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Sample records for greening etiolated shoots

  1. Apoplastic domains and sub-domains in the shoots of etiolated corn seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, B. L.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Light Green, an apoplastic probe, was applied to the cut mesocotyl base or to the cut coleoptile apex of etiolated seedlings of Zea mays L. cv. Silver Queen. Probe transport was measured and its tissue distribution determined. In the mesocotyl, there is an apoplastic barrier between cortex and stele. This barrier creates two apoplastic domains which are non-communicating. A kinetic barrier exists between the apoplast of the mesocotyl stele and that of the coleoptile. This kinetic barrier is not absolute and there is limited communication between the apoplasts of the two regions. This kinetic barrier effectively creates two sub-domains. In the coleoptile, there is communication between the apoplast of the vascular strands and that of the surrounding cortical tissue. No apoplastic communication was observed between the coleoptile cortex and the mesocotyl cortex. Thus, the apoplastic space of the coleoptile cortex is a sub-domain of the integrated coleoptile domain and is separate from that of the apoplastic domain of the mesocotyl cortex.

  2. Changes of the laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence signatures during greening of etiolated leaves of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, F.; Lichtenthaler, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The UV-laser-induced blue, green and red fluorescence-emission spectra were used to characterize the pigment status of etiolated leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during a 48 h greening period under white light conditions. Upon UV-light excitation (337 nm) leaves not only show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm), but also in the blue and green regions between 400 to 570 nm with maxima or shoulders near 450 nm (blue) and 530 nm (green). During greening of etiolated leaves the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 strongly correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of the chlorophylls to the carotenoids (a+b/x+c). The ratio of the blue to the green fluorescence F450/F530 was also correlated with the total chlorophyll content and the ratio of chlorophylls to total carotenoids (a+b/x+c). Consequently, there also existed a correlation between the chlorophyll-fluorescence ratio F690/F735 and the ratio of the blue to green fluorescence F450/F530. In contrast, the ratios of the blue to red fluorescences F450/F690 and F450/F735 did not show clear relations to the pigment content of the investigated plants. The particular shape of the UV-laser-induced-fluorescence emission spectra of wheat leaves as well as the dependencies of the fluorescence ratios on the pigment content are due to a partial and differential reabsorption of the emitted fluorescences by the photosynthetic pigments

  3. Changes in the state of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilova, S.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in the metabolism of carotenoid pigments during greening of etiolated barley seedlings have been studied. The experiments were carried out with six-day-old etiolated plants, having a well-developed first leaf, grown on 1/2 Knop nutrient solution. The plants were illuminated with light, 10 000 lux intensity. Samples for analysis were taken at nil, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours. The extraction of the pigments was effected with the aid of the fractionation method according to Chernomorski and Sapozhnikov. The specific radioactivity of the individual carotenoid pigments was measured. To this end the plants were placed on a solution of sodium acetate ( 14 C) for 18 hours before illumination. The radiochemical purification of the pigments was carried out on an aluminium oxide column, after their chromatographic separation on paper. The results obtained from the experiments show that the illumination of the plants leads to a 2.4-fold increase in the total amount of carotenoids. The amount of the carotene increases approximately about 8 times over a 24-hour period and that of the xanthophylles - almost two times. A rhythm is observed in the formation of lutein and violaxanthin, which is discussed in connection with the participation of these pigments in the formation and the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. The data on the changes in the state of the individual pigments indicate differences in accordance with their nature. The distinct manifestation of the heterogeneity of the carotene is observed in the case where the photosynthesis apparatus is fully formed. Obviously, the manifestation of the heterogeneity of that pigment is related to the formation of chloroplast and changes in the environment. Data on changes in the specific radioactivity of the easily-extractable fractions of the lutein and the violaxanthin show that the newly-synthesized molecules are more easily extractable. (author)

  4. UV-B induction of NADP-malic enzyme in etiolated and green maize seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drincovich, M.F.; Casati, P.; Andreo, C.S.; Donahue, R.; Edwards, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of treatment of etiolated maize seedlings with UV-B and UV-A radiation, and different levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400–700 nm), on the activity and quantity of NADP-malic enzyme (NADPME) and on RNA levels was determined. Under low levels of PAR (14 µmol m –2 s –1 ), exposure to UV-B radiation (9 µmol m –2 s –1 ) but not UV-A radiation (11 µmol m –2 s –1 ) for 6–24 h caused a marked increase in the activity of the enzyme similar to that observed under high PAR (300 µmol m –2 s –1 ) in the absence of UV-B. Western blot analysis indicated there was a specific increase of the photosynthetically active isoform of the enzyme. This increase was also measured at the RNA level by dot blot analysis, indicating that the induction is displayed at the level of NADP-ME transcription. UV-B treatment of green leaves after a 12 h dark period also caused an increase in the activity and level of NADP-ME. The UV-B induction of NADP-ME synthesis may reflect a mechanism for induction of photosynthetic processes in C4 photosynthesis. Alternatively, the relatively low intensity of UV-B radiation present under full sunlight might provide a signal that facilitates repair of UV-B-induced damage through the increased activity of different enzymes such as NADP-ME. It is speculated that the reducing power and pyruvate generated by activity of NADP-ME may be used for respiration in cellular repair processes and as substrates for the fatty acid synthesis required for membrane repair. (author)

  5. Identification and Pathogenicity of Bacteria Associated with Etiolation and Decline of Creeping Bentgrass Golf Course Putting Greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph A; Ma, Bangya; Tredway, Lane P; Ritchie, David F; Kerns, James P

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial etiolation and decline has developed into a widespread issue with creeping bentgrass (CBG) (Agrostis stolonifera) putting green turf. The condition is characterized by an abnormal elongation of turfgrass stems and leaves that in rare cases progresses into a rapid and widespread necrosis and decline. Recent reports have cited bacteria, Acidovorax avenae and Xanthomonas translucens, as causal agents; however, few cases exist where either bacterium were isolated in conjunction with turf exhibiting bacterial disease symptoms. From 2010 to 2014, turfgrass from 62 locations submitted to the NC State Turf Diagnostic Clinic exhibiting bacterial etiolation and/or decline symptoms were sampled for the presence of bacterial pathogens. Isolated bacteria were identified using rRNA sequencing of the 16S subunit and internal transcribed spacer region (16S-23S or ITS). Results showed diverse bacteria isolated from symptomatic turf and A. avenae and X. translucens were only isolated in 26% of samples. Frequently isolated bacterial species were examined for pathogenicity to 4-week-old 'G2' CBG seedlings and 8-week-old 'A-1' CBG turfgrass stands in the greenhouse. While results confirmed pathogenicity of A. avenae and X. translucens, Pantoea ananatis was also shown to infect CBG turf; although pathogenicity varied among isolated strains. These results illustrate that multiple bacteria are associated with bacterial disease and shed new light on culturable bacteria living in CBG turfgrass putting greens. Future research to evaluate additional microorganisms (i.e., bacteria and fungi) could provide new information on host-microbe interactions and possibly develop ideas for management tactics to reduce turfgrass pests.

  6. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O 2 , and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14 C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  7. Study of cell-differentiation and assembly of photosynthetic proteins during greening of etiolated Zea mays leaves using confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Katoh, Wataru; Tahara, Yukari

    2013-04-01

    Fluorescence microspectroscopy observations were used to study the processes of cell differentiation and assemblies of photosynthesis proteins in Zea mays leaves under the greening process. The observations were done at 78K by setting the sample in a cryostat to avoid any undesired progress of the greening process during the measurements. The lateral and axial spatial resolutions of the system were 0.64μm and 4.4μm, respectively. The study revealed the spatial distributions of protochlorophyllide (PChld) in both the 632-nm-emitting and 655-nm-emitting forms within etiolated Zea mays leaves. The sizes of the fluorescence spots attributed to the former were larger than those of the latter, validating the assignment of the former and latter to the prothylakoid and prolamellar bodies, respectively. In vivo microspectroscopy observations of mature Zea mays leaves confirmed the different photosystem II (PS I)/photosystem I (PS II) ratio between the bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (MS) cells, which is specific for C4-plants. The BS cells in Zea mays leaves 1h after the initiation of the greening process tended to show fluorescence spectra at shorter wavelength side (at around 679nm) than the MS cells (at around 682nm). The 679-nm-emitting chlorophyll-a form observed mainly in the BS cells was attributed to putative precursor complexes to PS I. The BS cells under 3-h greening showed higher relative intensities of the PS I fluorescence band at around 735nm, suggesting the reduced PS II amount in the BS cells in this greening stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Green Shoots: Environmental Sustainability and Contemporary Film Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victory, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the emerging phenomenon of ‘green filmmaking’ in film production, whereby the process of filmmaking is conducted with a view to minimising environmental impact. Establishing the motivations behind green filmmaking and surveying a range of international developments in this area, sustainability initiatives are identified and considered as a means of environmentally-sustainable economic development for the film sector. After identifying challenges of consumption habits to be overcome by the film industry worldwide, recent and current initiatives are highlighted from within the international film industry and one is specifically explored in more detail: the emerging role of a designated crew member or ‘eco-manager’ to oversee environmental initiatives on-set. The paper then concludes on a range of brief policy proposals for the film sector following on from analysis of existing film industry policy towards environmental sustainability.

  9. The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on gene expression and pigment composition in etiolated and green pea leaf tissue: UV-B-induced changes are gene-specific and dependent upon the developmental stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, B.R.; James, P.E.; Strid, A.; Anthony, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280–320nm) on gene expression and pigment composition has been investigated in pea tissue at different stages of development. Pea (Pisum sativum L., cv. Feltham First) seedlings were grown for 17d and then exposed to supplementary UV-B radiation. Chlorophyll a per unit fresh weight decreased by more than 20% compared with control levels after exposure to UV-B radiation for 7d. In contrast, chlorophyll b content remained the same or increased slightly. Leaf protein biosynthesis, as determined by 35 S-methionine incorporation, was rapidly inhibited by UV-B radiation, although the steady-state levels of proteins were either unchanged or only slightly altered. RNA transcripts for the chlorophyll a/b binding protein (cab) were also rapidly reduced to low or even undetectable levels in the expanded third leaf or younger leaf bud tissue after exposure to UV-B radiation. In contrast, cab RNA transcripts were either low or undetectable in etiolated pea tissue, but increased substantially in light and during exposure to UV-B radiation. The cab RNA transcripts were still present at control levels in pea plants after 7d of greening under supplementary UV-B radiation or UV-B alone. The protein composition changed significantly over the 7d of greening, but no differences could be detected between the light treatments. The increase in chlorophyll content was slightly greater during de-etiolation under supplementary UV-B radiation than under control irradiance. Under UV-B radiation alone, chlorophyll was synthesized at a greatly reduced rate. Changes in protective pigments were also determined. Anthocyanins did not change in either etiolated or green tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. However, other flavonoids increased substantially in either tissue during exposure to light and UV-B radiation. The RNA levels for chalcone synthase were measured in green and etiolated tissue exposed to UV-B radiation. The chs RNA transcripts were

  10. Emprego do estiolamento na propagação de plantas Etiolation to clonal plant propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Biasi

    1996-08-01

    shoot turns green in the light. The process is not well understood, although is known that etiolation promove anatomical and physiological tissue changes which are correlated with ease of rooting. The changes include decreased of lignification and suberization of stem tissues, increased of undifferentiated parenchyma and decreased cell wall thickness. The light control of auxin metabolism is also changed, causing changes in phenolic substances content and in the activity of IAA-oxidase and rooting cofactors.

  11. Influence of variety and type of shoot on rooting ability of green stem cuttings of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Пиж’янова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of studying the output percentage of green stem cuttings of seven varieties of Highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. subject to the dates of cutting preparation, type of shoot and its metamerism in agroecological conditions of the Rightbank Forest Steppe of Ukraine. It is found that green stem cuttings of Highbush blueberry varieties under review display low regenerative ability and are characterized with medium rooting ability. The optimal procuring and planting for rooting dates for the shoots fall within the stage of their intensive growth, which lasts from the first decade of June till the second decade of July. The level of regenerative capacity for the cuttings is determined by the type of cutting and its metamerism. Basal three-node cuttings have displayed essentially improved rooting ability as compared to the apical and medial cuttings.

  12. Green shoots of recovery: a realist evaluation of a team to support change in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Maggie; Basten, Ruth; McKinley, Robert K

    2017-02-08

    A multidisciplinary support team for general practice was established in April 2014 by a local National Health Service (NHS) England management team. This work evaluates the team's effectiveness in supporting and promoting change in its first 2 years, using realist methodology. Primary care in one area of England. Semistructured interviews were conducted with staff from 14 practices, 3 key senior NHS England personnel and 5 members of the support team. Sampling of practice staff was purposive to include representatives from relevant professional groups. The team worked with practices to identify areas for change, construct action plans and implement them. While there was no specified timescale for the team's work with practices, it was tailored to each. In realist evaluations, outcomes are contingent on mechanisms acting in contexts, and both an understanding of how an intervention leads to change in a socially constructed system and the resultant changes are outcomes. The principal positive mechanisms leading to change were the support team's expertise and its relationships with practice staff. The 'external view' provided by the team via its corroborative and normalising effects was an important mechanism for increasing morale in some practice contexts. A powerful negative mechanism was related to perceptions of 'being seen as a failing practice' which included expressions of 'shame'. Outcomes for practices as perceived by their staff were better communication, improvements in patients' access to appointments resulting from better clinical and managerial skill mix, and improvements in workload management. The support team promoted change within practices leading to signs of the 'green shoots of recovery' within the time frame of the evaluation. Such interventions need to be tailored and responsive to practices' needs. The team's expertise and relationships between team members and practice staff are central to success. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  13. Crescimento da parte aérea de cana crua e queimada Shoot growth of green and burned canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan André Alvarez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: 1. comparar o crescimento de cana colhida crua, mecanizada e de cana após a queima, colhida manualmente; 2. avaliar a influência do clima sobre as duas condições de crescimento e 3. analisar o comportamento do crescimento de cana crua e cana queimada nos 1º e 2º anos de rebrota, através de curvas adaptadas. A pesquisa foi realizada no município de Morro Agudo, SP, de julho de 1995 a julho de 1997. A variedade cultivada foi a SP 70 -1143. Utilizaram-se como indicadores de crescimento os seguintes índices biométricos: número de perfilhos, número de folhas, matéria seca de colmos e de folhas, IAF e avaliou-se a influência das temperaturas e das umidades do ar, do solo e das folhas. Adotou-se regressão polinomial e regressão não-linear para se adaptar os dados às curvas de crescimento. O crescimento no primeiro ciclo foi semelhante para cana crua e cana queimada. No início do segundo ciclo ocorreu maior crescimento em cana crua, enquanto que no final, foi maior em cana queimada. O perfilhamento da cana crua não apresentou diferenças significativas que confirmem a influência negativa da palha na rebrota. Os fatores climatológicos, isoladamente, não provocaram mudanças nos ciclos de crescimento de maneira que se identificasse uma tendência geral. As diferenças expressas na curva de crescimento do 1º para o 2º ano são devidas aos fatores climatológicos, tanto para cana crua como para cana queimada.This work had as objectives: 1. to compare the shoot growth between green cane, mechanically harvested and burned cane, harvested manually; 2. to evaluate the influence of the weather on the two conditions of growth and 3. to analyze the growth of green cane and cane burned in the 1st and 2nd years of second ratoon cane crop, by means of adapted curves. The research was performed in Morro Agudo, SP, Brazil from July 1995 to July 1997. The cultivar was the SP 70 -1143. As growth indicators the

  14. Growth Protocols for Etiolated Soybeans Germinated within BRIC-60 Canisters Under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Sharek, J. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V. I.; Martynenko, O. I.; Piastuch, W. C.

