believed to constitute the molecular core of the circadian clock. These genes are expressed in the retina, although with a slightly different 24-h profile from that observed in the central circadian pacemaker. This result suggests that some difference (at the molecular level) may exist between the retinal clock and the clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalamus. The present review will focus on the current knowledge of the retinal rhythmicity and the mechanisms responsible for its control.

  7. Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC Inc. - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against Pick-N-Pull Auto Dismantlers, Kansas City, LLC, a subsidiary of Schnitzer Steel Industries, Inc., for alleged violations at its facilities at 8012 East Truman Rd., Kansas C

  8. High-precision multi-node clock network distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Cui, Yifan; Lu, Xing; Ci, Cheng; Zhang, Xuesong; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong; Tang, Tingsong; Shi, Kebin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    A high precision multi-node clock network for multiple users was built following the precise frequency transmission and time synchronization of 120 km fiber. The network topology adopts a simple star-shaped network structure. The clock signal of a hydrogen maser (synchronized with UTC) was recovered from a 120 km telecommunication fiber link and then was distributed to 4 sub-stations. The fractional frequency instability of all substations is in the level of 10 -15 in a second and the clock offset instability is in sub-ps in root-mean-square average.

  9. A high-precision synchronization circuit for clock distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chong; Tan Hongzhou; Duan Zhikui; Ding Yi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of a high-precision synchronization circuit, HPSC, using interleaved delay units and a dynamic compensation circuit is proposed. HPSCs are designed for synchronization of clock distribution networks in large-scale integrated circuits, where high-quality clocks are required. The application of a hybrid structure of a coarse delay line and dynamic compensation circuit performs roughly the alignment of the clock signal in two clock cycles, and finishes the fine tuning in the next three clock cycles with the phase error suppressed under 3.8 ps. The proposed circuit is implemented and fabricated using a SMIC 0.13 μm 1P6M process with a supply voltage at 1.2 V. The allowed operation frequency ranges from 200 to 800 MHz, and the duty cycle ranges between [20%, 80%]. The active area of the core circuits is 245 × 134 μm 2 , and the power consumption is 1.64 mW at 500 MHz. (paper)

  10. [Elevated expression of CLOCK is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Yang, Xiliang; Li, Jiaqi; Yang, Yi; Yan, Zhaoyong; Zhang, Hongxin; Mu, Jiao

    2018-02-01

    Objective To evaluate the expression of circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) and its effects on cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods The expression of CLOCK in 158 pairs of human HCC tissues and matched noncancerous samples was detected by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The expression of CLOCK in HCC patients was also verified using the data from GEO and TCGA (a total of 356 cases). The relationship between CLOCK expression and clinicopathological features of HCC patients was analyzed by single factor statistical analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of HCC patients were drawn to study the relationship between the expression level of CLOCK and the survival state. The effect of CLOCK on the growth of HepG2 cells was detected by MTS assay. Results The expression of CLOCK in HCC tissues was significantly higher than that in the adjacent tissues, and the up-regulation of CLOCK expression in HCC tissue was also confirmed in the public data of HCC (356 cases). HCC patients were divided into low CLOCK expression group and high CLOCK expression group. Univariate analysis showed that the expression of CLOCK was related to tumor size, TNM stage, and portal vein invasion in HCC patients. HCC patients with low CLOCK expression had longer overall survival time and relapse-free survival time than those with high CLOCK expression. The proliferation of cells significantly decreased after the expression of CLOCK was knocked down in HepG2 cells. Conclusion The expression of CLOCK in HCC tissues was much higher than that in normal liver tissues, and the high expression of CLOCK indicated the poor prognosis. The knockdown of CLOCK in HCC cells could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells.

  11. A clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Visser, P.M.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a clock synchronization skeleton based on RTAI (Real Time Application Interface). The skeleton is a thin layer that provides unified but extendible interfaces to the underlying operating system, the synchronization algorithms and the upper level applications in need of clock

  12. Shining a light on the Arabidopsis circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakenfull, Rachael J; Davis, Seth J

    2017-11-01

    The circadian clock provides essential timing information to ensure optimal growth to prevailing external environmental conditions. A major time-setting mechanism (zeitgeber) in clock synchronization is light. Differing light wavelengths, intensities, and photoperiodic duration are processed for the clock-setting mechanism. Many studies on light-input pathways to the clock have focused on Arabidopsis thaliana. Photoreceptors are specific chromic proteins that detect light signals and transmit this information to the central circadian oscillator through a number of different signalling mechanisms. The most well-characterized clock-mediating photoreceptors are cryptochromes and phytochromes, detecting blue, red, and far-red wavelengths of light. Ultraviolet and shaded light are also processed signals to the oscillator. Notably, the clock reciprocally generates rhythms of photoreceptor action leading to so-called gating of light responses. Intermediate proteins, such as Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs), constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), have been established in signalling pathways downstream of photoreceptor activation. However, the precise details for these signalling mechanisms are not fully established. This review highlights both historical and recent efforts made to understand overall light input to the oscillator, first looking at how each wavelength of light is detected, this is then related to known input mechanisms and their interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Time without clocks - an attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpman, G.

    1978-01-01

    A definition of time intervals separating two states of systems of elementary particles and observers is attempted. The definition is founded on the notion of instant state of the system and uses no information connected with the use of a clock. Applying the definition to a classical clock and to a sample of unstable particles, results are obtained in agreement with experiment. However, if the system contains 'few' elementary particles, the properties of the time interval present some different features. (author)

  14. The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Ruxu

    2013-01-01

    "The Mechanics of Mechanical Watches and Clocks" presents historical views and mathematical models of mechanical watches and clocks. Although now over six hundred years old, mechanical watches and clocks are still popular luxury items that fascinate many people around the world. However few have examined the theory of how they work as presented in this book. The illustrations and computer animations are unique and have never been published before. It will be of significant interest to researchers in mechanical engineering, watchmakers and clockmakers, as well as people who have an engineering background and are interested in mechanical watches and clocks. It will also inspire people in other fields of science and technology, such as mechanical engineering and electronics engineering, to advance their designs. Professor Ruxu Du works at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, China. Assistant Professor Longhan Xie works at the South China University of Technology, China.

  15. The mammalian circadian clock and its entrainment by stress and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yu; Aoyama, Shinya; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock regulates day-night fluctuations in various physiological processes. The circadian clock consists of the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks in peripheral tissues. External environmental cues, including light/dark cycles, food intake, stress, and exercise, provide important information for adjusting clock phases. This review focuses on stress and exercise as potent entrainment signals for both central and peripheral clocks, especially in regard to the timing of stimuli, types of stressors/exercises, and differences in the responses of rodents and humans. We suggest that the common signaling pathways of clock entrainment by stress and exercise involve sympathetic nervous activation and glucocorticoid release. Furthermore, we demonstrate that physiological responses to stress and exercise depend on time of day. Therefore, using exercise to maintain the circadian clock at an appropriate phase and amplitude might be effective for preventing obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  16. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  17. The clock paradox as a cosmological problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, K.Y.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the clock paradox is discussed within the framework of the general theory of relativity. It is shown that in general the aging asymmetry exists. It is also argued that the clock paradox, according to Mach's principle, is essentially a cosmological problem. (author)

  18. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimamurthy, Rajesh; Virshup, David M

    2017-01-01

    An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep-wake cycle, feeding-fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Virshup

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entrain the peripheral circadian clocks. But, unlike other chemical reactions, the output of the clock system remains nearly constant with fluctuations in ambient temperature, a phenomenon known as temperature compensation. In this brief review, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the posttranslational modifications, especially a phosphoswitch mechanism controlling the stability of PER2 and its implications for the regulation of temperature compensation.

  20. Surface-water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; results of investigations, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    Surface-water-quality conditions and trends were assessed in the lower Kansas River Basin, which drains about 15,300 square miles of mainly agricultural land in southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas. On the basis of established water-quality criteria, most streams in the basin were suitable for uses such as public-water supply, irrigation, and maintenance of aquatic life. However, most concerns identified from a previous analysis of available data through 1986 are substantiated by analysis of data for May 1987 through April 1990. Less-than-normal precipitation and runoff during 1987-90 affected surface-water quality and are important factors in the interpretation of results.Dissolved-solids concentrations in the main stem Kansas River during May 1987 through April 1990 commonly exceeded 500 milligrams per liter, which may be of concern for public-water supplies and for the irrigation of sensitive crops. Large concentrations of chloride in the Kansas River are derived from ground water discharging in the Smoky Hill River Basin west of the study unit. Trends of increasing concentrations of some dissolved major ions were statistically significant in the northwestern part of the study unit, which could reflect substantial increases in irrigated acreage.The largest concentrations of suspended sediment in streams during May 1987 through April 1990 were associated with high-density cropland in areas of little local relief and medium-density irrigated cropland in more dissected areas. The smallest concentrations were measured downstream from large reservoirs and in streams draining areas having little or no row-crop cultivation. Mean annual suspended-sediment transport rates in the main stem Kansas River increased substantially in the downstream direction. No conclusions could be reached concerning the relations of suspended-sediment transport, yields, or trends to natural and human factors.The largest sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in the study unit were fertilizer

  1. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  2. Clocks do not tick in unison: isolation of Clock and vrille shed new light on the clockwork model of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesto, João Silveira Moledo; Rivas, Gustavo Bueno da Silva; Pavan, Marcio Galvão; Meireles-Filho, Antonio Carlos Alves; Amoretty, Paulo Roberto de; Souza, Nataly Araújo de; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2015-10-06

    Behavior rhythms of insect vectors directly interfere with the dynamics of pathogen transmission to humans. The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America and concentrates its activity around dusk. Despite the accumulation of behavioral data, very little is known about the molecular bases of the clock mechanism in this species. This study aims to characterize, within an evolutionary perspective, two important circadian clock genes, Clock and vrille. We have cloned and isolated the coding sequence of L. longipalpis' genes Clock and vrille. The former is structured in eight exons and encodes a protein of 696 amino acids, and the latter comprises three exons and translates to a protein of 469 amino acids. When compared to other insects' orthologues, L. longipalpis CLOCK shows a high degree of conservation in the functional domains bHLH and PAS, but a much shorter glutamine-rich (poly-Q) C-terminal region. As for L. longipalpis VRILLE, a high degree of conservation was found in the bZIP domain. To support these observations and provide an elegant view of the evolution of both genes in insects, phylogenetic analyses based on maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inferences were performed, corroborating the previously known insect systematics. The isolation and phylogenetic analyses of Clock and vrille orthologues in L. longipalpis bring novel and important data to characterize this species' circadian clock. Interestingly, the poly-Q shortening observed in CLOCK suggests that its transcription activity might be impaired and we speculate if this effect could be compensated by other clock factors such as CYCLE.

  3. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas - Near-term, Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Reynolds, Rodney R.; McCune, A. Dwayne; Michnick, Michael J.; Walton, Anthony W.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2000-06-08

    This project involved two demonstration projects, one in a Marrow reservoir located in the southwestern part of the state and the second in the Cherokee Group in eastern Kansas. Morrow reservoirs of western Kansas are still actively being explored and constitute an important resource in Kansas. Cumulative oil production from the Morrow in Kansas is over 400,000,000 bbls. Much of the production from the Morrow is still in the primary stage and has not reached the mature declining state of that in the Cherokee. The Cherokee Group has produced about 1 billion bbls of oil since the first commercial production began over a century ago. It is a billion-barrel plus resource that is distributed over a large number of fields and small production units. Many of the reservoirs are operated close to the economic limit, although the small units and low production per well are offset by low costs associated with the shallow nature of the reservoirs (less than 1000 ft. deep).

  4. Reduced Kalman Filters for Clock Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the author's work ontimescales based on Kalman filters that act upon the clock comparisons. The natural Kalman timescale algorithm tends to optimize long-term timescale stability at the expense of short-term stability. By subjecting each post-measurement error covariance matrix to a non-transparent reduction operation, one obtains corrected clocks with improved short-term stability and little sacrifice of long-term stability.

  5. The role of biological clock in glucose homeostasis 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Chrościcki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the biological clock is based on a rhythmic expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes. As a result of their transcripto-translational associations, endogenous rhythms in the synthesis of key proteins of various physiological and metabolic processes are created. The major timekeeping mechanism for these rhythms exists in the central nervous system. The master circadian clock, localized in suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, regulates multiple metabolic pathways, while feeding behavior and metabolite availability can in turn regulate the circadian clock. It is also suggested that in the brain there is a food entrainable oscillator (FEO or oscillators, resulting in activation of both food anticipatory activity and hormone secretion that control digestion processes. Moreover, most cells and tissues express autonomous clocks. Maintenance of the glucose homeostasis is particularly important for the proper function of the body, as this sugar is the main source of energy for the brain, retina, erythrocytes and skeletal muscles. Thus, glucose production and utilization are synchronized in time. The hypothalamic excited orexin neurons control energy balance of organism and modulate the glucose production and utilization. Deficiency of orexin action results in narcolepsy and weight gain, whereas glucose and amino acids can affect activity of the orexin cells. Large-scale genetic studies in rodents and humans provide evidence for the involvement of disrupted clock gene expression rhythms in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In general, the current lifestyle of the developed modern societies disturbs the action of biological clock

  6. Clock face drawing test performance in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Safavi, Salar; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls. 95 school children with ADHD and 191 other children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the following four functions were assessed: Contour score, Numbers score, Hands setting score, and Center score. All the subscales scores of the three clock drawing tests of the ADHD group were lower than that of the control group. In ADHD children, inattention and hyperactivity/ impulsivity scores were not related to free drawn clock test scores. When pre-drawn contour test was performed, inattentiveness score was statistically associated with Number score while none of the other variables of age, gender, intellectual functioning, and hand use preference were associated with that kind of score. In pre-drawn clock, no association of ADHD symptoms with any CDT subscales found significant. In addition, more errors are observed with free drawn clock and Pre-drawn contour than pre-drawn clock. Putting Numbers and Hands setting are more sensitive measures to screen ADHD than Contour and Center drawing. Test performance, except Hands setting, may have already reached a developmental plateau. It is probable that Hand setting deficit in children with ADHD may not decrease from age 8 to 14 years. Performance of children with ADHD is associated with complexity of CDT.

  7. Neurogenetics of Drosophila circadian clock: expect the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarabo, Patricia; Martin, Francisco A

    2017-12-01

    Daily biological rhythms (i.e. circadian) are a fundamental part of animal behavior. Numerous reports have shown disruptions of the biological clock in neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. In the latter case, only recently we have gained insight into the molecular mechanisms. After 45 years of intense study of the circadian rhtythms, we find surprising similarities among species on the molecular clock that governs biological rhythms. Indeed, Drosophila is one of the most widely used models in the study of chronobiology. Recent studies in the fruit fly have revealed unpredicted roles for the clock machinery in different aspects of behavior and physiology. Not only the central pacemaker cells do have non-classical circadian functions but also circadian genes work in other cells and tissues different from central clock neurons. In this review, we summarize these new evidences. We also recapitulate the most basic features of Drosophila circadian clock, including recent data about the inputs and outputs that connect the central pacemaker with other regions of the brain. Finally, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of using natural versus laboratory conditions.

  8. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  9. Circadian clock components in the rat neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in the rat neocortex. Among these, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Bmal1, Nr1d1 and Dbp were found to exhibit daily rhythms. The amplitude of circadian oscillation in neocortical clock gene expression was damped and the peak delayed as compared with the SCN. Lesions of the SCN revealed that rhythmic clock gene...... expression in the neocortex is dependent on the SCN. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that products of the canonical clock gene Per2 are located in perikarya throughout all areas of the neocortex. These findings show that local circadian oscillators driven by the SCN reside within...... neurons of the neocortex....

  10. 78 FR 13662 - Kansas Gas Service, a Division of ONEOK, Inc.; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-18-001] Kansas Gas Service, a Division of ONEOK, Inc.; Notice of Petition Take notice that on February 6, 2013, Kansas Gas... fully detailed in the petition. Any person desiring to participate in this rate filing must file in...

  11. Initial atomic coherences and Ramsey frequency pulling in fountain clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginov, Vladislav; Nemitz, Nils; Weyers, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    In the uncertainty budget of primary atomic cesium fountain clocks, evaluations of frequency-pulling shifts of the hyperfine clock transition caused by unintentional excitation of its nearby transitions (Rabi and Ramsey pulling) have been based so far on an approach developed for cesium beam clocks. We re-evaluate this type of frequency pulling in fountain clocks and pay particular attention to the effect of initial coherent atomic states. We find significantly enhanced frequency shifts caused by Ramsey pulling due to sublevel population imbalance and corresponding coherences within the state-selected hyperfine component of the initial atom ground state. Such shifts are experimentally investigated in an atomic fountain clock and quantitative agreement with the predictions of the model is demonstrated.

  12. Clock Face Drawing Test Performance in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: The utility and discriminatory pattern of the clock face drawing test in ADHD is unclear. This study therefore compared Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD and controls.   Material & methods: 95 children with ADHD and 191 school children were matched for gender ratio and age. ADHD symptoms severities were assessed using DSM-IV ADHD checklist and their intellectual functioning was assessed. The participants completed three clock-drawing tasks, and the following four functions were assessed: Contour score, Numbers score, Hands setting score, and Center score    Results: All the subscales scores of the three clock drawing tests of the ADHD group were lower than that of the control group. In ADHD children, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores were not related with free drawn clock test scores. When pre-drawn contour test was performed, inattentiveness score was statistically associated with Number score. None of the other variables of age, gender, intellectual functioning, and hand use preference were associated with Numbers score. In pre-drawn clock, no association of ADHD symptoms with any CDT subscales was significant. In addition, more errors are observed with free drawn clock and Pre-drawn contour than pre-drawn clock.    Conclusion: Putting Numbers and Hands setting are more sensitive measures to screen ADHD than Contour and Center drawing. Test performance, except Hands setting, may have already reached a developmental plateau. It is probable that Hand setting deficit in children with ADHD may not decrease from age 8 to 14 years. Performance of children with ADHD is associated with the complexity of CDT.

  13. A central role for ubiquitination within a circadian clock protein modification code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina eStojkovic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms, endogenous cycles of about 24 h in physiology, are generated by a master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and other clocks located in the brain and peripheral tissues. Circadian disruption is known to increase the incidence of various illnesses, such as mental disorders, metabolic syndrome and cancer. At the molecular level, periodicity is established by a set of clock genes via autoregulatory translation-transcription feedback loops. This clock mechanism is regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination, which set the pace of the clock. Ubiquitination in particular has been found to regulate the stability of core clock components, but also other clock protein functions. Mutation of genes encoding ubiquitin ligases can cause either elongation or shortening of the endogenous circadian period. Recent research has also started to uncover roles for deubiquitination in the molecular clockwork. Here we review the role of the ubiquitin pathway in regulating the circadian clock and we propose that ubiquitination is a key element in a clock protein modification code that orchestrates clock mechanisms and circadian behavior over the daily cycle.

  14. Evaluation of Motorcycle Safety in Kansas : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, motorcycle fatalities have increased at an alarming rate in the United States. Motorcycle safety issues in Kansas are no different from the national scenario. Accordingly, this study attempted to investigate motorcycle cr...

  15. Redox rhythm reinforces the circadian clock to gate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mian; Wang, Wei; Karapetyan, Sargis; Mwimba, Musoki; Marqués, Jorge; Buchler, Nicolas E; Dong, Xinnian

    2015-07-23

    Recent studies have shown that in addition to the transcriptional circadian clock, many organisms, including Arabidopsis, have a circadian redox rhythm driven by the organism's metabolic activities. It has been hypothesized that the redox rhythm is linked to the circadian clock, but the mechanism and the biological significance of this link have only begun to be investigated. Here we report that the master immune regulator NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1) of Arabidopsis is a sensor of the plant's redox state and regulates transcription of core circadian clock genes even in the absence of pathogen challenge. Surprisingly, acute perturbation in the redox status triggered by the immune signal salicylic acid does not compromise the circadian clock but rather leads to its reinforcement. Mathematical modelling and subsequent experiments show that NPR1 reinforces the circadian clock without changing the period by regulating both the morning and the evening clock genes. This balanced network architecture helps plants gate their immune responses towards the morning and minimize costs on growth at night. Our study demonstrates how a sensitive redox rhythm interacts with a robust circadian clock to ensure proper responsiveness to environmental stimuli without compromising fitness of the organism.

  16. Building and Running a Collaborative Internet Filter Is Akin to a Kansas Barn Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The Northeast Kansas Library System's filtering project started out as a response to the passage of CIPA, the Children's Internet Protection Act, in January 2001. Originally called "onGuard," it was a service that the Northeast Kansas Library System created for its members. When the Supreme Court ruling did uphold the constitutionality…

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Temperature Compensation of the Circadian Clock

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Virshup; Rajesh Narasimamurthy

    2017-01-01

    An approximately 24-h biological timekeeping mechanism called the circadian clock is present in virtually all light-sensitive organisms from cyanobacteria to humans. The clock system regulates our sleep–wake cycle, feeding–fasting, hormonal secretion, body temperature, and many other physiological functions. Signals from the master circadian oscillator entrain peripheral clocks using a variety of neural and hormonal signals. Even centrally controlled internal temperature fluctuations can entr...

  18. Hanle Detection for Optical Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the strong inhomogeneous spatial polarization and intensity distribution of spontaneous decay fluorescence due to the Hanle effect, we propose and demonstrate a universe Hanle detection configuration of electron-shelving method for optical clocks. Experimental results from Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard with electron-shelving method show that a designed Hanle detection geometry with optimized magnetic field direction, detection laser beam propagation and polarization direction, and detector position can improve the fluorescence collection rate by more than one order of magnitude comparing with that of inefficient geometry. With the fixed 423 nm fluorescence, the improved 657 nm optical frequency standard signal intensity is presented. The potential application of the Hanle detection geometry designed for facilitating the fluorescence collection for optical lattice clock with a limited solid angle of the fluorescence collection has been discussed. The Hanle detection geometry is also effective for ion detection in ion optical clock and quantum information experiments. Besides, a cylinder fluorescence collection structure is designed to increase the solid angle of the fluorescence collection in Ca atomic beam optical frequency standard.

  19. Kansas Nursing Home Medication Aide Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Myrna J.; Fornelli, Linda K.

    This curriculum guide is designed to aid Kansas instructors in conducting a course for teaching nursing home medication aides. Covered first are various introductory topics such as the role and responsibilities of medication aides, pharmacodynamics, forms in which medication is now available, common medical abbreviations, mathematics and weights…

  20. Kansas State University Libraries' OCR Labeling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierer, Joyce; Bower, Merry

    This publication describes the planning and implementation of an optical character recognition (OCR) labeling project, the first stage of Kansas State University (KSU) Libraries' program of conversion from a manual to an automated circulation system. It is noted that a telephone survey of libraries with automated circulation systems and…

  1. Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges. Audit Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Office of the State Auditor, Jefferson City.

    This audit report reviews the employment contracts, related compensation, and other benefits provided for the chancellor and other officers of the Kansas City Metropolitan Community Colleges (KCMCC) in Missouri. The chancellor is allowed to either solicit bids or negotiate for contracted services such as architects, construction managers,…

  2. Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bolton, T.; Horton-Smith, G.; Maravin, Y.; Ratra, B.; Stanton, N.; von Toerne, E.; Wilson, G.

    2007-01-01

    KASP (Kansas Advanced Semiconductor Project) completed the new Layer 0 upgrade for D0, assumed key electronics projects for the US CMS project, finished important new physics measurements with the D0 experiment at Fermilab, made substantial contributions to detector studies for the proposed e+e- international linear collider (ILC), and advanced key initiatives in non-accelerator-based neutrino physics.

  3. Minimal tool set for a prokaryotic circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelling, Nicolas M; Lehmann, Robert; Chaudhury, Paushali; Beck, Christian; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Axmann, Ilka M; Wiegard, Anika

    2017-07-21

    Circadian clocks are found in organisms of almost all domains including photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, whereby large diversity exists within the protein components involved. In the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 circadian rhythms are driven by a unique KaiABC protein clock, which is embedded in a network of input and output factors. Homologous proteins to the KaiABC clock have been observed in Bacteria and Archaea, where evidence for circadian behavior in these domains is accumulating. However, interaction and function of non-cyanobacterial Kai-proteins as well as homologous input and output components remain mainly unclear. Using a universal BLAST analyses, we identified putative KaiC-based timing systems in organisms outside as well as variations within Cyanobacteria. A systematic analyses of publicly available microarray data elucidated interesting variations in circadian gene expression between different cyanobacterial strains, which might be correlated to the diversity of genome encoded clock components. Based on statistical analyses of co-occurrences of the clock components homologous to Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, we propose putative networks of reduced and fully functional clock systems. Further, we studied KaiC sequence conservation to determine functionally important regions of diverged KaiC homologs. Biochemical characterization of exemplary cyanobacterial KaiC proteins as well as homologs from two thermophilic Archaea demonstrated that kinase activity is always present. However, a KaiA-mediated phosphorylation is only detectable in KaiC1 orthologs. Our analysis of 11,264 genomes clearly demonstrates that components of the Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 circadian clock are present in Bacteria and Archaea. However, all components are less abundant in other organisms than Cyanobacteria and KaiA, Pex, LdpA, and CdpA are only present in the latter. Thus, only reduced KaiBC-based or even simpler, solely KaiC-based timing systems

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Factors Related to Customer Satisfaction with MoDOT in the Kansas City Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A mailed survey was sent to approximately twenty thousand citizens from District Four (Kansas City Area) residents in order to gather statistical evidence for : supporting or eliminating reasons for the satisfaction discrepancy between Kansas City Ar...

  5. Time measurement - technical importance of most exact clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, E.O.; Riehle, F.

    2004-01-01

    The exactness of the best atomic clocks currently shows a temporal variation of 1 second in 30 million years. This means that we have reached the point of the most exact frequency and time measurement ever. In the past, there was a trend towards increasing the exactness in an increasingly fast sequence. Will this trend continue? And who will profit from it? This article is meant to give answers to these questions. This is done by presenting first the level reached currently with the best atomic clocks and describing the research activities running worldwide with the aim of achieving even more exact clocks. In the second part, we present examples of various areas of technical subjects and research in which the most exact clocks are being applied presently and even more exact ones will be needed in the future [de

  6. Fault-Tolerant Self-Stabilizing Distributed Clock Synchronization Protocol for Arbitrary Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A self-stabilizing network in the form of an arbitrary, non-partitioned digraph includes K nodes having a synchronizer executing a protocol. K-1 monitors of each node may receive a Sync message transmitted from a directly connected node. When the Sync message is received, the logical clock value for the receiving node is set to between 0 and a communication latency value (gamma) if the clock value is less than a minimum event-response delay (D). A new Sync message is also transmitted to any directly connected nodes if the clock value is greater than or equal to both D and a graph threshold (T(sub S)). When the Sync message is not received the synchronizer increments the clock value if the clock value is less than a resynchronization period (P), and resets the clock value and transmits a new Sync message to all directly connected nodes when the clock value equals or exceeds P.

  7. The Clock gene clone and its circadian rhythms in Pelteobagrus vachelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Shao, Ting

    2015-05-01

    The Clock gene, a key molecule in circadian systems, is widely distributed in the animal kingdom. We isolated a 936-bp partial cDNA sequence of the Clock gene ( Pva-clock) from the darkbarbel catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli that exhibited high identity with Clock genes of other species of fish and animals (65%-88%). The putative domains included a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and two period-ARNT-single-minded (PAS) domains, which were also similar to those in other species of fish and animals. Pva-Clock was primarily expressed in the brain, and was detected in all of the peripheral tissues sampled. Additionally, the pattern of Pva-Clock expression over a 24-h period exhibited a circadian rhythm in the brain, liver and intestine, with the acrophase at zeitgeber time 21:35, 23:00, and 23:23, respectively. Our results provide insight into the function of the molecular Clock of P. vachelli.

  8. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  9. A Method for Estimating BeiDou Inter-frequency Satellite Clock Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Haojun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method for estimating the BeiDou inter-frequency satellite clock bias is proposed, considering the shortage of the current methods. The constant and variable parts of the inter-frequency satellite clock bias are considered in the new method. The data from 10 observation stations are processed to validate the new method. The characterizations of the BeiDou inter-frequency satellite clock bias are also analyzed using the computed results. The results of the BeiDou inter-frequency satellite clock bias indicate that it is stable in the short term. The estimated BeiDou inter-frequency satellite clock bias results are molded. The model results show that the 10 parameters of model for each satellite can express the BeiDou inter-frequency satellite clock bias well and the accuracy reaches cm level. When the model parameters of the first day are used to compute the BeiDou inter-frequency satellite clock bias of the second day, the accuracy also reaches cm level. Based on the stability and modeling, a strategy for the BeiDou satellite clock service is presented to provide the reference of our BeiDou.

  10. Intact interval timing in circadian CLOCK mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C R

    2008-08-28

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval-timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/- and -/- mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing.

  11. A self-interfering clock as a "which path" witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Yair; Zhou, Zhifan; Machluf, Shimon; Rohrlich, Daniel; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2015-09-11

    In Einstein's general theory of relativity, time depends locally on gravity; in standard quantum theory, time is global-all clocks "tick" uniformly. We demonstrate a new tool for investigating time in the overlap of these two theories: a self-interfering clock, comprising two atomic spin states. We prepare the clock in a spatial superposition of quantum wave packets, which evolve coherently along two paths into a stable interference pattern. If we make the clock wave packets "tick" at different rates, to simulate a gravitational time lag, the clock time along each path yields "which path" information, degrading the pattern's visibility. In contrast, in standard interferometry, time cannot yield "which path" information. This proof-of-principle experiment may have implications for the study of time and general relativity and their impact on fundamental effects such as decoherence and the emergence of a classical world. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. The quantum beat principles and applications of atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Major, F

    2007-01-01

    This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...

  13. Continuous real-time water information: an important Kansas resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Putnam, James E.; Turk, Donita M.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous real-time information on streams, lakes, and groundwater is an important Kansas resource that can safeguard lives and property, and ensure adequate water resources for a healthy State economy. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operates approximately 230 water-monitoring stations at Kansas streams, lakes, and groundwater sites. Most of these stations are funded cooperatively in partnerships with local, tribal, State, or other Federal agencies. The USGS real-time water-monitoring network provides long-term, accurate, and objective information that meets the needs of many customers. Whether the customer is a water-management or water-quality agency, an emergency planner, a power or navigational official, a farmer, a canoeist, or a fisherman, all can benefit from the continuous real-time water information gathered by the USGS.