    As part of the GENEX (Gene Expression) spaceflight experiment, protocols were developed to optimize the inflight germination and subsequent growth of 192 soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) seeds during STS-87. We describe a method which provided uniform growth and development of etiolated seedlings while eliminating root and shoot restrictions for short-term (4-7 day) experiments. Final seedling growth morphologies and the gaseous CO2 and ethylene levels present both on the last day in space and at the time of recovery within the spaceflight and ground control BRIC-60 canisters are presented

  15. Infestation of Broad Bean (Vicia faba) by the Green Stink Bug (Nezara viridula) Decreases Shoot Abscisic Acid Contents under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederli, Luisa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Centritto, Mauro; Colazza, Stefano; Frati, Francesca; Loreto, Francesco; Marino, Giovanni; Salerno, Gianandrea; Pasqualini, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    The response of broad bean ( Vicia faba ) plants to water stress alone and in combination with green stink bug ( Nezara viridula ) infestation was investigated through measurement of: (1) leaf gas exchange; (2) plant hormone titres of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites, and of salicylic acid (SA); and (3) hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) content. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of experimentally water-stressed broad-bean plants on N. viridula performance in terms of adult host-plant preference, and nymph growth and survival. Water stress significantly reduced both photosynthesis ( A ) and stomatal conductance ( g s ), while infestation by the green stink bug had no effects on photosynthesis but significantly altered partitioning of ABA between roots and shoots. Leaf ABA was decreased and root ABA increased as a result of herbivore attack, under both well-watered and water-deprived conditions. Water stress significantly impacted on SA content in leaves, but not on H 2 O 2 . However, infestation of N. viridula greatly increased both SA and H 2 O 2 contents in leaves and roots, which suggests that endogenous SA and H 2 O 2 have roles in plant responses to herbivore infestation. No significant differences were seen for green stink bug choice between well-watered and water-stressed plants. However, for green stink bug nymphs, plant water stress promoted significantly lower weight increases and significantly higher mortality, which indicates that highly water-stressed host plants are less suitable for N. viridula infestation. In conclusion two important findings emerged: (i) association of water stress with herbivore infestation largely changes plant response in terms of phytohormone contents; but (ii) water stress does not affect the preference of the infesting insects, although their performance was impaired.

  16. GT Biplot Analysis for Silage Potential, Nutritive Value, Gas and Methane Production of Stay-Green Grain Sorghum Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Mahmut; Arslan, Mustafa; Kale, Hasan; Kara, Kanber; Kokten, Kagan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the possible silage of stay-green sorghum genotypes using GT biplot analysis. Following the grain harvest, 41 sorghum genotypes were chopped to make silage. Biochemical analyses were performed after 60 d of silage. The results revealed that green herbage yields varied between 13.40-65.96 t ha−1, pH between 3.92-4.25, dry matter ratios between 24.26-35.83%, crude protein ratios between 3.44-7.03%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratios between 27.46-...

  17. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  18. Estiolamento na micropropagação do Abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola Etiolated in micropropagation of cv. Pérola Pineapple plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Moreira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do estiolamento na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro cv. Pérola e posterior recuperação dos brotos estiolados, realizando-se dois experimentos. No primeiro, os caules utilizados como explantes foram obtidos de brotos pré-estabelecidos in vitro, dos quais foram retiradas as folhas. O estiolamento foi induzido colocando-se os explantes em tubos de ensaio no escuro por 20, 40 e 80 dias, contendo os seguintes meios de cultura: 1 MS suplementado com 0,1 mg.L-1 de ANA e 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP, 2 MS suplementado com 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP e 3 MS sem reguladores de crescimento. Para número de brotos, o melhor meio foi o MS + 1,8 mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se média de 10,26 brotações aos 40 dias no escuro. Para comprimento de brotos estiolados, o meio MS sem reguladores de crescimento foi significativamente melhor quando os explantes foram mantidos por 80 dias no escuro, apresentando comprimento médio de 10,86 cm. No segundo experimento, os brotos estiolados, com e sem o ápice, foram colocados horizontalmente em placas contendo meios de cultura com idêntica formulação aos descritos anteriormente. Para número total de brotos, brotações estioladas sem ápice em meio MS suplementado com 1,8mg.L-1 de ANA e 2 mg.L-1 de BAP promoveram o melhor resultado, correspondendo a 10,61 brotações por explante.It was aimed to produce micropropagated plantlets of pineapple cv. Pérola by using the etiolated technique and subsequent recovery of etiolated shoots. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, the stalks used as explant were obtained from in vitro shoots established without leaves. The etiolation was induced by putting the explants in test tubes in the darkness for 20, 40 and 80 days with the media: 1 MS supplemented with ANA 0.1mg.L-1 and BAP 0.5mg.L-1, 2 MS supplemented with ANA 1.8mg.L-1 and BAP 2mg.L-1 and 3 MS without growth regulators. The best results for shoot number were obtained

  19. Or mutation leads to photo-oxidative stress responses in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) seedlings during de-etiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Xiao; Dong, Kang

    2013-11-01

    The Orange (Or) gene is a gene mutation that can increase carotenoid content in plant tissues normally devoid of pigments. It affects plastid division and is involved in the differentiation of proplastids or non-colored plastids into chromoplasts. In this study, the de-etiolation process of the wild type (WT) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and Or mutant seedlings was investigated. We analyzed pigment content, plastid development, transcript abundance and protein levels of genes involved in the de-etiolation process. The results showed that Or can increase the carotenoid content in green tissues, although not as effectively as in non-green tissues, and this effect might be caused by the changes in biosynthetic pathway genes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There was no significant difference in the plastid development process between the two lines. However, the increased content of antheraxanthin and anthocyanin, and higher expression levels of violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (VDE) suggested a stress situation leading to photoinhibition and enhanced photoprotection in the Or mutant. The up-regulated expression levels of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced genes, ZAT10 for salt tolerance zinc finger protein and ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE2 (APX2), suggested the existence of photo-oxidative stress in the Or mutant. In summary, abovementioned findings provide additional insight into the functions of the Or gene in different tissues and at different developmental stages.

  20. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  1. Sirococcus Shoot Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls; Kathryn Robbins

    1984-01-01

    Sirococcus shoot blight, caused by the fungus Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss, affects conifers in the Northern United States and southern Canada. The fungus infects the new shoots; diseased seedlings and saplings are especially affected. In the United States, sirococcus shoot blight has become increasingly widespread since the early 1970's. When favorable...

  2. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  3. School shootings: law enforcement and school district networking

    OpenAIRE

    Topadzhikyan, Tigran

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local School shootings have happened in the past and will happen again. The history of school shootings prompts all stakeholders to look at ways to prevent them from happening, and if they do happen, to be resilient. Change is needed in the prevention of school shootings. The case studies of Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook, E. O. Green Junior High, and Beslan school shootings reveal that the lack of information sharing and lack of communication were flaws; and the incidents might have...

  4. Transcriptomics analysis of etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in response to microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression profile of two-week-old etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings under microgravity on board space flight BRIC16 were compared with ground grown control in...

  5. Shooting mechanisms in nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, Aimée; Wiel, van der Marleen; Henselmans, Paul W.J.; Leeuwen, van Johan L.; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  6. Methionine metabolism and ethylene formation in etiolated pea stem sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, N.; Kende, H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem sections of etiolated pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) were incubated overnight on tracer amounts of L-[U- 14 C]methionine and, on the following morning, on 0.1 millimolar indoleacetic acid to induce ethylene formation. Following the overnight incubation, over 70% of the radioactivity in the soluble fraction was shown to be associated with S-methylmethionine (SMM). The specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved closely paralleled that of carbon atoms 3 and 4 of methionine extracted from the tissue and was always higher than that determined for carbon atoms 3 and 4 of extracted SMM. Overnight incubation of pea stem sections on 1 millimolar methionine enhanced indoleacetic acid-induced ethylene formation by 5 to 10%. Under the same conditions, 1 millimolar homocysteine thiolactone increased ethylene synthesis by 20 to 25%, while SMM within a concentration range of 0.1 to 10 millimolar did not influence ethylene production. When unlabeled methionine or homocysteine thiolactone was applied to stem sections which had been incubated overnight in L-[U- 14 C]methionine, the specific radioactivity of the ethylene evolved was considerably lowered. Application of unlabeled SMM reduced the specific radioactivity of ethylene only slightly

  7. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims.

  8. High Frequency Multiple Shoot Induction of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.: Shoot Tip V/S Rhizome Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nagesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. is an endangered medicinal plant with anticancer properties. The rhizome and tuberous roots of the plant have been used extensively in India in indigenous medicine. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Curculigo orchioides is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered ‘endangered’ in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. Here, we describe a successful protocol for multiple shoot induction of C. orchioides using shoot tip and rhizome disc. We find that proximal rhizome discs are optimal for high frequency shoot bud formation than shoot tip and distal rhizome disc. We observed a synergistic effect between 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and kinetin (KN (each at 1 mg/L on the regeneration of shoot buds from proximal rhizome disc than shoot tip explant. Optimum root induction was achieved on half-strength MS liquid medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to natural condition with 90% survival.

  9. Millet's Shooting Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, M.

    1988-12-01

    In this essay two paintings by the French artist Jean-Francois Millet are described. These paintings, Les Etoiles Filantes and Nuit Etoilée are particularly interesting since they demonstrate the rare artistic employment of the shooting-star image and metaphor.

  10. Distributed trouble-shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, W.M.; Bogaard, S.A.A. van den; Rasker, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    When knowledge, required for trouble-shooting at sea, can be supplied real-time but from a distance, problems, such as with the limited availability of specialists, and the high costs of maintenance, may be tackled. Unclear is, however, how this redistribution of knowledge will work in practice. We

  11. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  12. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  13. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  14. Ship and Shoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Ron Woods shared incredibly valuable insights gained during his 28 years at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) packaging Flight Crew Equipment for shuttle and ISS missions. In particular, Woods shared anecdotes and photos from various processing events. The moral of these stories and the main focus of this discussion were the additional processing efforts and effects related to a "ship-and-shoot" philosophy toward flight hardware.

  15. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  16. Effects of BAP and TIBA on Shoot Proliferation of Rosa hybrida L. cv. Full House in in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hajian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation is a proper approach to rapid and large-scale propagation of rootstocks and rose cultivars for huge demand of flower market. Proliferation rate of shoot is decreased drastically following several subcultures. Growth regulators have remarkable effects on the key phase of proliferation in micropropagation of this popular crop. In this research the effects of BAP and antiauxin of TIBA on quality and quantity of developed shoots in Rosa hybrida cv. Full House were studied. BAP and TIBA were applied at three concentrations of 0, 2.2 and 8.8 µmol in proliferation phase of micropropagation. The experiment was conducted based on factorial and completely randomized design with four replications. After two months, the percentage of proliferated explants, survived main and lateral shoot number, length of the main and lateral shoots, number of green leaves on the shoots, the average number of shoots with chlorotic and necrotic leaves, the average axillary shoot base diameter, fresh weight of shoots and number of shoots with necrotic tip were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that BAP was ineffective on the number of the main shoot green leaves and decreasing number of shoots with necrotic tip, but enhanced other traits. The concentration of 8.8 µmol of BAP had greater effect than 2.2 µmol of this growth regulator on mentioned traits. The higher concentration of TIBA resulted to more shoot with necrotic tip. This antiauxin had anegative impact on shoot fresh weight, but the other parameters were not significantly affected.

  17. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. A protochlorophyllide light-harvesting complex involved in de-etiolation of higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbothe, C.; Lebedev, N.; Reinbothe, S.

    1999-01-01

    When etiolated angiosperm seedlings break through the soil after germination, they are immediately exposed to sunlight, but at this stage they are unable to perform photosynthesis1. In the absence of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, two other porphyrin species cooperate as the basic light-harvesting structure of etiolated plants. Protochlorophyllide a and protochlorophyllide b (ref. 2) form supramolecular complexes with NADPH and two closely related NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins—PORA and PORB (ref. 3)—in the prolamellar body of etioplasts. Here we report that these light-harvesting POR–protochlorophyllide complexes, named LHPP, are essential for the establishment of the photosynthetic apparatus and also confer photoprotection on the plant. They collect sunlight for rapid chlorophyll a biosynthesis and, simultaneously, dissipate excess light energy in the bulk of non-photoreducible protochlorophyllide b. Based on this dual function, it seems that LHPP provides the link between skotomorphogenesis and photosynthesis that is required for efficient de-etiolation

  19. A School Shooting Plot Foiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, James A.; Thorp, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Dinkes, Cataldi, and Lin-Kelly (2007) claims that 78% of public schools reported one or more violent incidents during the 2005/2006 school year. School shootings are a rare but real threat on school campuses. Shootings at private schools are even less frequent with only a few recorded examples in the United States. This case study examines how a…

  20. Seasonal variation in secondary metabolites of edible shoots of Buck's beard [Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Rosaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusani, Pietro; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Zidorn, Christian; Kiss, Anna K; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Granica, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Rosaceae family. In the northern regions of Italy young shoots of A. dioicus are collected and used as vegetable. No studies on the chemical composition of young shoots of A. dioicus have been reported so far. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive chromatographic method allowing the identification and quantification of chemical compounds occurring in A. dioicus shoots harvested at different developmental stages. The results showed that shoots contain mainly polyphenols. Twenty-four compounds were detected. Caffeoylglucose derivatives were recognized as major compounds. It was also confirmed that shoots contain the cyanogenic compound prunasin at all investigated vegetation stages. It was shown that the prunasin content significantly increases during plant development, thus justifying the belief that after the development of the first green leaves, shoots should not be used for culinary purposes any longer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  2. Transcriptome analysis of Carica papaya embryogenic callus upon De-etiolated 1 (DET1 gene suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyana Jamaluddin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Papaya is considered to be one of the most nutritional fruits. It is rich in vitamins, carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrient which function as antioxidant in our body [1]. Previous studies revealed that the suppression of a negative regulator gene in photomorphogenesis, De-etiolated 1 (DET1 can improve the phytonutrient in tomato and canola without affecting the fruit quality [2,3]. This report contains the experimental data on high-throughput 3′ mRNA sequencing of transformed papaya callus upon DET1 gene suppression.

  3. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  4. Jasmonic acid protects etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana against herbivorous arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; Von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-08-02

    Seed predators can cause mass ingestion of larger seed populations. As well, herbivorous arthropods attempt to attack etiolated seedlings and chose the apical hook for ingestion, aimed at dropping the cotyledons for later consumption. Etiolated seedlings, as we show here, have established an efficient mechanism of protecting their Achilles' heel against these predators, however. Evidence is provided for a role of jasmonic acid (JA) in this largely uncharacterized plant-herbivore interaction during skotomorphogenesis and that this comprises the temporally and spatially tightly controlled synthesis of a cysteine protease inhibitors of the Kunitz family. Interestingly, the same Kunitz protease inhibitor was found to be expressed in flowers of Arabidopsis where endogenous JA levels are high for fertility. Because both the apical hook and inflorescences were preferred isopod targets in JA-deficient plants that could be rescued by exogenously administered JA, our data identify a JA-dependent mechanism of plant arthropod deterrence that is recalled in different organs and at quite different times of plant development.

  5. Phototropin 1 and dim-blue light modulate the red light de-etiolation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; M Folta, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Light signals regulate seedling morphological changes during de-etiolation through the coordinated actions of multiple light-sensing pathways. Previously we have shown that red-light-induced hypocotyl growth inhibition can be reversed by addition of dim blue light through the action of phototropin 1 (phot1). Here we further examine the fluence-rate relationships of this blue light effect in short-term (hours) and long-term (days) hypocotyl growth assays. The red stem-growth inhibition and blue promotion is a low-fluence rate response, and blue light delays or attenuates both the red light and far-red light responses. These de-etiolation responses include blue light reversal of red or far-red induced apical hook opening. This response also requires phot1. Cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) are activated by higher blue light fluence-rates and override phot1's influence on hypocotyl growth promotion. Exogenous application of auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid abolished the blue light stem growth promotion in both hypocotyl growth and hook opening. Results from the genetic tests of this blue light effect in auxin transporter mutants, as well as phytochrome kinase substrate mutants indicated that aux1 may play a role in blue light reversal of red light response. Together, the phot1-mediated adjustment of phytochrome-regulated photomorphogenic events is most robust in dim blue light conditions and is likely modulated by auxin transport through its transporters.

  6. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  7. Spatio-temporal changes in endogenous abscisic acid contents during etiolated growth and photomorphogenesis in tomato seedlings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Humplík, Jan; Turečková, Veronika; Fellner, Martin; Bergougnoux, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), č. článku e1039213. ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : arabidopsis seedlings * blue-light * phytochromes * germination * metabolism * dormancy * barley * seeds * abscisic acid * blue-light * etiolated growth * photomorphogenesis * tomato Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Pathway Analysis and Metabolites Identification by Metabolomics of Etiolation Substrate from Fresh-Cut Chinese Water Chestnut (Eleocharis tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut Chinese water chestnuts (CWC turn yellow after being peeled, reducing their shelf life and commercial value. Metabolomics, the systematic study of the full complement of small molecular metabolites, was useful for clarifying the mechanism of fresh-cut CWC etiolation and developing methods to inhibit yellowing. In this study, metabolic alterations associated with etiolation at different growth stages (0 day, 2 days, 3 days, 4 days, 5 days from fresh-cut CWC were investigated using LC–MS and analyzed by pattern recognition methods (principal component analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. The metabolic pathways of the etiolation molecules were elucidated. The main metabolic pathway appears to be the conversion of phenylalanine to p-coumaroyl-CoA, followed by conversion to naringenin chalcone, to naringenin, and naringenin then following different pathways. Firstly, it can transform into apigenin and its derivatives; secondly, it can produce eriodictyol and its derivatives; and thirdly it can produce dihydrokaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. The eriodictyol can be further transformed to luteolin, cyanidin, dihydroquercetin, dihydrotricetin, and others. This is the first reported use of metabolomics to study the metabolic pathways of the etiolation of fresh-cut CWC.

  9. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta; N. Adiputra; I P G Adiatmika

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on...

  10. Faba Bean: Transcriptome Analysis from Etiolated Seedling and Developing Seed Coat of Key Cultivars for Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins, Phytate, Raffinose Family Oligosaccharides, Vicine, and Convicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ray

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Faba bean ( L. has been little examined from a genetic or genomic perspective despite its status as an established food and forage crop with some key pharmaceutical factors such as vicine and convicine (VC, which provoke severe haemolysis in genetically susceptible humans. We developed next-generation sequencing libraries to maximize information to elucidate the VC pathway or relevant markers as well as other genes of interest for the species. One selected cultivar, A01155, lacks synthesis of the favism-provoking factors, VC, and is low in tannin, while two cultivars, SSNS-1 and CDC Fatima, are wild-type for these factors. Tissues (5- to 6-d-old root and etiolated shoot and developing seed coat were selected to maximize the utility and breadth of the gene expression profile. Approximately 1.2 × 10 expressed transcripts were sequenced and assembled into contigs. The synthetic pathways for phosphatidylinositol or phytate, the raffinose family oligosaccharides, and proanthocyanidin were examined and found to contain nearly a full complement of the synthetic genes for these pathways. A severe deficiency in anthocyanidin reductase expression was found in the low-tannin cultivar A01155. Approximately 5300 variants, including 234 variants specific to one of the three cultivars, were identified. Differences in expression and variants potentially related to VC synthesis were analyzed using strategies exploiting differences in expression between cultivars and tissues. These sequences should be of high utility for marker-assisted selection for the key traits vicine, convicine, and proanthocyanidin, and should contribute to the scant genetic maps available for this species.

  11. Shootings Revive Debates on Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    By nearly all accounts, the staff and students at Sandy Hook Elementary School did everything right on Dec. 14--and with the security measures they took before that day--when a young man armed with powerful weapons blasted his way into the school. But the deadliest K-12 school shooting in American history, a day that President Barack Obama has…

  12. School Shootings as Organizational Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cybelle; Harding, David J.

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that rampage school shootings in American public schools can be understood as instances of organizational deviance, which occurs when events created by or in organizations do not conform to an organization's goals or expectations and produce unanticipated and harmful outcomes. Drawing on data from qualitative case studies of…

  13. School Shootings in Policy Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2006-01-01

    The three school shootings that left a principal and six students dead in less than a week have sparked a barrage of pledges from national and state political leaders to tighten campus security. School safety experts urged caution against overreacting to the horrific, but rare, incidents in rural schools in Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.…

  14. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  15. Training visual control in wheelchair basketball shooting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use

  16. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  17. Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis in lily shoot tips cryopreserved by droplet vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoot regeneration and embryogenesis were, for the first time, achieved directly in shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’ following cryopreservation by droplet-vitrification. Shoot tips (2 mm in length) including 2-3 leaf primordia were excised from 4-week-old adventitious shoots directly r...

  18. Interactions of phytochromes A, B1 and B2 in light-induced competence for adventitious shoot formation in hypocotyl of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercari, B; Bertram, L

    2004-02-01

    The interactions of phytochrome A (phyA), phytochrome B1 (phyB1) and phytochrome B2 (phyB2) in light-dependent shoot regeneration from the hypocotyl of tomato was analysed using all eight possible homozygous allelic combinations of the null mutants. The donor plants were pre-grown either in the dark or under red or far-red light for 8 days after sowing; thereafter hypocotyl segments (apical, middle and basal portions) were transferred onto hormone-free medium for culture under different light qualities. Etiolated apical segments cultured in vitro under white light showed a very high frequency of regeneration for all of the genotypes tested besides phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants. Evidence is provided of a specific interference of phyB2 with phyA-mediated HIR to far-red and blue light in etiolated explants. Pre-treatment of donor plants by growth under red light enhanced the competence of phyB1phyB2, phyAphyB1 and phyAphyB1phyB2 mutants for shoot regeneration, whereas pre-irradiation with far-red light enhanced the frequency of regeneration only in the phyAphyB1 mutant. Multiple phytochromes are involved in red light- and far-red light-dependent acquisition of competence for shoot regeneration. The position of the segments along the hypocotyl influenced the role of the various phytochromes and the interactions between them. The culture of competent hypocotyl segments under red, far-red or blue light reduced the frequency of explants forming shoots compared to those cultured under white light, with different genotypes having different response patterns.

  19. Risk factors in school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J

    2000-01-01

    Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.

  20. Soil pollution at outdoor shooting ranges: Health effects, bioavailability and best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayiga, A O; Saha, U K

    2016-09-01

    The total lead (Pb) concentrations of the surface soil, sub surface soil, vegetation and surface waters of outdoor shooting ranges are extremely high and above regulatory limits. Lead is dangerous at high concentrations and can cause a variety of serious health problems. Shooters and range workers are exposed to lead dust and can even take Pb dust home to their families while some animals around the shooting range can ingest the Pb bullets. The toxicity of Pb depends on its bioavailability which has been determined to be influenced greatly by the geochemical properties of each site. The bioavailability of Pb in shooting ranges has been found to be higher than other metal contaminated soils probably because of its very low residual Pb (soil, migration of Pb within shooting ranges and offsite has been reported in literature. Best management practices to reduce mobility of Pb in shooting ranges involve an integrated Pb management program which has been described in the paper. The adoption of the non-toxic "green bullet" which has been developed to replace Pb bullets may reduce or prevent environmental pollution at shooting ranges. However, the contaminated soil resulting from decades of operation of several shooting ranges still needs to be restored to its natural state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of the nitrate reductase transcript by cytokinin and abscisic acid in etiolated barley seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jia-ling; Enl, J.R.; Chen, Chong-maw

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of the hormonal modulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) and/or abscisic acid (ABA) on the level of NR poly(A)RNA was studied in etiolated barley seedlings using a 32 P-labelled NR cDNA as a probe. Enhancement of NR activity by 2 x 10 -5 M BA was measurable only after 60 minutes of exposure of the seedlings to light, while a significant stimulatory effect on the transcript level could by clearly detected within 15 minutes. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly(A)RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of BA applied to the seedlings. The stimulatory effects seen for BA were nullified by ABA. The counteractive effects of ABA on BA were dose-responsive, with greater inhibition at higher concentrations of ABA. Evidence suggests that the interaction of BA and ABA on NR activity is at the transcriptional level, however, is also possible that interactions occur at the postranscriptional level as well

  2. Enterobacterias como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea en la comunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Agudelo

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar, a nivel de la comunidad, los enteropatógenos bacterianos que producen diarrea en niños menores de 10 años, tomamos muestras de heces de 204 pacientes con cuadro diarreico de 1 a 7 días de evolución y de un grupo control, sin diarrea, conformado por 48 niños. Evaluamos también la recuperación de los microorganismos empleando o no medio de Cary-Blair como medio de transporte e identificamos las categorías de Escherichia coli aisladas empleando pruebas biológicas e inmunológicas. Se destacaron como agentes etiológicos de la diarrea E. coli (58,8%, E. coli enterotoxigénica, productora de toxina labil (ECET-TL (5,1%, Salmonella enteritidis (6,9% y Shigella sonnei (5,9%. Cuando no se usó el medio de transporte de Cary-Blair la sensibilidad en la recuperación de los microorganismos fue del 37%. Se destaca la importancia de determinar la frecuencia real de las categorías de E. coli en nuestro medio.

  3. Small heat shock protein message in etiolated Pea seedlings under altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaiev, O.

    Plants are subjected to various environmental changes during their life cycle To protect themselves against unfavorable influences plant cells synthesize several classes of small heat shock proteins sHsp ranging in size from 15 to 30 kDa This proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP-independent manner in other words they can function as molecular chaperones The potential contribution of effects of space flight at the plant cellular and gene regulation level has not been characterized yet The object of our study is sHsp gene expression in etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and environmental conditions We designed primers to detect message for two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins sHsp 17 7 and sHsp 18 1 Applying the RT- PCR we explore sHsps mRNA in pea seedling cells subjected to two types of altered gravity achieved by centrifugation from 3 to 8g by clinorotation 2 rpm and temperature elevation 42oC Temperature elevation as the positive control significantly increased PsHspl7 7 PsHspl8 1 expression We investigate the expression of actin it was constant and comparable for unstressed controls for all variants Results are under discussion

  4. Mechanism of blue-light-induced plasma-membrane depolarization in etiolated cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A large, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane precedes the rapid blue-light (BL)-induced growth suppression in etiolated seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. The mechanism of this voltage transient was investigated by applying inhibitors of ion channels and the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase, by manipulating extracellular ion concentrations, and by measuring cell input resistance and ATP levels. The depolarizing phase was not affected by Ca(2+)-channel blockers (verapamil, La3+) or by reducing extracellular free Ca2+ by treatment with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, these treatments did reduce the rate of repolarization, indicating an inward movement of Ca2+ is involved. No effects of the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA+) were detected. Vanadate and KCN, used to inhibit the H(+)-ATPase, reduced or completely inhibited the BL-induced depolarization. Levels of ATP increased by 11-26% after 1-2 min of BL. Input resistance of trichrome cells, measured with double-barreled microelectrodes, remained constant during the onset of the depolarization but decreased as the membrane voltage became more positive than -90 mV. The results indicate that the depolarization mechanism initially involves inactivation of the H(+)-ATPase with subsequent transient activation of one or more types of ion channels.

  5. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  6. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  7. [School shooting in statu nascendi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, amok-like killings and especially so-called "school shootings" have received a great deal of public attention both in the Old and the New world. Meanwhile, criminal psychological research has gained a thorough insight into this dangerous development in young people. Thus, the possibility to assess the concrete threat of such a multiple killing before it is carried out has been considerably improved, as many prognostic criteria have been worked out in the meantime. The case report presented shows that it is possible to exercise a favourable influence on this critical negative trend.

  8. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  9. Influence of UV-A or UV-B light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in etiolated tomato cotyledons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migge, A.; Carrayol, E.; Hirel, B.; Lohmann, M.; Meya, G.; Becker, T.W.

    1998-01-01

    The influence of ultraviolet A (UV-A) or B (UV-B) light and of the nitrogen source on the induction of ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase (Fd-GOGAT, EC 1.4.7.1) was examined in etiolated cotyledons of tomato (Lycopersicon escu- lentum L.). The Fd-GOGAT activity increased upon illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons with UV-A or UV-B light. This stimulation of Fd-GOGAT activity was correlated with an increase in both the Fd-GOGAT transcript level and the Fd-GOGAT protein abundance. These results suggest that UV-A or UV-B light stimulates the de novo synthesis of Fd-GOGAT in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Both UV-A and UV-B light failed to influence the activity of NADH-GOGAT (EC 1.4.1.14) in etiolated tomato cotyledons. Taken together, our data indicate that the tomato genes encoding Fd- or NADH-dependent glutamate synthase are regulated differently by UV-A or UV-B light. No difference with respect to both the Fd-GOGAT transcript and protein abundance was found between cotyledons of tomato seedlings grown with either nitrate or ammonium as the sole N-source in the dark or in white light. In addition, the increase in the Fd-GOGAT protein pool induced by white light in etiolated nitrate-grown tomato seedling cotyledons was similar to that induced by white light in etiolated ammonium-grown tomato seedling cotyledons. These results show that the tomato Fd-GOGAT protein level does not depend strongly on the nature of the nitrogen source and that there appears to be no major stimulatory effect on the Fd-GOGAT protein pool produced by nitrate during the illumination of etiolated tomato cotyledons

  10. Nature and origin of the calcium asymmetry-arising during gravitropic response in etiolated pea epicotyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Galston, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Seven day old etiolated pea epicotyls were loaded symmetrically with 3 H-indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) or 45 Ca 2+ , then subjected to 1.5 hours of 1g gravistimulation. Epidermal peels taken from top and bottom surfaces after 90 minutes showed an increase in IAA on the lower side and of Ca 2+ on the upper side. Inhibitors of IAA movement (TIBA, 9-hydroxyfluorene carboxylic acid) block the development of both IAA and Ca 2+ asymmetries, but substances known to interfere with normal Ca 2+ transport do not significantly alter either IAA or Ca 2+ asymmetries. These substances, however, are active in modifying both Ca 2+ uptake and efflux through oat and pea leaf protoplast membranes. The authors conclude that the 45 Ca 2+ fed to pea epicotyls occurs largely in the cell wall, and that auxin movement is primary and Ca 2+ movement secondary in gravitropism. They hypothesize that apoplastic Ca 2+ changes during the graviresponse because it is displaced by H + secreted through auxin-induced proton release. This proposed mechanism is supported by localized pH experiments, in which filter paper soaked in various buffers was applied to one side of a carborundum-abraded epicotyls. Buffer at pH 3 increased calcium loss from the side to which it is applied, whereas pH 7 buffer decreases it. Moreover, 10 micromolar IAA and 1 micromolar fusicoccin, which promote H + efflux, increase Ca 2+ release from pea epicotyl segments, whereas cycloheximide, which inhibits H + efflux, has the reverse effect

  11. Influence of fertilizer placements on the root and shoot growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments have been carried out to obtain data of soybean growth in relation to fertilizer placements in the soil. Treatments in these two experiments were: fertilizer (N, P, and K) placements at the soil surface, 5, 10, and 15 cm beneath the soil surface and the plants were harvested at the age of 51, 58, and 65 days after seed planting, in the first experiment, and in the second experiment plants were harvested at the age of 37, 44, and 51 days after seed planting. The parameter for root growth was the percentage of roots in soil depths at: 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm, respectively, while for shoot growth the parameters were the dry weight of the shoot, plant height, and number of flowers and pods. Data obtained from these two experiments showed that fertilizer placements at several soil depths have no influence on the growth of root and shoot. The highest shoot growth was at 0-5 cm soil depth, but this does not cause highest shoot growth. Different harvest time do not effect root growth, but it has a highly siginificant on shoot growth. The soybean plants were planted in PVC pots with a 6 kg soil capacity, and the pots were placed outside the green house. (author)

  12. Shooting mechanisms in Nature : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel, M.; Henselmans, P.W.J.; van Leeuwen, J.L.; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these

  13. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  14. thidiazuron improves adventitious bud and shoot regeneration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Induction of adventitious buds and shoots from intact leaves and stem internode segments of two recalcitrant. Ugandan sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivars was investigated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, supplemented with 3 different levels (0.5, 2.0 and 4.0 µM) of Thidiazuron (TDZ). Shoots were.