  14. Byzantine-fault tolerant self-stabilizing protocol for distributed clock synchronization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A rapid Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol that self-stabilizes from any state, tolerates bursts of transient failures, and deterministically converges within a linear convergence time with respect to the self-stabilization period. Upon self-stabilization, all good clocks proceed synchronously. The Byzantine self-stabilizing clock synchronization protocol does not rely on any assumptions about the initial state of the clocks. Furthermore, there is neither a central clock nor an externally generated pulse system. The protocol converges deterministically, is scalable, and self-stabilizes in a short amount of time. The convergence time is linear with respect to the self-stabilization period.

  15. The role of the mechanical clock in medieval science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Víctor Pérez

    2015-03-01

    The invention and spread of the mechanical clock is a complex and multifaceted historical phenomenon. Some of these facets, such as its social impact, have been widely studied, but their scientific dimensions have often been dismissed. The mechanical clock was probably born as a scientific instrument for driving a model of the universe, and not only natural philosophers but also kings, nobles and other members of the social elites showed an interest in clocks as scientific instruments. Public clocks later spread a new way of telling time based on equal hours, laying the foundations for changes in time consciousness that would accelerate scientific thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The endogenous circadian clock programs animals to eat at certain times of the 24-hour day: What if we ignore the clock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Turek, Fred W

    2018-04-16

    The discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying the circadian clock, which functions in virtually every cell throughout the body to coordinate biological processes to anticipate and better adapt to daily rhythmic changes in the environment, is one of the major biomedical breakthroughs in the 20th century. Twenty years after this breakthrough, the biomedical community is now at a new frontier to incorporate the circadian clock mechanisms into many areas of biomedical research, as studies continue to reveal an important role of the circadian clock in a wide range of biological functions and diseases. A forefront of this exciting area is the research of interactions between the clock and energy metabolism. In this review, we summarize animal and human studies linking disruptions of the circadian clock, either environmental or genetic, to metabolic dysfunctions associated with obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders. We also discuss how these advances in circadian biology may pave the way to revolutionize clinical practice in the era of precision medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estadio de Kansas City (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy, C. F.

    1978-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crosby Kemper stadium, located in the center of an industrial district of Kansas City, was designed for various uses which include activities ranging from music and sports competitions to equestrian sports. It has a capacity for approximately 16 to 18,000 people and parking for 4,000 cars. The outstanding feature of its architectonic conception is the solution adopted for building the roof, by means of enormous metal tubular beams, of triangular section and a height of 8.25 meters with pipe diameters reaching 120 cm.

    El estadio Crosby Kemper, situado en el centro de un distrito industrial de Kansas, fue concebido para un funcionamiento diverso que comprende actividades que van desde la música y competiciones deportivas hasta pruebas hípicas. Tiene capacidad para unas 16.000 ó 18.000 personas, y plazas de aparcamiento para 4.000 coches. En su concepción arquitectónica sobresale la solución adoptada para la realización de la cubierta, mediante enormes vigas tubulares metálicas, de sección triangular y altura de 8,25 m, con diámetros de tubo que alcanzan los 120 cm.

  18. The retinal clock in mammals: role in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felder-Schmittbuhl MP

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl,1,* Hugo Calligaro,2 Ouria Dkhissi-Benyahya2,* 1Institute of Cellular and Integratives Neurosciences, UPR3212, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, 2University of Lyon, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, INSERM U1208, Bron, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The mammalian retina contains an extraordinary diversity of cell types that are highly organized into precise circuits to perceive and process visual information in a dynamic manner and transmit it to the brain. Above this builds up another level of complex dynamic, orchestrated by a circadian clock located within the retina, which allows retinal physiology, and hence visual function, to adapt to daily changes in light intensity. The mammalian retina is a remarkable model of circadian clock because it harbors photoreception, self-sustained oscillator function, and physiological outputs within the same tissue. However, the location of the retinal clock in mammals has been a matter of long debate. Current data have shown that clock properties are widely distributed among retinal cells and that the retina is composed of a network of circadian clocks located within distinct cellular layers. Nevertheless, the identity of the major pacemaker, if any, still warrants identification. In addition, the retina coordinates rhythmic behavior by providing visual input to the master hypothalamic circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN. This light entrainment of the SCN to the light/dark cycle involves a network of retinal photoreceptor cells: rods, cones, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs. Although it was considered that these photoreceptors synchronized both retinal and SCN clocks, new data challenge this view, suggesting that none of these photoreceptors is involved in photic entrainment of the retinal clock. Because circadian organization is a ubiquitous feature of the retina and controls

  19. Expression conservation within the circadian clock of a monocot: natural variation at barley Ppd-H1 affects circadian expression of flowering time genes, but not clock orthologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoli, Chiara; Shtaya, Munqez; Davis, Seth J; von Korff, Maria

    2012-06-21

    The circadian clock is an endogenous mechanism that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the environment. In plants, circadian rhythms contribute to both agricultural productivity and evolutionary fitness. In barley, the photoperiod response regulator and flowering-time gene Ppd-H1 is orthologous to the Arabidopsis core-clock gene PRR7. However, relatively little is known about the role of Ppd-H1 and other components of the circadian clock in temperate crop species. In this study, we identified barley clock orthologs and tested the effects of natural genetic variation at Ppd-H1 on diurnal and circadian expression of clock and output genes from the photoperiod-response pathway. Barley clock orthologs HvCCA1, HvGI, HvPRR1, HvPRR37 (Ppd-H1), HvPRR73, HvPRR59 and HvPRR95 showed a high level of sequence similarity and conservation of diurnal and circadian expression patterns, when compared to Arabidopsis. The natural mutation at Ppd-H1 did not affect diurnal or circadian cycling of barley clock genes. However, the Ppd-H1 mutant was found to be arrhythmic under free-running conditions for the photoperiod-response genes HvCO1, HvCO2, and the MADS-box transcription factor and vernalization responsive gene Vrn-H1. We suggest that the described eudicot clock is largely conserved in the monocot barley. However, genetic differentiation within gene families and differences in the function of Ppd-H1 suggest evolutionary modification in the angiosperm clock. Our data indicates that natural variation at Ppd-H1 does not affect the expression level of clock genes, but controls photoperiodic output genes. Circadian control of Vrn-H1 in barley suggests that this vernalization responsive gene is also controlled by the photoperiod-response pathway. Structural and functional characterization of the barley circadian clock will set the basis for future studies of the adaptive significance of the circadian clock in Triticeae species.

  20. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock - Recent Development Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    35th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 467 THE CHIP-SCALE ATOMIC CLOCK – RECENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRESS R. Lutwak ...1] R. Lutwak , et al., 2003, “The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock – Coherent Population Trapping vs. Conventional Interrogation,” in

  1. Clock synchronization and dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Wong, Franco N C

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to defeat effects of dispersion of timing signals when synchronizing clocks. It is based on the recently proposed 'conveyor belt synchronization' scheme and on the quantum dispersion cancellation effect

  2. Association between circadian clock genes and diapause incidence in Drosophila triauraria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Yamada

    Full Text Available Diapause is an adaptive response triggered by seasonal photoperiodicity to overcome unfavorable seasons. The photoperiodic clock is a system that controls seasonal physiological processes, but our knowledge about its physiological mechanisms and genetic architecture remains incomplete. The circadian clock is another system that controls daily rhythmic physiological phenomena. It has been argued that there is a connection between the two clocks. To examine the genetic connection between them, we analyzed the associations of five circadian clock genes (period, timeless, Clock, cycle and cryptochrome with the occurrence of diapause in Drosophila triauraria, which shows a robust reproductive diapause with clear photoperiodicity. Non-diapause strains found in low latitudes were compared in genetic crosses with the diapause strain, in which the diapause trait is clearly dominant. Single nucleotide polymorphism and deletion analyses of the five circadian clock genes in backcross progeny revealed that allelic differences in timeless and cryptochrome between the strains were additively associated with the differences in the incidence of diapause. This suggests that there is a molecular link between certain circadian clock genes and the occurrence of diapause.

  3. MTL-Model Checking of One-Clock Parametric Timed Automata is Undecidable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Quaas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parametric timed automata extend timed automata (Alur and Dill, 1991 in that they allow the specification of parametric bounds on the clock values. Since their introduction in 1993 by Alur, Henzinger, and Vardi, it is known that the emptiness problem for parametric timed automata with one clock is decidable, whereas it is undecidable if the automaton uses three or more parametric clocks. The problem is open for parametric timed automata with two parametric clocks. Metric temporal logic, MTL for short, is a widely used specification language for real-time systems. MTL-model checking of timed automata is decidable, no matter how many clocks are used in the timed automaton. In this paper, we prove that MTL-model checking for parametric timed automata is undecidable, even if the automaton uses only one clock and one parameter and is deterministic.

  4. Application of radioisotope for radio-luminous watch and clock industry in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    In 1979, Japan became No. 1 watch and clock production country in the world, and has produced 88 million watches and 59 million clocks in 1980. About 65% of them were exported. The production of radio-luminous watches and clocks in 1980 was estimated as 13 million and 11 million, respectively, and has increased by 40% as compared with the previous year. In Japan, the law concerning the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes and others is applied to radio-luminous watches and clocks, because radioactive substances are contained in luminous paint, and the production is regulated by the law as unsealed RI-using establishments. The permitted establishments engaging in radio-luminous watches and clocks are 3 luminous paint makers, 9 painting works and 35 watch and clock assembling plants. The RI utilized for radio-luminous watches and clocks is limited to Pm-147 at present, and 3788 Ci was used in 1980. About 70 years have elapsed since luminous paint was used for watches and clocks for the first time. The ISO instituted the international standard on radio-luminous paint for watches and clocks in 1975. The beta-ray emitted by Pm-147 is shielded perfectly by glasses and cases, and only the dose of brems-strahlung X-ray is the problem. The radiation control in radio-luminous watch and clock plants is described. (Kako, I.)

  5. Protecting Clock Synchronization: Adversary Detection through Network Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, industrial networks are often used for safety-critical applications with real-time requirements. Such applications usually have a time-triggered nature with message scheduling as a core property. Scheduling requires nodes to share the same notion of time, that is, to be synchronized. Therefore, clock synchronization is a fundamental asset in real-time networks. However, since typical standards for clock synchronization, for example, IEEE 1588, do not provide the required level of security, it raises the question of clock synchronization protection. In this paper, we identify a way to break synchronization based on the IEEE 1588 standard, by conducting a man-in-the-middle (MIM attack followed by a delay attack. A MIM attack can be accomplished through, for example, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP poisoning. Using the AVISPA tool, we evaluate the potential to perform a delay attack using ARP poisoning and analyze its consequences showing both that the attack can, indeed, break clock synchronization and that some design choices, such as a relaxed synchronization condition mode, delay bounding, and using knowledge of environmental conditions, can make the network more robust/resilient against these kinds of attacks. Lastly, a Configuration Agent is proposed to monitor and detect anomalies introduced by an adversary performing attacks targeting clock synchronization.

  6. Mining for novel candidate clock genes in the circadian regulatory network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Anuprabha; Herzel, Hanspeter; Ananthasubramaniam, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    Background Most physiological processes in mammals are temporally regulated by means of a master circadian clock in the brain and peripheral oscillators in most other tissues. A transcriptional-translation feedback network of clock genes produces near 24 h oscillations in clock gene and protein expression. Here, we aim to identify novel additions to the clock network using a meta-analysis of public chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), proteomics and protein-protein interaction...

  7. Clock Technology Development in the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Dave; Thompson, R. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Kohel, J.; Maleki, L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics (LCAP) program. It focuses on clock technology development. The topics include: 1) Overview of LCAP Flight Projects; 2) Space Clock 101; 3) Physics with Clocks in microgravity; 4) Space Clock Challenges; 5) LCAP Timeline; 6) International Space Station (ISS) Science Platforms; 7) ISS Express Rack; 8) Space Qualification of Components; 9) Laser Configuration; 10) Clock Rate Comparisons: GPS Carrier Phase Frequency Transfer; and 11) ISS Model Views. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  8. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  9. Catastrophic sinkhole formation in Kansas: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, J.L.; Miller, R.D.

    2006-01-01

    Sinkholes represent a hazard to property and human safety in a wide variety of geologic settings across the globe. In most cases, the subsidence rate of a sinkhole represents the most significant potential impact and risk to public safety. Since 1979, the Kansas Geological Survey has studied numerous sinkholes using high-resolution seismic reflection in an attempt to better understand the mechanisms that control their formation. Most sinkholes in central Kansas form as a result of dissolution of the Permian Hutchinson salt (Figure 1). The fluid source and associated pathway responsible for leaching these bedded evaporites have been natural, anthropogenic, and a combination of both. Sinkholes have been a part of the landscape in the North American midcontinent long before modern oil, gas, and mineral exploration, but clearly the activities of man have played a significant role in both increasing the number of sinkholes and affecting their subsidence rates.

  10. A (201)Hg+ Comagnetometer for (199)Hg+ Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A.; Taghavi, Shervin; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for unambiguously measuring the exact magnetic field experienced by trapped mercury ions contained within an atomic clock intended for space applications. In general, atomic clocks are insensitive to external perturbations that would change the frequency at which the clocks operate. On a space platform, these perturbative effects can be much larger than they would be on the ground, especially in dealing with the magnetic field environment. The solution is to use a different isotope of mercury held within the same trap as the clock isotope. The magnetic field can be very accurately measured with a magnetic-field-sensitive atomic transition in the added isotope. Further, this measurement can be made simultaneously with normal clock operation, thereby not degrading clock performance. Instead of using a conventional magnetometer to measure ambient fields, which would necessarily be placed some distance away from the clock atoms, first order field-sensitive atomic transition frequency changes in the atoms themselves determine the variations in the magnetic field. As a result, all ambiguity over the exact field value experienced by the atoms is removed. Atoms used in atomic clocks always have an atomic transition (often referred to as the clock transition) that is sensitive to magnetic fields only in second order, and usually have one or more transitions that are first-order field sensitive. For operating parameters used in the (199)Hg(+) clock, the latter can be five orders of magnitude or more sensitive to field fluctuations than the clock transition, thereby providing an unambiguous probe of the magnetic field strength.

  11. British domestic synchronous clocks 1930-1980 the rise and fall of a technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pook, Leslie Philip

    2015-01-01

    This book complements available one-make books on domestic synchronous clocks. It is also a history of science book that sets British domestic synchronous clocks, their manufacturers and technology in their social context. Part I covers the historical background, British domestic synchronous clock manufacturers and brands, how synchronous clocks work, domestic synchronous clock cases, practical advice on the servicing of domestic synchronous clocks, and analysis of the marketing and reliability of British domestic synchronous clocks. This analysis provides an explanation of the rise and eventual fall of their technology. Part II contains galleries of a selection of British domestic synchronous clocks, and of the movements with which they are fitted. There is a front and back view of each clock, together with a brief description. Views of each movement include views with the movement partly dismantled, together with a brief technical description of the movement. This profusely illustrated book is primarily fo...

  12. Dual-Mode Operation of an Optical Lattice Clock Using Strontium and Ytterbium Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Takumi; Hisai, Yusuke; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Yasuda, Masami; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2018-06-01

    We have developed an optical lattice clock that can operate in dual modes: a strontium (Sr) clock mode and an ytterbium (Yb) clock mode. Dual-mode operation of the Sr-Yb optical lattice clock is achieved by alternately cooling and trapping 87 Sr and 171 Yb atoms inside the vacuum chamber of the clock. Optical lattices for Sr and Yb atoms were arranged with horizontal and vertical configurations, respectively, resulting in a small distance of the order of between the trapped Sr and Yb atoms. The 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 clock transitions in the trapped atoms were interrogated in turn and the clock lasers were stabilized to the transitions. We demonstrated the frequency ratio measurement of the Sr and Yb clock transitions by using the dual-mode operation of the Sr-Yb optical lattice clock. The dual-mode operation can reduce the uncertainty of the blackbody radiation shift in the frequency ratio measurement, because both Sr and Yb atoms share the same blackbody radiation.

  13. A bunch clock for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A bunch clock timing module has been developed for use by Advanced Photon Source beamlines. The module provides bunch pattern and timing information that can be used to trigger beamline data collection equipment. The module is fully integrated into the control system software (EPICS) which automatically loads it with the storage ring fill pattern at injection time. Fast timing outputs (1 ns FWHM) for each stored bunch are generated using the storage ring low-level rf and revolution clock as input references. Fiber-optic-based transmitters and receivers are used to transmit a 352-MHz low-level rf reference to distributed bunch clock modules. The bunch clock module is a single-width VME module and may be installed in a VME crate located near beamline instrumentation. A prototype has been in use on the SRI CAT beamline for over a year. The design and integration into the control system timing software along with measured performance results are presented

  14. Developing Community-Focused Solutions using a Food-Energy-Water Calculator, with Initial Application to Western Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M. C.; Pahwa, A.; Rogers, D.; Roundy, J. K.; Barron, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Many agricultural areas are facing difficult circumstances. Kansas is one example, with problems that are typical. Past agricultural and hydrologic data document how irrigation in western Kansas has produced a multi-billion-dollar agricultural economy that is now threatened by pumping-induced declines in groundwater levels. Although reduced pumping could mitigate much of the threat and preserve much of Kansas' agricultural economy (albeit at a reduced level) in the long term, a primary disincentive for reducing pumping is the immediate economic impact of diminished irrigation. One alternative to continued unsustainable groundwater use is a water-energy tradeoff program that seeks to reduce pumping from the Ogallala aquifer to sustainable rates while maintaining local income levels. This program would allow development of the region's rich wind and solar energy resources in a way that focuses on local economic benefits, in exchange for water rights concessions from affected stakeholders. In considering this alternative, most citizens are currently unable to address a key question, "What could this mean for me?" Answering this question requires knowledge of agriculture, energy, water, economics, and drought probabilities, knowledge that is available at Kansas universities. This talk presents a joint University of Kansas - Kansas State University effort to address this need through development of the Food-Energy-Water Calculator. This talk will present the idea and discuss how the calculator would work. It is suggested that the framework created provides a powerful way to organize data and analysis results, and thus to seek solutions to difficult problems in many regions of the US and the world.

  15. Relativistic theory for syntonization of clocks in the vicinity of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Petit, G.

    1995-01-01

    A well known prediction of Einstein's general theory of relativity states that two ideal clocks that move with a relative velocity, and are submitted to different gravitational fields will, in general, be observed to run at different rates. Similarly the rate of a clock with respect to the coordinate time of some spacetime reference system is dependent on the velocity of the clock in that reference system and on the gravitational fields it is submitted to. For the syntonization of clocks and the realization of coordinate times (like TAI) this rate shift has to be taken into account at an accuracy level which should be below the frequency stability of the clocks in question, i.e. all terms that are larger than the instability of the clocks should be corrected for. We present a theory for the calculation of the relativistic rate shift for clocks in the vicinity of the Earth, including all terms larger than one part in 10(exp 18). This, together with previous work on clock synchronization (Petit & Wolf 1993, 1994), amounts to a complete relativistic theory for the realization of coordinate time scales at picosecond synchronization and 10(exp -18) syntonization accuracy, which should be sufficient to accommodate future developments in time transfer and clock technology.

  16. A new stochastic model considering satellite clock interpolation errors in precise point positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Yang, Fanlin; Gao, Wang; Yan, Lizi; Ge, Yulong

    2018-03-01

    Precise clock products are typically interpolated based on the sampling interval of the observational data when they are used for in precise point positioning. However, due to the occurrence of white noise in atomic clocks, a residual component of such noise will inevitable reside within the observations when clock errors are interpolated, and such noise will affect the resolution of the positioning results. In this paper, which is based on a twenty-one-week analysis of the atomic clock noise characteristics of numerous satellites, a new stochastic observation model that considers satellite clock interpolation errors is proposed. First, the systematic error of each satellite in the IGR clock product was extracted using a wavelet de-noising method to obtain the empirical characteristics of atomic clock noise within each clock product. Then, based on those empirical characteristics, a stochastic observation model was structured that considered the satellite clock interpolation errors. Subsequently, the IGR and IGS clock products at different time intervals were used for experimental validation. A verification using 179 stations worldwide from the IGS showed that, compared with the conventional model, the convergence times using the stochastic model proposed in this study were respectively shortened by 4.8% and 4.0% when the IGR and IGS 300-s-interval clock products were used and by 19.1% and 19.4% when the 900-s-interval clock products were used. Furthermore, the disturbances during the initial phase of the calculation were also effectively improved.

  17. Master Clock and Time-Signal-Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoelker, Robert; Calhoun, Malcolm; Kuhnle, Paul; Sydnor, Richard; Lauf, John

    2007-01-01

    A timing system comprising an electronic master clock and a subsystem for distributing time signals from the master clock to end users is undergoing development to satisfy anticipated timing requirements of NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) for the next 20 to 30 years. This system has a modular, flexible, expandable architecture that is easier to operate and maintain than the present frequency and timing subsystem (FTS).

  18. Clock synchronization by remote detection of correlated photon pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Caleb; Lamas-Linares, AntIa; Kurtsiefer, Christian [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 (Singapore)], E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com

    2009-04-15

    In this study, we present an algorithm to detect the time and frequency differences of independent clocks based on observation of time-correlated photon pairs. This enables remote coincidence identification in entanglement-based quantum key distribution schemes without dedicated coincidence hardware, pulsed sources with a timing structure or very stable reference clocks. We discuss the method for typical operating conditions and show that the requirement for reference clock accuracy can be relaxed by about five orders of magnitude in comparison with previous schemes.

  19. System-wide power management control via clock distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Reed, Don D.

    2015-05-19

    An apparatus, method and computer program product for automatically controlling power dissipation of a parallel computing system that includes a plurality of processors. A computing device issues a command to the parallel computing system. A clock pulse-width modulator encodes the command in a system clock signal to be distributed to the plurality of processors. The plurality of processors in the parallel computing system receive the system clock signal including the encoded command, and adjusts power dissipation according to the encoded command.

  20. Complementary approaches to understanding the plant circadian clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur E. Akman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks are oscillatory genetic networks that help organisms adapt to the 24-hour day/night cycle. The clock of the green alga Ostreococcus tauri is the simplest plant clock discovered so far. Its many advantages as an experimental system facilitate the testing of computational predictions. We present a model of the Ostreococcus clock in the stochastic process algebra Bio-PEPA and exploit its mapping to different analysis techniques, such as ordinary differential equations, stochastic simulation algorithms and model-checking. The small number of molecules reported for this system tests the limits of the continuous approximation underlying differential equations. We investigate the difference between continuous-deterministic and discrete-stochastic approaches. Stochastic simulation and model-checking allow us to formulate new hypotheses on the system behaviour, such as the presence of self-sustained oscillations in single cells under constant light conditions. We investigate how to model the timing of dawn and dusk in the context of model-checking, which we use to compute how the probability distributions of key biochemical species change over time. These show that the relative variation in expression level is smallest at the time of peak expression, making peak time an optimal experimental phase marker. Building on these analyses, we use approaches from evolutionary systems biology to investigate how changes in the rate of mRNA degradation impacts the phase of a key protein likely to affect fitness. We explore how robust this circadian clock is towards such potential mutational changes in its underlying biochemistry. Our work shows that multiple approaches lead to a more complete understanding of the clock.

  1. A simple electromagnetic model for the light clock of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Glenn S

    2011-01-01

    Thought experiments involving a light clock are common in introductory treatments of special relativity, because they provide a simple way of demonstrating the non-intuitive phenomenon of time dilation. The properties of the ray or pulse of light that is continuously reflected between the parallel mirrors of the clock are often stated vaguely and sometimes involve implicitly other relativistic effects, such as aberration. While this approach is adequate for an introduction, it should be supplemented by a more accurate analysis of the light clock once the formulae for the Lorentz transformation and the transformation of the electromagnetic field have been developed. A simple yet accurate electromagnetic model for the light clock is presented for this purpose. In this model, the ray of light in the qualitative treatment is replaced by a guided wave in a parallel-plate waveguide. Expressions for the electromagnetic field and energy density within the waveguide are determined in the inertial frame in which the clock is at rest and the laboratory frame in which the clock is moving with constant velocity. The analytical expressions and graphical results obtained clearly demonstrate the operation of the clock and time dilation, as well as other interesting relativistic effects.

  2. Exploring leadership roles, goals, and barriers among Kansas registered nurses: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Jill N; Ford, Debra J; Shen, Qiuhua; Fischgrund, Avery; Teel, Cynthia S; Pierce, Janet; Jamison, Marian; Waldon, Trynn

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report advocates for full nurse leader representation across multiple settings to address current challenges in our health care system. The purpose of this study was to examine nursing leadership development needs among Kansas registered nurses (RNs). Data were collected through an online survey and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Nearly 1,000 Kansas RNs participated. Most reported holding one or more leadership positions. Prevalent leadership goals were health care organization volunteer administrative roles. The most frequently identified barrier to developing leadership roles was time constraints. Many wanted to develop skills to serve on a board, 20% were interested in personal leadership development, and 19% in policy development. Based on the findings, the Kansas Action Coalition leadership team is developing programs to address the leadership needs of Kansas RNs. By building capacity in advanced leadership roles, RNs will be better prepared serve as full partners and lead efforts to promote the health of Kansans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ClockWork: a Real-Time Feasibility Analysis Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Mullender, Sape J.

    ClockWork shows that we can improve the flexibility and efficiency of real-time kernels. We do this by proposing methods for scheduling based on so-called Real-Time Transactions. ClockWork uses Real-Time Transactions which allow scheduling decisions to be taken by the system. A programmer does not

  4. Design and Construction of an Atomic Clock on an Atom Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, Friedemann

    2009-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of an atomic clock on an atom chip, intended as a secondary standard, with a stability in the range of few 10 -13 at 1 s. This clock is based on a two-photon transition between the hyperfine states |F = 1; m F = -1> and |2; 1> of the electronic ground state of the 87 Rb atom. This transition is interrogated using a Ramsey scheme, operating on either a cloud of thermal atoms or a Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to atomic fountain clocks, this clock is magnetically trapped on an atom chip. We describe a theoretical model of the clock stability and the design and construction of a dedicated apparatus. It is able to control the magnetic field at the relative 10 -5 level and features a hybrid atom chip, containing DC conductors as well as a microwave transmission line for the clock interrogation. (author)

  5. One-liter Hg ion clock for space and ground applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestage, John D.; Chung, Sang; Le, Thanh; Beach, Maggie; Maleki, Lute; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development of a small Hg ion clock suitable for space use. A small clock occupying 1-2 liters volume and producing stability of 10 to the power negative twelve, divided by square root pi would significantly advance the state of space-qualified atomic clocks. Based on recent measurements, this technology should produce long-term stability as good as 10 to the power negative fifteen.

  6. Indiana and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, William J.; Rosenberg, Morton M.

    1984-01-01

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the ban against slavery in the North, served as a catalyst to activate numerous groups which were unhappy with the Indiana Democratic Party. From this period emerged the new Republican party and also a revitalized Democratic party with new leadership. (IS)

  7. Telling time from analog and digital clocks: A multiple-route account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korvorst, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Does the naming of clocks always require conceptual preparation? To examine this question, speakers were presented with analog and digital clocks that had to be named in Dutch using either a relative (e.g., "quarter to four") or an absolute (e.g., "three forty-five") clock time expression format.

  8. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  9. Optical lattice clock with strontium atoms: a second generation of cold atom clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Targat, R.

    2007-07-01

    Atomic fountains, based on a microwave transition of Cesium or Rubidium, constitute the state of the art atomic clocks, with a relative accuracy close to 10 -16 . It nevertheless appears today that it will be difficult to go significantly beyond this level with this kind of device. The use of an optical transition, the other parameters being unchanged, gives hope for a 4 or 5 orders of magnitude improvement of the stability and of the relative uncertainty on most systematic effects. As for motional effects on the atoms, they can be controlled on a very different manner if they are trapped in an optical lattice instead of experiencing a free ballistic flight stage, characteristic of fountains. The key point of this approach lies in the fact that the trap can be operated in such a way that a well chosen, weakly allowed, J=0 → J=0 clock transition can be free from light shift effects. In this respect, the strontium atom is one of the most promising candidate, the 1S 0 → 3P 0 transition has a natural width of 1 mHz, and several other easily accessible transitions can be used to efficiently laser cool atoms down to 10 μK. This thesis demonstrates the experimental feasibility of an optical lattice clock based on the strontium atom, and reports on a preliminary evaluation of the relative accuracy with the fermionic isotope 87 Sr, at a level of a few 10 -15 . (author)

  10. Standard Clock in primordial density perturbations and cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xingang; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Standard Clocks in the primordial epoch leave a special type of features in the primordial perturbations, which can be used to directly measure the scale factor of the primordial universe as a function of time a(t), thus discriminating between inflation and alternatives. We have started to search for such signals in the Planck 2013 data using the key predictions of the Standard Clock. In this Letter, we summarize the key predictions of the Standard Clock and present an interesting candidate example in Planck 2013 data. Motivated by this candidate, we construct and compute full Standard Clock models and use the more complete prediction to make more extensive comparison with data. Although this candidate is not yet statistically significant, we use it to illustrate how Standard Clocks appear in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and how they can be further tested by future data. We also use it to motivate more detailed theoretical model building

  11. The Clock mutant mouse is a novel experimental model for nocturia and nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Tatsuya; Mitsui, Takahiko; Nakamura, Yuki; Kira, Satoru; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Nakagomi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Norifumi; Hirayama, Yuri; Shibata, Keisuke; Shigetomi, Eiji; Shinozaki, Yoichi; Yoshiyama, Mitsuharu; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Nakao, Atsuhito; Takeda, Masayuki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2017-04-01

    The pathophysiologies of nocturia (NOC) and nocturnal polyuria (NP) are multifactorial and their etiologies remain unclear in a large number of patients. Clock genes exist in most cells and organs, and the products of Clock regulate circadian rhythms as representative clock genes. Clock genes regulate lower urinary tract function, and a newly suggested concept is that abnormalities in clock genes cause lower urinary tract symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the voiding behavior of Clock mutant (Clock Δ19/Δ19 ) mice in order to determine the effects of clock genes on NOC/NP. Male C57BL/6 mice aged 8-12 weeks (WT) and male C57BL/6 Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice aged 8 weeks were used. They were bred under 12 hr light/dark conditions for 2 weeks and voiding behavior was investigated by measuring water intake volume, urine volume, urine volume/void, and voiding frequency in metabolic cages in the dark and light periods. No significant differences were observed in behavior patterns between Clock Δ19/Δ19 and WT mice. Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice showed greater voiding frequencies and urine volumes during the sleep phase than WT mice. The diurnal change in urine volume/void between the dark and light periods in WT mice was absent in Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice. Additionally, functional bladder capacity was significantly lower in Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice than in WT mice. We demonstrated that Clock Δ19/Δ19 mice showed the phenotype of NOC/NP. The Clock Δ19/Δ19 mouse may be used as an animal model of NOC and NP. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1034-1038, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clock synchronisation experiment in India using symphonie satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayajulu, Y. V.; Mathur, B. S.; Banerjee, P.; Garg, S. C.; Singh, L.; Sood, P. C.; Tyagi, T. R.; Jain, C. L.; Kumar, K.