  15. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  16. Shoot organogenesis in oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil. Key words: shoot organogenesis, callus, ... saline and alkaline soils (Economou and Maloupa, 1995). Its fruits have been used as a .... cally inert compounds as reported by Kaminek (1992). Direct shoot organogenesis without ...

  17. Mass Shootings, Mental Illness, and Gun Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott-Jones, Sean

    2018-03-01

    In the wake of the Stoneman Douglas School shooting, Republican and Democratic leaders-like the American electorate they represent-remain sharply divided in their responses to gun violence. They are united in their condemnation of these mass shootings, but they disagree about whether stricter or looser gun control laws are the answer. Those on the right side of the political aisle suggest that the issue is one of mental illness rather than gun control. Conversely, those who are more liberal or progressive in their political learnings are quick to condemn attempts to reframe the issue of mass shootings as a mental health problem. Both sides are wrong. Mass shootings are indeed partially a mental health problem, albeit one poorly addressed by our current laws and policies. But the solution to mass shootings also needs to consider strategies that may reduce gun violence in general. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  18. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. REPRESSOR OF ULTRAVIOLET-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS function allows efficient phototropin mediated ultraviolet-B phototropism in etiolated seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaelewyn, Lucas; Schumacher, Paolo; Poelman, Dirk; Fankhauser, Christian; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Vandenbussche, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Ultraviolet B (UV-B) light is a part of the solar radiation which has significant effects on plant morphology, even at low doses. In Arabidopsis, many of these morphological changes have been attributed to a specific UV-B receptor, UV resistance locus 8 (UVR8). Recent findings showed that next to phototropin regulated phototropism, UVR8 mediated signaling is able of inducing directional bending towards UV-B light in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis, in a phototropin independent manner. In this study, kinetic analysis of phototropic bending was used to evaluate the relative contribution of each of these pathways in UV-B mediated phototropism. Diminishing UV-B light intensity favors the importance of phototropins. Molecular and genetic analyses suggest that UV-B is capable of inducing phototropin signaling relying on phototropin kinase activity and regulation of NPH3. Moreover, enhanced UVR8 responses in the UV-B hypersensitive rup1rup2 mutants interferes with the fast phototropin mediated phototropism. Together the data suggest that phototropins are the most important receptors for UV-B induced phototropism in etiolated seedlings, and a RUP mediated negative feedback pathway prevents UVR8 signaling to interfere with the phototropin dependent response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell fate regulation in the shoot meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, T; Mayer, K F

    1998-04-01

    The shoot meristem is a proliferative centre containing pluripotent stem cells that are the ultimate source of all cells and organs continuously added to the growing shoot. The progeny of the stem cells have two developmental options, either to renew the stem cell population or to leave the meristem and to differentiate, possibly according to signals from more mature tissue. The destiny of each cell depends on its position within the dynamic shoot meristem. Genetic data suggest a simple model in which graded positional information is provided by antagonistic gene functions and is interpreted by genes which regulate cell fate.

  1. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  2. PERBANDINGAN JUMP SHOOT DENGAN AWALAN DAN TANPA AWALAN TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KETEPATAN SHOOTING DALAM PERMAINAN BOLABASKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Agung Cahya Prananta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of  jump-shoot technique step jump shoot and still jump shoot in a game is still questionable,  because many different assumptions arise. One opinion stated that step jump shoot was more effective and the other stated that and still jump shoot was more efective. Therefore it is necessary to do research on the analysis of the results of step jump shoot and and still jump shoot to improve the accuracy of shooting in a basketball. The experimental research had been conducted on 20samples of people whowere selected randomly from the men's basketball club of the Faculty of Physical Educationand Health of Teacher Training Institute PGRI Bali. Samples were divided into two groups each  consisting of 10 people. Group I was given training step  jump shoot four sets of 10 reps  and Group II training still jump shoot four sets of 10 reps. The data before and after treatment were tested by SPSS computer program. The data were normally distributed and homogeneous so further tested using pairedt-test to compare the average values?? before and after training between each group, while the independent t-test was used to determine differences in mean values?? between the two groups. Paired t-test resulted the obtained data were significantly increased in both treatment groups p=0,001 in Group I and p=0,000 in Group II (p <0.05. Results of independent t-test found that both groups before training did not differ significantly p=0,926 (p>0.05 and after training both groups equally improve the accuracy of shooting because p=0,133 (p>0.05. It was concluded that botht raining improved the shooting accuracy and there was no difference between the effect of step jumps hoot and still jump shoot toward the shooting accuracy. It was suggested to improve the shooting accuracy in basketball used step jump shoot training and still jump shoot training four sets of 10 reps with a training frequency of 4 times a week for 6 weeks

  3. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Efimova, N.V.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Kusnetsov, V.; Litvinovskaya, R. P.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Dobrev, Petre; Vedenicheva, N.P.; Savchuk, A. L.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Kudryakova, N.V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, APR (2017), s. 32-40 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : lupinus-luteus cotyledons * arabidopsis-thaliana * de-etiolation * abscisic-acid * brassinosteroid biosynthesis * plant development * hormonal balance * mutant * expression * growth * Brassinosteroids * Cytokinin * Gene expression * Green light * Hordeum vulgare * Transcription Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  4. Benefits from additives and xylanase during enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kena; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-09-01

    Effects of additives (BSA, PEG 6000, and Tween 80) on enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo shoot and mature bamboo fractions (bamboo green, bamboo timber, bamboo yellow, bamboo node, and bamboo branches) by cellulases and/or xylanase were evaluated. The addition of additives was comparable to the increase of cellulase loadings in the conversion of cellulose and xylan in bamboo fractions. Supplementation of xylanase (1 mg/g DM) with cellulases (10 FPU/g DM) in the hydrolysis of bamboo fractions was more efficient than addition of additives in the production of glucose and xylose. Moreover, addition of additives could further increase the glucose release from different bamboo fractions by cellulases and xylanase. Bamboo green exhibited the lowest hydrolyzability. Almost all of the polysaccharides in pretreated bamboo shoot fractions were hydrolyzed by cellulases with the addition of additives or xylanase. Additives and xylanase showed great potential for reducing cellulase requirement in the hydrolysis of bamboo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  6. Mass shooting and mass media : does media coverage of mass shootings inspire copycat crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesoudi, A.

    2013-01-01

    In December 2012, twenty elementary school children and six adult staff members were shot and killed by a single individual at a school in Connecticut. Although this horrific event was met with widespread shock, Americans are sadly all too familiar with such mass shootings. From Columbine in 1999, to Virginia Tech in 2007, to the Colorado cinema shootings earlier in 2012, mass shootings seem to occur with alarming regularity. And although they appear to afflict the United States more than mos...

  7. Branch architecture in Ginkgo biloba: wood anatomy and long shoot-short shoot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Stefan A; Jacobs, Brooke; McKechnie, Steven J; Cooper, Ranessa L; Christianson, Michael L; Jernstedt, Judith A

    2013-10-01

    Ginkgo, centrally placed in seed plant phylogeny, is considered important in many phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Shoot dimorphism of Ginkgo has been long noted, but no work has yet been done to evaluate the relationships between overall branch architecture and wood ring characters, shoot growth, and environmental conditions. • Branches, sampled from similar canopy heights, were mapped with the age of each long shoot segment determined by counting annual leaf-scar series on its short shoots. Transverse sections were made for each long shoot segment and an adjacent short shoot; wood ring thickness, number of rings, and number of tracheids/ring were determined. Using branch maps, we identified wood rings for each long shoot segment to year and developmental context of each year (distal short shoot growth only vs. at least one distal long shoot). Climate data were also analyzed in conjunction with developmental context. • Significantly thicker wood rings occur in years with distal long shoot development. The likelihood that a branch produced long shoots in a given year was lower with higher maximum annual temperature. Annual maximum temperature was negatively correlated with ring thickness in microsporangiate trees only. Annual minimum temperatures were correlated differently with ring thickness of megasporangiate and microsporangiate trees, depending on the developmental context. There were no significant effects associated with precipitation. • Overall, developmental context alone predicts wood ring thickness about as well as models that include temperature. This suggests that although climatic factors may be strongly correlated with wood ring data among many gymnosperm taxa, at least for Ginkgo, correlations with climate data are primarily due to changes in proportions of shoot developmental types (LS vs. SS) across branches.

  8. Automorphosis-like growth in etiolated pea seedlings is induced by the application of chemicals affecting perception of gravistimulation and its signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Ueda, Junichi

    Both microgravity conditions in space and simulated microgravity using a 3-dimensional clinostat resulted in: (1) automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings, (2) epicotyls bending ca. 45° from the vertical line to the direction away from cotyledons, (3) inhibition of hook formation and (4) alternation of growth direction of roots. These facts indicate that the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings on earth is under the influence of gravistimulation. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, blockers of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels, induced automorphosis-like epicotyl bending. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase, also phenocopied automorphosis-like growth. On the other hand, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D and brefeldin A did not induce automorphological epicotyl bending and inhibition of hook formation, although these compounds strikingly inhibited elongation of etiolated pea epicotyls. These results strongly suggest that stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels are involved in the perception of signals of gravistimuli in plants, and they are transduced by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades by changing levels of calcium ions. Possible mechanisms to induce automorphosis-like growth in relation to gravity signals in etiolated pea seedlings are discussed.

  9. Enhanced in vitro multiple shoot induction in elite Pakistani guava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elite guava (Psidium guajava L.) strains of cv. Safeda were explored in vitro for multiple shoot induction. Shoot induction was enhanced up to 83% with 3.5 to 4.25 shoots per single node cutting and shoot tip explants, respectively, using higher levels of benzyl amino purine (BAP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium.

  10. Modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo foi construir um modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiros do sexo feminino. Participaram 1.358 adolescentes de quatro cidades. Foram avaliados os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares, insatisfação corporal, pressões midiáticas, autoestima, estado de humor, sintomas depressivos e perfeccionismo por intermédio de escalas psicométricas. Peso, estatura e dobras cutâneas foram aferidos para calcular o índice de massa corporal (IMC e o percentual de gordura (%G. O modelo de equação estrutural explanou 76% da variância dos comportamento de risco (F(9, 1.351 = 74,50; p = 0,001. Os achados indicaram que a insatisfação corporal mediou a relação entre as pressões midiáticas, autoestima, estado de humor, IMC, %G e os comportamentos de risco (F(9, 1.351 = 59,89; p = 0,001. Vale destacar que embora os sintomas depressivos não tenham se relacionado com a insatisfação corporal, o modelo indicou relação direta com os comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares (F(2, 1.356 = 23,98; p = 0,001. Concluiu-se que somente o perfeccionismo não aderiu ao modelo etiológico dos comportamentos de risco para os transtornos alimentares em adolescentes brasileiras.

  11. Shooting Mechanisms in Nature: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée Sakes

    Full Text Available In nature, shooting mechanisms are used for a variety of purposes, including prey capture, defense, and reproduction. This review offers insight into the working principles of shooting mechanisms in fungi, plants, and animals in the light of the specific functional demands that these mechanisms fulfill.We systematically searched the literature using Scopus and Web of Knowledge to retrieve articles about solid projectiles that either are produced in the body of the organism or belong to the body and undergo a ballistic phase. The shooting mechanisms were categorized based on the energy management prior to and during shooting.Shooting mechanisms were identified with projectile masses ranging from 1·10-9 mg in spores of the fungal phyla Ascomycota and Zygomycota to approximately 10,300 mg for the ballistic tongue of the toad Bufo alvarius. The energy for shooting is generated through osmosis in fungi, plants, and animals or muscle contraction in animals. Osmosis can be induced by water condensation on the system (in fungi, or water absorption in the system (reaching critical pressures up to 15.4 atmospheres; observed in fungi, plants, and animals, or water evaporation from the system (reaching up to -197 atmospheres; observed in plants and fungi. The generated energy is stored as elastic (potential energy in cell walls in fungi and plants and in elastic structures in animals, with two exceptions: (1 in the momentum catapult of Basidiomycota the energy is stored in a stalk (hilum by compression of the spore and droplets and (2 in Sphagnum energy is mainly stored in compressed air. Finally, the stored energy is transformed into kinetic energy of the projectile using a catapult mechanism delivering up to 4,137 J/kg in the osmotic shooting mechanism in cnidarians and 1,269 J/kg in the muscle-powered appendage strike of the mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus. The launch accelerations range from 6.6g in the frog Rana pipiens to 5,413,000g in

  12. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  14. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  15. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  16. Youth Responses to School Shootings: A Reviw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Áine

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories...... of recovery? RECENT FINDINGS:Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced...

  17. Primisulfuron herbicide-resistant tobacco plants: mutant selection in vitro by adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, C.T.; DiMaio, J.J.; Jayne, S.M.; Middlesteadt, L.A.; Negrotto, D.V.; Thompson-Taylor, H.; Montoya, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple procedure has been developed for the rapid and direct selection of herbicide-resistant mutant plants. The procedure uses adventitious shoot formation from suitable explants, such as leaf discs, on a shoot-inducing culture medium containing a toxic herbicide concentration. Resistant green shoots were thus isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf explants cultured on medium containing 100 μg 1−1 primisulfuron, a new sulfonylurea herbicide. Resistant shoots were recovered from both haploid and diploid explants after UV mutagenesis, as well as without mutagenic treatment. Three mutant plants of separate origin were further analyzed biochemically and genetically. Their acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) enzyme activity was less inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides than that of unselected, sensitive wild type plants. The extent of inhibition of the AHAS enzyme among the three mutants was different for different sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides suggesting different sites were affected by each mutation. Herbicide tolerance was scored for germinating seedling populations and was found to be inherited as a single dominant nuclear gene. Adventitious shoot formation from cultured leaf discs was used to determine the cross tolerance of mutant plants to various herbicidal AHAS inhibitors. The usefulness of this rapid and direct scheme for mutant selection based on adventitious shoot formation or embryogenesis is discussed. (author)

  18. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  19. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  20. Lead Pollution of Shooting Range Soils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    range. Most of the shooting range soils contained high levels of Pb in the range above 2000 mg kg–1 far exceeding the United States ... N. Sehube, R. Kelebemang, O. Totolo, M. Laetsang, O. Kamwi and P. Dinake,. 21 ..... Eng. Sci., 1999, 16,.

  1. Improving adventitious shoot regeneration from cultured leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of various concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) with or without 2.7 μM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation of two Petunia hybrida cultivars was studied. Seeds from 'Daddy Blue' and 'Dreams White' cultivars were germinated in vitro. Expanded leaves from both seedlings and ...

  2. Adventitious shoots induction and plant regeneration from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A highly efficient regeneration system is a prerequisite step for successful genetic transformation of watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus L.). The objective of this study was to establish efficient in vitro plant regeneration for three watermelon cultivars. To achieve optimal conditions for adventitious shoot induction, the ...

  3. School Shootings; Standards Kill Students and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angert, Betsy L.

    2008-01-01

    School shootings have been in the news of late. People ponder what occurs in classrooms today. Why would a young person wish to take a life? Within educational institutions, the killings are a concern. In our dire attempt to teach the children and ensure student success, it seems many of our offspring are lost. Some students feel separate from…

  4. Adolescent mass shootings: developmental considerations in light of the Sandy Hook shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Timothy R; Hoffman, Leon

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent mass shootings are a special subset of mass killings, which continue despite significant preventative public health efforts. It is often held that these individuals have few salient warning signs that could have been identified. This piece proposes that mass shootings committed by adolescent and post-adolescent young males must be understood from a developmental perspective. The hypothesis proposed in this paper is that such killings occur as the result of the adolescent's frustrated effort to progress along normative development. The goal of normative separation from maternal figures by the boy is presented as a potential risk factor when this goal is thwarted. Childhood case material from the perpetrator of a recent adolescent mass shooting, the Sandy Hook shooting, is discussed as an illustration of this hypothesis. Implications for public health measures and for individualized treatment are presented and developed.

  5. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  6. In vtro adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explant of brassica oleracea subsp. Italica and brassica oleracea subsp. capitata using tdz and naa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, S.; Rashid, A.

    2014-01-01

    Broccoli(Brassica oleracea subsp. italica) cv. Green Dragon King and cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata) cv. Gianty are important vegetable crops grown in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The cotyledons of both cultivars were used as explant source for in vitro shoot regeneration. The objective of this research was to examine the influence of the growth regulators thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious shoot formation in these cultivars. This system of adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants could be useful as a tool for genetic transformation of the subspecies. Cotyledon explants of both cultivars excised from 5-day-old in vitro germinated seedlings were placed on shoot induction medium containing basal salts of Murashige and Skoog (MS) and various concentrations of TDZ and NAA. The highest percentage of cotyledon explant of broccoli cv. Green Dragon King producing shoot (76.66%) and the highest mean number of shoots produced per explant (0.9) were obtained on 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of cotyledon explant of cabbage cv. Gianty producing shoots (86.67%) and highest number of shoots produced per explant (1.1) were recorded on 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA. Therefore, 0.1 mg/l TDZ with 0.1 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l TDZ with 0.1mg/l NAA are the recommended combinations for adventitious shoot regeneration from cotyledonary explants of broccoli cv. Dragon King and cabbage cv. Gianty respectively. (author)

  7. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  8. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  9. Effect of Blue Light on Endogenous Isopentenyladenine and Endoreduplication during Photomorphogenesis and De-Etiolation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergougnoux, Véronique; Zalabák, David; Jandová, Michaela; Novák, Ondřej; Wiese-Klinkenberg, Anika; Fellner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Light is one of the most important factor influencing plant growth and development all through their life cycle. One of the well-known light-regulated processes is de-etiolation, i.e. the switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis. The hormones cytokinins (CKs) play an important role during the establishment of photomorphogenesis as exogenous CKs induced photomorphogenesis of dark-grown seedlings. Most of the studies are conducted on the plant model Arabidopsis, but no or few information are available for important crop species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In our study, we analyzed for the first time the endogenous CKs content in tomato hypocotyls during skotomorphogenesis, photomorphogenesis and de-etiolation. For this purpose, two tomato genotypes were used: cv. Rutgers (wild-type; WT) and its corresponding mutant (7B-1) affected in its responses to blue light (BL). Using physiological and molecular approaches, we identified that the skotomorphogenesis is characterized by an endoreduplication-mediated cell expansion, which is inhibited upon BL exposure as seen by the accumulation of trancripts encoding CycD3, key regulators of the cell cycle. Our study showed for the first time that iP (isopentenyladenine) is the CK accumulated in the tomato hypocotyl upon BL exposure, suggesting its specific role in photomorphogenesis. This result was supported by physiological experiments and gene expression data. We propose a common model to explain the role and the relationship between CKs, namely iP, and endoreduplication during de-etiolation and photomorphogenesis. PMID:23049779

  10. Multiple shoot regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Induction of multiple shoots of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant in two commercial varieties (Sahel and Varamin) using shoot apex was done. Explants were isolated from 3 - 4 days old seedlings, then they were cultured on a shoot induction media, modified MS nutrient agar with combinations: 1- ...

  11. Root~Shoot Growth Interactions of Sorghmn (Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth. Studies on root-shoot intera'ctions in relation to mechanical impedance have only investigated the effect on shoots of ... growth regulators that may be responsible. Studies of root-shoot ... of germinating seeds to MI leaving roots in rela-.

  12. Sound propagation from a semi-open shooting range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Berg, F. van den

    2011-01-01

    Semi-open shooting ranges, in contrast to a fully open shooting range, are often used in the densely populated area of the Netherlands. The Ministry of Defense operates a number of these ranges. In these shooting ranges above the line of fire a number of screens are situated for safety precautions

  13. Lead pollution of shooting range soils | Sehube | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atotal of eight military shooting ranges were used for this study. Soil samples were collected at each of the eight shooting ranges at the berm, target line, 50 and 100 m from berm. In all of the shooting ranges investigated the highest total lead (Pb) concentrations were found in the bermsoils. Elevated Pb concentrations of 38 ...

  14. Effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on controlling shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot necrosis is a quite widespread disorder affecting raspberry micropropagation. This study was conducted to investigate effects of calcium gluconate and ascorbic acid on shoot necrosis and dieback of raspberry shoots during micropropagation. Nodal segments of primocane-fruiting raspberry cultivars 'Allgold', ...

  15. Shoot and root morphogenesis from Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis x urophylla plantlets were regenerated via indirect organogenesis. Histological assessment of their development focused on identifying the calli, the differentiation of shoots from the calli and the shoot-root junction from the nascent shoots. Vascular tissue formation within the callus preceded that of ...

  16. Production of polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyploids from cultured shoot tips of Eucalyptus globulus were produced by treatment with colchicine. Results showed that the combination of 0.5% colchicine and treating multiple shoot clumps for 4 days was the most appropriate conditions for E. globulus polyploidy induction and the effect of the use of multiple shoot ...

  17. Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of Jackfruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jemal

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... Protocol optimization for in vitro shoot multiplication of ... shoot length and leaf number, whereby 2 mg/L BAP alone was found to be the best with a mean shoot .... Analysis of variance showed that the interaction between.

  18. Regeneration of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L.) via apical shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abelmoschus esculentus L. Monech) via apical shoot culture system. The study of apical shoot culture system was found effective for regeneration of apical shoots. The okra (A. esculentus L. Monech) N-550 line evolved at R&D, Nirmal Seeds Pvt. Ltd., ...

  19. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  20. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  1. Propagation of pineapple by shoot tip culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almobasher, H. A. A.; Osman, M. G.; Said, A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of modifying the composition of MS medium for the clonal propagation of pineapple using shoot tips of Smooth Cayenne cultivar. Modification were made on various medium components. Results showed that both MS salts at the full or half strength were optimal, and there was on significant difference between them. Sucrose concentrations of 3% and 6% were better than other concentrations tested for growth and development of plant lets. The cultures responded positively to the increase of adenine sulfate and 80 mg/1 was the optimal. As for the additions of NAA and BA , alone or in combinations, the best results were recorded with the combination of NAA at 0.01 mg/1, and BA at 3.0 mg/1 where the largest number of shoots was obtained. Better explants performance was achieved on liquid medium with cotton support compared to solid medium. (Author)

  2. Date of shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position affect early rooting of dormant hardwood cuttings of Populus

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S., Jr. Zalesny; A.H. Wiese

    2006-01-01

    Identifying superior combinations among date of dormant- season shoot collection, genotype, and original shoot position can increase the rooting potential of Populus cuttings. Thus, the objectives of our study were to: 1) evaluate variation among clones in early rooting from hardwood cuttings processed every three weeks from shoots collected...

  3. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent dat...

  4. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  5. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  6. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock.

  7. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  8. Rampage shootings: an historical, empirical, and theoretical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocque, Michael; Duwe, Grant

    2018-02-01

    Rampage shootings is a relatively new term to describe a phenomenon that has a long history. Rampage shootings are mass shootings (generally defined as involving four or more victims), taking place in a public location, with victims chosen randomly or for symbolic purposes. These shootings are isolated events, meaning they are not connected to another criminal act (such as robbery or terrorism). Research suggests that rampage shootings are not a new phenomenon, but have occurred throughout the US since the early 1900s. There is some evidence of an increase in recent years, but definitional differences across studies and data sources make interpreting trends somewhat tenuous. Theories regarding the perpetration of rampage shootings center on masculinity, mental illness, and contagion effects. Policies aimed at preventing rampage shootings remain somewhat controversial and not well-tested in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  10. Monochromic radiation through light-emitting diode (LED positively augments in vitro shoot regeneration in Orchid (Dendrobium sonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandita Billore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monochromatic lights emitted by light-emitting diodes (LEDs have generated great interest for efficient and controlled growth in vitro, especially of plants which are endangered or require specific intensity and wavelength of light. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of monochromatic LEDs on in vitro morphogenesis: growth, proliferation of shoot cultures, and rooting of Dendrobium sonia. Different light sources viz. white LEDs (W, blue LEDs (B, yellow LEDs (Y and red LEDs (R were tested under photoperiod of 16 h of exposure and 8 h of dark. The frequency of morphogenesis depended on the wavelength of the applied monochromatic light. Higher wavelength monochromatic light (yellow light was observed to induce higher shoot proliferation (98%, early PLB (protocorm-like bodies formation, differentiation into green buds and shoot initiation as compared to red, blue and white light treatments. Yellow light also yielded higher number of shoots per explants (29 shoots/explant than red, blue and white light treatments. The results suggest that the monochromatic light sources stimulate morphogenic effects on in vitro culture of Dendrobium sonia, and that yellow light treatment can be used to enhance the efficiency of micropropagation.

  11. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  12. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  13. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  14. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  15. Perfil etiológico das meningites bacterianas em crianças Etiological profile of bacterial meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando C. Mantese

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analisar o perfil etiológico e alguns aspectos epidemiológicos das crianças com meningite bacteriana, internadas em um hospital público universitário. Métodos: foram seguidas, prospectivamente, as crianças internadas com meningite bacteriana, diagnosticada segundo os critérios clínicos e laboratoriais habituais. Foram excluídos os casos de meningite pós-trauma, de meningite na vigência de derivação liquórica, ou de defeitos congênitos do tubo neural, e de meningite tuberculosa. Resultados: foram analisadas 415 crianças internadas com diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana, no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, no período de 01/01/1987 a 31/01/2001. O agente etiológico foi identificado em 315 pacientes (75,9%, sendo de modo definitivo em 289 (69,3% e presuntivo, por intermédio da bacterioscopia, em outros 26 (6,6%. Os agentes mais comumente identificados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b (54,2%, o meningococo (20,6% e o pneumococo (18,1% dos 315 pacientes. O tratamento antimicrobiano prévio, detectado em 47,2% dos casos, causou uma diminuição significante no rendimento das culturas de sangue (de 50,8% para 38,7% e de liquor (71,7% para 57,6%. Houve um predomínio do acometimento de crianças com idade até 48 meses pelo Haemophilus influenzae b, particularmente em relação ao meningococo. A letalidade geral foi de 10,1%, com diferença significante entre a letalidade do pneumococo, de 17,5%, e a do meningococo, de 4,6%. Conclusões: as crianças afetadas por Haemophilus influenzae b e por pneumococo foram mais jovens que aquelas com meningite por meningococo. A hemocultura e a cultura de liquor continuam sendo importantes recursos laboratoriais para o diagnóstico etiológico da meningite bacteriana, apesar do impacto negativo causado em seu rendimento pelo tratamento antibiótico prévio. Os agentes mais comumente isolados foram o Haemophilus influenzae b, o meningococo e o pneumococo. A

  16. Consideration on the delay of radiocesium concentration decrease in bamboo shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    After the large releases of radionuclides due to the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011, trees in wide areas were directly contaminated. The contaminated leaves (mostly ever green trees) fell in the late spring to early summer, newly emerged leaves contained some radiocesium which were translocated from tree branches and trunks, and from soil through roots. The concentrations of radiocesium in tree leaves are decreasing due to dilution effect. However, for the case of bamboo shoots, decrease in radiocesium concentration was not observed in some areas when 2011 and 2012 samples were compared. In order to understand the fate of radiocesium in bamboos, 137 Cs concentration changes in leaves and branches from bamboos and litter layer and soil samples in a bamboo forest were measured. It was found that the concentration was higher in the following order: litter > leaves > branches > soil on 9 May 2011, however, the order changed to litter > soil >> leaves, branches on 20 October 2011. Removal of contaminated leaves from the bamboo trees and decomposition of the litter layer to soil organic matter was suggested from the results. Since the root zone of bamboo shoots was in the soil organic layer, radiocesium was taken up through roots to the shoots, and thus the concentration would be high. (author)

  17. UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biever, Jessica J.; Brinkman, Doug; Gardner, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important constituent of sunlight that determines plant morphology and growth. It induces photomorphogenic responses but also causes damage to DNA. Arabidopsis mutants of the endonucleases that function in nucleotide excision repair, xpf-3 and uvr1-1, showed hypersensitivity to UV-B (280–320nm) in terms of inhibition of hypocotyl growth. SOG1 is a transcription factor that functions in the DNA damage signalling response after γ-irradiation. xpf mutants that carry the sog1-1 mutation showed hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B irradiation similar to the wild type. A DNA replication inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU), also inhibited hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings, but xpf-3 was not hypersensitive to HU. UV-B irradiation induced accumulation of the G2/M-specific cell cycle reporter construct CYCB1;1-GUS in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings that was consistent with the expected accumulation of photodimers and coincided with the time course of hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B treatment. Etiolated mutants of UVR8, a recently described UV-B photoreceptor gene, irradiated with UV-B showed inhibition of hypocotyl growth that was not different from that of the wild type, but they lacked UV-B-specific expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), as expected from previous reports. CHS expression after UV-B irradiation was not different in xpf-3 compared with the wild type, nor was it altered after HU treatment. These results suggest that hypocotyl growth inhibition by UV-B light in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, a photomorphogenic response, is dictated by signals originating from UV-B absorption by DNA that lead to cell cycle arrest. This process occurs distinct from UVR8 and its signalling pathway responsible for CHS induction. PMID:24591052

  18. In vitro shoot multiplication of Ziziphus spina-christi by shoot tip culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... Key words: Clonal propagation, cidir, shoot tip culture, Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. INTRODUCTION. Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., locally known as cidir, is a multipurpose tree species belonging to the botanical family Rhamnaceae. It is an important cultivated tree and one of the few truly native tree ...