    1979-01-01

    A recent clock synchronization experiment between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), New Delhi and Space Applications Center (SAC), Ahemedabad, in India via geostationary satellite symphonie 2, stationed at 49 E longitude, is reported. A two-way transmission using a microwave transponder considered to provide the greatest precision in synchronization of two remote clocks is described.

  13. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  14. A Faster Algorithm for Solving One-Clock Priced Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2013-01-01

    previously known time bound for solving one-clock priced timed games was 2O(n2+m) , due to Rutkowski. For our improvement, we introduce and study a new algorithm for solving one-clock priced timed games, based on the sweep-line technique from computational geometry and the strategy iteration paradigm from......One-clock priced timed games is a class of two-player, zero-sum, continuous-time games that was defined and thoroughly studied in previous works. We show that one-clock priced timed games can be solved in time m 12 n n O(1), where n is the number of states and m is the number of actions. The best...

  15. A Faster Algorithm for Solving One-Clock Priced Timed Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    previously known time bound for solving one-clock priced timed games was 2^(O(n^2+m)), due to Rutkowski. For our improvement, we introduce and study a new algorithm for solving one-clock priced timed games, based on the sweep-line technique from computational geometry and the strategy iteration paradigm from......One-clock priced timed games is a class of two-player, zero-sum, continuous-time games that was defined and thoroughly studied in previous works. We show that one-clock priced timed games can be solved in time m 12^n n^(O(1)), where n is the number of states and m is the number of actions. The best...

  16. Dr. North and the Kansas City Newspaper War: Public Health Advocacy Collides with Main Street Respectability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, Bill

    A case study examined a 1920 controversy between two newspapers. One of the last vestiges of the era of "yellow journalism" was the editorial "war" between the Kansas City "Star" and the Kansas City "Post" which culminated in a 1921 showdown. The "Star," a champion of main street interests and…

  17. Clock transport synchronisation and the dragging of inertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, Arnold

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible, by using the lack of synchronisation of clocks by clock transport synchronisation in circular orbits, to test for the dragging of inertial frames in Einstein's theory of general relativity. Possible experiments are discussed. (author)

  18. Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  19. Non-Metastatic Cutaneous Melanoma Induces Chronodisruption in Central and Peripheral Circadian Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro; Moraes, Maria Nathália; Magalhães-Marques, Keila Karoline; Kinker, Gabriela Sarti; da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Castrucci, Ana Maria de Lauro

    2018-04-03

    The biological clock has received increasing interest due to its key role in regulating body homeostasis in a time-dependent manner. Cancer development and progression has been linked to a disrupted molecular clock; however, in melanoma, the role of the biological clock is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of the tumor on its micro- (TME) and macro-environments (TMaE) in a non-metastatic melanoma model. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with murine B16-F10 melanoma cells and 2 weeks later the animals were euthanized every 6 h during 24 h. The presence of a localized tumor significantly impaired the biological clock of tumor-adjacent skin and affected the oscillatory expression of genes involved in light- and thermo-reception, proliferation, melanogenesis, and DNA repair. The expression of tumor molecular clock was significantly reduced compared to healthy skin but still displayed an oscillatory profile. We were able to cluster the affected genes using a human database and distinguish between primary melanoma and healthy skin. The molecular clocks of lungs and liver (common sites of metastasis), and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were significantly affected by tumor presence, leading to chronodisruption in each organ. Taken altogether, the presence of non-metastatic melanoma significantly impairs the organism's biological clocks. We suggest that the clock alterations found in TME and TMaE could impact development, progression, and metastasis of melanoma; thus, making the molecular clock an interesting pharmacological target.

  20. Non-Metastatic Cutaneous Melanoma Induces Chronodisruption in Central and Peripheral Circadian Clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vinícius Monteiro de Assis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The biological clock has received increasing interest due to its key role in regulating body homeostasis in a time-dependent manner. Cancer development and progression has been linked to a disrupted molecular clock; however, in melanoma, the role of the biological clock is largely unknown. We investigated the effects of the tumor on its micro- (TME and macro-environments (TMaE in a non-metastatic melanoma model. C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with murine B16-F10 melanoma cells and 2 weeks later the animals were euthanized every 6 h during 24 h. The presence of a localized tumor significantly impaired the biological clock of tumor-adjacent skin and affected the oscillatory expression of genes involved in light- and thermo-reception, proliferation, melanogenesis, and DNA repair. The expression of tumor molecular clock was significantly reduced compared to healthy skin but still displayed an oscillatory profile. We were able to cluster the affected genes using a human database and distinguish between primary melanoma and healthy skin. The molecular clocks of lungs and liver (common sites of metastasis, and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN were significantly affected by tumor presence, leading to chronodisruption in each organ. Taken altogether, the presence of non-metastatic melanoma significantly impairs the organism’s biological clocks. We suggest that the clock alterations found in TME and TMaE could impact development, progression, and metastasis of melanoma; thus, making the molecular clock an interesting pharmacological target.

  1. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  2. Strontium Optical Lattice Clock: In Quest of the Ultimate Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westergaard, Ph.G.

    2010-10-01

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the Sr optical lattice clock experiment at LNESYRTE, Observatoire de Paris. After having described the general principles for optical lattice clocks and the operation of the clock in question, the emphasis is put on the features that have been added to the experiment since 2007. The most important new elements are an ultra-stable reference cavity for the clock laser, the development of a non-destructive detection technique, and the construction of a second Sr lattice clock. The ultra-stable cavity is constructed from a ULE spacer and fused silica mirrors and has shown a thermal noise floor at 6.5 * 10 -16 , placing it among the best in the world. The non-destructive detection is effectuated by a phase measurement of a weak probe beam that traverses the atoms placed in one arm of a Mach-Zender interferometer. The non-destructive aspect enables a recycling of the atoms from cycle to cycle which consequently increases the duty cycle, allowing for an increase of the stability of the clock. With these new tools the frequency stability is expected to be 2.2 * 10 -16 /√τ for an optimized sequence. The most recent comparisons between the two Sr clocks reach an accuracy level of 10 -16 after about 1000 s, and this way we have been able to characterize lattice related frequency shifts with an unprecedented accuracy. The measurements ensure a control of lattice related effects at the 10 -18 level even for trap depths as large as 50E r . (authors)

  3. Light and the human circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Kantermann, Thomas; Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Allebrandt, Karla V

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock can only reliably fulfil its function if it is stably entrained. Most clocks use the light-dark cycle as environmental signal (zeitgeber) for this active synchronisation. How we think about clock function and entrainment has been strongly influenced by the early concepts of the field's pioneers, and the astonishing finding that circadian rhythms continue a self-sustained oscillation in constant conditions has become central to our understanding of entrainment.Here, we argue that we have to rethink these initial circadian dogmas to fully understand the circadian programme and how it entrains. Light is also the prominent zeitgeber for the human clock, as has been shown experimentally in the laboratory and in large-scale epidemiological studies in real life, and we hypothesise that social zeitgebers act through light entrainment via behavioural feedback loops (zeitnehmer). We show that human entrainment can be investigated in detail outside of the laboratory, by using the many 'experimental' conditions provided by the real world, such as daylight savings time, the 'forced synchrony' imposed by the introduction of time zones, or the fact that humans increasingly create their own light environment. The conditions of human entrainment have changed drastically over the past 100 years and have led to an increasing discrepancy between biological and social time (social jetlag). The increasing evidence that social jetlag has detrimental consequences for health suggests that shift-work is only an extreme form of circadian misalignment, and that the majority of the population in the industrialised world suffers from a similarly 'forced synchrony'.

  4. Susceptibility of Redundant Versus Singular Clock Domains Implemented in SRAM-Based FPGA TMR Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their clock-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain (DTMR) provides an improved TMR methodology for SRAM-based FPGAs over redundant clocks.

  5. History of early atomic clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  6. Crime clocks and target performance maps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available the period of analysis. Each segment of a pie chart represents a selected part of the day (eg: a two- or three-hour period) or a day of the week. The first and last segments in the day or week are then adjacent, ensuring that there is no artificial break... clocks We have also used crime clocks to map the proportion of crimes that occur during normal police working hours (07:00 to 16:00, Monday to Friday, in the case of the Johannesburg Area), against those that occur outside these hours. 3. Target...

  7. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Ma, Shiwei; Ma, Maode

    2014-01-01

    Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock. PMID:25120163

  8. Daily rhythmicity of clock gene transcripts in atlantic cod fast skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo C Lazado

    Full Text Available The classical notion of a centralized clock that governs circadian rhythmicity has been challenged with the discovery of peripheral oscillators that enable organisms to cope with daily changes in their environment. The present study aimed to identify the molecular clock components in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua and to investigate their daily gene expression in fast skeletal muscle. Atlantic cod clock genes were closely related to their orthologs in teleosts and tetrapods. Synteny was conserved to varying degrees in the majority of the 18 clock genes examined. In particular, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2 (arntl2, RAR-related orphan receptor A (rora and timeless (tim displayed high degrees of conservation. Expression profiling during the early ontogenesis revealed that some transcripts were maternally transferred, namely arntl2, cryptochrome 1b and 2 (cry1b and cry2, and period 2a and 2b (per2a and per2b. Most clock genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, suggesting the possible existence of multiple peripheral clock systems in Atlantic cod. In particular, they were all detected in fast skeletal muscle, with the exception of neuronal PAS (Per-Arnt-Single-minded domain-containing protein (npas1 and rora. Rhythmicity analysis revealed 8 clock genes with daily rhythmic expression, namely arntl2, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (clock, npas2, cry2, cry3 per2a, nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 (nr1d1, and nr1d2a. Transcript levels of the myogenic genes myogenic factor 5 (myf5 and muscleblind-like 1 (mbnl1 strongly correlated with clock gene expression. This is the first study to unravel the molecular components of peripheral clocks in Atlantic cod. Taken together, our data suggest that the putative clock system in fast skeletal muscle of Atlantic cod has regulatory implications on muscle physiology, particularly in the expression of genes related to myogenesis.

  9. A quantum analogy to the classical gravitomagnetic clock effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, S. B.

    2018-06-01

    We present an approximation to the solution of Dirac equation in Schwarzschild field found through the use of Foldy-Wouthuysen Hamiltonian. We solve the equation for the positive energy states and found the frequencies by which the states oscillate. Difference of the periods of oscillation of the two states with two different total angular momentum quantum number j has an analogical form of the classical clock effect found in general relativity. But unlike the term that appears as clock effect in classical physics, here the term is quantized. Thus, we find a quantum analogue of the classical gravitomagnetic clock effect.

  10. Clock-transport synchronisation for neutrino time-of-flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A method to synchronise, at the sub-nanosecond level, clocks used for neutrino time-of-flight measurements is proposed. Clocks situated near the neutrino source and target are compared with a moveable clock that is transported between them. The general-relativistic theory of the procedure was tested and verified in an experiment performed by Hafele and Keating in 1972. It is suggested that use of such a synchronisation method may contribute to a precise test of the Sagnac effect - a measured velocity greater than c - for neutrinos of the proposed LBNE beam between Fermilab and the Homestake mine. (orig.)

  11. A method of high accuracy clock synchronization by frequency following with VCXO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yichao; Wu Jie; Zhang Jie; Song Hongzhi; Kong Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the principle of the synchronous protocol of the IEEE1588 is analyzed, and the factors that affect the accuracy of synchronization is summarized. Through the hardware timer in a microcontroller, we give the exactly the time when a package is sent or received. So synchronization of the distributed clocks can reach 1 μs in this way. Another method to improve precision of the synchronization is to replace the traditional fixed frequency crystal of the slave device, which needs to follow up the master clock, by an adjustable VCXO. So it is possible to fine tune the frequency of the distributed clocks, and reduce the drift of clock, which shows great benefit for the clock synchronization. A test measurement shows the synchronization of distribute clocks can be better than 10 ns using this method, which is more accurate than the method realized by software. (authors)

  12. The Circadian Clock-controlled Transcriptome of Developing Soybean Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of metabolic and physiological processes in plants are controlled by the circadian clock, which enables a plant to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Relatively little is known about circadian rhythms in developing seeds, which may be important for determining the extent and timing of nutrient storage in grain. Microarray expression profiling was used to identify genes expressed in developing soybean ( seeds that are controlled by the circadian clock. Genes with predicted functions in protein synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and photosynthesis totaling 1.8% of the mRNAs detected in seed were found to be expressed in a circadian rhythm. Known circadian and light-controlled promoter elements were identified as over-represented in the promoters of clock-controlled seed genes, with the over-represented elements varying according to the phase of circadian expression. A subset of circadian-regulated genes were found to be expressed in different phases in developing seeds with respect to leaves from the same plants, many of which have roles in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. These results help to characterize the genes and processes in seeds that may be regulated by the circadian clock, and provide some insight into organ-specific phasing of clock controlled gene expression.

  13. Transportable Optical Lattice Clock with 7×10^{-17} Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, S B; Grotti, J; Vogt, St; Al-Masoudi, A; Dörscher, S; Häfner, S; Sterr, U; Lisdat, Ch

    2017-02-17

    We present a transportable optical clock (TOC) with ^{87}Sr. Its complete characterization against a stationary lattice clock resulted in a systematic uncertainty of 7.4×10^{-17}, which is currently limited by the statistics of the determination of the residual lattice light shift, and an instability of 1.3×10^{-15}/sqrt[τ] with an averaging time τ in seconds. Measurements confirm that the systematic uncertainty can be reduced to below the design goal of 1×10^{-17}. To our knowledge, these are the best uncertainties and instabilities reported for any transportable clock to date. For autonomous operation, the TOC has been installed in an air-conditioned car trailer. It is suitable for chronometric leveling with submeter resolution as well as for intercontinental cross-linking of optical clocks, which is essential for a redefinition of the International System of Units (SI) second. In addition, the TOC will be used for high precision experiments for fundamental science that are commonly tied to precise frequency measurements and its development is an important step to space-borne optical clocks.

  14. Transportable Optical Lattice Clock with 7 ×10-17 Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, S. B.; Grotti, J.; Vogt, St.; Al-Masoudi, A.; Dörscher, S.; Häfner, S.; Sterr, U.; Lisdat, Ch.

    2017-02-01

    We present a transportable optical clock (TOC) with Sr 87 . Its complete characterization against a stationary lattice clock resulted in a systematic uncertainty of 7.4 ×10-17, which is currently limited by the statistics of the determination of the residual lattice light shift, and an instability of 1.3 ×10-15/√{τ } with an averaging time τ in seconds. Measurements confirm that the systematic uncertainty can be reduced to below the design goal of 1 ×10-17. To our knowledge, these are the best uncertainties and instabilities reported for any transportable clock to date. For autonomous operation, the TOC has been installed in an air-conditioned car trailer. It is suitable for chronometric leveling with submeter resolution as well as for intercontinental cross-linking of optical clocks, which is essential for a redefinition of the International System of Units (SI) second. In addition, the TOC will be used for high precision experiments for fundamental science that are commonly tied to precise frequency measurements and its development is an important step to space-borne optical clocks.

  15. Differential maturation of rhythmic clock gene expression during early development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Ines H; Lahiri, Kajori; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Loosli, Felix; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Vallone, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    One key challenge for the field of chronobiology is to identify how circadian clock function emerges during early embryonic development. Teleosts such as the zebrafish are ideal models for studying circadian clock ontogeny since the entire process of development occurs ex utero in an optically transparent chorion. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) represents another powerful fish model for exploring early clock function with, like the zebrafish, many tools available for detailed genetic analysis. However, to date there have been no reports documenting circadian clock gene expression during medaka development. Here we have characterized the expression of key clock genes in various developmental stages and in adult tissues of medaka. As previously reported for other fish, light dark cycles are required for the emergence of clock gene expression rhythms in this species. While rhythmic expression of per and cry genes is detected very early during development and seems to be light driven, rhythmic clock and bmal expression appears much later around hatching time. Furthermore, the maturation of clock function seems to correlate with the appearance of rhythmic expression of these positive elements of the clock feedback loop. By accelerating development through elevated temperatures or by artificially removing the chorion, we show an earlier onset of rhythmicity in clock and bmal expression. Thus, differential maturation of key elements of the medaka clock mechanism depends on the developmental stage and the presence of the chorion.

  16. Final corrective action study for the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-04-20

    Past operations at a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Ramona, Kansas, resulted in low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater that slightly exceed the regulatory standard in only one location. As requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the CCC/USDA has prepared a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address groundwater impacted by the former CCC/USDA facility but not releases caused by other potential groundwater contamination sources in Ramona. Four remedial alternatives were considered in the CAS. The recommended remedial alternative in the CAS consists of Environmental Use Control to prevent the inadvertent use of groundwater as a water supply source, coupled with groundwater monitoring to verify the continued natural improvement in groundwater quality. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) has directed Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Corrective Action Study (CAS), consistent with guidance from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2001a), for the CCC/USDA grain storage facility formerly located in Ramona, Kansas. This effort is pursuant to a KDHE (2007a) request. Although carbon tetrachloride levels at the Ramona site are low, they remain above the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L (Kansas 2003, 2004). In its request for the CAS, the KDHE (2007a) stated that, because of these levels, risk is associated with potential future exposure to contaminated groundwater. The KDHE therefore determined that additional measures are warranted to limit future use of the property and/or exposure to contaminated media as part of site closure. The KDHE further requested comparison of at least two corrective

  17. D-cracking field performance of portland cement concrete pavements containing limestone in Kansas : phase 1 report : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Introduction: Premature deterioration of concrete pavement due to D-cracking has been a problem in Kansas since the 1930s. Limestone is the major source of coarse aggregate in eastern Kansas where the majority of the concrete pavements are constructe...

  18. A Group Neighborhood Average Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Clock synchronization is a very important issue for the applications of wireless sensor networks. The sensors need to keep a strict clock so that users can know exactly what happens in the monitoring area at the same time. This paper proposes a novel internal distributed clock synchronization solution using group neighborhood average. Each sensor node collects the offset and skew rate of the neighbors. Group averaging of offset and skew rate value are calculated instead of conventional point-to-point averaging method. The sensor node then returns compensated value back to the neighbors. The propagation delay is considered and compensated. The analytical analysis of offset and skew compensation is presented. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the protocol and reveal that the protocol allows sensor networks to quickly establish a consensus clock and maintain a small deviation from the consensus clock.

  19. Research on the Method of Noise Error Estimation of Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. J.; Dong, S. W.; Li, W.; Zhang, J. H.; Jing, Y. J.

    2017-05-01

    The simulation methods of different noises of atomic clocks are given. The frequency flicker noise of atomic clock is studied by using the Markov process theory. The method for estimating the maximum interval error of the frequency white noise is studied by using the Wiener process theory. Based on the operation of 9 cesium atomic clocks in the time frequency reference laboratory of NTSC (National Time Service Center), the noise coefficients of the power-law spectrum model are estimated, and the simulations are carried out according to the noise models. Finally, the maximum interval error estimates of the frequency white noises generated by the 9 cesium atomic clocks have been acquired.

  20. Final Corrective Action Study for the Former CCC/USDA Facility in Hanover, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater and vapor intrusion into a limited number of residences (attributable to the contaminant concentrations in groundwater) have been identified in Hanover, Kansas, at and near a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). At the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2009h), the CCC/USDA has prepared this Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address the contamination in groundwater and soil vapor.

  1. Micro Mercury Ion Clock (MMIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate micro clock based on trapped Hg ions with more than 10x size reduction and power; Fractional frequency stability at parts per 1014 level, adequate for...

  2. Molecular clock in neutral protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke Claus O

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A frequent observation in molecular evolution is that amino-acid substitution rates show an index of dispersion (that is, ratio of variance to mean substantially larger than one. This observation has been termed the overdispersed molecular clock. On the basis of in silico protein-evolution experiments, Bastolla and coworkers recently proposed an explanation for this observation: Proteins drift in neutral space, and can temporarily get trapped in regions of substantially reduced neutrality. In these regions, substitution rates are suppressed, which results in an overall substitution process that is not Poissonian. However, the simulation method of Bastolla et al. is representative only for cases in which the product of mutation rate μ and population size Ne is small. How the substitution process behaves when μNe is large is not known. Results Here, I study the behavior of the molecular clock in in silico protein evolution as a function of mutation rate and population size. I find that the index of dispersion decays with increasing μNe, and approaches 1 for large μNe . This observation can be explained with the selective pressure for mutational robustness, which is effective when μNe is large. This pressure keeps the population out of low-neutrality traps, and thus steadies the ticking of the molecular clock. Conclusions The molecular clock in neutral protein evolution can fall into two distinct regimes, a strongly overdispersed one for small μNe, and a mostly Poissonian one for large μNe. The former is relevant for the majority of organisms in the plant and animal kingdom, and the latter may be relevant for RNA viruses.

  3. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  4. A proportional integral estimator-based clock synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenlun; Fu, Minyue

    2017-11-01

    Clock synchronization is an issue of vital importance in applications of WSNs. This paper proposes a proportional integral estimator-based protocol (EBP) to achieve clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks. As each local clock skew gradually drifts, synchronization accuracy will decline over time. Compared with existing consensus-based approaches, the proposed synchronization protocol improves synchronization accuracy under time-varying clock skews. Moreover, by restricting synchronization error of clock skew into a relative small quantity, it could reduce periodic re-synchronization frequencies. At last, a pseudo-synchronous implementation for skew compensation is introduced as synchronous protocol is unrealistic in practice. Numerical simulations are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  6. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Don W.; McCune, A.D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) Identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2

  7. Direct Repression of Evening Genes by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 in the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamioka, Mari; Takao, Saori; Suzuki, Takamasa; Taki, Kyomi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Nakamichi, Norihito

    2016-03-01

    The circadian clock is a biological timekeeping system that provides organisms with the ability to adapt to day-night cycles. Timing of the expression of four members of the Arabidopsis thaliana PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR(PRR) family is crucial for proper clock function, and transcriptional control of PRRs remains incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that direct regulation of PRR5 by CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) determines the repression state of PRR5 in the morning. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses indicated that CCA1 associates with three separate regions upstream of PRR5 CCA1 and its homolog LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) suppressed PRR5 promoter activity in a transient assay. The regions bound by CCA1 in the PRR5 promoter gave rhythmic patterns with troughs in the morning, when CCA1 and LHY are at high levels. Furthermore,ChIP-seq revealed that CCA1 associates with at least 449 loci with 863 adjacent genes. Importantly, this gene set contains genes that are repressed but upregulated incca1 lhy double mutants in the morning. This study shows that direct binding by CCA1 in the morning provides strong repression of PRR5, and repression by CCA1 also temporally regulates an evening-expressed gene set that includes PRR5. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Residential radon in Kansas City-black shales aren't the prime suspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    The US EPA preliminary assessment of potential radon risk (EPA, 1986) depicted a large area of the mid-continent in which radon levels might be elevated due to the presence of uranium-rich black shales. A preliminary study (Hilpman, Coveney ampersand Spencer, 1988) indicated that a significant percentage of homes in the greater Kansas City area had radon screening levels above 4 pCi/L. However, their lab tests with crushed black shale, and radon tests in limestone mines with black shale floors showed that the shale did not yield extremely high radon levels. This expanded study presents additional results of screening tests in homes, and correlates those results to bedrock geology and soil type. High radon levels in the Kansas city area are not due primarily to black shale sources. The highest readings are associated with limestone and non-organic shale. Mean radon level is higher in younger cyclothemic deposits, and a loessial soil. The EPA initial assessment overstated the radon risk attributable to black uraniferous shale sources. Assessment of the overall potential risk for the greater Kansas City area requires further evaluation of other sources

  9. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Parameswaran; Shin, Kang G.; Butler, Ricky W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing fault-tolerant clock synchronization algorithms are compared and contrasted. These include the following: software synchronization algorithms, such as convergence-averaging, convergence-nonaveraging, and consistency algorithms, as well as probabilistic synchronization; hardware synchronization algorithms; and hybrid synchronization. The worst-case clock skews guaranteed by representative algorithms are compared, along with other important aspects such as time, message, and cost overhead imposed by the algorithms. More recent developments such as hardware-assisted software synchronization and algorithms for synchronizing large, partially connected distributed systems are especially emphasized.

  10. Surface water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; project description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; Jordan, P.R.; Engberg, R.A.; Dugan, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment Program to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation 's surface water resources; (2) where possible, define trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relation between water quality and natural and land use factors. This report describes the pilot study of the lower Kansas River basin, which is one of four surface water pilot studies that will be used to test, and modify as necessary, assessment concepts and approaches in preparation for future full implementation of the national program. Water quality issues in the lower Kansas River basin are dominated by possible nonpoint sources of contamination from agricultural land, with issues including: (1) large sediment discharge in the streams and sediment deposition in the reservoirs caused by intensive cultivation of row crops and subsequent erosion; (2) occurrence of pesticides in streams and reservoirs that could impair the suitability of water for aquatic life and has the potential for impairing the water 's suitability for public supply; (3) bacterial contamination caused by runoff from pastureland and feedlot operations and municipal wastewater discharges; and (4) nutrient enrichment of reservoirs. Data from fixed stations will be used to determine frequency distributions of constituent concentrations and mass balances of constituents between stations. Subbasin or river reach studies will provide a better understanding of the origin, movement, and fate of potential contaminants. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Leveraging community-academic partnerships to improve healthy food access in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabachi, Natabhona M; Kimminau, Kim S

    2012-01-01

    Americans can combat overweight (OW) and obesity by eating unprocessed, fresh foods. However, all Americans do not have equal access to these recommended foods. Low-income, minority, urban neighborhoods in particular often have limited access to healthy resources, although they are vulnerable to higher levels of OW and obesity. This project used community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to investigate the food needs of residents and develop a business plan to improve access to healthy food options in an urban, Kansas City, Kansas, neighborhood. Partner community organizations were mobilized to conduct a Community Food Assessment survey. The surveys were accompanied by flyers that were part of the communication engagement strategy. Statistical analysis of the surveys was conducted. We engaged low-income, minority population (40% Latino, 30% African American) urban communities at the household level. Survey results provided in-depth information about residents' food needs and thoughts on how to improve food access. Results were reported to community members at a town hall style meeting. Developing a strategic plan to engage a community and develop trust is crucial to sustaining a partnership particularly when working with underserved communities. This project demonstrates that, if well managed, the benefits of academic and community partnerships outweigh the challenges thus such relationships should be encouraged and supported by communities, academic institutions, local and national government, and funders. A CBPR approach to understanding an urban community's food needs and opinions is important for comprehensive food access planning.

  12. Test of Special Relativity Using a Fiber Network of Optical Clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, P; Lodewyck, J; Bilicki, S; Bookjans, E; Vallet, G; Le Targat, R; Pottie, P-E; Guerlin, C; Meynadier, F; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C; Lopez, O; Amy-Klein, A; Lee, W-K; Quintin, N; Lisdat, C; Al-Masoudi, A; Dörscher, S; Grebing, C; Grosche, G; Kuhl, A; Raupach, S; Sterr, U; Hill, I R; Hobson, R; Bowden, W; Kronjäger, J; Marra, G; Rolland, A; Baynes, F N; Margolis, H S; Gill, P

    2017-06-02

    Phase compensated optical fiber links enable high accuracy atomic clocks separated by thousands of kilometers to be compared with unprecedented statistical resolution. By searching for a daily variation of the frequency difference between four strontium optical lattice clocks in different locations throughout Europe connected by such links, we improve upon previous tests of time dilation predicted by special relativity. We obtain a constraint on the Robertson-Mansouri-Sexl parameter |α|≲1.1×10^{-8}, quantifying a violation of time dilation, thus improving by a factor of around 2 the best known constraint obtained with Ives-Stilwell type experiments, and by 2 orders of magnitude the best constraint obtained by comparing atomic clocks. This work is the first of a new generation of tests of fundamental physics using optical clocks and fiber links. As clocks improve, and as fiber links are routinely operated, we expect that the tests initiated in this Letter will improve by orders of magnitude in the near future.

  13. Cell-permeable Circadian Clock Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Carl

    2002-01-01

    .... These 'biological clocks' are important to human physiology. For example, psychiatric and medical studies have shown that circadian rhythmicity is involved in some forms of depressive illness, 'jet lag', drug tolerance/efficacy, memory, and insomnia...

  14. Pittendrigh: The Darwinian Clock-Watcher

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to our current understanding of how timing systems work in living organisms. .... to periodic factors in the geophysical environment. He postulated .... clocks against temperature, nutrition and light, while the latter needs maintenance of a stable.

  15. Correction of clock errors in seismic data using noise cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hable, Sarah; Sigloch, Karin; Barruol, Guilhem; Hadziioannou, Céline

    2017-04-01

    Correct and verifiable timing of seismic records is crucial for most seismological applications. For seismic land stations, frequent synchronization of the internal station clock with a GPS signal should ensure accurate timing, but loss of GPS synchronization is a common occurrence, especially for remote, temporary stations. In such cases, retrieval of clock timing has been a long-standing problem. The same timing problem applies to Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS), where no GPS signal can be received during deployment and only two GPS synchronizations can be attempted upon deployment and recovery. If successful, a skew correction is usually applied, where the final timing deviation is interpolated linearly across the entire operation period. If GPS synchronization upon recovery fails, then even this simple and unverified, first-order correction is not possible. In recent years, the usage of cross-correlation functions (CCFs) of ambient seismic noise has been demonstrated as a clock-correction method for certain network geometries. We demonstrate the great potential of this technique for island stations and OBS that were installed in the course of the Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel (RHUM-RUM) project in the western Indian Ocean. Four stations on the island La Réunion were affected by clock errors of up to several minutes due to a missing GPS signal. CCFs are calculated for each day and compared with a reference cross-correlation function (RCF), which is usually the average of all CCFs. The clock error of each day is then determined from the measured shift between the daily CCFs and the RCF. To improve the accuracy of the method, CCFs are computed for several land stations and all three seismic components. Averaging over these station pairs and their 9 component pairs reduces the standard deviation of the clock errors by a factor of 4 (from 80 ms to 20 ms). This procedure permits a continuous monitoring of clock errors where small clock

  16. Annual Report of Monitoring at Barnes, Kansas, in 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Barnes, Kansas, is a small rural community (population approximately 150) located in Washington County, in north-central Kansas (Figure 1.1). Barnes is located in Section 9, Township 4 South, Range 5 East, at approximate latitude 39°43'0'' north and longitude 96°52'25'' west (USGS 1968). The city lies in a transition zone between the Flint Hills and the glaciated region. The area’s topography consists of gently sloping hills of Pleistocene loess (< 20 ft) overlying a shale unit and interbedded shale, limestone, and siltstone of the Permian Chase Group. Groundwater for the public water supply is obtained from wells PWS2 and PWS3 at reported depths of 155 ft and 160 ft, respectively, located in the northwestern portion of the city. The water is produced from the bedrock aquifer of the Chase Group. Section 2 summarizes the hydrogeologic conceptual site model. This report summarizes findings for groundwater inspection in Barnes.

  17. Clock domain crossing modules for OCP-style read/write interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlev, Mathias; Sparsø, Jens

    The open core protocol (OCP) is an openly licensed, configurable, and scalable interface protocol for on-chip subsystem communications. The protocol defines read and write transactions from a master towards a slave across a point-to-point connection and the protocol assumes a single common clock....... This paper presents the design of two OCP clock domain crossing interface modules, that can be used to construct systems with multiple clock domains. One module (called OCPio) supports a single word read-write interface and the other module (called OCPburst) supports a four word burst read-write interface......-style read-write transaction interfaces. An OCP interface typically has control signals related to both the master issuing a read or write request and the slave producing a response. If all these control signals are passed across the clock domain boundary and synchronized it may add significant latency...

  18. Circadian expression of clock genes and clock-controlled genes in the rat retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Willem; Cailotto, Cathy; Dijk, Frederike; Bergen, Arthur; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2005-01-01

    The circadian expression patterns of genes encoding for proteins that make up the core of the circadian clock were measured in rat retina using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Transcript levels of several genes previously used for normalization of qPCR assays were determined and the effect of

  19. Highly Accurate Timestamping for Ethernet-Based Clock Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Loschmidt, Patrick; Exel, Reinhard; Gaderer, Georg

    2012-01-01

    It is not only for test and measurement of great importance to synchronize clocks of networked devices to timely coordinate data acquisition. In this context the seek for high accuracy in Ethernet-based clock synchronization has been significantly supported by enhancements to the Network Time Protocol (NTP) and the introduction of the Precision Time Protocol (PTP). The latter was even applied to instrumentation and measurement applications through the introduction of LXI....

  20. Evaluating the Autonomy of the Drosophila Circadian Clock in Dissociated Neuronal Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabado, Virginie; Vienne, Ludovic; Nagoshi, Emi

    2017-01-01

    Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy. Expression patterns of the transcriptional reporter show that CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC)-mediated transcription is constantly active in dissociated clock neurons. In contrast, the expression profile of the post-transcriptional reporter indicates that PERIOD (PER) protein levels fluctuate and ~10% of cells display rhythms in PER levels with periods in the circadian range. Nevertheless, PER and TIM are enriched in the cytoplasm and no periodic PER nuclear accumulation was observed. These results suggest that repression of CLK/CYC-mediated transcription by nuclear PER is impaired, and thus the negative feedback loop of the molecular clock is incomplete in isolated clock neurons. We further demonstrate that, by pharmacological assays using the non-amidated form of neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), which could be specifically secreted from larval LNvs and adult s-LNvs, downstream events of the PDF signaling are partly impaired in dissociated larval clock neurons. Although non-amidated PDF is likely to be less active than the amidated one, these results point out the possibility that alteration in PDF downstream signaling may play a role in dampening of molecular rhythms in isolated clock neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that Drosophila clocks are weak oscillators that need to be in the intact circadian

  1. Evaluating the Autonomy of the Drosophila Circadian Clock in Dissociated Neuronal Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Sabado

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Circadian behavioral rhythms offer an excellent model to study intricate interactions between the molecular and neuronal mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN generate rhythms cell-autonomously, which are synchronized by the network interactions within the circadian circuit to drive behavioral rhythms. However, whether this principle is universal to circadian systems in animals remains unanswered. Here, we examined the autonomy of the Drosophila circadian clock by monitoring transcriptional and post-transcriptional rhythms of individual clock neurons in dispersed culture with time-lapse microscopy. Expression patterns of the transcriptional reporter show that CLOCK/CYCLE (CLK/CYC-mediated transcription is constantly active in dissociated clock neurons. In contrast, the expression profile of the post-transcriptional reporter indicates that PERIOD (PER protein levels fluctuate and ~10% of cells display rhythms in PER levels with periods in the circadian range. Nevertheless, PER and TIM are enriched in the cytoplasm and no periodic PER nuclear accumulation was observed. These results suggest that repression of CLK/CYC-mediated transcription by nuclear PER is impaired, and thus the negative feedback loop of the molecular clock is incomplete in isolated clock neurons. We further demonstrate that, by pharmacological assays using the non-amidated form of neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF, which could be specifically secreted from larval LNvs and adult s-LNvs, downstream events of the PDF signaling are partly impaired in dissociated larval clock neurons. Although non-amidated PDF is likely to be less active than the amidated one, these results point out the possibility that alteration in PDF downstream signaling may play a role in dampening of molecular rhythms in isolated clock neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that Drosophila clocks are weak oscillators that need to be in the

  2. Circadian Clock Dysfunction and Psychiatric Disease: Could Fruit Flies have a Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, Mauro Agostino; Sandrelli, Federica

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence of a link between the circadian system and psychiatric diseases. Studies in humans and mammals suggest that environmental and/or genetic disruption of the circadian system leads to an increased liability to psychiatric disease. Disruption of clock genes and/or the clock network might be related to the etiology of these pathologies; also, some genes, known for their circadian clock functions, might be associated to mental illnesses through clock-independent pleiotropy. Here, we examine the features which we believe make Drosophila melanogaster a model apt to study the role of the circadian clock in psychiatric disease. Despite differences in the organization of the clock system, the molecular architecture of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian oscillators are comparable and many components are evolutionarily related. In addition, Drosophila has a rather complex nervous system, which shares much at the cell and neurobiological level with humans, i.e., a tripartite brain, the main neurotransmitter systems, and behavioral traits: circadian behavior, learning and memory, motivation, addiction, social behavior. There is evidence that the Drosophila brain shares some homologies with the vertebrate cerebellum, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the dysfunctions of which have been tied to mental illness. We discuss Drosophila in comparison to mammals with reference to the: organization of the brain and neurotransmitter systems; architecture of the circadian clock; clock-controlled behaviors. We sum up current knowledge on behavioral endophenotypes, which are amenable to modeling in flies, such as defects involving sleep, cognition, or social interactions, and discuss the relationship of the circadian system to these traits. Finally, we consider if Drosophila could be a valuable asset to understand the relationship between circadian clock malfunction and psychiatric disease.

  3. Circadian clock dysfunction and psychiatric disease: could fruit flies have a say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Agostino Zordan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence of a link between the circadian system and psychiatric diseases. Studies in humans and mammals suggest that environmental and/or genetic disruption of the circadian system lead to an increased liability to psychiatric disease. Disruption of clock genes and/or the clock network might be related to the etiology of these pathologies; also, some genes, known for their circadian clock functions, might be associated to mental illnesses through clock-independent pleiotropy. Here we examine the features which we believe make Drosophila melanogaster a model apt to study the role of the circadian clock in psychiatric disease. Despite differences in the organization of the clock system, the molecular architecture of the Drosophila and mammalian circadian oscillators are comparable and many components are evolutionarily related. In addition, Drosophila has a rather complex nervous system, which shares much at the cell and neurobiological level with humans, i.e. a tripartite brain, the main neurotransmitter systems, and behavioral traits: circadian behavior, learning and memory, motivation, addiction, social behavior. There is evidence that the Drosophila brain shares some homologies with the vertebrate cerebellum, basal ganglia and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, the dysfunctions of which have been tied to mental illness. We discuss Drosophila in comparison to mammals with reference to the: organization of the brain and neurotransmitter systems; architecture of the circadian clock; clock-controlled behaviors. We sum up current knowledge on behavioral endophenotypes which are amenable to modeling in flies, such as defects involving sleep, cognition, or social interactions and discuss the relationship of the circadian system to these traits. Finally, we consider if Drosophila could be a valuable asset to understand the relationship between circadian clock malfunction and psychiatric disease.

  4. Central and peripheral circadian clocks and their role in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Chauhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and cellular oscillations constitute an internal clock that tracks the time of day and permits organisms to optimize their behaviour and metabolism to suit the daily demands they face. The workings of this internal clock become impaired with age. In this review, we discuss whether such age-related impairments in the circadian clock interact with age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Findings from mouse and fly models of Alzheimer's disease have accelerated our understanding of the interaction between neurodegeneration and circadian biology. These models show that neurodegeneration likely impairs circadian rhythms either by damaging the central clock or by blocking its communication with other brain areas and with peripheral tissues. The consequent sleep and metabolic deficits could enhance the susceptibility of the brain to further degenerative processes. Thus, circadian dysfunction might be both a cause and an effect of neurodegeneration. We also discuss the primary role of light in the entrainment of the central clock and describe important, alternative time signals, such as food, that play a role in entraining central and peripheral circadian clocks. Finally, we propose how these recent insights could inform efforts to develop novel therapeutic approaches to re-entrain arrhythmic individuals with neurodegenerative disease.

  5. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  6. Chaotic map based key agreement with/out clock synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S.; Chang, E.

    2009-01-01

    In order to address Bergamo et al.'s attack, Xiao et al. proposed a key agreement protocol using chaotic maps. Han then presented three attacks on Xiao et al.'s protocol. To enhance the security of key agreement based on chaotic maps, Chang et al. proposed a new key agreement using passphrase, which works in clock synchronization environment. However, their protocol still has some issues: one is its passphrase is not easy to remember and much longer than password; the second one is it cannot resist guessing attack if the constructed passphrase is easy to remember and also has already existed in some rational dictionaries; the third one is it cannot work without clock synchronization. In this paper, we will present two different key agreement protocols, which can resist guessing attack. The first one works in clock synchronization environment. The second one can work without clock synchronization. They both use authenticated password for secure communications. The protocols are secure against replaying attacks and a shared session key can be established.

  7. A model technology transfer program for independent operators: Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeling, L.G.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the development and testing of the Kansas Technology Transfer Model (KTTM) which is to be utilized as a regional model for the development of other technology transfer programs for independent operators throughout oil-producing regions in the US. It describes the linkage of the regional model with a proposed national technology transfer plan, an evaluation technique for improving and assessing the model, and the methodology which makes it adaptable on a regional basis. The report also describes management concepts helpful in managing a technology transfer program. The original Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) activities, upon which the KTTM is based, were developed and tested for Kansas and have proved to be effective in assisting independent operators in utilizing technology. Through joint activities of TORP and the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS), the KTTM was developed and documented for application in other oil-producing regions. During the course of developing this model, twelve documents describing the implementation of the KTTM were developed as deliverables to DOE. These include: (1) a problem identification (PI) manual describing the format and results of six PI workshops conducted in different areas of Kansas, (2) three technology workshop participant manuals on advanced waterflooding, reservoir description, and personal computer applications, (3) three technology workshop instructor manuals which provides instructor material for all three workshops, (4) three technologies were documented as demonstration projects which included reservoir management, permeability modification, and utilization of a liquid-level acoustic measuring device, (5) a bibliography of all literature utilized in the documents, and (6) a document which describes the KTTM.

  8. All-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals using optical resonator-type filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Seoane, Jorge; Ji, Hua

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how introducing a limited rise time to the driving signal enables all-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals generated using a phase modulator. A Fabry-Perot filter is used to generate the optical clock.......It is shown how introducing a limited rise time to the driving signal enables all-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals generated using a phase modulator. A Fabry-Perot filter is used to generate the optical clock....

  9. 29 CFR 778.204 - “Clock pattern” premium pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âClock patternâ premium pay. 778.204 Section 778.204 Labor... Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Extra Compensation Paid for Overtime § 778.204 “Clock pattern” premium pay... pursuance of an applicable employment contract or collective bargaining agreement,” and the rates of pay and...

  10. Regulation of behavioral circadian rhythms and clock protein PER1 by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoming Yang

    2012-06-01

    Endogenous 24-hour rhythms are generated by circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock feedback mechanism. Previous work has focused on the role of ubiquitin ligases in the clock mechanism. Here we show a role for the rhythmically-expressed deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin specific peptidase 2 (USP2 in clock function. Mice with a deletion of the Usp2 gene (Usp2 KO display a longer free-running period of locomotor activity rhythms and altered responses of the clock to light. This was associated with altered expression of clock genes in synchronized Usp2 KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts and increased levels of clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1. USP2 can be coimmunoprecipitated with several clock proteins but directly interacts specifically with PER1 and deubiquitinates it. Interestingly, this deubiquitination does not alter PER1 stability. Taken together, our results identify USP2 as a new core component of the clock machinery and demonstrate a role for deubiquitination in the regulation of the circadian clock, both at the level of the core pacemaker and its response to external cues.

  11. Clock gene modulates roles of OXTR and AVPR1b genes in prosociality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Ci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR and oxytocin receptor (OXTR genes have been demonstrated to contribute to prosocial behavior. Recent research has focused on the manner by which these simple receptor genes influence prosociality, particularly with regard to the AVP system, which is modulated by the clock gene. The clock gene is responsible for regulating the human biological clock, affecting sleep, emotion and behavior. The current study examined in detail whether the influences of the OXTR and AVPR1b genes on prosociality are dependent on the clock gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study assessed interactions between the clock gene (rs1801260, rs6832769 and the OXTR (rs1042778, rs237887 and AVPR1b (rs28373064 genes in association with individual differences in prosociality in healthy male Chinese subjects (n = 436. The Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM-R was used to assess prosociality. Participants carrying both the GG/GA variant of AVPR1b rs28373064 and the AA variant of clock rs6832769 showed the highest scores on the Emotional PTM. Carriers of both the T allele of OXTR rs1042778 and the C allele of clock rs1801260 showed the lowest total PTM scores compared with the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The observed interaction effects provide converging evidence that the clock gene and OXT/AVP systems are intertwined and contribute to human prosociality.

  12. Clock gene modulates roles of OXTR and AVPR1b genes in prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Haipeng; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2014-01-01

    The arginine vasopressin receptor (AVPR) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes have been demonstrated to contribute to prosocial behavior. Recent research has focused on the manner by which these simple receptor genes influence prosociality, particularly with regard to the AVP system, which is modulated by the clock gene. The clock gene is responsible for regulating the human biological clock, affecting sleep, emotion and behavior. The current study examined in detail whether the influences of the OXTR and AVPR1b genes on prosociality are dependent on the clock gene. This study assessed interactions between the clock gene (rs1801260, rs6832769) and the OXTR (rs1042778, rs237887) and AVPR1b (rs28373064) genes in association with individual differences in prosociality in healthy male Chinese subjects (n = 436). The Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM-R) was used to assess prosociality. Participants carrying both the GG/GA variant of AVPR1b rs28373064 and the AA variant of clock rs6832769 showed the highest scores on the Emotional PTM. Carriers of both the T allele of OXTR rs1042778 and the C allele of clock rs1801260 showed the lowest total PTM scores compared with the other groups. The observed interaction effects provide converging evidence that the clock gene and OXT/AVP systems are intertwined and contribute to human prosociality.

  13. Noise-Induced Synchronization among Sub-RF CMOS Analog Oscillators for Skew-Free Clock Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utagawa, Akira; Asai, Tetsuya; Hirose, Tetsuya; Amemiya, Yoshihito

    We present on-chip oscillator arrays synchronized by random noises, aiming at skew-free clock distribution on synchronous digital systems. Nakao et al. recently reported that independent neural oscillators can be synchronized by applying temporal random impulses to the oscillators [1], [2]. We regard neural oscillators as independent clock sources on LSIs; i. e., clock sources are distributed on LSIs, and they are forced to synchronize through the use of random noises. We designed neuron-based clock generators operating at sub-RF region (CMOS implementation with 0.25-μm CMOS parameters. Through circuit simulations, we demonstrate that i) the clock generators are certainly synchronized by pseudo-random noises and ii) clock generators exhibited phase-locked oscillations even if they had small device mismatches.

  14. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Kansas. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  15. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, H.H.; Wyman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse ''overtaking'' a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component v'01(T); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means no. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal v1(T) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal vn(T) and producing a modified change-of-state signal v'n(T) (N 1, . . . , n) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to v'01(T- theta n(T) with a cumulative phase shift theta n(T) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1 < or = n< n) receiving a modified change-of-state signal vn(T) from filter means no. N and, in response to receipt of such a signal above a predetermined threshold, producing a change-of-state signal vn+1

  16. Association between genetic variants of the clock gene and obesity and sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Obregón, Ana María; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors related to lifestyle aspects. It has been shown that reduced sleep is associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) gene variants have also been associated with obesity. The objective of this mini-review was to discuss the available literature related to CLOCK gene variants associated with adiposity and sleep duration in humans. In total, 16 articles complied with the terms of the search that reported CLOCK variants associated with sleep duration, energy intake, and BMI. Overall, six CLOCK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with sleep duration, and three variants have been associated with energy intake variables. Overall, the most studied area has been the association of CLOCK gene with obesity; close to eight common variants have been associated with obesity. The most studied CLOCK SNP in different populations is rs1801260, and most of these populations correspond to European populations. Collectively, identifying at risk CLOCK genotypes is a new area of research that may help identify individuals who are more susceptible to overeating and gaining weight when exposed to short sleep durations.

  17. Plant circadian clocks increase photosynthesis, growth, survival, and competitive advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Antony N; Salathia, Neeraj; Hall, Anthony; Kévei, Eva; Tóth, Réka; Nagy, Ferenc; Hibberd, Julian M; Millar, Andrew J; Webb, Alex A R

    2005-07-22

    Circadian clocks are believed to confer an advantage to plants, but the nature of that advantage has been unknown. We show that a substantial photosynthetic advantage is conferred by correct matching of the circadian clock period with that of the external light-dark cycle. In wild type and in long- and short-circadian period mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, plants with a clock period matched to the environment contain more chlorophyll, fix more carbon, grow faster, and survive better than plants with circadian periods differing from their environment. This explains why plants gain advantage from circadian control.

  18. Data and clock transmission interface for the WCDA in LHAASO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.P.; Zhao, L.; Jiang, Z.Y.; Ma, C.; Gao, X.S.; Yang, Y.F.; Liu, S.B.; An, Q.

    2016-01-01

    The Water Cherenkov Detector Array (WCDA) is one of the major components of the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO). In the WCDA, 3600 Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) and the Front End Electronics (FEEs) are scattered over a 90000 m 2 area, while high precision time measurements (0.5 ns RMS) are required in the readout electronics. To meet this requirement, the clock has to be distributed to the FEEs with high precision. Due to the ''triggerless'' architecture, high speed data transfer is required based on the TCP/IP protocol. To simplify the readout electronics architecture and be consistent with the whole LHAASO readout electronics, the White Rabbit (WR) switches are used to transfer clock, data, and commands via a single fiber of about 400 meters. In this paper, a prototype of data and clock transmission interface for LHAASO WCDA is developed. The performance tests are conducted and the results indicate that the clock synchronization precision of the data and clock transmission is better than 50 ps. The data transmission throughput can reach 400 Mbps for one FEE board and 180 Mbps for 4 FEE boards sharing one up link port in WR switch, which is better than the requirement of the LHAASO WCDA.

  19. Combined orbits and clocks from IGS second reprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jake

    2018-05-01

    The Analysis Centers (ACs) of the International GNSS Service (IGS) have reprocessed a large global network of GPS tracking data from 1994.0 until 2014.0 or later. Each AC product time series was extended uniformly till early 2015 using their weekly operational IGS contributions so that the complete combined product set covers GPS weeks 730 through 1831. Three ACs also included GLONASS data from as early as 2002 but that was insufficient to permit combined GLONASS products. The reprocessed terrestrial frame combination procedures and results have been reported already, and those were incorporated into the ITRF2014 multi-technique global frame released in 2016. This paper describes the orbit and clock submissions and their multi-AC combinations and assessments. These were released to users in early 2017 in time for the adoption of IGS14 for generating the operational IGS products. While the reprocessing goal was to enable homogeneous modeling, consistent with the current operational procedures, to be applied retrospectively to the full history of observation data in order to achieve a more suitable reference for geophysical studies, that objective has only been partially achieved. Ongoing AC analysis changes and a lack of full participation limit the consistency and precision of the finished IG2 products. Quantitative internal measures indicate that the reprocessed orbits are somewhat less precise than current operational orbits or even the later orbits from the first IGS reprocessing campaign. That is even more apparent for the clocks where a lack of robust AC participation means that it was only possible to form combined 5-min clocks but not the 30-s satellite clocks published operationally. Therefore, retrospective precise point positioning solutions by users are not recommended using the orbits and clocks. Nevertheless, the orbits do support long-term stable user solutions when used with network processing with either double differencing or explicit clock

  20. DNA Replication Is Required for Circadian Clock Function by Regulating Rhythmic Nucleosome Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Dang, Yunkun; Matsu-Ura, Toru; He, Yubo; He, Qun; Hong, Christian I; Liu, Yi

    2017-07-20

    Although the coupling between circadian and cell cycles allows circadian clocks to gate cell division and DNA replication in many organisms, circadian clocks were thought to function independently of cell cycle. Here, we show that DNA replication is required for circadian clock function in Neurospora. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of DNA replication abolished both overt and molecular rhythmicities by repressing frequency (frq) gene transcription. DNA replication is essential for the rhythmic changes of nucleosome composition at the frq promoter. The FACT complex, known to be involved in histone disassembly/reassembly, is required for clock function and is recruited to the frq promoter in a replication-dependent manner to promote replacement of histone H2A.Z by H2A. Finally, deletion of H2A.Z uncoupled the dependence of the circadian clock on DNA replication. Together, these results establish circadian clock and cell cycle as interdependent coupled oscillators and identify DNA replication as a critical process in the circadian mechanism. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  2. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation pilots have expressed a concern about the : turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect the...

  3. General anesthesia alters time perception by phase shifting the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, James F; Winnebeck, Eva C; Millar, Craig D; Kirkland, Lisa S; Sleigh, James; Goodwin, Mark; Pawley, Matt D M; Bloch, Guy; Lehmann, Konstantin; Menzel, Randolf; Warman, Guy R

    2012-05-01

    Following general anesthesia, people are often confused about the time of day and experience sleep disruption and fatigue. It has been hypothesized that these symptoms may be caused by general anesthesia affecting the circadian clock. The circadian clock is fundamental to our well-being because it regulates almost all aspects of our daily biochemistry, physiology, and behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of the most common general anesthetic, isoflurane, on time perception and the circadian clock using the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as a model. A 6-h daytime anesthetic systematically altered the time-compensated sun compass orientation of the bees, with a mean anticlockwise shift in vanishing bearing of 87° in the Southern Hemisphere and a clockwise shift in flight direction of 58° in the Northern Hemisphere. Using the same 6-h anesthetic treatment, time-trained bees showed a delay in the start of foraging of 3.3 h, and whole-hive locomotor-activity rhythms were delayed by an average of 4.3 h. We show that these effects are all attributable to a phase delay in the core molecular clockwork. mRNA oscillations of the central clock genes cryptochrome-m and period were delayed by 4.9 and 4.3 h, respectively. However, this effect is dependent on the time of day of administration, as is common for clock effects, and nighttime anesthesia did not shift the clock. Taken together, our results suggest that general anesthesia during the day causes a persistent and marked shift of the clock effectively inducing "jet lag" and causing impaired time perception. Managing this effect in humans is likely to help expedite postoperative recovery.

  4. Verge and Foliot Clock Escapement: A Simple Dynamical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The earliest mechanical clocks appeared in Europe in the 13th century. From about 1250 CE to 1670 CE, these simple clocks consisted of a weight suspended from a rope or chain that was wrapped around a horizontal axle. To tell time, the weight must fall with a slow uniform speed, but, under the action of gravity alone, such a suspended weight would…

  5. Development and entrainment of the colonic circadian clock during ontogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polidarová, Lenka; Olejníková, Lucie; Paušlyová, Lucia; Sládek, Martin; Soták, Matúš; Pácha, Jiří; Sumová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 4 (2014), G346-G356 ISSN 0193-1857 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : circadian clock * clock gene * ontogenesis * circadian entrainment Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.798, year: 2014

  6. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  7. Kansas nurse leader residency programme: advancing leader knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiuhua; Peltzer, Jill; Teel, Cynthia; Pierce, Janet

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Kansas Nurse Leader Residency (KNLR) programme in improving nurses' leadership knowledge and skills and its acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. The Future of Nursing Report (Institute of Medicine, 2011) calls for nurses to lead change and advance health. The 6-month KNLR programme was developed by the Kansas Action Coalition to support nurses' leadership development. Nurses (n = 36) from four nursing specialties (acute care, long-term care, public health and school health) participated in the programme. The adapted Leader Knowledge and Skill Inventory was used to assess leadership knowledge and skills. Programme acceptability, feasibility and implementation fidelity also were evaluated. The programme completion rate was 67.7% (n = 24). Programme completers had significantly improved self-assessed and mentor-assessed leadership knowledge and skills (p leaders are critical for successful transition into management positions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Interdependence of nutrient metabolism and the circadian clock system: Importance for metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Latre, Aleix; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Background While additional research is needed, a number of large epidemiological studies show an association between circadian disruption and metabolic disorders. Specifically, obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and other signs of metabolic syndrome all have been linked to circadian disruption in humans. Studies in other species support this association and generally reveal that feeding that is not in phase with the external light/dark cycle, as often occurs with night or rotating shift workers, is disadvantageous in terms of energy balance. As food is a strong driver of circadian rhythms in the periphery, understanding how nutrient metabolism drives clocks across the body is important for dissecting out why circadian misalignment may produce such metabolic effects. A number of circadian clock proteins as well as their accessory proteins (such as nuclear receptors) are highly sensitive to nutrient metabolism. Macronutrients and micronutrients can function as zeitgebers for the clock in a tissue-specific way and can thus impair synchrony between clocks across the body, or potentially restore synchrony in the case of circadian misalignment. Circadian nuclear receptors are particularly sensitive to nutrient metabolism and can alter tissue-specific rhythms in response to changes in the diet. Finally, SNPs in human clock genes appear to be correlated with diet-specific responses and along with chronotype eventually may provide valuable information from a clinical perspective on how to use diet and nutrition to treat metabolic disorders. Scope of review This article presents a background of the circadian clock components and their interrelated metabolic and transcriptional feedback loops, followed by a review of some recent studies in humans and rodents that address the effects of nutrient metabolism on the circadian clock and vice versa. We focus on studies in which results suggest that nutrients provide an opportunity to restore or, alternatively

  9. The rhythm of feeding : Effect of nutrients on metabolism and the molecular clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.E.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes studies we performed to assess the relationship between nutrients and the circadian clock. We assessed the effects of sugar and fatty acids on the daily rhythmicity of hepatic clock genes and whole-body metabolism in vivo, and on circadian rhythmicity of clock genes in vitro.

  10. PHARAO space atomic clock: new developments on the laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccoccio, Muriel; Loesel, Jacques; Coatantiec, Claude; Simon, Eric; Laurent, Philippe; Lemonde, Pierre; Maksimovic, I.; Abgrall, M.

    2017-11-01

    The PHARAO project purpose is to open the way for a new atomic clock generation in space, where laser cooling techniques and microgravity allow high frequency stability and accuracy. The French space agency, CNES is funding and managing the clock construction. The French SYRTE and LKB laboratories are scientific and technical advisers for the clock requirements and the follow-up of subsystem development in industrial companies. EADS SODERN is developing two main subsystems of the PHARAO clock: the Laser Source and the Cesium Tube where atoms are cooled, launched, selected and detected by laser beams. The Laser Source includes an optical bench and electronic devices to generate the laser beams required. This paper describes PHARAO and the role laser beams play in its principle of operation. Then we present the Laser Source design, the technologies involved, and the status of development. Lastly, we focus of a key equipment to reach the performances expected, which is the Extended Cavity Laser Diode.

  11. Practical security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with jitter in clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-03-01

    How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.

  12. Glucocorticoids affect 24 h clock genes expression in human adipose tissue explant cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificación Gómez-Abellán

    Full Text Available to examine firstly whether CLOCK exhibits a circadian expression in human visceral (V and subcutaneous (S adipose tissue (AT in vitro as compared with BMAL1 and PER2, and secondly to investigate the possible effect of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (DEX on positive and negative clock genes expression.VAT and SAT biopsies were obtained from morbid obese women (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2 (n = 6. In order to investigate rhythmic expression pattern of clock genes and the effect of DEX on CLOCK, PER2 and BMAL1 expression, control AT (without DEX and AT explants treated with DEX (2 hours were cultured during 24 h and gene expression was analyzed at the following times: 10:00 h, 14:00 h, 18:00 h, 22:00 h, 02:00 h and 06:00 h, using qRT-PCR.CLOCK, BMAL1 and PER2 expression exhibited circadian patterns in both VAT and SAT explants that were adjusted to a typical 24 h sinusoidal curve. PER2 expression (negative element was in antiphase with respect to CLOCK and in phase with BMAL1 expression (both positive elements in the SAT (situation not present in VAT. A marked effect of DEX exposure on both positive and negative clock genes expression patterns was observed. Indeed, DEX treatment modified the rhythmicity pattern towards altered patterns with a period lower than 24 hours in all genes and in both tissues.24 h patterns in CLOCK and BMAL1 (positive clock elements and PER2 (negative element mRNA levels were observed in human adipose explants. These patterns were altered by dexamethasone exposure.