  19. Light Requirement for Shoot Regeneration in Horseradish Hairy Roots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, Tsutomu; Kamada, Hiroshi; Harada, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions. PMID:16669041

  20. Light requirement for shoot regeneration in horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitou, T; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-08-01

    Hairy roots of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) were induced by inoculation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harboring Ri plasmid and cultured on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium after eliminating the bacteria. Hairy roots grew vigorously and sometimes formed yellowish calli under dark conditions. On the other hand, growth of hairy roots stopped after several weeks of culture with light, then shoots were regenerated. Frequency of shoot formation from hairy roots increased as the culture period in light lengthened and the light intensity increased. The shoot regeneration was induced by treatment with white or red light, but not with far-red light. Shoot regeneration by red light was inhibited by following treatment with far-red light. Red and far-red light reversibly affected shoot regeneration. Excised roots of nontransformed plants grew quite slowly on phytohormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium and occasionally formed shoots under white light conditions.

  1. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  2. Youth Responses to School Shootings: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Áine; McDonagh, Tracey; Elklit, Ask

    2018-05-19

    This paper aims to synthesize research relating to youth responses to school shootings between 2014 and 2017. The main questions it addresses are how such events impact young people psychologically, and what risk or protective factors may contribute to different trajectories of recovery? Recent research suggests that most young people exposed to school shootings demonstrate resilience, exhibiting no long-term dysfunction. However, a minority will experience severe and chronic symptoms. The likelihood of experiencing clinically significant reactions is influenced by pre-trauma functioning as well as peri-traumatic and post-traumatic factors. These include proximity to the trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation, post-traumatic emotional regulation difficulties, social support, and flexibility of coping styles. Research that separates the distinguishing features of young people with differing recovery styles is vital to tailor intervention. But methodological and design issues associated with such research necessitates caution in drawing conclusions. Variation in definitions and measures and the self-report nature of many of the studies are potential sources of bias. Greater uniformity across designs would enhance confidence and allow for improved evidence-based intervention.

  3. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  4. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  5. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  6. Journalism and School Shootings in Finland 2007 -2008

    OpenAIRE

    Raittila, Pentti; Koljonen, Kari; Väliverronen, Jari

    2010-01-01

    Two school shootings in Finland (Jokela in 2007 and Kauhajoki in 2008) resulted in the death of 20 people, and they shook not only the foundations of Finnish society but also of the profession that reported about the tragedies. This report is based on research conducted on school shootings at the University of Tampere Journalism Research and Development Centre between 2008 and 2009. The analysis concentrates on both the journalistic texts published on the shootings and journalists' actions...

  7. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  8. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  9. Mass propagation of shoots of Stevia rebaudiana using a large scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, M; Shigeoka, T; Koizumi, Y; Kawamura, M

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for the mass propagation of multiple shoots of Stevia rebaudiana is described. Isolated shoot primordia were used as the inoculum to obtain clusters of shoot primordia. Such clusters were grown in a 500 liter bioreactor to obtain shoots. A total of 64.6 Kg of shoots were propagated from 460 g of the inoculated shoot primordia. These shoots were easily acclimatized in soil.

  10. Radiosensitivity of in vitro Cultured Banana Shoot-Tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagamawy, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinally dissected shoot apices of Grand Nain, Williams and Maghrabi banana cultivars were exposed to gamma irradiation with Cobalt 60 source at the doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60 Gy and immediately placed into proliferation medium. A number of micropropagation cycles after irradiation were necessary up to M1 V2 to M1 V4 stage to let mutated sectors developing into non-chimeric shoots. Radiosensitivity was evaluated by the rate of shoot proliferation and by the shoot fresh weight increase. Increasing gamma doses caused reduction in survival rates and average number of shoots. Grand Nain exhibited the highest multiplication- rate (3.1). The lower dose (20 Gy) enhanced shoot multiplication ratio specially in Williams and Maghrabi, which however decreased with increased doses. The doses of 20-40 Gy yielded Ld50, with sensible degree of shoot multiplication, which occurred hardly ever beyond 40 Gy. The dose of 60 Gy resulted 80% lethal shoot growth. Linear decrease in fresh weight was observed in post-irradiation recovery, notably in the Maghrabi. In contradictory vulnerable damage was observed in Williams which showed the highest fresh weight value. Shoot proliferation appeared generally on the surface of the corm. Root formation was observed without additional hormone. The roots were dark colored and was decreased with the increased of dosage

  11. Australian Mass Shootings: An Analysis of Incidents and Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara

    2017-06-01

    Mass shooting events are relatively underresearched, and most study comes from the United States. Despite significant international interest, little is known about other countries' experiences of these events. The current study examines Australian mass shooting incidents and offenders, with emphasis on mental illness, life strains, and offenders' life histories. Australia had 14 mass shootings between 1964 and 2014. Most offenders experienced acute life stressors and/or chronic strains leading up to the event; however, diagnosed mental illness was less commonly documented. These observations provide new information about mass shooting incidents and offenders, and can help to inform international policy development.

  12. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  13. SHOOT2.0: An indirect grid shooting package for optimal control problems, with switching handling and embedded continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon , Pierre; Gergaud , Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The SHOOT2.0 package implements an indirect shooting method for optimal control problems. It is specifically designed to handle control discontinuities, with an automatic switching detection that requires no assumptions concerning the number of switchings. Special care is also devoted to the computation of the Jacobian matrix of the shooting function, using the variational system instead of classical finite differences. The package also features an embedded continuation method and an automati...

  14. Analysis of sports injuries related with shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.

  15. Highly efficient in vitro adventitious shoot regeneration of Adenosma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adenosma glutinosum (Linn.) Druce is an important aromatic plant, but no information is available regarding its regeneration, callus induction and proliferation from leaf explants. In this study, an in vitro shoot regeneration procedure was developed for native A. glutinosum using leaf explants. Callus induction and shoots ...

  16. Efficient regeneration of plants from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dendrobium densiflorum Lindl. is one of the horticulturally important orchids of Nepal due to its beautiful yellowish flower and medicinal properties. The present study was carried out for plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of D. densiflorum by tissue culture technique. The shoot tip explants of this species, obtained ...

  17. Defense.gov Special Report: Fort Hood Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    identify possible insider threats, Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story Obama: Soldiers ," Army Secretary John M. McHugh told lawmakers. Story President Praises Swift Response to Fort Hood Remarks on Fort Hood Shooting at White House McHugh, Odierno Address Fort Hood Shooting Before Congress

  18. Gene expression in arabidopsis shoot tips after liquid nitrogen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana shoot tips can be successfully cryopreserved using either Plant Vitrification Solution 2 (PVS2) or Plant Vitrification Solution 3 (PVS3) as the cryoprotectant. We used this model system to identify suites of genes that were either upregulated or downregulated as shoot tips recov...

  19. An Analysis of US School Shooting Data (1840-2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradice, David

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and descriptive analysis of a data set of United States school shooting events. Three hundred forty-three shooting events are included, spanning 175 years of United States educational history. All levels of US educational institution are included. Events are included when a firearm is discharged, regardless of…

  20. How to talk (and not to talk) about school shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper-Hughes, N

    2018-01-01

    © RAI 2018 In this guest editorial, the author addresses the latest school shootings at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. This event is weighed up against reports written by prominent academics, including anthropologists, during previous school shootings.

  1. Revisiting the Virginia Tech Shootings: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Cho, Hyunkag; Lee, Alvin Shiulain

    2010-01-01

    School shooting cases since the late 1990s have prompted school officials and legislators to develop and implement programs and measures that would prevent violence in school. Despite the number of explanations by the media, politicians, organizations, and researchers about the etiology of school shootings, we are not united in our understanding…

  2. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States. PMID:28228989

  3. Shoot Differentiation in Callus Cultures of Datura Innoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1973-01-01

    promoted shoot differentiation. Gibberellic acid inhibited shoot formation weakly, but inhibited proper leaf blade formation. Root differentiation was rare. The callus cultures of Datura innoxia grew rapidly (100-fold in 4 weeks) on a slightly modified Murashige and Skoog medium (0.5 mg/l thiamin · HCl, p...

  4. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  5. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  6. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  7. Interaction of light quality and fertility on biomass, shoot pigmentation and xanthophyll cycle flux in Chinese kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsell, Dean A; Sams, Carl E; Morrow, Robert C

    2017-02-01

    Nutritionally important carotenoids in 21-day-old brassica microgreens increase following short and long-term exposure to narrow-band wavelengths from light-emitting diodes (LED). The present study aimed to measure the impact of: (1) fluorescent/incandescent light and different percentages of blue/red LED light and (2) different levels of nutrient fertility on biomass and pigment concentrations in 30-day-old 'Green Lance' Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra). Kale plants were exposed to four light treatments and two fertility levels and were harvested 30 days after seeding and analyzed for nutritionally important shoot pigments. Kale under the fluorescent/incandescent light treatment had a significantly higher shoot fresh and dry mass. The shoot tissue concentrations of most pigment were significantly higher under blue/red LED light treatments. The higher fertility level resulted in higher concentrations for most pigments. Interestingly, the pool of xanthophyll cycle pigments and de-epoxidized xanthophylls was higher under all LED treatments. The results obtained in the present study support previous data demonstrating the stimulation of nutritionally important shoot tissue pigment concentrations following exposure to sole source blue/red LEDs compared to traditional lighting. Xanthophyll cycle flux was impacted by LEDs and this may support the role of zeaxanthin in blue light perception in leafy specialty crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  9. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  10. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, J.E.; Heins, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m -2 . Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  11. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.M.; Latham, K.; Mann, D.L.; Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Myint, J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle,

  12. Diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias: uma visão crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Joaquim Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar a literatura quanto ao diagnóstico etiológico das pneumonias agudas na faixa etária pediátrica. Fonte dos dados: revisão sistemática das citações do Medline e do Lilacs. Síntese dos dados: a utilização dos novos métodos diagnósticos, particularmente as técnicas imunológicas e a reação em cadeia da polimerase, de uso ainda incipiente no Brasil, tem se mostrado importante para a investigação epidemiológica e para a melhora no diagnóstico específico em termos de sensibilidade, especificidade e rapidez de resultados, com finalidade de orientação terapêutica adequada. A revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos das pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade mostrou que o Streptococcus pneumoniae continua sendo o agente bacteriano mais importante, em todas as faixas etárias, tanto nos países desenvolvidos quanto nos em desenvolvimento. A resistência desse agente à penicilina e às cefalosporinas tem aumentado progressivamente em todos os continentes e tem-se constituído em um fator de preocupação. Os agentes de pneumonias atípicas, Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Chlamydia pneumoniae mostram-se, atualmente, como agentes importantes de pneumonias agudas adquiridas na comunidade, particularmente em crianças acima de 4 a 5 anos de idade, correspondendo, em países desenvolvidos, a cerca de até um terço dos casos. No entanto, ainda não está definida a sua importância epidemiológica nos países em desenvolvimento. O vírus respiratório sincicial é um agente freqüente de PAC, pode determinar quadros mais graves, particularmente nos lactentes e crianças menores, sendo muito importante a sua investigação em crianças hospitalizadas por doença do trato respiratório inferior. A utilização das novas vacinas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae e Haemophilus influenzae tipo b tiveram um impacto importante na morbidade e mortalidade das infecções causadas por esse agentes. Conclusões: a monitoriza

  13. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  14. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  15. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  16. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  17. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  18. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  19. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  20. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  1. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  2. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathee, Angela; Jager, Pieter de; Naidoo, Shan; Naicker, Nisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  3. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U- 14 C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U- 14 C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  4. Exposure to lead in South African shooting ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathee, Angela [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg (Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences), PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa); Jager, Pieter de [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); National Health Laboratory Service (Epidemiology and Surveillance Unit, National Institute for Occupational Health), PO Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000 (South Africa); Naidoo, Shan [University of the Witwatersrand (School of Public Health), PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Naicker, Nisha [South African Medical Research Council, Environment & Health Research Unit, PO Box 87373, Houghton 2041 (South Africa); University of the Witwatersrand, School of Public Health, PO Box Wits, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); University of Johannesburg, Environmental Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, Johannesburg 2006 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    Introduction: Lead exposure in shooting ranges has been under scrutiny for decades, but no information in this regard is available in respect of African settings, and in South Africa specifically. The aim of this study was to determine the blood lead levels in the users of randomly selected private shooting ranges in South Africa's Gauteng province. Methods: An analytical cross sectional study was conducted, with participants recruited from four randomly selected shooting ranges and three archery ranges as a comparator group. Results: A total of 118 (87 shooters and 31 archers) were included in the analysis. Shooters had significantly higher blood lead levels (BLL) compared to archers with 36/85 (42.4%) of shooters versus 2/34 (5.9%) of archers found to have a BLL ≥10 μg/dl (p<0.001). Conclusion: Shooting ranges may constitute an import site of elevated exposure to lead. Improved ventilation, low levels of awareness of lead hazards, poor housekeeping, and inadequate personal hygiene facilities and practices at South African shooting ranges need urgent attention. - Highlights: • This is the first study, to our knowledge, of lead exposure in shooting ranges in an African setting. • This study indicates highly elevated lead exposure amongst the users of certain private shooting ranges in South Africa. • Lead exposure may be a serious, yet under-studied, source of adult lead exposure in South Africa, and possibly elsewhere on the African continent.

  5. Structure–Function Relationships in Highly Modified Shoots of Cactaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAUSETH, JAMES D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. • Scope Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus ‘flower’ is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels. PMID:16820405

  6. Structure-function relationships in highly modified shoots of cactaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauseth, James D

    2006-11-01

    Cacti are extremely diverse structurally and ecologically, and so modified as to be intimidating to many biologists. Yet all have the same organization as most dicots, none differs fundamentally from Arabidopsis or other model plants. This review explains cactus shoot structure, discusses relationships between structure, ecology, development and evolution, and indicates areas where research on cacti is necessary to test general theories of morphogenesis. Cactus leaves are diverse; all cacti have foliage leaves; many intermediate stages in evolutionary reduction of leaves are still present; floral shoots often have large, complex leaves whereas vegetative shoots have microscopic leaves. Spines are modified bud scales, some secrete sugar as extra-floral nectaries. Many cacti have juvenile/adult phases in which the flowering adult phase (a cephalium) differs greatly from the juvenile; in some, one side of a shoot becomes adult, all other sides continue to grow as the juvenile phase. Flowers are inverted: the exterior of a cactus 'flower' is a hollow vegetative shoot with internodes, nodes, leaves and spines, whereas floral organs occur inside, with petals physically above stamens. Many cacti have cortical bundles vascularizing the cortex, however broad it evolves to be, thus keeping surface tissues alive. Great width results in great weight of weak parenchymatous shoots, correlated with reduced branching. Reduced numbers of shoot apices is compensated by great increases in number of meristematic cells within individual SAMs. Ribs and tubercles allow shoots to swell without tearing during wet seasons. Shoot epidermis and cortex cells live and function for decades then convert to cork cambium. Many modifications permit water storage within cactus wood itself, adjacent to vessels.

  7. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  8. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  9. Methodology of shooting training using modern IT techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudzbeler, Grzegorz; Struniawski, Jarosław

    2017-08-01

    Mastering, improvement, shaping and preservation of skills of safe, efficient and effective use of the firearm requires the use of relevant methodology of conducting the shooting training. However reality of police trainings does not usually allow for intensive training shooting with the use of ammunition. An alternative solution is the use of modern training technologies. Example of this is the "Virtual system of improvement tactics of intervention services responsible for security and shooting training." Introduction of stimulator to police trainings will enable complete stuff preparation to achieve its tasks, creating potential of knowledge and experience in many areas, far exceeding the capabilities of conventional training.