  13. Clock ambiguity and the emergence of physical laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Iglesias, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The process of identifying a time variable in time-reparameterization invariant theories results in great ambiguities about the actual laws of physics described by a given theory. A theory set up to describe one set of physical laws can equally well be interpreted as describing any other laws of physics by making a different choice of time variable or clock. In this article we demonstrate how this 'clock ambiguity' arises and then discuss how one might still hope to extract specific predictions about the laws of physics even when the clock ambiguity is present. We argue that a requirement of quasiseparability should play a critical role in such an analysis. As a step in this direction, we compare the Hamiltonian of a local quantum field theory with a completely random Hamiltonian. We find that any random Hamiltonian (constructed in a sufficiently large space) can yield a 'good enough' approximation to a local field theory. Based on this result we argue that theories that suffer from the clock ambiguity may in the end provide a viable fundamental framework for physics in which locality can be seen as a strongly favored (or predicted) emergent behavior. We also speculate on how other key aspects of known physics such as gauge symmetries and Poincare invariance might be predicted to emerge in this framework.

  14. Full depth bituminous recycling of I-70, Thomas County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, 13 full depth asphalt pavement test sections were built on a portion of I-70 in Thomas County, Kansas. Various combinations of hot mix and cold recycle mixes with different additives were used to build the test sections. Two of the test sect...

  15. Bendix Kansas City Division technological spinoff through 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, H.T.

    1979-02-01

    The results of work of Bendix Kansas City Division are made available in the form of technical reports that are processed through the DOE Technical Information Center in Oak Ridge. The present report lists the documents released by the Division, along with author and subject indexes. Drawing sets released are also listed. Locations of report collections in the U.S., other countries, and international agencies are provided

  16. Molecular clock on a neutral network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Alpan

    2007-09-28

    The number of fixed mutations accumulated in an evolving population often displays a variance that is significantly larger than the mean (the overdispersed molecular clock). By examining a generic evolutionary process on a neutral network of high-fitness genotypes, we establish a formalism for computing all cumulants of the full probability distribution of accumulated mutations in terms of graph properties of the neutral network, and use the formalism to prove overdispersion of the molecular clock. We further show that significant overdispersion arises naturally in evolution when the neutral network is highly sparse, exhibits large global fluctuations in neutrality, and small local fluctuations in neutrality. The results are also relevant for elucidating aspects of neutral network topology from empirical measurements of the substitution process.

  17. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Ju; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-05-19

    The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5' splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress

  18. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5′ splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock

  19. Detecting a Multi-Homed Device Using Clock Skew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    15]. The TCP timestamp value is determined by a virtual “timestamp clock” that is based on the frequency of operation of the device’s system clock...received [16]. Figure 8. TCP Timestamp Options Field. Source: [16]. The value of the timestamp comes from a virtual internal clock that is known as...Testing 18 One of the Raspberry Pis had an added USB 2.0 Gigabit LAN adapter that was used as its second connection to the network. The connections for

  20. Discrete gene replication events drive coupling between the cell cycle and circadian clocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paijmans, Joris; Bosman, Mark; Ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Lubensky, David K

    2016-04-12

    Many organisms possess both a cell cycle to control DNA replication and a circadian clock to anticipate changes between day and night. In some cases, these two rhythmic systems are known to be coupled by specific, cross-regulatory interactions. Here, we use mathematical modeling to show that, additionally, the cell cycle generically influences circadian clocks in a nonspecific fashion: The regular, discrete jumps in gene-copy number arising from DNA replication during the cell cycle cause a periodic driving of the circadian clock, which can dramatically alter its behavior and impair its function. A clock built on negative transcriptional feedback either phase-locks to the cell cycle, so that the clock period tracks the cell division time, or exhibits erratic behavior. We argue that the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has evolved two features that protect its clock from such disturbances, both of which are needed to fully insulate it from the cell cycle and give it its observed robustness: a phosphorylation-based protein modification oscillator, together with its accompanying push-pull read-out circuit that responds primarily to the ratios of different phosphoform concentrations, makes the clock less susceptible to perturbations in protein synthesis; the presence of multiple, asynchronously replicating copies of the same chromosome diminishes the effect of replicating any single copy of a gene.

  1. EPA’s Summary Report of the Collaborative Green Infrastructure Pilot Project for the Middle Blue River in Kansas City, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the performance of a hybrid green-gray infrastructure pilot project installed into the Marlborough Neighborhood by the Kansas City Water Services Department. Kansas City installed 135 vegetated SCMs, 24,290 square feet o...

  2. Effects of Regulation on Induced Seismicity in Southern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, J. L.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Dougherty, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    The appearance of seismicity concurrent with the expansion of oil and gas activities in southern Kansas since September 2012 suggests that industrial operations are inducing earthquakes there. Much of the seismicity can be related to high-rate injection wells within 5 km of the earthquakes. There is significant complexity to the situation, though. Some of the seismicity, including the 2014 M4.8 Milan earthquake, the largest earthquake to occur in the area, lies at least 10km from high-rate injection wells. Additionally, the presence of high-rate wells does not guarantee that there will be nearby seismicity. Many of the highest-rate injection wells are located to the southwest of our study area, where there is minimal seismicity. We have also seen changes in earthquake rates shortly following the March 2015 enactment of new limits on the rate of wastewater disposal in five areas in southern Kansas. Overall, the earthquake rate has decreased significantly since these rules went into place. In more detail, however, earthquake rates within the five areas decreased, but the rate outside the five zones increased. It is likely that fluid-pressure diffusion is responsible for the migration of seismicity outside the areas of reduced injection because there is little injection in the areas unaffected by the new injection rules. This increase is also a reminder that seismicity can persist long after the reduction or cessation of injection. In addition to the effect of the new injection rules, it is possible that the reduction in injection may be partially caused by economic factors that have resulted in a decrease in the production of oil and gas. We have yet to disentangle the effects of the new injection rules and the low prices of oil and gas on the induced seismicity in southern Kansas.

  3. Oscillating perceptions: the ups and downs of the CLOCK protein in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... A functional mouse CLOCK protein has long been thought to be essential for mammalian circadian ... ordinated actions of the Ror families of transcriptional acti- ..... CLOCK-deficient mice expressing the mPER2::LUC fusion.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Clock Recovery for Coherent Mode Division Multiplexed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Piels, Molly; Zibar, Darko

    2017-01-01

    The impact of mode mixing and group delay spread on clock tone quality of a 6-mode 32 GBd NRZ-QPSK MDM system is investigated. Even for low group delay spread, strong coupling causes clock tone disappearance....

  5. Regulation of behavioral circadian rhythms and clock protein PER1 by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Bédard, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous 24-hour rhythms are generated by circadian clocks located in most tissues. The molecular clock mechanism is based on feedback loops involving clock genes and their protein products. Post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, are important for regulating the clock...

  6. 75 FR 34983 - Order (1) Pursuant to Section 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act, Permitting the Kansas City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Act, Permitting the Kansas City Board of Trade Clearing Corporation To Clear Over-the-Counter Wheat Calendar Swaps and (2) Pursuant to Section 4d of the Commodity Exchange Act, Permitting Customer Positions... contract market, and its wholly- owned subsidiary corporation, the Kansas City Board of Trade Clearing...

  7. Stream instability countermeasures applied at Kansas Department of Transportation highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This project considered stream instability countermeasures used by the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) to protect the highway infrastructure at stream crossings from changes due to the dynamic nature of streams. Site visits were made to 13...

  8. Does the combination of the MMSE and clock drawing test (mini-clock) improve the detection of mild Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Jesús; Benito-León, Julián; García-García, Ricardo; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Vicente-Villardón, José Luis; Mitchell, Alex J

    2010-01-01

    There is currently a need to develop tools to identify patients with mild AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We determined the validity and reliability of a brief, easily administered cognitive screening battery consisting of fusion of two well-known brief tests (Mini-Mental Status Examination [MMSE] and Clock Drawing Test [CDT]) (Mini-clock) to differentiate between patients with mild AD, MCI, and healthy control subjects. 66 consecutive patients with mild AD, 21 with MCI, and 66 healthy controls seen in a memory clinic setting were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value permitting discrimination between mild AD, MCI, and healthy control subjects. Interrater and test-retest reliability were also assessed. Mean cognitive scores for patients with AD, MCI, and control subjects on all two individual tests were significantly different (for each, p Mini-clock was higher than that obtained with MMSE or CDT in differentiating mild AD from controls (0.973 vs. 0.952 and 0.881, respectively) and MCI from controls (0.855 vs. 0.821 and 0.779, respectively). Test-retest reliability for the Mini-clock was 0.99, meanwhile interrater reliability was 0.87. The mean time to complete the test for all subjects was 8 min and 50 s. The Mini-clock is highly sensitive and specific in the detection of mild AD and reasonably accurate when attempting to separate MCI from health controls. It has a high interrater and test-retest reliability, can be quickly administered, and does not require major training.

  9. Rapid resetting of human peripheral clocks by phototherapy during simulated night shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Marc; Boudreau, Philippe; Cermakian, Nicolas; Boivin, Diane B

    2017-11-24

    A majority of night shift workers have their circadian rhythms misaligned to their atypical schedule. While bright light exposure at night is known to reset the human central circadian clock, the behavior of peripheral clocks under conditions of shift work is more elusive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the resetting effects of bright light exposure on both central (plasma cortisol and melatonin) and peripheral clocks markers (clock gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) in subjects living at night. Eighteen healthy subjects were enrolled to either a control (dim light) or a bright light group. Blood was sampled at baseline and on the 4 th day of simulated night shift. In response to a night-oriented schedule, the phase of PER1 and BMAL1 rhythms in PBMCs was delayed by ~2.5-3 h (P shift was observed for the other clock genes and the central markers. Three cycles of 8-h bright light induced significant phase delays (P night-oriented schedule and a rapid resetting effect of nocturnal bright light exposure on peripheral clocks.

  10. A Pseudo Fractional-N Clock Generator with 50% Duty Cycle Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Bin; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chao, Ting-Sheng

    A proposed pseudo fractional-N clock generator with 50% duty cycle output is presented by using the pseudo fractional-N controller for SoC chips and the dynamic frequency scaling applications. The different clock frequencies can be generated with the particular phase combinations of a four-stage voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). It has been fabricated in a 0.13µm CMOS technology, and work with a supply voltage of 1.2V. According to measured results, the frequency range of the proposed pseudo fractional-N clock generator is from 71.4MHz to 1GHz and the peak-to-peak jitter is less than 5% of the output period. Duty cycle error rates of the output clock frequencies are from 0.8% to 2% and the measured power dissipation of the pseudo fractional-N controller is 146µW at 304MHz.

  11. Technology development for laser-cooled clocks on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, W. M.

    2003-01-01

    The PARCS experiment will use a laser-cooled cesium atomic clock operating in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station to provide both advanced tests of gravitational theory to demonstrate a new cold-atom clock technology for space.

  12. User-Defined Clocks in the Real-Time Specification for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellings, Andy; Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the new user-defined clock model that is to be supported in Version 1.1 of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). The model is a compromise between the current position, where there is no support for user-defined clocks, and a fully integrated model. The paper investigat...

  13. Water quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas was evaluated from October 2002 through December 2007 in a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program. Water quality at 42 stream sites, representing urban and rural basins, was characterized by evaluating benthic macroinvertebrates, water (discrete and continuous data), and/or streambed sediment. Point and nonpoint sources and transport were described for water-quality constituents including suspended sediment, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), indicator bacteria, pesticides, and organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds. The information obtained from this study is being used by city and county officials to develop effective management plans for protecting and improving stream quality. This fact sheet summarizes important results from three comprehensive reports published as part of the study and available on the World Wide Web at http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/studies/qw/joco/. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  14. Quality-assurance and data management plan for groundwater activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, James E.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s principle earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended on to collect data of the highest quality. This document is a quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities (GWQAP) of the Kansas Water Science Center. The purpose of this GWQAP is to establish a minimum set of guidelines and practices to be used by the Kansas Water Science Center to ensure quality in groundwater activities. Included within these practices are the assignment of responsibilities for implementing quality-assurance activities in the Kansas Water Science Center and establishment of review procedures needed to ensure the technical quality and reliability of the groundwater products. In addition, this GWQAP is intended to complement quality-assurance plans for surface-water and water-quality activities and similar plans for the Kansas Water Science Center and general project activities throughout the USGS. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing, and reporting groundwater data that are quality assured and quality controlled. This GWQAP presents policies directing the collection, processing, analysis, storage, review, and publication of groundwater data. In addition, policies related to organizational responsibilities, training, project planning, and safety are presented. These policies and practices pertain to all groundwater activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, including data-collection programs, interpretive and research projects. This report also includes the data management plan that describes the progression of data management from data collection to archiving and publication.

  15. Reference clock parameters for digital communications systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartaschoff, P.

    1981-01-01

    The basic parameters relevant to the design of network timing systems describe the random and systematic time departures of the system elements, i.e., master (or reference) clocks, transmission links, and other clocks controlled over the links. The quantitative relations between these parameters were established and illustrated by means of numerical examples based on available measured data. The examples were limited to a simple PLL control system but the analysis can eventually be applied to more sophisticated systems at the cost of increased computational effort.

  16. Solar-Energy System for a Commercial Building--Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Report describes a solar-energy system for space heating, cooling and domestic hot water at a 5,600 square-foot (520-square-meter) Topeka, Kansas, commercial building. System is expected to provide 74% of annual cooling load, 47% of heating load, and 95% of domestic hot-water load. System was included in building design to maximize energy conservation.

  17. The Fermilab D0 Master Clock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotolo, C.; Fachin, M.; Chappa, S.; Rauch, M.; Needles, C.; Dyer, A.

    1991-11-01

    The Clock System provides bunch crossing related timing signals to various detector subsystems. Accelerator synchronization and monitoring as well as timing signal generation and distribution are discussed. The system is built using three module types implemented in Eurostandard hardware with a VME communications interface. The first two types of modules are used to facilitate synchronization with the accelerator and to generate 23 timing signals that are programmable with one RF bucket (18.8 ns) resolution and 1 ns accuracy. Fifty-four of the third module type are used to distribute the timing signals and two synchronous 53 MHz and 106 MHz clocks to various detector subsystems. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Expression of core clock genes in colorectal tumour cells compared with normal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, S; Donatsky, A M; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Experimental studies have shown that some circadian core clock genes may act as tumour suppressors and have an important role in the response to oncological treatment. This study investigated the evidence regarding modified expression of core clock genes in colorectal cancer and its...... expression of colorectal cancer cells compared with healthy mucosa cells from specimens analysed by real-time or quantitative real-time polymer chain reaction. The expression of the core clock genes Period, Cryptochrome, Bmal1 and Clock in colorectal tumours were compared with healthy mucosa and correlated...... with clinicopathological features and survival. RESULTS: Seventy-four articles were identified and 11 studies were included. Overall, gene expression of Period was significantly decreased in colorectal cancer cells compared with healthy mucosa cells. This tendency was also seen in the gene expression of Clock. Other core...

  19. Method and apparatus to debug an integrated circuit chip via synchronous clock stop and scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E [Ridgefield, CT; Ellavsky, Matthew R [Rochester, MN; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Gooding, Thomas M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hehenberger, Lance G [Leander, TX; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-03-20

    An apparatus and method for evaluating a state of an electronic or integrated circuit (IC), each IC including one or more processor elements for controlling operations of IC sub-units, and each the IC supporting multiple frequency clock domains. The method comprises: generating a synchronized set of enable signals in correspondence with one or more IC sub-units for starting operation of one or more IC sub-units according to a determined timing configuration; counting, in response to one signal of the synchronized set of enable signals, a number of main processor IC clock cycles; and, upon attaining a desired clock cycle number, generating a stop signal for each unique frequency clock domain to synchronously stop a functional clock for each respective frequency clock domain; and, upon synchronously stopping all on-chip functional clocks on all frequency clock domains in a deterministic fashion, scanning out data values at a desired IC chip state. The apparatus and methodology enables construction of a cycle-by-cycle view of any part of the state of a running IC chip, using a combination of on-chip circuitry and software.

  20. A rare moderate‐sized (Mw 4.9) earthquake in Kansas: Rupture process of the Milan, Kansas, earthquake of 12 November 2014 and its relationship to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, George; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Yeck, William; McNamara, Daniel E.; Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The largest recorded earthquake in Kansas occurred northeast of Milan on 12 November 2014 (Mw 4.9) in a region previously devoid of significant seismic activity. Applying multistation processing to data from local stations, we are able to detail the rupture process and rupture geometry of the mainshock, identify the causative fault plane, and delineate the expansion and extent of the subsequent seismic activity. The earthquake followed rapid increases of fluid injection by multiple wastewater injection wells in the vicinity of the fault. The source parameters and behavior of the Milan earthquake and foreshock–aftershock sequence are similar to characteristics of other earthquakes induced by wastewater injection into permeable formations overlying crystalline basement. This earthquake also provides an opportunity to test the empirical relation that uses felt area to estimate moment magnitude for historical earthquakes for Kansas.

  1. Direct regulation of myocardial triglyceride metabolism by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maintenance of circadian alignment between an organism and its environment is essential to ensure metabolic homeostasis. Synchrony is achieved by cell autonomous circadian clocks. Despite a growing appreciation of the integral relation between clocks and metabolism, little is known regarding the dir...

  2. Noise in state of the art clocks and their impact for fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a review of the use of advanced atomic clocks in testing the fundamental physical laws will be presented. Noise sources of clocks will be discussed, together with an outline their characterization based on current models. The paper will conclude with a discussion of recent attempts to reduce the fundamental, as well as technical noise in atomic clocks.

  3. How do you manage early or late clock-ins? .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Cathy L

    2013-08-01

    My current practice has historically been very strict with hourly employees. The workday is 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. for most employees. They are to clock in and out at exactly those times unless overtime has been approved. (Staff working with late patients are exempt.) My business manager is constantly fighting over clock-ins 15 to 20 minutes early or late, with similar clock-outs. Staff may have a stop to make and would like to make up those 15 minutes. We do grant paid time off in an initial minimum block of 30 minutes to assist with some of this. ... The issue is not overtime, as we're well aware that we have to pay for it when appropriate. It's simply to streamline our policy and make it fair. ... I'm looking for practice policies that deal with employee variances from the 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. clock-ins. For example, someone wants to come in 30 minutes early in order to leave 30 minutes early for an appointment. Or someone comes in 22 minutes late due to traffic and wants either to make it up or to take the minimal half-hour paid-time-off time.

  4. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS): A Kansas City Minority Student Recruitment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Niemi, T. M.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) is a multi-year project funded by the National Science Foundation to address gaps in teacher preparation, improve teacher content in geosciences and help raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. The project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). In this presentation we discuss strategies that we have successfully used to provide credible pathways into the discipline for minorities that have led to a significant increase in the number of underrepresented minority students who are interested in and majoring in geoscience fields at the University of Missouri-Kansas City.

  5. Kansas Department of Transportation research & technology news, vol. 6 #2, December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Research & Technology News is a newsletter published by the Kansas Department of : Transportation, Bureau of Researchs Technology Transfer Section, in cooperation with : the Federal Highway Administration and the U.S. Department of Transportation.

  6. Optimizing Fracture Treatments in a Mississippian "Chat" Reservoir, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. David Newell; Saibal Bhattacharya; Alan Byrnes; W. Lynn Watney; Willard Guy

    2005-10-01

    This project is a collaboration of Woolsey Petroleum Corporation (a small independent operator) and the Kansas Geological Survey. The project will investigate geologic and engineering factors critical for designing hydraulic fracture treatments in Mississippian ''chat'' reservoirs. Mississippian reservoirs, including the chat, account for 159 million m3 (1 billion barrels) of the cumulative oil produced in Kansas. Mississippian reservoirs presently represent {approx}40% of the state's 5.6*106m3 (35 million barrels) annual production. Although geographically widespread, the ''chat'' is a heterogeneous reservoir composed of chert, cherty dolomite, and argillaceous limestone. Fractured chert with micro-moldic porosity is the best reservoir in this 18- to 30-m-thick (60- to 100-ft) unit. The chat will be cored in an infill well in the Medicine Lodge North field (417,638 m3 [2,626,858 bbls] oil; 217,811,000 m3 [7,692,010 mcf] gas cumulative production; discovered 1954). The core and modern wireline logs will provide geological and petrophysical data for designing a fracture treatment. Optimum hydraulic fracturing design is poorly defined in the chat, with poor correlation of treatment size to production increase. To establish new geologic and petrophysical guidelines for these treatments, data from core petrophysics, wireline logs, and oil-field maps will be input to a fracture-treatment simulation program. Parameters will be established for optimal size of the treatment and geologic characteristics of the predicted fracturing. The fracturing will be performed and subsequent wellsite tests will ascertain the results for comparison to predictions. A reservoir simulation program will then predict the rate and volumetric increase in production. Comparison of the predicted increase in production with that of reality, and the hypothetical fracturing behavior of the reservoir with that of its actual behavior, will serve as tests of

  7. Factors reducing the expected deflection in initial orientation in clock-shifted homing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna; Odetti, Francesca; Ioalè, Paolo

    2005-02-01

    To orient from familiar sites, homing pigeons can rely on both an olfactory map and visual familiar landmarks. The latter can in principle be used in two different ways: either within a topographical map exploited for piloting or in a so-called mosaic map associated with a compass bearing. One way to investigate the matter is to put the compass and the topographical information in conflict by releasing clock-shifted pigeons from familiar locations. Although the compass orientation is in general dominant over a piloting strategy, a stronger or weaker tendency to correct towards the home direction by clock-shifted pigeons released from very familiar sites has often been observed. To investigate which factors are involved in the reduction of the deviation due to clock-shift, we performed a series of releases with intact and anosmic pigeons from familiar sites in unshifted and clock-shifted conditions and a series of releases from the same sites with naive clock-shifted birds. Our data suggest that the following factors have a role in reducing deviation due to the clock-shift: familiarity with the release site, the lack of olfactory information and some unknown site-dependent features.

  8. Frequency comparison of lattice clocks toward the redefinition of the second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T

    2014-01-01

    Strontium is the most popular species for optical lattice clocks. Recent reports of the accuracies from Boulder, U.S. and Tokyo reach 10 −18 level, which is better than state-of-the-art caesium clocks more than one order of magnitude. While this achievement accelerates the discussion to redefine the second, the agreement of frequencies in separate laboratories is of critical importance. For this context, intercontinental comparison of Sr lattice clocks were demonstrated between Japan and Germany using a satellite-based technique. The frequency difference was consistent with zero with an uncertainty of 1.6 × 10 −15

  9. Phase noise analysis of clock recovery based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2007-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis of a clock-recovery (CR) scheme based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop is presented. The analysis emphasizes the phase noise performance, taking into account the noise of the input data signal, the local voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and the laser....... It is shown that a large loop length results in a higher timing jitter of the recovered clock signal. The impact of the loop length on the clock signal jitter can be reduced by using a low-noise VCO and a low loop filter bandwidth. Using the model, the timing jitter of the recovered optical and electrical...... clock signal can be evaluated. We numerically investigate the timing jitter requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators, in order for the recovered clock signal to have less jitter than that of the input signal. The timing jitter requirements for the free-running laser and the VCO...

  10. Kansas State University: DOE/KEURP Site Operator Program. Year 4, fourth quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Kansas State University, in support of a DOE and Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program subject contract, continues to test, evaluate, demonstrate, and develop electric vehicle and infrastructure technology. K-State is operating two Soleq EVcort vehicles. During this reporting period both vehicles were brought back to full operational status after warranty service was completed by Soleq. Vehicle failures occurred due to three unrelated battery cable failures in addition to the replacement of one battery. Both vehicles are being operated on a routine basis. K-State, along with York Technical College, has established a relationship with Troy Design and Manufacturing (TDM) Redford, Michigan. K-State has ordered no less than four Ford Ranger electric trucks from TDM. K-State is involved in the steering committee that is monitoring and refining information to direct the design and testing of these new technology vehicles. TDM should become the first automotive manufacturer certified by one of the Big Three under their Quality Vehicle Manufacturer program. Kansas State University and the Kansas Electric Utility Research Program look forward to working with TDM on their new EV program.

  11. Timing Jitter Analysis for Clock recovery Circuits Based on an Optoelectronic Phase-Locked Loop (OPLL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Timing jitter of an OPLL based clock recovery is investigated. We demonstrate how loop gain, input and VCO signal jitter, loop filter bandwidth and a loop time delay influence jitter of the extracted clock signal......Timing jitter of an OPLL based clock recovery is investigated. We demonstrate how loop gain, input and VCO signal jitter, loop filter bandwidth and a loop time delay influence jitter of the extracted clock signal...

  12. An association between clock genes and clock-controlled cell cycle genes in murine colorectal tumors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soták, Matúš; Polidarová, Lenka; Ergang, Peter; Sumová, Alena; Pácha, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 5 (2013), s. 1032-1041 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NS9982 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cancer * circadian rhythm * peripheral circadian clock Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 5.007, year: 2013

  13. Sustainable environmental flow management in an agricultural watershed in northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods The Delaware watershed, an area of land in northeast Kansas of over 1110 square miles, has degraded water quality due to intensive cultivation of crops and subsequent nutrient enrichment and erosion. The current conditions may be further aggravated by ...

  14. The expression of melanopsin and clock genes in Xenopus laevis melanophores and their modulation by melatonin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, A.P.C.; Obeid, N.N.; Castrucci, A.M.L.; Visconti, M.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Vertebrates have a central clock and also several peripheral clocks. Light responses might result from the integration of light signals by these clocks. The dermal melanophores of Xenopus laevis have a photoreceptor molecule denominated melanopsin (OPN4x). The mechanisms of the circadian clock involve positive and negative feedback. We hypothesize that these dermal melanophores also present peripheral clock characteristics. Using quantitative PCR, we analyzed the pattern of temporal expression of Opn4x and the clock genes Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Clock in these cells subjected to a 14-h light:10-h dark (14L:10D) regime or constant darkness (DD). Also, in view of the physiological role of melatonin in the dermal melanophores of X. laevis, we determined whether melatonin modulates the expression of these clock genes. These genes show a time-dependent expression pattern when these cells are exposed to 14L:10D, which differs from the pattern observed under DD. Cells kept in DD for 5 days exhibited overall increased mRNA expression for Opn4x and Clock, and a lower expression for Per1, Per2, and Bmal1. When the cells were kept in DD for 5 days and treated with melatonin for 1 h, 24 h before extraction, the mRNA levels tended to decrease for Opn4x and Clock, did not change for Bmal1, and increased for Per1 and Per2 at different Zeitgeber times (ZT). Although these data are limited to one-day data collection, and therefore preliminary, we suggest that the dermal melanophores of X. laevis might have some characteristics of a peripheral clock, and that melatonin modulates, to a certain extent, melanopsin and clock gene expression.

  15. The expression of melanopsin and clock genes in Xenopus laevis melanophores and their modulation by melatonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, A.P.C.; Obeid, N.N.; Castrucci, A.M.L.; Visconti, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrates have a central clock and also several peripheral clocks. Light responses might result from the integration of light signals by these clocks. The dermal melanophores of Xenopus laevis have a photoreceptor molecule denominated melanopsin (OPN4x). The mechanisms of the circadian clock involve positive and negative feedback. We hypothesize that these dermal melanophores also present peripheral clock characteristics. Using quantitative PCR, we analyzed the pattern of temporal expression of Opn4x and the clock genes Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Clock in these cells subjected to a 14-h light:10-h dark (14L:10D) regime or constant darkness (DD). Also, in view of the physiological role of melatonin in the dermal melanophores of X. laevis, we determined whether melatonin modulates the expression of these clock genes. These genes show a time-dependent expression pattern when these cells are exposed to 14L:10D, which differs from the pattern observed under DD. Cells kept in DD for 5 days exhibited overall increased mRNA expression for Opn4x and Clock, and a lower expression for Per1, Per2, and Bmal1. When the cells were kept in DD for 5 days and treated with melatonin for 1 h, 24 h before extraction, the mRNA levels tended to decrease for Opn4x and Clock, did not change for Bmal1, and increased for Per1 and Per2 at different Zeitgeber times (ZT). Although these data are limited to one-day data collection, and therefore preliminary, we suggest that the dermal melanophores of X. laevis might have some characteristics of a peripheral clock, and that melatonin modulates, to a certain extent, melanopsin and clock gene expression

  16. Bayesian view of single-qubit clocks, and an energy versus accuracy tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalkrishnan, Manoj; Kandula, Varshith; Sriram, Praveen; Deshpande, Abhishek; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2017-09-01

    We bring a Bayesian approach to the analysis of clocks. Using exponential distributions as priors for clocks, we analyze how well one can keep time with a single qubit freely precessing under a magnetic field. We find that, at least with a single qubit, quantum mechanics does not allow exact timekeeping, in contrast to classical mechanics, which does. We find the design of the single-qubit clock that leads to maximum accuracy. Further, we find an energy versus accuracy tradeoff—the energy cost is at least kBT times the improvement in accuracy as measured by the entropy reduction in going from the prior distribution to the posterior distribution. We propose a physical realization of the single-qubit clock using charge transport across a capacitively coupled quantum dot.

  17. Age-associated disruption of molecular clock expression in skeletal muscle of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Miyazaki

    Full Text Available It is well known that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR develop muscle pathologies with hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. Woon et al. (2007 linked the circadian clock gene Bmal1 to hypertension and metabolic dysfunction in the SHR. Building on these findings, we compared the expression pattern of several core-clock genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged SHR (80 weeks; overt heart failure compared to aged-matched control WKY strain. Heart failure was associated with marked effects on the expression of Bmal1, Clock and Rora in addition to several non-circadian genes important in regulating skeletal muscle phenotype including Mck, Ttn and Mef2c. We next performed circadian time-course collections at a young age (8 weeks; pre-hypertensive and adult age (22 weeks; hypertensive to determine if clock gene expression was disrupted in gastrocnemius, heart and liver tissues prior to or after the rats became hypertensive. We found that hypertensive/hypertrophic SHR showed a dampening of peak Bmal1 and Rev-erb expression in the liver, and the clock-controlled gene Pgc1α in the gastrocnemius. In addition, the core-clock gene Clock and the muscle-specific, clock-controlled gene Myod1, no longer maintained a circadian pattern of expression in gastrocnemius from the hypertensive SHR. These findings provide a framework to suggest a mechanism whereby chronic heart failure leads to skeletal muscle pathologies; prolonged dysregulation of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle results in altered Clock, Pgc1α and Myod1 expression which in turn leads to the mis-regulation of target genes important for mechanical and metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  18. Circadian Clocks and the Interaction between Stress Axis and Adipose Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Kolbe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological processes and most endocrine functions show fluctuations over the course of the day. These so-called circadian rhythms are governed by an endogenous network of cellular clocks and serve as an adaptation to daily and, thus, predictable changes in the organism’s environment. Circadian clocks have been described in several tissues of the stress axis and in adipose cells where they regulate the rhythmic and stimulated release of stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids, and various adipokine factors. Recent work suggests that both adipose and stress axis clock systems reciprocally influence each other and adrenal-adipose rhythms may be key players in the development and therapy of metabolic disorders. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of adrenal and adipose tissue rhythms and clocks and how they might interact to regulate energy homoeostasis and stress responses under physiological conditions. Potential chronotherapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic and stress disorders are discussed.

  19. Supporting Family Awareness with the Whereabouts Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellen, Abigail; Taylor, Alex S.; Kaye, Joseph ‘Jofish'; Brown, Barry; Izadi, Shahram

    We report the results of a field trial of a situated awareness device for families called the “Whereabouts Clock”. The Clock displays the location of family members using cellphone data as one of four privacy-preserving, deliberately coarse-grained categories ( HOME, WORK, SCHOOL or ELSEWHERE). The results show that awareness of others through the Clock supports not only family communication and coordination but also more emotive aspects of family life such as reassurance, connectedness, identity and social touch. We discuss how the term “awareness” means many things in practice and highlight the importance of designing not just for family activities, but in order to support the emotional, social and even moral aspects of family life.

  20. The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock - Low-Power Physics Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    36th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 339 THE CHIP-SCALE ATOMIC CLOCK – LOW-POWER PHYSICS PACKAGE R. Lutwak ...pdf/documents/ds-x72.pdf [2] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons, W. Riley, and R. M. Garvey, 2003, “The Chip-Scale Atomic Clock – Coherent Population Trapping vs...2002, Reston, Virginia, USA (U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.), pp. 539-550. [3] R. Lutwak , D. Emmons, T. English, and W. Riley, 2004

  1. Remote atomic clock synchronization via satellites and optical fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Piester, D.; Rost, M.; Fujieda, M.; Feldmann, T.; Bauch, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the global network of institutions engaged with the realization of International Atomic Time (TAI), atomic clocks and time scales are compared by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and by employing telecommunication satellites for two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT). The frequencies of the state-of-the-art primary caesium fountain clocks can be compared at the level of 10−15 (relative, 1 day averaging) and time scales can be synchronized...

  2. The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening Laboratory. Part II: enabling collaborative drug-discovery partnerships through cutting-edge screening technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Peter R; Roy, Anuradha; Chaguturu, Rathnam

    2011-07-01

    The University of Kansas High-Throughput Screening (KU HTS) core is a state-of-the-art drug-discovery facility with an entrepreneurial open-service policy, which provides centralized resources supporting public- and private-sector research initiatives. The KU HTS core was established in 2002 at the University of Kansas with support from an NIH grant and the state of Kansas. It collaborates with investigators from national and international academic, nonprofit and pharmaceutical organizations in executing HTS-ready assay development and screening of chemical libraries for target validation, probe selection, hit identification and lead optimization. This is part two of a contribution from the KU HTS laboratory.

  3. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  4. CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 Inhibits Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Song

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf senescence is an integral part of plant development, and the timing and progressing rate of senescence could substantially affect the yield and quality of crops. It has been known that a circadian rhythm synchronized with external environmental cues is critical for the optimal coordination of various physiological and metabolic processes. However, the reciprocal interactions between the circadian clock and leaf senescence in plants remain unknown. Here, through measuring the physiological and molecular senescence related markers of several circadian components mutants, we found that CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 inhibits leaf senescence. Further molecular and genetic studies revealed that CCA1 directly activates GLK2 and suppresses ORE1 expression to counteract leaf senescence. As plants age, the expression and periodic amplitude of CCA1 declines and thus weakens the inhibition of senescence. Our findings reveal an age-dependent circadian clock component of the process of leaf senescence.

  5. Faraday-Shielded dc Stark-Shift-Free Optical Lattice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloy, K.; Zhang, X.; McGrew, W. F.; Hinkley, N.; Yoon, T. H.; Nicolodi, D.; Fasano, R. J.; Schäffer, S. A.; Brown, R. C.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the absence of a dc Stark shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Stray electric fields are suppressed through the introduction of an in-vacuum Faraday shield. Still, the effectiveness of the shielding must be experimentally assessed. Such diagnostics are accomplished by applying high voltage to six electrodes, which are grounded in normal operation to form part of the Faraday shield. Our measurements place a constraint on the dc Stark shift at the 10-20 level, in units of the clock frequency. Moreover, we discuss a potential source of error in strategies to precisely measure or cancel nonzero dc Stark shifts, attributed to field gradients coupled with the finite spatial extent of the lattice-trapped atoms. With this consideration, we find that Faraday shielding, complemented with experimental validation, provides both a practically appealing and effective solution to the problem of dc Stark shifts in optical lattice clocks.

  6. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This second horticulture guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Leadership, (2) Supervised Occupational Experience, (3) Plant Propagation, (4) Soil and Plant Growth Media, (5) Fertilizers, (6) Greenhouse, (7) Plant…

  7. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Human Relations, (2) Business Operations, (3) Greenhouse, (4) Retail Flowershop Operation, (5) Landscape Nursery, (6) Lawn Maintenance, (7)…

  8. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf01 (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light–dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene perS ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the perS protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf01 circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF. PMID:24707054

  9. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  10. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Bracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers.

  11. 0.75 atoms improve the clock signal of 10,000 atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Peise, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Ramsey, atom interferometers are employed for precision metrology, in particular to measure time and to realize the second. In a classical interferometer, an ensemble of atoms is prepared in one of the two input states, whereas the second one is left empty. In this case.......75 atoms to improve the clock sensitivity of 10,000 atoms by 2.05 dB. The SQL poses a significant limitation for today's microwave fountain clocks, which serve as the main time reference. We evaluate the major technical limitations and challenges for devising a next generation of fountain clocks based...... on atomic squeezed vacuum....

  12. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  13. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, Leif

    2014-01-01

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle's Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  14. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwindt, Paul W; Hubers, Anna A M; Giltay, Erik J; van der Mast, Rose C; van Duijn, Erik

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers. The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive functioning to assess optimal cut-off scores. Inter-rater reliability was high for both the Shulman and Freund scoring systems (ICC = 0.95 and ICC = 0.90 respectively). The clock drawing tests showed moderate to high correlations with the composite variable for executive cognitive functioning (mean ρ = 0.75) and weaker correlations with the mini-mental state examination (mean ρ = 0.62). Mean sensitivity of the clock drawing tests was 0.82 and mean specificity was 0.79, whereas the mean positive predictive value was 0.66 and the mean negative predictive value was 0.87. The clock drawing test is a suitable screening instrument for cognitive dysfunction in HD, because it was shown to be accurate, particularly so with respect to executive cognitive functioning, and is easy and quick to use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yongjun; Mitroy, J

    2013-01-01

    The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga + clock transition is computed to be −0.0140 ± 0.0062 Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody radiation shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga + states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. Quadrupole and non-adiabatic dipole polarizabilities were also computed. A byproduct of the analysis involved calculations of the low-lying spectrum and oscillator strengths, including polarizabilities, of the Ga 2+ ion. (paper)

  16. Ultrafast all-optical clock recovery based on phase-only linear optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel technique for all-optical clock recovery from RZ OOK data based on phase-only filtering, significantly enhancing the recovered clock quality and energy-efficiency compared to the use of a Fabry-Perot filter....

  17. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  18. Altered expression pattern of clock genes in a rat model of depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Bouzinova, Elena; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in circadian rhythms may be causal factors in development of major depressive disorder. The biology underlying a causal relationship between circadian rhythm disturbances and depression is slowly being unraveled. Although there is no direct evidence of dysregulation...... of clock gene expression in depressive patients many studies have reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms in clock genes in these patients. METHODS: In the present study we investigated whether a depression-like state in rats associates with alternations of the diurnal expression of clock genes....... The validated chronic mild stress (CMS) animal model of depression was used to investigate rhythmic expression of three clock genes; Per1, Per2 and Bmal1. Brain and liver tissue was collected from 96 animals after 3.5 weeks of CMS (48 control and 48 depression-like rats) at 4 h sampling interval within 24 h. We...

  19. Optical lattice clock with strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillard, X.; Le Targat, R.; Fouche, M.; Brusch, A.; Westergaard, Ph.G.; Lecallier, A.; Lodewyck, J.; Lemonde, P. [Observatoire de Paris, LNE-SYRTE, Systemes de Reference Temps Espace, 75 (France)

    2009-07-01

    Optical lattice clocks, which were first imagined in 2000, should allow one to achieve unprecedented performances in the domain of atomic clocks. We present here the Strontium lattice clock, developed at LNE-SYRTE. The principle, in particular trapping atoms in the Lamb-Dicke regime and the notion of magic wavelength, is first explained. We then present the results obtained for the {sup 87}Sr isotope, with a frequency accuracy of 2,6.10{sup -15}, and the {sup 88}Sr isotope, with. which we perform the first frequency measurement of an optical lattice clock with bosonic atoms. (authors)

  20. Low-power, miniature {sup 171}Yb ion clock using an ultra-small vacuum package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Schwindt, P. D. D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Partner, H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Prestage, J. D.; Kellogg, J. R.; Yu, N. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2012-12-17

    We report a demonstration of a very small microwave atomic clock using the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of the trapped {sup 171}Yb ions inside a miniature, completely sealed-off 3 cm{sup 3} ion-trap vacuum package. In the ion clock system, all of the components are highly miniaturized with low power consumption except the 369 nm optical pumping laser still under development for miniaturization. The entire clock, including the control electronics, consumes <300 mW. The fractional frequency instability of the miniature Yb{sup +} clock reaches the 10{sup -14} range after a few days of integration.

  1. clockwork orange encodes a transcriptional repressor important for circadian clock amplitude in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Chunghun; Chung, Brian Y.; Pitman, Jena L.; McGill, Jermaine J.; Pradhan, Suraj; Lee, Jongbin; Keegan, Kevin P.; Choe, Joonho; Allada, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    Gene transcription is a central timekeeping process in animal clocks. In Drosophila, the basic helix-loop helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor heterodimer, CLOCK (CLK)/CYCLE(CYC) transcriptionally activates the clock components period (per), timeless (tim), Par domain protein 1 (Pdp1), and vrille (vri) that feedback and regulate distinct features of CLK/CYC function [1]. Microarray studies have identified numerous rhythmically expressed transcripts [2-7], some of which are potential direct C...

  2. Assessing urban forest effects and values: Douglas County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Allison R. Bodine; Robert E. Hoehn; Alexis Ellis; Kim Bomberger; Daniel E. Crane; Theodore A. Endreny; Thomas Taggert; Emily. Stephan

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of trees in Douglas County, Kansas, reveals that this area has about 14,164,000 trees with tree and shrub canopy that covers 25.2 percent of the county. The most common tree species are American elm, northern hackberry, eastern redcedar, Osage-orange, and honeylocust. Trees in Douglas County currently store about 1.7 million tons of carbon (6.4 million tons...

  3. Dissolution of Kansas evaporites: the radioactive waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository at Lyons, Kansas, focused attention on the problem of evaporite dissolution. More study is needed in the determination of the mechanisms responsible for deterioration. Also, recent water-use policies have been questioned with the need pointed out for increased effectiveness in planning. Good water planning has to take into account the role of evaporite dissolution in water quality. 23 references

  4. Localization and expression of putative circadian clock transcripts in the brain of the nudibranch Melibe leonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duback, Victoria E; Sabrina Pankey, M; Thomas, Rachel I; Huyck, Taylor L; Mbarani, Izhar M; Bernier, Kyle R; Cook, Geoffrey M; O'Dowd, Colleen A; Newcomb, James M; Watson, Winsor H

    2018-09-01

    The nudibranch, Melibe leonina, expresses a circadian rhythm of locomotion, and we recently determined the sequences of multiple circadian clock transcripts that may play a role in controlling these daily patterns of behavior. In this study, we used these genomic data to help us: 1) identify putative clock neurons using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH); and 2) determine if there is a daily rhythm of expression of clock transcripts in the M. leonina brain, using quantitative PCR. FISH indicated the presence of the clock-related transcripts clock, period, and photoreceptive and non-photoreceptive cryptochrome (pcry and npcry, respectively) in two bilateral neurons in each cerebropleural ganglion and a group of <10 neurons in the anterolateral region of each pedal ganglion. Double-label experiments confirmed colocalization of all four clock transcripts with each other. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that the genes clock, period, pcry and npcry exhibited significant differences in expression levels over 24 h. These data suggest that the putative circadian clock network in M. leonina consists of a small number of identifiable neurons that express circadian genes with a daily rhythm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  6. Speed control: cogs and gears that drive the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiangzhong; Sehgal, Amita

    2012-09-01

    In most organisms, an intrinsic circadian (~24-h) timekeeping system drives rhythms of physiology and behavior. Within cells that contain a circadian clock, specific transcriptional activators and repressors reciprocally regulate each other to generate a basic molecular oscillator. A mismatch of the period generated by this oscillator with the external environment creates circadian disruption, which can have adverse effects on neural function. Although several clock genes have been extensively characterized, a fundamental question remains: how do these genes work together to generate a ~24-h period? Period-altering mutations in clock genes can affect any of multiple regulated steps in the molecular oscillator. In this review, we examine the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to setting the pace of the circadian oscillator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Update on Kansas City Middle Blue River Green Infrastructure Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, Kansas City, MO (KCMO) signed a consent degree with EPA on combined sewer overflows. The City decided to use adaptive management in order to extensively utilize green infrastructure (GI) in lieu of, and in addition to, gray structural controls. KCMO installed 130 GI sto...

  8. A new clocking method for a charge coupled device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, Rika; Kitamoto, Shunji; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new clocking method for a charge-coupled device (CCD). When a CCD is used for a photon counting detector of X-rays, its weak point is a limitation of its counting rate, because high counting rate makes non-negligible pile-up of photons. In astronomical usage, this pile-up is especially severe for an observation of a bright point-like object. One typical idea to reduce the pile-up is a parallel sum (P-sum) mode. This mode completely loses one-dimensional information. Our new clocking method, panning mode, provides complementary properties between the normal mode and the P-sum mode. We performed a simple simulation in order to investigate a pile-up probability and compared the simulated result and actual obtained event rates. Using this simulation and the experimental results, we compared the pile-up tolerance of various clocking modes including our new method and also compared their other characteristics

  9. Fault-tolerant clock synchronization validation methodology. [in computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A validation method for the synchronization subsystem of a fault-tolerant computer system is presented. The high reliability requirement of flight-crucial systems precludes the use of most traditional validation methods. The method presented utilizes formal design proof to uncover design and coding errors and experimentation to validate the assumptions of the design proof. The experimental method is described and illustrated by validating the clock synchronization system of the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer. The design proof of the algorithm includes a theorem that defines the maximum skew between any two nonfaulty clocks in the system in terms of specific system parameters. Most of these parameters are deterministic. One crucial parameter is the upper bound on the clock read error, which is stochastic. The probability that this upper bound is exceeded is calculated from data obtained by the measurement of system parameters. This probability is then included in a detailed reliability analysis of the system.

  10. Biological clocks: riding the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-10-21

    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Simple Electromagnetic Model for the Light Clock of Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2011-01-01

    Thought experiments involving a light clock are common in introductory treatments of special relativity, because they provide a simple way of demonstrating the non-intuitive phenomenon of time dilation. The properties of the ray or pulse of light that is continuously reflected between the parallel mirrors of the clock are often stated vaguely and…

  12. Clocking In Turbines: Remarks On Physical Nature And Geometric Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swirydczuk Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses two issues relating to the clocking phenomenon in turbines, which are the physical course of stator wake deformation in rotor passages and its further interaction with downstream stator blades, and turbine geometry parameters which are believed to be most favourable for clocking. In both cases, the results presented in the article have made it possible to verify and reformulate the previously accepted opinions.

  13. Redox and the circadian clock in plant immunity: A balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, Sargis; Dong, Xinnian

    2018-05-01

    Plants' reliance on sunlight for energy makes their light-driven circadian clock a critical regulator in balancing the energy needs for vital activities such as growth and defense. Recent studies show that the circadian clock acts as a strategic planner to prime active defense responses towards the morning or daytime when conditions, such as the opening of stomata required for photosynthesis, are favorable for attackers. Execution of the defense response, on the other hand, is determined according to the cellular redox state and is regulated in part by the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species upon pathogen challenge. The interplay between redox and the circadian clock further gates the onset of defense response to a specific time of the day to avoid conflict with growth-related activities. In this review, we focus on discussing the roles of the circadian clock as a robust overseer and the cellular redox as a dynamic executor of plant defense. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Helium Pressure Shift of the Hyperfine Clock Transition in Hg-201(+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larigani, S. Taghavi; Burt, E. A.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    There are two stable odd isotopes of mercury with singly ionized hyperfine structure suitable for a microwave atomic clock: Hg-199(+) and Hg-201(+). We are investigating the viability of a trapped ion clock based on Hg-201(+) in a configuration that uses a buffer gas to increase ion loading efficiency and counter ion heating from rf trapping fields. Traditionally, either helium or neon is used as the buffer gas at approx. 10(exp -5) torr to confine mercury ions near room temperature. In addition to the buffer gas, other residual background gasses such as H2O, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and CH2 may be present in trace quantities. Collisions between trapped ions and buffer gas or background gas atoms/molecules produce a momentary shift of the ion clock transition frequency and constitute one of the largest systematic effects in this type of clock. Here we report an initial measurement of the He pressure shift in Hg-201(+) and compare this to Hg-199(+).

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Law Enforcement Officers on Rabies and Animal Control Issues in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straily, A; Trevino-Garrison, I

    2017-03-01

    Rabies is a deadly zoonoses endemic in the United States, including Kansas. Animal control programmes that emphasize vaccination of dogs and cats, removal of stray animals and enforcement of licensure programmes have historically been essential in reducing the risk of rabies exposures to humans (Beran, 1991). Kansas does not mandate the use of animal control officers [ACOs] and in areas where there is no designated animal control officer, law enforcement officers [LEOs] are required to fill that role. Little is known about LEOs' knowledge of rabies, their current practices in responding to animal-related calls or if they receive any specialized training to perform the duties of an ACO. A web-based, voluntary and anonymous survey was sent to law enforcement officers in Kansas in January 2014. The survey included questions about animal control practices and a self-assessment of rabies knowledge. The response rate was 16.2%. All respondents indicated LEOs will respond to animal-related calls, even if there was an ACO available in their department or jurisdiction. A majority of respondents indicated they had not received training on safe animal handling (62.9%, 61/97) or zoonoses prevention (85.6%, 83/97), even though a strong majority considered such training important (89.7% and 79.4%, respectively). Most respondents (>80%) were able to correctly identify animals capable of transmitting rabies but were less aware of how rabies was transmitted or the severity of rabies in humans. Our results demonstrate that Kansas LEOs perform animal control duties, many without the proper training, even though most consider such training to be important to be able to perform their duties safely. Training on safe animal handling and zoonoses prevention should be provided to all LEOs in Kansas to enable them to safely execute their duties and provide timely and accurate information to citizens regarding rabies prevention. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of Pseudo-Response Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito Shigeru

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. Results In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Conclusions Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.

  17. The Plant Circadian Clock: From a Simple Timekeeper to a Complex Developmental Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sabrina E; Kay, Steve A

    2016-12-01

    The plant circadian clock allows organisms to anticipate the predictable changes in the environment by adjusting their developmental and physiological traits. In the last few years, it was determined that responses known to be regulated by the oscillator are also able to modulate clock performance. These feedback loops and their multilayer communications create a complex web, and confer on the clock network a role that exceeds the measurement of time. In this article, we discuss the current knowledge of the wiring of the clock, including the interplay with metabolism, hormone, and stress pathways in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana We outline the importance of this system in crop agricultural traits, highlighting the identification of natural alleles that alter the pace of the timekeeper. We report evidence supporting the understanding of the circadian clock as a master regulator of plant life, and we hypothesize on its relevant role in the adaptability to the environment and the impact on the fitness of most organisms. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock: theoretical anti-jitter network and controlled chaos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M Fathallah-Shaykh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electronic clocks exhibit undesirable jitter or time variations in periodic signals. The circadian clocks of humans, some animals, and plants consist of oscillating molecular networks with peak-to-peak time of approximately 24 hours. Clockwork orange (CWO is a transcriptional repressor of Drosophila direct target genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Theory and data from a model of the Drosophila circadian clock support the idea that CWO controls anti-jitter negative circuits that stabilize peak-to-peak time in light-dark cycles (LD. The orbit is confined to chaotic attractors in both LD and dark cycles and is almost periodic in LD; furthermore, CWO diminishes the Euclidean dimension of the chaotic attractor in LD. Light resets the clock each day by restricting each molecular peak to the proximity of a prescribed time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The theoretical results suggest that chaos plays a central role in the dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock and that a single molecule, CWO, may sense jitter and repress it by its negative loops.

  19. A Scalable, Timing-Safe, Network-on-Chip Architecture with an Integrated Clock Distribution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Stensgaard, Mikkel Bystrup; Sparsø, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Growing system sizes together with increasing performance variability are making globally synchronous operation hard to realize. Mesochronous clocking constitutes a possible solution to the problems faced. The most fundamental of problems faced when communicating between mesochronously clocked re...... is based purely on local observations. It is demonstrated with a 90 nm CMOS standard cell network-on-chip design which implements completely timing-safe, global communication in a modular system......Growing system sizes together with increasing performance variability are making globally synchronous operation hard to realize. Mesochronous clocking constitutes a possible solution to the problems faced. The most fundamental of problems faced when communicating between mesochronously clocked...... regions concerns the possibility of data corruption caused by metastability. This paper presents an integrated communication and mesochronous clocking strategy, which avoids timing related errors while maintaining a globally synchronous system perspective. The architecture is scalable as timing integrity...

  20. The Circadian Clock Gene BMAL1 Coordinates Intestinal RegenerationSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Stokes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: The gastrointestinal syndrome is an illness of the intestine caused by high levels of radiation. It is characterized by extensive loss of epithelial tissue integrity, which initiates a regenerative response by intestinal stem and precursor cells. The intestine has 24-hour rhythms in many physiological functions that are believed to be outputs of the circadian clock: a molecular system that produces 24-hour rhythms in transcription/translation. Certain gastrointestinal illnesses are worsened when the circadian rhythms are disrupted, but the role of the circadian clock in gastrointestinal regeneration has not been studied. Methods: We tested the timing of regeneration in the mouse intestine during the gastrointestinal syndrome. The role of the circadian clock was tested genetically using the BMAL1 loss of function mouse mutant in vivo, and in vitro using intestinal organoid culture. Results: The proliferation of the intestinal epithelium follows a 24-hour rhythm during the gastrointestinal syndrome. The circadian clock runs in the intestinal epithelium during this pathologic state, and the loss of the core clock gene, BMAL1, disrupts both the circadian clock and rhythmic proliferation. Circadian activity in the intestine involves a rhythmic production of inflammatory cytokines and subsequent rhythmic activation of the JNK stress response pathway. Conclusions: Our results show that a circadian rhythm in inflammation and regeneration occurs during the gastrointestinal syndrome. The study and treatment of radiation-induced illnesses, and other gastrointestinal illnesses, should consider 24-hour timing in physiology and pathology. Keywords: Intestine, Circadian Rhythms, Gastrointestinal Syndrome, TNF, Intestinal Stem Cells

  1. Relative clock verifies endogenous bursts of human dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Temporal bursts are widely observed in many human-activated systems, which may result from both endogenous mechanisms like the highest-priority-first protocol and exogenous factors like the seasonality of activities. To distinguish the effects from different mechanisms is thus of theoretical significance. This letter reports a new timing method by using a relative clock, namely the time length between two consecutive events of an agent is counted as the number of other agents' events appeared during this interval. We propose a model, in which agents act either in a constant rate or with a power-law inter-event time distribution, and the global activity either keeps unchanged or varies periodically vs. time. Our analysis shows that the bursts caused by the heterogeneity of global activity can be eliminated by setting the relative clock, yet the bursts from real individual behaviors still exist. We perform extensive experiments on four large-scale systems, the search engine by AOL, a social bookmarking system —Delicious, a short-message communication network, and a microblogging system —Twitter. Seasonality of global activity is observed, yet the bursts cannot be eliminated by using the relative clock.

  2. Clock gene evolution: seasonal timing, phylogenetic signal, or functional constraint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, Trevor J; Turner, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Genetic determinants of seasonal reproduction are not fully understood but may be important predictors of organism responses to climate change. We used a comparative approach to study the evolution of seasonal timing within a fish community in a natural common garden setting. We tested the hypothesis that allelic length variation in the PolyQ domain of a circadian rhythm gene, Clock1a, corresponded to interspecific differences in seasonal reproductive timing across 5 native and 1 introduced cyprinid fishes (n = 425 individuals) that co-occur in the Rio Grande, NM, USA. Most common allele lengths were longer in native species that initiated reproduction earlier (Spearman's r = -0.70, P = 0.23). Clock1a allele length exhibited strong phylogenetic signal and earlier spawners were evolutionarily derived. Aside from length variation in Clock1a, all other amino acids were identical across native species, suggesting functional constraint over evolutionary time. Interestingly, the endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus) exhibited less allelic variation in Clock1a and observed heterozygosity was 2- to 6-fold lower than the 5 other (nonimperiled) species. Reduced genetic variation in this functionally important gene may impede this species' capacity to respond to ongoing environmental change.

  3. Clock generation and distribution for the 130-nm Itanium$^{R}$ 2 processor with 6-MB on-die L3 cache

    CERN Document Server

    Tam, S; Limaye, R D

    2004-01-01

    The clock generation and distribution system for the 130-nm Itanium 2 processor operates at 1.5 GHz with a skew of 24 ps. The Itanium 2 processor features 6 MB of on-die L3 cache and has a die size of 374 mm/sup 2/. Fuse-based clock de-skew enables post-silicon clock optimization to gain higher frequency. This paper describes the clock generation, global clock distribution, local clocking, and the clock skew optimization feature.

  4. Actualizing culture change: The Promoting Excellent Alternatives in Kansas Nursing Homes (PEAK 2.0) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Gayle A; Cornelison, Laci J; Rath, Heath; Syme, Maggie L

    2017-08-01

    Nursing homes have been challenged in their attempts to achieve deep, organizational change (i.e., culture change) aimed at providing quality of care and quality of life for nursing home residents through person-centered care. To attain deep change, 2 well-defined components must be in place: a shared understanding of (a) the what, or content goals, and (b) the how, or process of change. However, there are few examples of this at a macro or micro level in long-term care. In an effort to enact true culture change in nursing homes statewide, the Kansas Department for Aging and Disability Services implemented the Promoting Excellent Alternatives in Kansas Nursing Homes program. This program is a Medicaid, pay-for-performance program that formalizes the content and process of achieving culture change through person-centered care principles. This article aims to detail the content (what) and process (how) of a model macro-level program of culture change throughout the State of Kansas. Applications to the micro level (individual homes) are presented, and implications for psychologists' roles in facilitating culture change are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Recent results of the pulsed optically pumped rubidium clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, F.; Micalizio, S.; Godone, A.; Calosso, C.; Bertacco, E.

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory prototype of a pulsed optically pumped (POP) clock based on a rubidium cell with buffer gas is described. This clock has shown very interesting physical and metrological features, such as negligible light-shift, strongly reduced cavity-pulling and very good frequency stability. In this regard, an Allan deviation of σy(τ) = 1.2 τ-1/2 for measurement times up to τ = 105 s has been measured. These results confirm the interesting perspectives of such a frequency standard and make it very attractive for several technological applications, such as radionavigation.

  6. The development of the time-keeping clock with TS-1 single chip microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiguang; Li, Yongan

    The authors have developed a time-keeping clock with Intel 8751 single chip microcomputer that has been successfully used in time-keeping station. The hard-soft ware design and performance of the clock are introduced.

  7. Clocking In Time to Gate Memory Processes: The Circadian Clock Is Part of the Ins and Outs of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rawashdeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval are processes known to be modulated by the circadian (circa: about; dies: day system. The circadian regulation of memory performance is evolutionarily conserved, independent of the type and complexity of the learning paradigm tested, and not specific to crepuscular, nocturnal, or diurnal organisms. In mammals, long-term memory (LTM formation is tightly coupled to de novo gene expression of plasticity-related proteins and posttranslational modifications and relies on intact cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA/protein kinase C (PKC/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB signaling. These memory-essential signaling components cycle rhythmically in the hippocampus across the day and night and are clearly molded by an intricate interplay between the circadian system and memory. Important components of the circadian timing mechanism and its plasticity are members of the Period clock gene family (Per1, Per2. Interestingly, Per1 is rhythmically expressed in mouse hippocampus. Observations suggest important and largely unexplored roles of the clock gene protein PER1 in synaptic plasticity and in the daytime-dependent modulation of learning and memory. Here, we review the latest findings on the role of the clock gene Period 1 (Per1 as a candidate molecular and mechanistic blueprint for gating the daytime dependency of memory processing.

  8. Hg-201 (+) CO-Magnetometer for HG-199(+) Trapped Ion Space Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Taghavi, Shervin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Local magnetic field strength in a trapped ion atomic clock is measured in real time, with high accuracy and without degrading clock performance, and the measurement is used to compensate for ambient magnetic field perturbations. First and second isotopes of an element are co-located within the linear ion trap. The first isotope has a resonant microwave transition between two hyperfine energy states, and the second isotope has a resonant Zeeman transition. Optical sources emit ultraviolet light that optically pump both isotopes. A microwave radiation source simultaneously emits microwave fields resonant with the first isotope's clock transition and the second isotope's Zeeman transition, and an optical detector measures the fluorescence from optically pumping both isotopes. The second isotope's Zeeman transition provides the measure of magnetic field strength, and the measurement is used to compensate the first isotope's clock transition or to adjust the applied C-field to reduce the effects of ambient magnetic field perturbations.