  10. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  11. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  12. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  13. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  14. Rhythmical changes of a level nitric oxide (NO in roots etiolated seedlings of pea (Pisum sativum L. and influence of exogenous calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Glyan’ko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studied time dynamics (during 60 mines a level oxide nitric (NO in cross cuts of roots 2 – day etiolated seedlings of pea sowing (Pisum sativum L. by use of fluorescent probe DAF-2DA and a fluorescent microscope depending on action exogenous calcium (Ca2+. During an exposition of seedlings on water, solution CaCl2 are shown fluctuation in level NO in roots – his increase and decrease that testifies to the certain rhythm in generation NO. Exogenous factors (Ca2+ change time dynamics of level NO in comparison with variant “water”. Ca2+chelate EGTA removes action exogenous calcium on rhythmical change of a level NO in roots. Results are discussed in aspect of close interference of signaling systems and molecules (Ca2+, NO, Н2О2.

  15. Ultraviolet radiation induces stress in etiolated Landoltia punctata, as evidenced by the presence of alanine, a universal stress signal: a ¹⁵N NMR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monselise, E B-I; Levkovitz, A; Kost, D

    2015-01-01

    Analysis with (15) N NMR revealed that alanine, a universal cellular stress signal, accumulates in etiolated duckweed plants exposed to 15-min pulsed UV light, but not in the absence of UV irradiation. The addition of 10 mm vitamin C, a radical scavenger, reduced alanine levels to zero, indicating the involvement of free radicals. Free D-alanine was detected in (15) N NMR analysis of the chiral amino acid content, using D-tartaric acid as solvent. The accumulation of D-alanine under stress conditions presents a new perspective on the biochemical processes taking place in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  17. A broncofibroscopia no diagnóstico etiológico de afecções pulmonares em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva R.M. da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o papel da broncofibroscopia no diagnóstico etiológico de pneumopatias em pacientes positivos ao vírus da imunodeficência humana. MÉTODOS: O presente estudo analisa um grupo de 49 pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, admitidos no Hospital Nereu Ramos - Florianópolis -SC. Foram selecionados pacientes sintomáticos respiratórios com lesão simples ao exame radiográfico do tórax, sem diagnóstico etiológico confirmado por exame de escarro. Tais pacientes foram submetidos à broncofibroscopia com realização de lavado broncoalveolar, escovado brônquico e biópsia pulmonar transbrônquica. As amostras foram analisados com bacterioscopia pelo Gram, pesquisa de BAAR, citomegalovírus, P. carinii e outros fungos. RESULTADOS: A broncofibroscopia foi efetiva na realização do diagnóstico etiológico em 71,43% dos casos. A biópsia pulmonar transbrônquica foi a técnica com maior positividade, firmando o diagnóstico em 59,18% dos casos. A técnica com menor positividade foi o escovado brônquico, com diagnóstico em 4,08% dos casos. O agente etiológico mais freqüente foi o P. carinii (42,8%, seguido pelo M. tuberculosis (22,86%. Nenhuma complicação foi observada nos procedimentos realizados. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos no presente estudo que neste grupo de pacientes a broncofibroscopia foi um procedimento seguro e efetivo para o diagnóstico etiológico de afecções pulmonares.

  18. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  19. Shoot multiplication of Paphiopedilum orchid through in vitro cutting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waraporn

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... regulators could remain higher shoot multiplication than in other media. The micropropagation ... stalk nodes, buds, root tips and rhizome segments. For mass ... plants, the future mass-market orchids will most likely be.

  20. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  1. 76 FR 1339 - Pine Shoot Beetle; Additions to Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5705... distorted growth in host trees. Large infestations of PSB typically kill most of the lateral shoots near the...

  2. Effect of benzylaminopurine (BAP) pulsing on in vitro shoot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... Research Cluster, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Accepted 12 ... number of bud formation in shoot cultures of Musa acuminata cv. ... In tissue culture, plant growth regulators (PGR) are.

  3. Roots & Shoots: A model for active environmental protection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar is facing severe environmental problems. One approach to engage possible future stakeholders and to raise awareness for environmental concerns is the Roots & Shoots program. On the following the program and its philosophy are presented.

  4. In vitro shoot multiplication and conservation of Caralluma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-30

    Burm. f.) Merrill. In Vitro Cell Deve. Biol. Plant. 41: 124-128. Thomas TD, Shankar S (2009). Multiple shoot induction and callus regeneration in Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight & Arnott, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Biotechnol.

  5. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  6. In-vitro morphogenesis of corn (Zea mays L.) : I. Differentiation of multiple shoot clumps and somatic embryos from shoot tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, H; Srinivasan, C; Sticklen, M B

    1992-07-01

    In-vitro methods have been developed to regenerate clumps of multiple shoots and somatic embryos at high frequency from shoot tips of aseptically-grown seedlings as well as from shoot apices of precociously-germinated immature zygotic embryos of corn (Zea mays L.). About 500 shoots were produced from a shoot tip after eight weeks of culture (primary culture and one subculture of four weeks) in darkness on Murashige and Skoog basal medium (MS) supplemented with 500 mg/L casein hydrolysate (CH) and 9 μM N(6)-benzyladenine (BA). In this medium, shoots formed in shoot tips as tightly packed "multiple shoot clumps" (MSC), which were composed of some axillary shoots and many adventitious shoots. When the shoot tips were cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 9 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), most of the shoots in the clumps were adventitious in origin. Similar shoot tips cultured on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH, 4.5 μM BA and 2.25 μM 2,4-D regenerated many somatic embryos within eight weeks of culture. Somatic embryos were produced either directly from the shoot apical meristems or from calli derived from the shoots apices. Both the MSC and the embryos produced normal shoots on MS medium containing 2.25 μM BA and 1.8 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). These shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 3.6 μM IBA, and fertile corn plants were grown in the greenhouse. The sweet-corn genotype, Honey N Pearl, was used for the experiments described above, but shoot-tip cultures from all of 19 other corn genotypes tested also formed MSC on MS medium containing 500 mg/L CH and 9 μM BA.

  7. DETECTING LASER SPOT IN SHOOTING SIMULATOR USING AN EMBEDDED CAMERA

    OpenAIRE

    Soetedjo, Aryuanto; Mahmudi, Ali; Ibrahim Ashari, M.; Ismail Nakhoda, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of an embedded camera system for detecting laser spot in the shooting simulator. The proposed shooting simulator uses a specific target box, where the circular pattern target is mounted. The embedded camera is installed inside the box to capture the circular pattern target and laser spot image. To localize the circular pattern automatically, two colored solid circles are painted on the target. This technique allows the simple and fast color tracking to trac...

  8. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  9. Direct shoot organogenesis of Digitalis trojana Ivan., an endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Digitalis trojana Ivan. was developed via adventitious shoot regeneration. Leaf explants were cultured on MS which were supplemented with different concentrations of NAA (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mg/ml) and BAP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mg/ml) for shoot formation.

  10. Effect of antioxidants and associate changes in antioxidant enzymes in controlling browning and necrosis of proliferating shoots of elite Jatropha curcas L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Pratibha; Toppo, Dibya D.; Gupta, Neha; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Tuli, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    A high yielding elite plant of Jatropha curcas was established under aseptic condition from field-grown nodal explants. Shoots were proliferated in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg dm -3 benzyladenine and 0.1 mg dm -3 indolebutyric acid along with 10 mg dm -3 adenine sulphate and a combination of 15 mg dm -3 each of L-glutamine and L-arginine. However, within 15-20 d of culture incubation, tissue browning/necrosis leading to poor plant regeneration in vitro was observed. A set of different antioxidants, namely, reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid, tocopherol and cysteine were used in the medium individually and in combination to solve the problem of tissue browning and necrosis. The addition of antioxidants proved beneficial for the growth of the shoots. The optimum medium comprised of 25 mg dm -3 reduced glutathione and 10 mg dm -3 ascorbic acid, where proliferating shoots having highest leaf canopy area, remained fresh, green and regenerative up to 40 d of culture incubation without any subculture. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase was higher in control shoots, indicating that tissue browning/necrosis was associated with oxidative stress which was further supported by higher contents of H 2 O 2 and phenolics in control shoots compared to the other treatments. Similarly glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and guiacol peroxidase was higher in treated shoots than control indicating that these shoots have developed antioxidant enzymatic protective system which determine the ability to survive in oxidative stress and up regulation of these enzymes would help to reduce the built up of reactive oxygen species.

  11. Effect of shading intensity on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea (Camellia sinensis L.) shoots under direct covering cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Tomohito; Horie, Hideki; Matsunaga, Akiko; Hirono, Yuhei

    2018-05-02

    Use of covering cultivation to shade tea (Camellia sinensis L.) trees to produce high-quality, high-priced green tea has recently increased in Japan. Knowledge of shading effects on morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots is important for product quality and productivity. We assessed these traits of tea shoots and their relationships under covering cultivation of various radiation intensities. Leaf thickness, LMA (leaf mass per area), and leaf density of new tea leaves were smaller under covering culture than under open-field culture. SPAD values and chlorophyll contents were larger under covering culture than under open culture. The derived exponential equation for estimating chlorophyll contents from SPAD values was improved by considering leaf thickness. Covering culture decreased EC (epicatechin) and EGC (epigallocatechin) contents, and increased theanine and caffeine contents. Principal component analysis on shoot and leaf traits indicated that LMA, and chlorophyll, EC, and EGC contents were strongly associated with shading effects. Morphological and color traits, and chemical components of new tea shoots and leaves varied depending on radiation intensity, shoot growth, and cropping season. These findings are useful for covering cultivation with high quality and high productivity in tea gardens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  13. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  14. In vitro regeneration of Salix nigra from adventitious shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Satu; Lima, Amparo; Merkle, Scott A

    2006-07-01

    Black willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is the largest and only commercially important willow species in North America. It is a candidate for phytoremediation of polluted soils because it is fast-growing and thrives on floodplains throughout eastern USA. Our objective was to develop a protocol for the in vitro regeneration of black willow plants that could serve as target material for gene transformation. Unexpanded inflorescence explants were excised from dormant buds collected from three source trees and cultured on woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with one of: (1) 0.1 mg l(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ); (2) 0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzoaminopurine (BAP); or (3) 1 mg l(-1) BAP. All plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments induced direct adventitious bud formation from the genotypes. The percentage of explants producing buds ranged from 20 to 92%, depending on genotype and treatment. Although most of the TDZ-treated inflorescences produced buds, these buds failed to elongate into shoots. Buds on explants treated with BAP elongated into shoots that were easily rooted in vitro and further established in potting mix in high humidity. The PGR treatments significantly affected shoot regeneration frequency (P < 0.01). The highest shoot regeneration frequency (36%) was achieved with Genotype 3 cultured on 0.5 mg l(-1) BAP. Mean number of shoots per explant varied from one to five. The ability of black willow inflorescences to produce adventitious shoots makes them potential targets for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with heavy-metal-resistant genes for phytoremediation.

  15. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  16. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots.

  17. Phytomass production and nutrient accumulation by green manure species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Soares Mangaravite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is recognized as a viable alternative to improve nutrient cycling in soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation in shoots of the summer green manures jack bean [Canavalia ensiformis (L. DC.], dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajanvar var. Flavus DC., dwarf mucuna [Mucuna deeringiana (Bort Merr] and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., under nitrogen fertilization and/or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria. A split plot design was arranged with the four Fabaceae species as main plots and nitrogen fertilization (with and without and inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria (with and without as the subplots, in a 2² factorial. The experiment was arranged as a randomized complete block design with four replications. In the conditions of this trial, the sunn hemp had the highest production of shoot phytomass (12.4 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation, while the dwarf mucuna had the lowest production of shoot phytomass (3.9 Mg ha-1 and nutrient accumulation. The results showed no effect of nitrogen fertilization or inoculation with N-fixing bacteria on the production of shoot phytomass and nutrient accumulation, except for inoculation without nitrogen fertilization, resulting in greater P accumulation (p <0.05 in the sunn hemp and greater Zn and Mn accumulation in the dwarf mucuna. These findings indicate that N fertilization or inoculation with N2-fixing bacteria for Fabaceae are low efficiency practices in the edaphoclimatic conditions of this study.

  18. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  19. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  20. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  1. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  2. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  3. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  4. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  5. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  6. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  7. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  8. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  9. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  10. Características clínicas y diagnóstico etiológico de las uveítis virales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianne Mayuli Suñet Álvarez

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de las uveítis virales según su etiología. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo transversal, que determinó el diagnóstico clínico y etiológico, según la reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR de 10 ojos de pacientes atendidos en la consulta de uveítis, en el Instituto Cubano de Oftalmología «Ramón Pando Ferrer», de mayo a noviembre del 2010. Se utilizó una muestra de fluidos intraoculares tomada a los pacientes. Las variables analizadas fueron: edad, sexo, color de piel, antecedentes personales generales u oculares, clasificación anatómica y patológica de la uveítis, curso evolutivo, bilateralidad, agudeza visual y presión intraocular iniciales y finales respectivamente, hallazgos al fondo de ojo y resultados de la PCR. La información fue procesada y los resultados expuestos en tablas. Resultados: la edad promedio de los pacientes estudiados fue de 34,5 años, que presentaron en su mayoría episodios de uveítis anteriores unilaterales. La agudeza visual mejor corregida final mejoró con respecto a la inicial en el grupo de estudio, aunque la presión intraocular se mantuvo elevada sin lograr controlarla. El virus más hallado fue el Herpes simple. Conclusiones: los virus son responsables de producir inflamaciones oculares de presentación variada, lo que en ocasiones retrasa el diagnóstico, empeorando el pronóstico visual. En estos casos el método de PCR ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para establecer el diagnóstico etiológico.

  11. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  12. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  13. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting with Vision Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter M; Latham, Keziah; Mann, David L; Ravensbergen, Rianne H J C; Myint, Joy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment (VI) that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI) shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without VI took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, toward a regulation target placed at the end of a 10 m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of VI. Visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual's average score in every level of simulated VI and normalizing this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving 'expected' or 'below expected' shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR) is conservative, maximizing the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not actually have an impairment that impacts performance in the sport. An

  14. The Level of Vision Necessary for Competitive Performance in Rifle Shooting: Setting the Standards for Paralympic Shooting With Vision Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Allen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the level of vision impairment that would reduce performance in shooting; to guide development of entry criteria to visually impaired (VI shooting. Nineteen international-level shooters without vision impairment took part in the study. Participants shot an air rifle, while standing, towards a regulation target placed at the end of a 10m shooting range. Cambridge simulation glasses were used to simulate six different levels of vision impairment. Visual acuity (VA and contrast sensitivity (CS were assessed along with shooting performance in each of seven conditions of simulated impairment and compared to that with habitual vision. Shooting performance was evaluated by calculating each individual’s average score in every level of simulated vision impairment and normalising this score by expressing it as a percentage of the baseline performance achieved with habitual vision. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of different VA and CS cut-off criteria to appropriately classify these athletes as achieving ‘expected’ or ‘below expected’ shooting results based on their performance with different levels of VA and CS. Shooting performance remained relatively unaffected by mild decreases in VA and CS, but quickly deteriorated with more moderate losses. The ability of visual function measurements to classify shooting performance was good, with 78% of performances appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.53 logMAR and 74% appropriately classified using a cut-off of 0.83 logCS. The current inclusion criteria for VI shooting (1.0 logMAR is conservative, maximising the chance of including only those with an impairment that does impact performance, but potentially excluding some who do have a genuine impairment in the sport. A lower level of impairment would include more athletes who do have a genuine impairment but would potentially include those who do not

  15. Micropropagation of Vaccinium sp. by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The Vaccinium genus contains several valuable fruit and ornamental species, among others: highbush blueberry (Vaccinium × corymbosum L.), cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.). In some most popular and valuable cultivars, the conventional propagation methods, exploiting hard or soft wood cuttings, are inefficient. The demand for nursery plants could be fulfilled only by micropropagation. In principle cultivars are propagated in vitro through similar three-stage method, based on subculture of shoot explants on different culture media supplemented with IAA (0-4 mg/L) and 2iP (5-10 mg/L), and rooting shoots in vivo. The obtained plantlets are transferred to peat substrate and grown in the glasshouse until the end of growing period. The development of adventitious shoots should be monitored and controlled during in vitro stages. Many clones have specific requirements for growing conditions and/or are recalcitrant.