  9. Wind farm turbulence impacts on general aviation airports in Kansas : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines and wind farms have become popular in the State of Kansas. Some general aviation : pilots have expressed a concern about the turbulence that the spinning blades are creating. If a : wind farm is built near an airport, does this affect t...

  10. A survey of genomic studies supports association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder spectrum illnesses and lithium response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McCarthy

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD have led to a search for genetic abnormalities in circadian "clock genes" associated with BD. However, no significant clock gene findings have emerged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS. At least three factors could account for this discrepancy: complex traits are polygenic, the organization of the clock is more complex than previously recognized, and/or genetic risk for BD may be shared across multiple illnesses. To investigate these issues, we considered the clock gene network at three levels: essential "core" clock genes, upstream circadian clock modulators, and downstream clock controlled genes. Using relaxed thresholds for GWAS statistical significance, we determined the rates of clock vs. control genetic associations with BD, and four additional illnesses that share clinical features and/or genetic risk with BD (major depression, schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity. Then we compared the results to a set of lithium-responsive genes. Associations with BD-spectrum illnesses and lithium-responsiveness were both enriched among core clock genes but not among upstream clock modulators. Associations with BD-spectrum illnesses and lithium-responsiveness were also enriched among pervasively rhythmic clock-controlled genes but not among genes that were less pervasively rhythmic or non-rhythmic. Our analysis reveals previously unrecognized associations between clock genes and BD-spectrum illnesses, partly reconciling previously discordant results from past GWAS and candidate gene studies.

  11. Non-circadian expression masking clock-driven weak transcription rhythms in U2OS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hoffmann

    Full Text Available U2OS cells harbor a circadian clock but express only a few rhythmic genes in constant conditions. We identified 3040 binding sites of the circadian regulators BMAL1, CLOCK and CRY1 in the U2OS genome. Most binding sites even in promoters do not correlate with detectable rhythmic transcript levels. Luciferase fusions reveal that the circadian clock supports robust but low amplitude transcription rhythms of representative promoters. However, rhythmic transcription of these potentially clock-controlled genes is masked by non-circadian transcription that overwrites the weaker contribution of the clock in constant conditions. Our data suggest that U2OS cells harbor an intrinsically rather weak circadian oscillator. The oscillator has the potential to regulate a large number of genes. The contribution of circadian versus non-circadian transcription is dependent on the metabolic state of the cell and may determine the apparent complexity of the circadian transcriptome.

  12. TURNING BACK THE CLOCK: INFERRING THE HISTORY OF THE EIGHT O'CLOCK ARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Rudnick, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Rieke, Marcia J.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Rigby, Jane R.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results from an optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic study of the ultraviolet-luminous z = 2.73 galaxy, the 8 o'clock arc. Due to gravitational lensing, this galaxy is magnified by a factor of μ > 10, allowing in-depth measurements which are usually unfeasible at such redshifts. In the optical spectra, we measured the systemic redshift of the galaxy, z = 2.7322± 0.0012, using stellar photospheric lines. This differs from the redshift of absorption lines in the interstellar medium, z = 2.7302 ± 0.0006, implying gas outflows on the order of 160 km s -1 . With H- and K-band NIR spectra, we have measured nebular emission lines of Hα, Hβ, Hγ, [N II], and [O III], which have a redshift z = 2.7333 ± 0.0001, consistent with the derived systemic redshift. From the Balmer decrement, we measured the dust extinction in this galaxy to be A 5500 = 1.17 ± 36 mag. Correcting the Hα line flux for dust extinction as well as the assumed lensing factor, we measure a star formation rate (SFR) of ∼270 M sun yr -1 , which is higher than ∼85% of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2-3. Using combinations of all detected emission lines, we find that the 8 o'clock arc has a gas-phase metallicity of ∼0.8 Z sun , showing that enrichment at high redshift is not rare, even in blue, star-forming galaxies. Studying spectra from two of the arc components separately, we find that one component dominates both the dust extinction and SFR, although the metallicities between the two components are similar. We derive the mass via stellar population modeling, and find that the arc has a total stellar mass of ∼4.2 x 10 11 M sun , which falls on the mass-metallicity relation at z ∼ 2. Finally, we estimate the total gas mass, and find it to be only ∼12% of the stellar mass, implying that the 8 o'clock arc is likely nearing the end of a starburst.

  13. Trojan Horse Strategy for Non-invasive Interference of Clock Gene in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Laura; Perrigault, Mickael; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marcel, Anjara; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2017-08-01

    RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene. To test the efficacy of the method, the Clock gene, a central gene of the circadian clock, was targeted for knockout. Results demonstrated specific and systemic efficiency of the Trojan horse strategy in reducing Clock mRNA abundance. Consequences of Clock disruption were observed in Clock-related genes (Bmal, Tim1, Per, Cry1, Cry2, Rev.-erb, and Ror) and triploid oysters were more sensitive than diploid to the interference. This non-invasive approach shows an involvement of the circadian clock in oyster bioaccumulation of toxins produced by the harmful alga Alexandrium minutum.

  14. Evaluation of heavy-oil and tar sands in Bourbon, Crawford, and Cherokee Counties, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebanks, W.J. Jr.; James, G.W.; Livingston, N.D.

    1977-12-01

    The current national energy-resource situation has provided the incentive to investigate more fully deposits of heavy-oil bearing sandstone in southeastern Kansas, as part of a larger, three-state study. The results of this study indicate that the size of the heavy-oil resource in the three Kansas counties studied is smaller than earlier estimates suggested. A resource of 200 to 225 million barrels of oil in-place is estimated to be present in areas of ''known oil occurrence,'' as established by this study. The amount of this in-place resource which may be considered to be reserves, that is, recoverable under existing technology and economics, is zero. The estimates of resource-size are severely downgraded from earlier estimates mainly because of the discontinuous nature of the potential reservoir sandstone bodies and because of the thinness and shaliness of some of these sandstones. The earlier impression of these heavy-oil reservoirs, at least in Kansas, as being widespread, heavily oil saturated, ''blanket'' sandstones unfortunately is not correct. There are areas, shown on maps, which may warrant further investigation because of locally good oil-saturation, i.e., more than 400 barrels per acre foot, in trends of sandstone thicker than 20 feet. It is concluded that there will be no widespread exploitation of subsurface heavy-oil sandstones within the areas of Bourbon, Crawford, and Cherokee Counties, Kansas. Smaller areas indicated here may warrant further drilling and investigation, but the potential size of the heavy-oil resource is severely downgraded from earlier estimates.

  15. Alteration of the Circadian Clock in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Marta; Nevšímalová, S.; Příhodová, I.; Sládek, Martin; Sumová, Alena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 2 (2012), E312-E318 ISSN 0021-972X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11474 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD309/08/H079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : melatonin * circadian clock * clock genes * Smith-Magenis syndrome Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 6.430, year: 2012

  16. Clock and trigger distribution for ALICE using the CRU FPGA card

    CERN Document Server

    Imrek, Jozsef

    2017-01-01

    ALICE is preparing a major upgrade for 2021. Subdetectors upgrading their DAQ electronics will use a common hardware to receive physics data: the Common Readout Unit (CRU). The same CRU will also distribute the LHC clock and trigger to many of the upgrading subdetectors (to 7800 front end cards). Requirements are strict: for the clock the allowed jitter (RMS) is typically <300ps, and <20ps for timing critical subdetectors; the allowed variation of skew is typically <1ns, and <100ps for timing critical subdetectors. A constant latency for distributing the trigger is essential. A novel approach to implement clock forwarding – using only the internal PLLs of the CRU’s onboard FPGA, without using an external jitter cleaner PLL – is presented.

  17. Distribution and Sources of Nitrate-Nitrogen in Kansas Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Townsend

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Kansas is primarily an agricultural state. Irrigation water and fertilizer use data show long- term increasing trends. Similarly, nitrate-N concentrations in groundwater show long-term increases and exceed the drinking-water standard of 10 mg/l in many areas. A statistical analysis of nitrate-N data collected for local and regional studies in Kansas from 1990 to 1998 (747 samples found significant relationships between nitrate-N concentration with depth, age, and geographic location of wells. Sources of nitrate-N have been identified for 297 water samples by using nitrogen stable isotopes. Of these samples, 48% showed fertilizer sources (+2 to +8 and 34% showed either animal waste sources (+10 to +15 with nitrate-N greater than 10 mg/l or indication that enrichment processes had occurred (+10 or above with variable nitrate-N or both. Ultimate sources for nitrate include nonpoint sources associated with past farming and fertilization practices, and point sources such as animal feed lots, septic systems, and commercial fertilizer storage units. Detection of nitrate from various sources in aquifers of different depths in geographically varied areas of the state indicates that nonpoint and point sources currently impact and will continue to impact groundwater under current land uses.

  18. Sumoylation of the Plant Clock Transcription Factor CCA1 Suppresses DNA Binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, L.L.; Imrie, L.; Le Bihan, T.; van den Burg, H.A.; van Ooijen, G.

    2017-01-01

    In plants, the circadian clock regulates the expression of one-third of all transcripts and is crucial to virtually every aspect of metabolism and growth. We now establish sumoylation, a posttranslational protein modification, as a novel regulator of the key clock protein CCA1 in the model plant

  19. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Possenti, Cristina D; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude. Consistently with previous evidence showing latitudinal clines in 'circadian clock' genotype frequencies, Clock allele size increased with breeding latitude across species. However, early- and late-migrating species had similar Clock allele size. Species migrating over longer distances, showing delayed spring migration and smaller phenotypic variance in spring migration timing, had significantly reduced Clock (but not Adcyap1) gene diversity. Phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis suggested that migration date and distance were the most important variables directly affecting Clock gene diversity. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that Clock allele size increases poleward as a consequence of adaptation to the photoperiodic regime of the breeding areas. Moreover, we show that long-distance migration is associated with lower Clock diversity, coherently with strong stabilizing selection acting on timing of life cycle events in long-distance migratory species, likely resulting from the time constraints imposed by late spring migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Solving of Clock Problems Using An Algebraic Approach And Developing An Application For Automatic Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Devaraj, Shanmuga

    2018-04-01

    The recent trend in learning Mathematics is through android apps like Byju’s. The clock problems asked in aptitude tests could be learnt using such computer applications. The Clock problems are of four categories namely: 1. What is the angle between the hands of a clock at a particular time 2. When the hands of a clock will meet after a particular time 3. When the hands of a clock will be at right angle after a particular time 4. When the hands of a clock will be in a straight line but not together after a particular time The aim of this article is to convert the clock problems which were solved using the traditional approach to algebraic equations and solve them. Shortcuts are arrived which help in solving the questions in just a few seconds. Any aptitude problem could be converted to an algebraic equation by tracing the way the problem proceeds by applying our analytical skills. Solving of equations would be the easiest part in coming up with the solution. Also a computer application could be developed by using the equations that were arrived at in the analysis part. The computer application aims at solving the four different problems in Clocks. The application helps the learners of aptitude for CAT and other competitive exams to know the approach of the problem. Learning Mathematics with a gaming tool like this would be interesting to the learners. This paper provides a path to creating gaming apps to learn Mathematics.

  1. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  2. A novel power-efficient high-speed clock management unit using quantum-dot cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the most attractive alternatives for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. The QCA widely supports a new paradigm in the field of nanotechnology that has the potential for high density, low power, and high speed. The clock manager is an essential building block in the new microwave and radio frequency integrated circuits. This paper describes a novel QCA-based clock management unit (CMU) that provides innovative clocking capabilities. The proposed CMU is achieved by utilizing edge-triggered D-type flip-flops (D-FFs) in the design of frequency synthesizer and phase splitter. Edge-triggered D-FF structures proposed in this paper have the successful QCA implementation and simulation with the least complexity and power dissipation as compared to earlier structures. The frequency synthesizer is used to generate new clock frequencies from the reference clock frequency based on a combination of power-of-two frequency dividers. The phase splitter is integrated with the frequency synthesizer to generate four clock signals that are 90"o out of phase with each other. This paper demonstrates that the proposed QCA CMU structure has a superior performance. Furthermore, the proposed CMU is straightforwardly scalable due to the use of modular component architecture.

  3. A novel power-efficient high-speed clock management unit using quantum-dot cellular automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abutaleb, M. M., E-mail: mustafa-abotaleb@h-eng.helwan.edu.eg [Helwan University, Department of Electronics, Communications and Computer Engineering (Egypt)

    2017-04-15

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the most attractive alternatives for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. The QCA widely supports a new paradigm in the field of nanotechnology that has the potential for high density, low power, and high speed. The clock manager is an essential building block in the new microwave and radio frequency integrated circuits. This paper describes a novel QCA-based clock management unit (CMU) that provides innovative clocking capabilities. The proposed CMU is achieved by utilizing edge-triggered D-type flip-flops (D-FFs) in the design of frequency synthesizer and phase splitter. Edge-triggered D-FF structures proposed in this paper have the successful QCA implementation and simulation with the least complexity and power dissipation as compared to earlier structures. The frequency synthesizer is used to generate new clock frequencies from the reference clock frequency based on a combination of power-of-two frequency dividers. The phase splitter is integrated with the frequency synthesizer to generate four clock signals that are 90{sup o} out of phase with each other. This paper demonstrates that the proposed QCA CMU structure has a superior performance. Furthermore, the proposed CMU is straightforwardly scalable due to the use of modular component architecture.

  4. Phase locking and multiple oscillating attractors for the coupled mammalian clock and cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, Céline; Krusche, Peter; Tamanini, Filippo; Janssens, Roel C; Downey, Mike J; Martin, Patrick; Teboul, Michèle; Saito, Shoko; Lévi, Francis A; Bretschneider, Till; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Delaunay, Franck; Rand, David A

    2014-07-08

    Daily synchronous rhythms of cell division at the tissue or organism level are observed in many species and suggest that the circadian clock and cell cycle oscillators are coupled. For mammals, despite known mechanistic interactions, the effect of such coupling on clock and cell cycle progression, and hence its biological relevance, is not understood. In particular, we do not know how the temporal organization of cell division at the single-cell level produces this daily rhythm at the tissue level. Here we use multispectral imaging of single live cells, computational methods, and mathematical modeling to address this question in proliferating mouse fibroblasts. We show that in unsynchronized cells the cell cycle and circadian clock robustly phase lock each other in a 1:1 fashion so that in an expanding cell population the two oscillators oscillate in a synchronized way with a common frequency. Dexamethasone-induced synchronization reveals additional clock states. As well as the low-period phase-locked state there are distinct coexisting states with a significantly higher period clock. Cells transition to these states after dexamethasone synchronization. The temporal coordination of cell division by phase locking to the clock at a single-cell level has significant implications because disordered circadian function is increasingly being linked to the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancer.

  5. Food at work around the clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Lassen, Anne; Beck, Anne Marie; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    This report brings together 12 invited presentations and outcomes of a workshop on food and meals for employees working irregular hours “around the clock”. The workshop, “Food at work around the clock – The Nordic Model”, was hosted by the National Food Institute at the Technical University...

  6. Study of additive manufactured microwave cavities for pulsed optically pumped atomic clock applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolderbach, C.; Moreno, W.; Ivanov, A. E.; Debogovic, T.; Pellaton, M.; Skrivervik, A. K.; de Rijk, E.; Mileti, G.

    2018-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of passive microwave components is of high interest for the cost-effective and rapid prototyping or manufacture of devices with complex geometries. Here, we present an experimental study on the properties of recently demonstrated microwave resonator cavities manufactured by AM, in view of their applications to high-performance compact atomic clocks. The microwave cavities employ a loop-gap geometry using six electrodes. The critical electrode structures were manufactured monolithically using two different approaches: Stereolithography (SLA) of a polymer followed by metal coating and Selective Laser Melting (SLM) of aluminum. The tested microwave cavities show the desired TE011-like resonant mode at the Rb clock frequency of ≈6.835 GHz, with a microwave magnetic field highly parallel to the quantization axis across the vapor cell. When operated in an atomic clock setup, the measured atomic Rabi oscillations are comparable to those observed for conventionally manufactured cavities and indicate a good uniformity of the field amplitude across the vapor cell. Employing a time-domain Ramsey scheme on one of the SLA cavities, high-contrast (34%) Ramsey fringes are observed for the Rb clock transition, along with a narrow (166 Hz linewidth) central fringe. The measured clock stability of 2.2 × 10-13 τ-1/2 up to the integration time of 30 s is comparable to the current state-of-the-art stabilities of compact vapor-cell clocks based on conventional microwave cavities and thus demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  7. Association of circadian rhythm genes ARNTL/BMAL1 and CLOCK with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Lavtar

    Full Text Available Prevalence of multiple sclerosis varies with geographic latitude. We hypothesized that this fact might be partially associated with the influence of latitude on circadian rhythm and consequently that genetic variability of key circadian rhythm regulators, ARNTL and CLOCK genes, might contribute to the risk for multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to analyse selected polymorphisms of ARNTL and CLOCK, and their association with multiple sclerosis. A total of 900 Caucasian patients and 1024 healthy controls were compared for genetic signature at 8 SNPs, 4 for each of both genes. We found a statistically significant difference in genotype (ARNTL rs3789327, P = 7.5·10-5; CLOCK rs6811520 P = 0.02 distributions in patients and controls. The ARNTL rs3789327 CC genotype was associated with higher risk for multiple sclerosis at an OR of 1.67 (95% CI 1.35-2.07, P = 0.0001 and the CLOCK rs6811520 genotype CC at an OR of 1.40 (95% CI 1.13-1.73, P = 0.002. The results of this study suggest that genetic variability in the ARNTL and CLOCK genes might be associated with risk for multiple sclerosis.

  8. Estimation of satellite position, clock and phase bias corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Patrick; Psychas, Dimitrios; Günther, Christoph; Hugentobler, Urs

    2018-05-01

    Precise point positioning with integer ambiguity resolution requires precise knowledge of satellite position, clock and phase bias corrections. In this paper, a method for the estimation of these parameters with a global network of reference stations is presented. The method processes uncombined and undifferenced measurements of an arbitrary number of frequencies such that the obtained satellite position, clock and bias corrections can be used for any type of differenced and/or combined measurements. We perform a clustering of reference stations. The clustering enables a common satellite visibility within each cluster and an efficient fixing of the double difference ambiguities within each cluster. Additionally, the double difference ambiguities between the reference stations of different clusters are fixed. We use an integer decorrelation for ambiguity fixing in dense global networks. The performance of the proposed method is analysed with both simulated Galileo measurements on E1 and E5a and real GPS measurements of the IGS network. We defined 16 clusters and obtained satellite position, clock and phase bias corrections with a precision of better than 2 cm.

  9. High-precision high-sensitivity clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lichong; Yan Na; Min Hao; Ren Wenliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated carrier clock recovery circuit for a mobile payment application. The architecture is based on a sampling-detection module and a charge pump phase locked loop. Compared with clock recovery in conventional 13.56 MHz transponders, this circuit can recover a high-precision consecutive carrier clock from the on/off keying (OOK) signal sent by interrogators. Fabricated by a SMIC 0.18-μm EEPROM CMOS process, this chip works from a single power supply as low as 1.5 V Measurement results show that this circuit provides 0.34% frequency deviation and 8 mV sensitivity. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Highly Efficient, Zero-Skew, Integrated Clock Distribution Networks Using Salphasic Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCA, A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The design of highly efficient clock distributions for integrated circuits is an active topic of research as there will never be a single solution for all systems. For high performance digital or mixed-signal circuits, achieving zero-skew clock over large areas usually comes with high costs in power requirements and design complexity. The present paper shows an overview of a recently proposed technique for ICs - on-die salphasic clock distribution, introduced by the author for CMOS processes. Initially reported in literature for rack-systems, the present paper shows that further refinements are needed for the concept to be applicable on a silicon die. Based on the formation of a standing wave (intrinsically presenting extended in-phase regions with a voltage peak at the input (creating a no-load condition, it is shown that any IC implementation must use transmission lines loss compensation techniques to maintain the proper standing wave configuration. Furthermore, the paper shows theoretical solutions and describes practical on-die techniques for pseudo-spherical bidimensional surfaces, which, with the already reported orthogonal and pseudo-orthogonal structures, can be used to distribute with minimal power requirements a zero-skew clock signal, over large silicon areas.

  11. A New Navigation Satellite Clock Bias Prediction Method Based on Modified Clock-bias Quadratic Polynomial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Lu, Z. P.; Sun, D. S.; Wang, N.

    2016-01-01

    In order to better express the characteristics of satellite clock bias (SCB) and improve SCB prediction precision, this paper proposed a new SCB prediction model which can take physical characteristics of space-borne atomic clock, the cyclic variation, and random part of SCB into consideration. First, the new model employs a quadratic polynomial model with periodic items to fit and extract the trend term and cyclic term of SCB; then based on the characteristics of fitting residuals, a time series ARIMA ~(Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average) model is used to model the residuals; eventually, the results from the two models are combined to obtain final SCB prediction values. At last, this paper uses precise SCB data from IGS (International GNSS Service) to conduct prediction tests, and the results show that the proposed model is effective and has better prediction performance compared with the quadratic polynomial model, grey model, and ARIMA model. In addition, the new method can also overcome the insufficiency of the ARIMA model in model recognition and order determination.

  12. Indoor smoking ordinances in workplaces and public places in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Davis, Ken; Nazir, Niaman; Dunton, Nancy; Winn, Kimberly; Jacquot, Sandy; Moler, Don

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preferences of elected city officials regarding the need for a statewide clean indoor air law and to analyze the content of local smoking ordinances. A survey of elected officials in 57 larger Kansas cities obtained information on the perceived need for statewide legislation, venues to be covered, and motivating factors. Clean indoor air ordinances from all Kansas cities were analyzed by venue. The survey response rate was 190 out of 377 (50.4%) for elected officials. Over 70% of the respondents favored or strongly favored greater restrictions on indoor smoking. Sixty percent favored statewide legislation. Among these, over 80% favored restrictions in health care facilities, theaters, indoor sports arenas (including bowling alleys), restaurants, shopping malls, lobbies, enclosed spaces in outdoor arenas, and hotel/motel rooms. Officials who had never smoked favored a more restrictive approach. Employee and public health concerns were cited as influential by 76%-79% of respondents. Thirty-eight ordinances, covering over half of the state's population, were examined. They varied considerably in their exemptions. Official's attitudes toward smoking regulations were associated with their smoking status. The examination of existing ordinances revealed a piecemeal approach to smoking regulations.

  13. The Chemical and Educational Appeal of the Orange Juice Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Carr, James D.; Johnson, Tanya; Mauricio Castro-Acuña, Carlos

    1996-12-01

    The Orange Juice Clock, in which a galvanic cell is made from the combination of a magnesium strip, a copper strip, and juice in a beaker, has been a popular classroom, conference, and workshop demonstration for nearly 10 years. It is widely enjoyed because it shows visually how chemistry - or more precisely, electrochemistry - is responsible for the very common phenomenon of a clock ticking. The chemistry of the process can also be understood on a variety of levels, from middle school (simple electron flow in a circuit, Ohm's law) and high school (reduction/oxidation and standard cell potentials) to first-year college (cell potential at nonideal conditions) and graduate school courses (overpotential and charge transfer across interfaces.) The discussion that follows considers the recent history, chemistry, and educational uses of the demonstration. The History The demonstration was devised by one of us (PK) in 1986, after reading an activity in Hubert Alyea's 1947 compendium of chemical demonstrations from this Journal (1). In that activity, Alyea hooked a magnesium strip to the negative battery terminal of an electric bell and hooked a copper strip to the positive terminal. He placed the loose ends of the strips into a 1M 2SO4 solution and the bell rang. After trying the demonstration, it seemed to make sense to modify the electrolyte to orange juice because it is safe, readily available, and would be a mixture in which the magnesium would oxidize more slowly than in sulfuric acid. Further, a clock was substituted for the bell because a clock is easier on the ears than a bell. A video of the orange-juice clock setup is given as Figure 1. Figure 1.The orange juice clock set up. Video of orange juice clock was filmed and editted by Jerry Jacobson at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. The apparatus was presented in 1987 as part of a teacher workshop led by Irwin Talesnick, then of Queen's University in Canada. Talesnick, whose distinguished career has been

  14. Search for Effects of an Electrostatic Potential on Clocks in the Frame of Reference of a Charged Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Conradi, Mark S.; Cassenti, Brice

    2005-01-01

    Results of experiments to confirm a theory that links classical electromagnetism with the geometry of spacetime are described. The theory, based on the introduction of a Torsion tensor into Einstein s equations and following the approach of Schroedinger, predicts effects on clocks attached to charged particles, subject to intense electric fields, analogous to the effects on clocks in a gravitational field. We show that in order to interpret this theory, one must re-interpret all clock changes, both gravitational and electromagnetic, as arising from changes in potential energy and not merely potential. The clock is provided naturally by proton spins in hydrogen atoms subject to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance trials. No frequency change of clocks was observed to a resolution of 6310(exp -9). A new "Clock Principle" was postulated to explain the null result. There are two possible implications of the experiments: (a) The Clock Principle is invalid and, in fact, no metric theory incorporating electromagnetism is possible; (b) The Clock Principle is valid and it follows that a negative rest mass cannot exist.

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs

  17. Light-Shifts of an Integrated Filter-Cell Rubidium Atomic Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-25

    the light-shift coefficient for two different rf- discharge lamps (i.e., a pure 87Rb lamp and a lamp filled with the natural Rb isotope abundance...for the Galileo Rb clock under the assumption of a natural (or 85Rb isotopically enriched) rf- discharge lamp for the Galileo clock. I...satellites [14]. 6.8347… GHz 85Rb Filter Cell Cell Resonance Photodiode Microwave Cavity 87Rb Discharge Lamp 87Rb & N2 Rb & Xe, Kr Optical Pumping 87Rb

  18. Update on Kansas City Middle Blue River Green Infrastructure Pilot Project - seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, Kansas City, MO (KCMO) signed a consent degree with EPA on combined sewer overflows. The City decided to use adaptive management in order to extensively utilize green infrastructure (GI) in lieu of, and in addition to, structural controls. KCMO installed 130 GI storm con...

  19. Pharao: study of an atomic clock using laser-cooled atoms and realization of a prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonde, P.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal jets and atomic fountains are two different principles on which atomic clocks are based. In atomic fountains the velocity of atoms can be reduced to a few cm/s so the classical limitations of thermal jets such as phase shift between two Ramsey impulses, second order Doppler effect become negligible. The new limitations set by atomic fountain clocks are now collisions between cold atoms and the radiation emitted by the black body. Weightlessness leads to a different running of the atomic clock and can imply an enhancement of its performances. In micro-gravity an interatomic interaction time of several seconds can be reached. The application of such atomic clocks can go beyond time or frequency metrology. This work is dedicated to the development of a spatial atomic clock to fully use the extremely low velocity of laser-cooled atoms and to quantify what can be expected of weightlessness. This study has involved the realization of a prototype and its testing in a zero-g plane. The experimental results are presented and it is highlighted that an accuracy and a one-day stability of 10 -16 are within reach with an optimized version of this atomic clock. (A.C.)

  20. Development of an atomic clock on an atom chip: Optimisation of the coherence time and preliminary characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroute, Clement

    2010-01-01

    We describe the construction and preliminary characterization of an atomic clock on an atom chip. A sample of magnetically trapped 87 Rb atoms is cooled below 1 μK, close to Bose- Einstein condensation temperature. The trapped states |F = 1; m F = -1> and |F = 2;m F = 1> define our two-photon clock transition. Atoms are trapped around a field B0 = 3.23 G, where the clock frequency is first-order insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. We have designed an atom chip that includes a microwave coplanar waveguide which drives the 6.835 GHz transition. The whole clock cycle is performed in the vicinity of the chip surface, making the physics package compact (5 cm) 3 . We first describe the experimental setup of the clock, and the optical bench that has been developed and characterized during this thesis. We then give the results obtained for atom cooling, which led to obtaining a 3 10 4 atoms Bose-Einstein condensate. We finally present the results obtained by Ramsey spectroscopy of the clock transition. We measure coherence times exceeding 10 seconds with our setup, dominated by atom losses. A preliminary measurement shows that the clock relative frequency stability is of 6 10 -12 at 1 s, limited by technical noise. Our goal is to reach a stability in the low 10 -13 at 1 s, i.e. better than commercial clocks and competitive with today's best compact clocks. (author)

  1. Systematic evaluation of a 171Yb optical clock by synchronous comparison between two lattice systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Zhou, Min; Han, Chengyin; Li, Shangyan; Zhang, Shuang; Yao, Yuan; Li, Bo; Qiao, Hao; Ai, Di; Lou, Ge; Zhang, Mengya; Jiang, Yanyi; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng; Xu, Xinye

    2018-05-22

    Optical clocks are the most precise measurement devices. Here we experimentally characterize one such clock based on the 1 S 0 - 3 P 0 transition of neutral 171 Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice. Given that the systematic evaluation using an interleaved stabilization scheme is unable to avoid noise from the clock laser, synchronous comparisons against a second 171 Yb lattice system were implemented to accelerate the evaluation. The fractional instability of one clock falls below 4 × 10 -17 after an averaging over a time of 5,000 seconds. The systematic frequency shifts were corrected with a total uncertainty of 1.7 × 10 -16 . The lattice polarizability shift currently contributes the largest source. This work paves the way to measuring the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the primary Cs standard or against the International System of Units (SI) second.

  2. Crystal Structure of the CLOCK Transactivation Domain Exon19 in Complex with a Repressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhiqiang; Su, Lijing; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick V.; Zhang, Hong (UTSMC)

    2017-08-01

    In the canonical clock model, CLOCK:BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activation is feedback regulated by its repressors CRY and PER and, in association with other coregulators, ultimately generates oscillatory gene expression patterns. How CLOCK:BMAL1 interacts with coregulator(s) is not well understood. Here we report the crystal structures of the mouse CLOCK transactivating domain Exon19 in complex with CIPC, a potent circadian repressor that functions independently of CRY and PER. The Exon19:CIPC complex adopts a three-helical coiled-coil bundle conformation containing two Exon19 helices and one CIPC. Unique to Exon19:CIPC, three highly conserved polar residues, Asn341 of CIPC and Gln544 of the two Exon19 helices, are located at the mid-section of the coiled-coil bundle interior and form hydrogen bonds with each other. Combining results from protein database search, sequence analysis, and mutagenesis studies, we discovered for the first time that CLOCK Exon19:CIPC interaction is a conserved transcription regulatory mechanism among mammals, fish, flies, and other invertebrates.

  3. Radioisotope clocks in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, R E.M. [Oxford Univ. (UK). Research Lab. for Archaeology

    1979-09-06

    Methods of absolute dating which use the rate of disintegration of a radioactive nucleus as the clock, are reviewed. The use of the abundant radioisotopes (/sup 40/K, Th and U) and of the rare radioisotopes (/sup 14/C, /sup 10/Be, /sup 26/Al, /sup 32/Si, /sup 36/Cl, /sup 41/Ca, /sup 53/Mn) is discussed and radiation integration techniques (fission track dating, thermoluminescence and related techniques) are considered. Specific fields of use of the various methods and their accuracy are examined.

  4. Detecting an atomic clock frequency anomaly using an adaptive Kalman filter algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huijie; Dong, Shaowu; Wu, Wenjun; Jiang, Meng; Wang, Weixiong

    2018-06-01

    The abnormal frequencies of an atomic clock mainly include frequency jump and frequency drift jump. Atomic clock frequency anomaly detection is a key technique in time-keeping. The Kalman filter algorithm, as a linear optimal algorithm, has been widely used in real-time detection for abnormal frequency. In order to obtain an optimal state estimation, the observation model and dynamic model of the Kalman filter algorithm should satisfy Gaussian white noise conditions. The detection performance is degraded if anomalies affect the observation model or dynamic model. The idea of the adaptive Kalman filter algorithm, applied to clock frequency anomaly detection, uses the residuals given by the prediction for building ‘an adaptive factor’ the prediction state covariance matrix is real-time corrected by the adaptive factor. The results show that the model error is reduced and the detection performance is improved. The effectiveness of the algorithm is verified by the frequency jump simulation, the frequency drift jump simulation and the measured data of the atomic clock by using the chi-square test.

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcel boundaries for Johnson County Kansas based off of legal description. Used to show spatial reference to parcel boundaries of Johnson County Kansas., Published in 2007, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Parcels and Land Ownership dataset current as of 2007. Parcel boundaries for Johnson County Kansas based off of legal description. Used to show spatial reference to...

  6. A review of Arbuckle Group strata in Kansas from a sedimentologic perspective: Insights for future research from past and recent studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franseen, E.K.

    2000-01-01

    Arbuckle Group and equivalent-age rocks (Cambrian and Lower Ordovician) represent an important record of sediment deposition in the history of the North American continent and they contain important accumulations of hydrocarbons (oil and gas) and base metal deposits. This is true for Kansas as well where Arbuckle strata account for approximately 40% of the volume of produced petroleum and known reserves. However, in comparison to their counterparts in other areas, such as the Ellenburger and Knox, Arbuckle rocks in Kansas remain relatively understudied, especially with respect to sedimentology and diagenesis. The Arbuckle is present in the subsurface in most of Kansas and is absent only in areas of northeastern and northwestern Kansas, and over ancient uplifts and buried Precambrian highs. Arbuckle rocks thicken from north to south and are up to 1,390 feet in the southeastern corner of Kansas. Arbuckle Group and equivalent-age rocks from Kansas and surrounding areas are similar, consisting of platform deposits dominated by ramp-type subtidal to peritidal carbonates (mostly dolomitized) which can be subdivided into cycles, less than 0.5 m to 40 m thick, based on facies type and depositional patterns. Recent studies from central Kansas show that major depositional facies consist of coarse-grained packstones/ grainstones, fine-grained packstones/wackestones/mudstones, stromatolites-thrombolites, intraclastic conglomerate and breccia, and shale. In addition, secondary features include dolomitization, breccia, fracture, and conglomerate related to early subaerial exposure and later karst, burial or structural processes, silicification, and local mineralization. Arbuckle and equivalent strata in the Midcontinent were affected by prolonged subaerial exposure that began immediately after Arbuckle deposition, forming the sub-Tippecanoe to sub-Absaroka unconformity. Favorable reservoir qualities generally are thought to be related directly to basement structural elements and

  7. Cancellation of collisional frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks with Rabi spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangkyung; Park, Chang Yong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Yu, Dai-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    We analyze both the s- and p-wave collision induced frequency shifts and propose an over-π pulse scheme to cancel the shifts in optical lattice clocks interrogated by a Rabi pulse. The collisional frequency shifts are analytically solved as a function of the pulse area and the inhomogeneity of the Rabi frequencies. Experimentally measured collisional frequency shifts in an Yb optical lattice clock are in good agreement with the analytical calculations. Based on our analysis, the over-π pulse combined with a small inhomogeneity below 0.1 allows a fractional uncertainty on a level of 10 −18 in both Sr and Yb optical lattice clocks by canceling the collisional frequency shift. (paper)

  8. Molecular Clock of Neutral Mutations in a Fitness-Increasing Evolutionary Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Ying, Bei-Wen; Tsuru, Saburo; Iijima, Leo; Suzuki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Oyake, Ayana; Kobayashi, Hisaka; Someya, Yuki; Narisawa, Dai; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The molecular clock of neutral mutations, which represents linear mutation fixation over generations, is theoretically explained by genetic drift in fitness-steady evolution or hitchhiking in adaptive evolution. The present study is the first experimental demonstration for the molecular clock of neutral mutations in a fitness-increasing evolutionary process. The dynamics of genome mutation fixation in the thermal adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli were evaluated in a prolonged evolution e...

  9. Entrainment of the circadian clock in humans: mechanism and implications for sleep disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metcalfe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans exhibit behaviour and physiology controlled by a circadian clock. The circadian period is genetically determined and administered by a series of interlocked autoregulatory feedback loops largely in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. The phase of the clock is, however, synchronised by a number of external environmental cues such as light. A failure or change in any one of the requisite clock components may result in the onset of a long-term sleep disorder. This review discusses the mechanism regulating circadian physiology in humans and explores how disturbances of this mechanism may result in sleep pathologies.

  10. Clock genes × stress × reward interactions in alcohol and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-06-01

    Adverse life events and highly stressful environments have deleterious consequences for mental health. Those environmental factors can potentiate alcohol and drug abuse in vulnerable individuals carrying specific genetic risk factors, hence producing the final risk for alcohol- and substance-use disorders development. The nature of these genes remains to be fully determined, but studies indicate their direct or indirect relation to the stress hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or reward systems. Over the past decade, clock genes have been revealed to be key-players in influencing acute and chronic alcohol/drug effects. In parallel, the influence of chronic stress and stressful life events in promoting alcohol and substance use and abuse has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the reciprocal interaction of clock genes with various HPA-axis components, as well as the evidence for an implication of clock genes in stress-induced alcohol abuse, have led to the idea that clock genes, and Period genes in particular, may represent key genetic factors to consider when examining gene × environment interaction in the etiology of addiction. The aim of the present review is to summarize findings linking clock genes, stress, and alcohol and substance abuse, and to propose potential underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchrony of plant cellular circadian clocks with heterogeneous properties under light/dark cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masaaki; Muranaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Shogo; Oyama, Tokitaka

    2017-03-22

    Individual cells in a plant can work independently as circadian clocks, and their properties are the basis of various circadian phenomena. The behaviour of individual cellular clocks in Lemna gibba was orderly under 24-h light/dark cycles despite their heterogeneous free-running periods (FRPs). Here, we reveal the entrainment habits of heterogeneous cellular clocks using non-24-h light/dark cycles (T-cycles). The cellular rhythms of AtCCA1::LUC under T = 16 h cycles showed heterogeneous entrainment that was associated with their heterogeneous FRPs. Under T = 12 h cycles, most cells showed rhythms having ~24-h periods. This suggested that the lower limit of entrainment to the light/dark cycles of heterogeneous cellular circadian clocks is set to a period longer than 12 h, which enables them to be synchronous under ~24-h daily cycles without being perturbed by short light/dark cycles. The entrainment habits of individual cellular clocks are likely to be the basis of the circadian behaviour of plant under the natural day-night cycle with noisy environmental fluctuations. We further suggest that modifications of EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) in individual cells deviate the entrainability to shorter T-cycles possibly by altering both the FRPs and light responsiveness.

  12. Auxiliary functions of the LISA laser link: ranging, clock noise transfer and data communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, Gerhard; Esteban, Juan Jose; Barke, Simon; Otto, Markus; Wang Yan; Garcia, Antonio F; Danzmann, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is required to reduce two important noise sources by post-processing on the ground using time-delay interferometry (TDI): phase noise of the on-board reference clocks and laser frequency noise. To achieve the desired suppression, the TDI algorithm needs measurements of the differential clock noise between any two spacecraft and inter-spacecraft ranging measurements with at least 1 m accuracy, which is beyond the precision of ground-based measurements for deep space missions. Therefore, we need on-board measurements by transmitting clock noise and ranging information between the spacecraft as auxiliary functions of the laser link. This paper reports our current experimental results in clock noise transfer and ranging for noise subtraction via post-processing as well as additional data transfer.

  13. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  14. The Switching Generator: New Clock-Controlled Generator with Resistance against the Algebraic and Side Channel Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Advanced Encryption Standard (AES in stream modes, such as counter (CTR, output feedback (OFB and cipher feedback (CFB, can meet most industrial requirements, the range of applications for dedicated stream ciphers is decreasing. There are many attack results using algebraic properties and side channel information against stream ciphers for hardware applications. Al-Hinai et al. presented an algebraic attack approach to a family of irregularly clock-controlled linear feedback shift register systems: the stop and go generator, self-decimated generator and alternating step generator. Other clock-controlled systems, such as shrinking and cascade generators, are indeed vulnerable against side channel attacks. To overcome these threats, new clock-controlled systems were presented, e.g., the generalized alternating step generator, cascade jump-controlled generator and mutual clock-controlled generator. However, the algebraic attack could be applied directly on these new systems. In this paper, we propose a new clock-controlled generator: the switching generator, which has resistance to algebraic and side channel attacks. This generator also preserves both security properties and the efficiency of existing clock-controlled generators.

  15. Epigenetic control and the circadian clock: linking metabolism to neuronal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Solis, R; Sassone-Corsi, P

    2014-04-04

    Experimental and epidemiological evidence reveal the profound influence that industrialized modern society has imposed on human social habits and physiology during the past 50 years. This drastic change in life-style is thought to be one of the main causes of modern diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes, mental illness such as depression, sleep disorders, and certain types of cancer. These disorders have been associated to disruption of the circadian clock, an intrinsic time-keeper molecular system present in virtually all cells and tissues. The circadian clock is a key element in homeostatic regulation by controlling a large array of genes implicated in cellular metabolism. Importantly, intimate links between epigenetic regulation and the circadian clock exist and are likely to prominently contribute to the plasticity of the response to the environment. In this review, we summarize some experimental and epidemiological evidence showing how environmental factors such as stress, drugs of abuse and changes in circadian habits, interact through different brain areas to modulate the endogenous clock. Furthermore we point out the pivotal role of the deacetylase silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) as a molecular effector of the environment in shaping the circadian epigenetic landscape. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. An Overview of a Class of Clock Synchronization Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Statistical Signal Processing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have drawn great interest due to their outstanding monitoring and management potential in medical, environmental and industrial applications. Most of the applications that employ WSNs demand all of the sensor nodes to run on a common time scale, a requirement that highlights the importance of clock synchronization. The clock synchronization problem in WSNs is inherently related to parameter estimation. The accuracy of clock synchronization algorithms depends essentially on the statistical properties of the parameter estimation algorithms. Recently, studies dedicated to the estimation of synchronization parameters, such as clock offset and skew, have begun to emerge in the literature. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art clock synchronization algorithms for WSNs from a statistical signal processing point of view. This article focuses on describing the key features of the class of clock synchronization algorithms that exploit the traditional two-way message (signal exchange mechanism. Upon introducing the two-way message exchange mechanism, the main clock offset estimation algorithms for pairwise synchronization of sensor nodes are first reviewed, and their performance is compared. The class of fully-distributed clock offset estimation algorithms for network-wide synchronization is then surveyed. The paper concludes with a list of open research problems pertaining to clock synchronization of WSNs.

  17. Muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism are controlled by the intrinsic muscle clock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyar, Kenneth A.; Ciciliot, Stefano; Wright, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms control metabolism and energy homeostasis, but the role of the skeletal muscle clock has never been explored. We generated conditional and inducible mouse lines with muscle-specific ablation of the core clock gene Bmal1. Skeletal muscles from these mice showed impaired insulin-s...

  18. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at the University of Kansas (Docket No. 50-148)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the University of Kansas (KU) for a renewal of Operating License R-78 to continue to operate the KU 250-kW open-pool training reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the University of Kansas and is located on the KU campus in Lawrence, Douglas County, Kansas. The staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by KU without endangering the health and safety of the public. 17 references, 11 figures, 4 tables

  19. Causes and consequences of hyperexcitation in central clock neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey O Diekman

    Full Text Available Hyperexcited states, including depolarization block and depolarized low amplitude membrane oscillations (DLAMOs, have been observed in neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN, the site of the central mammalian circadian (~24-hour clock. The causes and consequences of this hyperexcitation have not yet been determined. Here, we explore how individual ionic currents contribute to these hyperexcited states, and how hyperexcitation can then influence molecular circadian timekeeping within SCN neurons. We developed a mathematical model of the electrical activity of SCN neurons, and experimentally verified its prediction that DLAMOs depend on post-synaptic L-type calcium current. The model predicts that hyperexcited states cause high intracellular calcium concentrations, which could trigger transcription of clock genes. The model also predicts that circadian control of certain ionic currents can induce hyperexcited states. Putting it all together into an integrative model, we show how membrane potential and calcium concentration provide a fast feedback that can enhance rhythmicity of the intracellular circadian clock. This work puts forward a novel role for electrical activity in circadian timekeeping, and suggests that hyperexcited states provide a general mechanism for linking membrane electrical dynamics to transcription activation in the nucleus.

  20. NONO couples the circadian clock to the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Elzbieta; Ripperger, Juergen A; Hoegger, Dominik C; Bruegger, Pascal; Buch, Thorsten; Birchler, Thomas; Mueller, Anke; Albrecht, Urs; Contaldo, Claudio; Brown, Steven A

    2013-01-29

    Mammalian circadian clocks restrict cell proliferation to defined time windows, but the mechanism and consequences of this interrelationship are not fully understood. Previously we identified the multifunctional nuclear protein NONO as a partner of circadian PERIOD (PER) proteins. Here we show that it also conveys circadian gating to the cell cycle, a connection surprisingly important for wound healing in mice. Specifically, although fibroblasts from NONO-deficient mice showed approximately normal circadian cycles, they displayed elevated cell doubling and lower cellular senescence. At a molecular level, NONO bound to the p16-Ink4A cell cycle checkpoint gene and potentiated its circadian activation in a PER protein-dependent fashion. Loss of either NONO or PER abolished this activation and circadian expression of p16-Ink4A and eliminated circadian cell cycle gating. In vivo, lack of NONO resulted in defective wound repair. Because wound healing defects were also seen in multiple circadian clock-deficient mouse lines, our results therefore suggest that coupling of the cell cycle to the circadian clock via NONO may be useful to segregate in temporal fashion cell proliferation from tissue organization.

  1. A sense of time: how molecular clocks organize metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Akira; Bass, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of an internal temporal clockwork that coordinates behavior and metabolism according to the rising and setting of the sun was first revealed in flies and plants. However, in the past decade, a molecular transcription-translation feedback loop with similar properties has also been identified in mammals. In mammals, this transcriptional oscillator programs 24-hour cycles in sleep, activity and feeding within the master pacemaker neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. More recent studies have shown that the core transcription mechanism is also present in other locations within the brain, in addition to many peripheral tissues. Processes ranging from glucose transport to gluconeogenesis, lipolysis, adipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are controlled through overlapping transcription networks that are tied to the clock and are thus time sensitive. Because disruption of tissue timing occurs when food intake, activity and sleep are altered, understanding how these many tissue clocks are synchronized to tick at the same time each day, and determining how each tissue 'senses time' set by these molecular clocks might open new insight into human disease, including disorders of sleep, circadian disruption, diabetes and obesity.

  2. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  3. CRY Drives Cyclic CK2-Mediated BMAL1 Phosphorylation to Control the Mammalian Circadian Clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruya Tamaru

    Full Text Available Intracellular circadian clocks, composed of clock genes that act in transcription-translation feedback loops, drive global rhythmic expression of the mammalian transcriptome and allow an organism to anticipate to the momentum of the day. Using a novel clock-perturbing peptide, we established a pivotal role for casein kinase (CK-2-mediated circadian BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation (BMAL1-P in regulating central and peripheral core clocks. Subsequent analysis of the underlying mechanism showed a novel role of CRY as a repressor for protein kinase. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions revealed that CRY-mediated periodic binding of CK2β to BMAL1 inhibits BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation by CK2α. The FAD binding domain of CRY1, two C-terminal BMAL1 domains, and particularly BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation/deacetylation by CLOCK/SIRT1, were shown to be critical for CRY-mediated BMAL1-CK2β binding. Reciprocally, BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation is prerequisite for BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation. We propose a dual negative-feedback model in which a CRY-dependent CK2-driven posttranslational BMAL1-P-BMAL1 loop is an integral part of the core clock oscillator.

  4. The Effects of Race Conditions When Implementing Single-Source Redundant Clock Trees in Triple Modular Redundant Synchronous Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Kim, Hak S.; Phan, Anthony M.; Seidleck, Christina M.; Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the challenges that arise when using redundant clock domains due to their time-skew. Radiation data show that a singular clock domain provides an improved triple modular redundant (TMR) scheme over redundant clocks.

  5. Hands Together! An Analog Clock Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Darrell; Radtke, Susan; Scott, Siri

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors first present the Hands Together! task. The mathematics in this problem concerns the relationship of hour and minute durations as reflected in the oft-overlooked proportional movements of the two hands of an analog clock. The authors go on to discuss the importance of problem solving in general. They then consider…

  6. Clock drawing as a screen for impaired driving in aging and dementia: is it worth the time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kevin J; Davis, Jennifer D; Papandonatos, George D; Ott, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Clock drawing is recommended by medical and transportation authorities as a screening test for unsafe drivers. The objective of the present study was to assess the usefulness of different clock drawing systems as screening measures of driving performance in 122 healthy and cognitively impaired older drivers. Clock drawing was measured using four different scoring systems. Driving outcomes included global ratings of safety and the error rate on a standardized on-road test. Findings revealed that clock drawing was significantly correlated with the driving score on the road test for each of the scoring systems. However, receiver operator curve analyses showed limited clinical utility for clock drawing as a screening instrument for impaired on-road driving performance with the area under the curve ranging from 0.53 to 0.61. Results from this study indicate that clock drawing has limited utility as a solitary screening measure of on-road driving, even when considering a variety of scoring approaches.

  7. Optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms; Horloge a reseau optique a atomes de strontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baillard, X

    2008-01-15

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the optical lattice clock with Strontium atoms developed at LNE-SYRTE. After a review of the different types of optical clocks that are currently under development, we stress on the concept of optical lattice clock which was first imagined for Sr{sup 87} using the {sup 1}S{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition. We exhibit the features of this atom, in particular the concept of magic wavelength for the trap, and the achievable performances for this kind of clock. The second part presents the experimental aspects, insisting particularly on the ultra-stable laser used for the interrogation of the atoms which is a central part of the experiment. Among the latest improvements, an optical pumping phase and an interrogation phase using a magnetic field have been added in order to refine the evaluation of the Zeeman effect. Finally, the last part presents the experimental results. The last evaluation of the clock using Sr{sup 87} atoms allowed us to reach a frequency accuracy of 2.6*10{sup -15} and a measurement in agreement with the one made at JILA (Tokyo university) at the 10{sup -15} level. On another hand, thanks to recent theoretical proposals, we made a measurement using the bosonic isotope Sr{sup 88} by adapting the experimental setup. This measurement represents the first evaluation for this type of clock, with a frequency accuracy of 7*10{sup -14}. (author)

  8. From safe yield to sustainable development of water resources - The Kansas experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of water sustainability issues from the hydrologic perspective. It shows that safe yield is a flawed concept and that sustainability is an idea that is broadly used but perhaps not well understood. In general, the sustainable yield of an aquifer must be considerably less than recharge if adequate amounts of water are to be available to sustain both the quantity and quality of streams, springs, wetlands, and ground-water-dependent ecosystems. To ensure sustainability, it is imperative that water limits be established based on hydrologic principles of mass balance. To establish water-use policies and planning horizons, the transition curves of aquifer systems from ground-water storage depletion to induced recharge of surface water need to be developed. Present-day numerical models are capable of generating such transition curves. Several idealized examples of aquifer systems show how this could be done. Because of the complexity of natural systems and the uncertainties in characterizing them, the current philosophy underlying sustainable management of water resources is based on the interconnected systems approach and on adaptive management. Examples of water-resources management from Kansas illustrate some of these concepts in a real-world setting. Some of the hallmarks of Kansas water management are the formation of local ground-water management districts, the adoption of minimum streamflow standards, the use of modified safe-yield policies in some districts, the implementation of integrated resource planning by the City of Wichita, and the subbasin water-resources management program in potential problem areas. These are all appropriate steps toward sustainable development. The Kansas examples show that local decision-making is the best way to fully account for local variability in water management. However, it is imperative that public education and involvement be encouraged, so that system complexities and constraints are better

  9. Clock and trigger distribution for CBM-TOF quality evaluation of RPC super module detector assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Huang, X.; Cao, P.; Wang, J.; An, Q.

    2018-03-01

    RPC Super module (SM) detector assemblies are used for charged hadron identification in the Time-of-Flight (TOF) spectrometer at the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment. Each SM contains several multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) and provides up to 320 electronic channels in total for high-precision time measurements. Time resolution of the Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) is required to be better than 20 ps. During mass production, the quality of each SM needs to be evaluated. In order to meet the requirements, the system clock signal as well as the trigger signal should be distributed precisely and synchronously to all electronics modules within the evaluation readout system. In this paper, a hierarchical clock and trigger distribution method is proposed for the quality evaluation of CBM-TOF SM detectors. In a first stage, the master clock and trigger module (CTM) allocated in a 6U PXI chassis distributes the clock and trigger signals to the slave CTM in the same chassis. In a second stage, the slave CTM transmits the clock and trigger signals to the TDC readout module (TRM) through one optical link. In a third stage, the TRM distributes the clock and trigger signals synchronously to 10 individual TDC boards. Laboratory test results show that the clock jitter at the third stage is less than 4 ps (RMS) and the trigger transmission latency from the master CTM to the TDC is about 272 ns with 11 ps (RMS) jitter. The overall performance complies well with the required specifications.

  10. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Fremont Quadrangle, Nebraska, Iowa; Lincoln Quadrangle, Nebraska; Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas; Hutchinson Quadrangle, Kansas. Final report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    A high sensitivity airborne radiometric and magnetic survey of the East Salina Basin Area (Kansas and Nebraska) was conducted. The project area, the Hutchinson and Manhattan, Kansas sheets, consists of approximately 30,800 square miles. A total of 11,287 line miles of high sensitivity radiometric and magnetic data were collected. All data were collected utilizing a fixed wing aircraft, and over 3,500 cubic inches of NaI crystal detector. Magnetometer data were collected utilizing a high sensitivity 0.25 gamma, proton magnetometer. All field data were returned to GeoMetrics, Sunnyvale, California computer facilities for processing, statistical analysis and interpretation. As an integral part of this final report, other data are presented which include corrected profiles of all radiometric variables (total count, K, U, Th, U/Th, U/K, and Th/K, ratios), magnetic data, radar altimeter data, barometric altimeter data, air temperature and airborne Bi contributions. Radiometric data presented are corrected for Compton Scatter, altitude dependence and atmospheric Bismuth. These data are presented in the form of strip charts as averaged one second samples using a 5 second moving average window, microfiche and digital magnetic tapes containing raw spectral data, single record data, averaged record data, and statistical analysis results. In addition, computer generated anomaly maps and interpretation maps are presented relating known geology or soil distribution to the corrected radiometric data

  11. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site (http://mo.water.usgs.gov/indep/kelly/blueriver) was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5068). Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  12. 78 FR 43842 - State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R07-RCRA-2013-0447; FRL-9833-6] State of Kansas; Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to...

  13. Pilot instrumentation of a Superpave test section at the Kansas Accelerated Testing laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Two Superpave test sections were constructed at the Kansas Accelerated Testing Laboratory (K-ATL) with 12.5 mm (2 in) nominal maximum size Superpave mixture (SM-2A) with varying percentages (15 and 30 percent) of river sand. A 150 kN (34 kip) tandem ...

  14. Protein Chemistry: A Graduate Course in Pharmaceutical Biotechnology at the University of Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark C.; Mitchell, James W.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Kansas course in pharmaceutical biotechnology aims at providing students with an understanding of the basic chemical and structural characteristics making protein pharmaceuticals unique and distinct. In addition, stability and analysis of proteins are emphasized. Attention given to molecular biology, drug delivery, and…

  15. The six-item Clock Drawing Test – reliability and validity in mild Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper; Kristensen, Maria K; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a reliable, short and practical version of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) for clinical use and examines its diagnostic accuracy in mild Alzheimer's disease versus elderly nonpatients. Clock drawings from 231 participants were scored independently by four clinical neuropsychologi......This study presents a reliable, short and practical version of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) for clinical use and examines its diagnostic accuracy in mild Alzheimer's disease versus elderly nonpatients. Clock drawings from 231 participants were scored independently by four clinical...... neuropsychologists blind to diagnostic classification. The interrater agreement of individual scoring criteria was analyzed and items with poor or moderate reliability were excluded. The classification accuracy of the resulting scoring system - the six-item CDT - was examined. We explored the effect of further...

  16. Effect of monochromatic light on circadian rhythmic expression of clock genes in the hypothalamus of chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the effect of monochromatic light on circadian clock gene expression in chick hypothalamus, a total 240 newly hatched chickens were reared under blue light (BL), green light (GL), red light (RL) and white light (WL), respectively. On the post-hatched day 14, 24-h profiles of seven core clock genes (cClock, cBmal1, cBmal2, cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) were measured at six time points (CT 0, CT 4, CT 8, CT 12, CT 16, CT 20, circadian time). We found all these clock genes expressed with a significant rhythmicity in different light wavelength groups. Meanwhile, cClock and cBmal1 showed a high level under GL, and followed a corresponding high expression of cCry1. However, RL decreased the expression levels of these genes. Be consistent with the mRNA level, CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins also showed a high level under GL. The CLOCK-like immunoreactive neurons were observed not only in the SCN, but also in the non-SCN brain region such as the nucleus anterior medialis hypothalami, the periventricularis nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus and the median eminence. All these results are consistent with the auto-regulatory circadian feedback loop, and indicate that GL may play an important role on the circadian time generation and development in the chick hypothalamus. Our results also suggest that the circadian clock in the chick hypothalamus such as non-SCN brain region were involved in the regulation of photo information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Piezoelectric motor development at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressly, Robert B.; Mentesana, Charles P.

    1994-11-01

    The Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. has been investigating the fabrication and use of piezoelectric motors in mechanisms for United States Department of Energy (DOE) weapons applications for about four years. These motors exhibit advantages over solenoids and other electromagnetic actuators. Prototype processes have been developed for complete fabrication of motors from stock materials, including abrasive machining of piezoelectric ceramics and more traditional machining of other motor components, electrode plating and sputtering, electric poling, cleaning, bonding and assembly. Drive circuits have been fabricated and motor controls are being developed. Laboratory facilities have been established for electrical/mechanical testing and evaluation of piezo materials and completed motors. Recent project efforts have focused on the potential of piezoelectric devices for commercial and industrial use. A broad range of various motor types and application areas has been identified, primarily in Japan. The Japanese have been developing piezo motors for many years and have more recently begun commercialization. Piezoelectric motor and actuator technology is emerging in the United States and quickly gaining in commercial interest. The Kansas City Division is continuing development of piezoelectric motors and actuators for defense applications while supporting and participating in the commercialization of piezoelectric devices with private industry through various technology transfer and cooperative development initiatives.

  18. Analytic clock frequency selection for global DVFS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Kuper, Jan; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    Computers can reduce their power consumption by decreasing their speed using Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS). A form of DVFS for multicore processors is global DVFS, where the voltage and clock frequency is shared among all processor cores. Because global DVFS is efficient and cheap to

  19. Cryptochromes define a novel circadian clock mechanism in monarch butterflies that may underlie sun compass navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock plays a vital role in monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus migration by providing the timing component of time-compensated sun compass orientation, a process that is important for successful navigation. We therefore evaluated the monarch clockwork by focusing on the functions of a Drosophila-like cryptochrome (cry, designated cry1, and a vertebrate-like cry, designated cry2, that are both expressed in the butterfly and by placing these genes in the context of other relevant clock genes in vivo. We found that similar temporal patterns of clock gene expression and protein levels occur in the heads, as occur in DpN1 cells, of a monarch cell line that contains a light-driven clock. CRY1 mediates TIMELESS degradation by light in DpN1 cells, and a light-induced TIMELESS decrease occurs in putative clock cells in the pars lateralis (PL in the brain. Moreover, monarch cry1 transgenes partially rescue both biochemical and behavioral light-input defects in cry(b mutant Drosophila. CRY2 is the major transcriptional repressor of CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription in DpN1 cells, and endogenous CRY2 potently inhibits transcription without involvement of PERIOD. CRY2 is co-localized with clock proteins in the PL, and there it translocates to the nucleus at the appropriate time for transcriptional repression. We also discovered CRY2-positive neural projections that oscillate in the central complex. The results define a novel, CRY-centric clock mechanism in the monarch in which CRY1 likely functions as a blue-light photoreceptor for entrainment, whereas CRY2 functions within the clockwork as the transcriptional repressor of a negative transcriptional feedback loop. Our data further suggest that CRY2 may have a dual role in the monarch butterfly's brain-as a core clock element and as an output that regulates circadian activity in the central complex, the likely site of the sun compass.

  20. Diamond Electron-Spin Clocks For Space Navigation and Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision clocks are needed in a broad range of applications, including satellite communication, high-bandwidth wireless communication, computing systems, and...