  16. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Handgun Acquisitions in California After Two Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, David M; Zhang, Yifan; Rodden, Jonathan A; Hyndman, Rob J; Wintemute, Garen J

    2017-05-16

    Mass shootings are common in the United States. They are the most visible form of firearm violence. Their effect on personal decisions to purchase firearms is not well-understood. To determine changes in handgun acquisition patterns after the mass shootings in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 and San Bernardino, California, in 2015. Time-series analysis using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving-average (SARIMA) models. California. Adults who acquired handguns between 2007 and 2016. Excess handgun acquisitions (defined as the difference between actual and expected acquisitions) in the 6-week and 12-week periods after each shooting, overall and within subgroups of acquirers. In the 6 weeks after the Newtown and San Bernardino shootings, there were 25 705 (95% prediction interval, 17 411 to 32 788) and 27 413 (prediction interval, 15 188 to 37 734) excess acquisitions, respectively, representing increases of 53% (95% CI, 30% to 80%) and 41% (CI, 19% to 68%) over expected volume. Large increases in acquisitions occurred among white and Hispanic persons, but not among black persons, and among persons with no record of having previously acquired a handgun. After the San Bernardino shootings, acquisition rates increased by 85% among residents of that city and adjacent neighborhoods, compared with 35% elsewhere in California. The data relate to handguns in 1 state. The statistical analysis cannot establish causality. Large increases in handgun acquisitions occurred after these 2 mass shootings. The spikes were short-lived and accounted for less than 10% of annual handgun acquisitions statewide. Further research should examine whether repeated shocks of this kind lead to substantial increases in the prevalence of firearm ownership. None.

  18. In vitro binding of germanium to proteins of rice shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideaki; Takahashi, Eiichi

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of in vitro binding between proteins of rice shoots and germanium (Ge) was investigated. The proteins in mixtures of aqueous extracts of rice shoots and radioactive germanium ( 68 GeO 2 ) were fractionated. The binding of radioactivity to the proteins was observed even after 5 successive fractionation steps from the original mixtures. At the final fractionation step using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, a constant proportionality between protein concentration and associated radioactivity was found in most samples although not all. These results indicate that the binding of 68 Ge to proteins is not due to the simple adsorption by proteins. (auth.)

  19. School shootings during 2013-2015 in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Lagast, Kinan; Villarreal, Marcos; Pino, Elizabeth; Fagan, Jeffrey; Galea, Sandro

    2017-10-01

    Data on the factors associated with school shootings in the USA are limited. The public conversation has often suggested several factors that may be linked to these events, however with little empirical support. Aiming to fill this gap, we describe the characteristics of school shooting incidents in the USA between 2013 and 2015 and explore whether four factors that represent domains of firearm policy, educational policy and epidemiological risk factors for intentional firearm injuries-background check (BC) policies, per capita mental health expenditures (MHE), K-12 education expenditure (KEE) and urbanicity-were associated with school shootings during this period. We searched LexisNexis, a newspaper and broadcast media databases for school shooting incidents from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Presence of BC laws was extracted from legal information in LexisNexis. State-level covariates of per capita MHE (2013), KEE (2013) and urbanicity (2010) rates were obtained from publicly available data sources. We used negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering by state to explore unadjusted associations between the BC laws, state-level covariates and school shootings to report IRR and 95% CI. We documented 154 school shootings (35, 55 and 64 each year). In unadjusted models, BC for firearm purchase (IRR=0.55, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.76), ammunition purchase (IRR=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.27), log per capita MHE (IRR=0.58, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.90), log per-capita KEE (IRR=0.09, 9% CI 0.02 to 0.29) and urbanicity (IRR=0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with school shooting. School shootings are less likely in states with BC laws, higher MHE and KEE, and with greater per cent urban population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Characterization of a rapid, blue light-mediated change in detectable phosphorylation of a plasma membrane protein from etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, T.W.; Briggs, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    When crude microsomal membranes from apical stem segments of etiolated Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska are mixed in vitro with γ-[ 32 P]ATP, a phosphorylated band of apparent molecular mass 120 kilodaltons can be detected on autoradiographs of sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis gels. If the stem sections are exposed to blue light immediately prior to membrane isolation, this band is not evident. Comparisons of the kinetics, tissue distribution, and dark recovery of the phosphorylation response with those published for blue light mediated phototropism or rapid growth inhibition indicate that the phosphorylation could be linked to one or both of the reactions described. However, the fluence-response relationships for the change in detectable phosphorylation match quite closely those reported for phototropism but not those for growth inhibition. Blue light has also been found to regulate the capacity for in vitro phosphorylation of a second protein. It has an apparent molecular mass of 84 kilodaltons and is localized primarily in basal stem sections

  1. PEMBELAJARAN LAY UP SHOOT MENGGUNAKAN MEDIA AUDIO VISUAL BASIC LAY UP SHOOT UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASILBELAJAR LAY UP SHOOT PADA SISWA KELAS VIIIA SMP KANISIUS PATI TAHUN 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frendy Nurochwan Febryanto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the learning lay up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve learning outcomes shoot lay ups in class VIIIA Starch Canisius junior year 2013/2014 . This study uses Classroom Action Research ( CAR. The technique of collecting data through observation and assessment of learning outcomes shoot basketball lay up. Data analysis techniques used in this research is descriptive . At the end of the first cycle activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 76.19%, whereas at the end of the first cycle of student activity during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visualmediareaches78.57%. At the end of the second cycle of activity of teachers in teaching basic techniques lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 85.71%, whereas at the end of the second cycle of activity of students during the learning process lay up shoot using audio-visual media reaches 92.86%. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that learning the lay-up shoot using basic audiovisual media shoot lay ups can improve student learning outcomes at Canisius junior class VIIIA Pati year 2013/2014.

  2. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  3. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  4. Similarities of School Shootings in Rural and Small Town Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Scott T.; Meyer, Cheryl L.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined characteristics common among young offenders from rural communities who were involved in multiple-fatality school shootings. Data on six cases involving eight offenders revealed six common offender characteristics: verbal threats, peer rejection, interest in violent media, previous violent behavior, suicidal ideation, and violent…

  5. High efficiency indirect shoot regeneration and hypericin content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... opium poppy. Support of hormone-free medium on shoot regeneration from callus has also been underlined for sugarbeet (Doley and Saunders, 1989). In our study, obtained regenerants acclimatized readily, alived (94%) and are still continuing to grow in the greenhouse of our department. Cell or callus ...

  6. The Role of Leadership in Surviving a School Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carleton H.

    2018-01-01

    At a small rural middle school in the southern United States, two students murdered a teacher, four students, and injured 10 during a shooting spree. This case represents the lived experiences of a school principal, counselor, and community that survived the deadly rampage. The case highlights the challenges that school leaders may face such as…

  7. High frequency plant regeneration from shoot tip explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... 16/8-h (light/dark) photoperiod provided by cool white fluorescent light. Multiple .... formation from shoot tip explant of C. colocynthis on MS-medium. S. No. .... micropropagation of Musa sapientum L. (Cavendish Dwarf). Afr. J.

  8. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Oravec, Michal; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6829 (2014), s. 1-7 ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shoot and roots * autotrophic and heterotrophic organs * environmental change * growth metabolism * water and nutirens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  9. Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot and root biomass allocation and competitive hierarchies of four South African grass species on light, soil resources and cutting gradients. ... Aristida junciformis, produced nearly double the biomass of taller species such as Hyparrhenia hirta and Eragrostis curvula in the low-nutrient treatments, with the reverse being ...

  10. Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis of Cleome viscosa (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBA

    2014-02-26

    Feb 26, 2014 ... J. Vijayakumar1*, G. Shobana Rathi1, S. M. Bhuvaneshwari1, B. D. ... propagation through callus culture of C. viscosa (Anburaj et al., 2011a,b), micropropagation and shoot organo- genesis from different explants of Cleome spinosa .... Figure 1. Effect of MS basal medium strength (a) and and GA, (b).

  11. Immobilization of lead in shooting range soil using biochar from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pyrolyzed at 450°C for 2 hours and characterized using elemental analyzer and Boehm titration. Shooting range soil was incubated with 2.5% w/w and 5.0% w/w of SMSB for four weeks and the soil were characterized on the elemental composition, pH, electric conductivity (EC) and ...

  12. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  13. Genetic relationship between plant growth, shoot and kernel sizes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) ear vascular tissue transports nutrients that contribute to grain yield. To assess kernel heritabilities that govern ear development and plant growth, field studies were conducted to determine the combining abilities of parents that differed for kernel-size, grain-filling rates and shoot-size. Thirty two hybrids ...

  14. Status of cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (17), pp. 2054-2061, 5 September 2007. Available online at ... Plant Pathology Division, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, P.M.B. 5244, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Accepted 9 August, 2007 ... economic importance of the disease in Nigeria. Key words: Cocoa, cocoa swollen shoot ...

  15. School Violence: Reported School Shootings and Making Schools Safer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplechain, Rosalind; Morris, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript consists of three sections. Section one provides historical data on some 310 documented shootings that have taken place on school property within the United States. Section two discusses numerous risk factors associated with school shooters. Section three discusses numerous strategies for creating safe schools.

  16. Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Mapping of shoot fly tolerance loci in sorghum using SSR markers. D. B. Apotikar, D. Venkateswarlu, R. B. Ghorade, R. M. Wadaskar, J. V. Patil and P. L. Kulwal. J. Genet. 90, 59–66. Table 1. List of SSR primers for sorghum. Primer code. Forward and reverse. Annealing temperature (°C). Product.

  17. Creating aesthetic, institutional and symbolic boundaries in fashion photo shoots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, E.; Kuipers, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a ‘bottom-up’, micro-sociological analysis of cultural production. Drawing on detailed observations of fashion photo shoots and interviews with fashion professionals in the Netherlands, we analyse how the division between ‘high’ (editorial) and ‘low’ (commercial) culture is

  18. The Oregon Shootings: Dealing with the Ethical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Saylor; Godbold, Jim; Carter, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Presents three short articles dealing with ethical issues facing the Thornton High School (Oregon) newspaper staff as they dealt with the aftermath of an incident in which an armed student allegedly entered the school cafeteria and began shooting. Discusses how the local newspaper covered the tragedy, and policies on dealing with reporting of…

  19. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-10

    Aug 10, 2011 ... 2Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli – 620 002, South India. Accepted 28 March, 2011 .... Effect of cytokinins (KN and BAP) alone or in combination with NAA on direct shoot bud regeneration from leaf explants of P. barbatus. Plant growth regulator ...

  20. Cocoa swollen shoot virus in Ghana: A review of diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick and more reliable diagnostic method has for a long time been identified as one input that will greatly enhance the control of the cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Many diagnostic procedures have been developed for detecting the virus that causes the disease; yet, the detection of latent infections is still ...

  1. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  2. Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... tems have been used for improvement of sunflower, but these techniques are mainly limited by the tissue culture response of commercial varieties (Nestares et al., 2002). In sunflower, reports on shoot regeneration from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves and meristematic tissues of young plantlets are available ...

  3. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of the valuable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to develop an efficient protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration for Plectranthus barbatus Andrews using leaf explants. The explants were cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium containing various concentration of kinetin (KN), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron ...

  4. Shoot- and root-borne cytokinin influences arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Marco; Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Franken, Philipp; Schmülling, Thomas; Wurst, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is functionally important for the nutrition and growth of most terrestrial plants. Nearly all phytohormones are employed by plants to regulate the symbiosis with AM fungi, but the regulatory role of cytokinin (CK) is not well understood. Here, we used transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with a root-specific or constitutive expression of CK-degrading CKX genes and the corresponding wild-type to investigate whether a lowered content of CK in roots or in both roots and shoots influences the interaction with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Our data indicates that shoot CK has a positive impact on AM fungal development in roots and on the root transcript level of an AM-responsive phosphate transporter gene (NtPT4). A reduced CK content in roots caused shoot and root growth depression following AM colonization, while neither the uptake of phosphorus or nitrogen nor the root transcript levels of NtPT4 were significantly affected. This suggests that root CK may restrict the C availability from the roots to the fungus thus averting parasitism by AM fungi. Taken together, our study indicates that shoot- and root-borne CK have distinct roles in AM symbiosis. We propose a model illustrating how plants may employ CK to regulate nutrient exchange with the ubiquitous AM fungi.

  5. Training, Drills Pivotal in Mounting Response to Orlando Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Eric; Bullard, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Emergency providers at Orlando Regional Medical Center in Orlando. FL, faced multiple challenges in responding to the worst mass shooting in U.S. history. As the scene of the shooting was only three blocks away from the hospital, there was little time to prepare when notified that victims would begin arriving shortly after 2 a.m. on June 12. Also, fears of a gunman near the hospital briefly put the ED on lock down. However, using the incident command system, the hospital was able to mobilize quickly, receiving 44 patients, nine of whom died shortly after arrival. Administrators note that recent training exercises geared toward a mass shooting event facilitated the response and probably saved lives. Patients arrived at the hospital in two waves, with the initial surge occurring right after the hooting took place around 2 a.m., and the second surge occurring about three hours later. At one point, more than 90 patients were in the ED, more than half for reasons unrelated to the shooting. Clinicians contended with a much higher than usual noise level while treating patients, making it hard to hear reports from EMS personnel. Also, treatment had to commence prior to identification for some patients who arrived unconscious or unable to speak. While surgeons and other key specialists were called into the hospital to address identified needs, administrators actually called hospital personnel to tell them not to come in unless they were notified. This prevented added management hurdles.

  6. Lead poisoning in shooting-range workers in Gauteng Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Lead exposure constitutes a major public health concern globally. Relative to developed nations, lead exposure is understudied and poorly addressed in Africa, and there is a dearth of information available to inform lead poisoning prevention strategies, even in highrisk groups such as workers in shooting ...

  7. EPICORMIC SHOOTS INDUCTION AND ROOTING CUTTINGS OF Calophyllum brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense is present in a wide natural distribution range in Brazil and its monopodial growth, with a rectilinear stem and a moderately dense timber has attracted the attention from the logging industry in recent decades. In the meantime, the lack of efficient rescue and vegetative propagation methods of adult plants has been a narrowing condition for the selection of superior genotypes in breeding programs of the species. Therefore, we evaluate epicormic shoots induction methods and the rooting cuttings of 14 year-old Calophyllum brasiliense trees. From this scope, three methods of epicormic shoots induction were evaluated: coppicing, girdling and partial girdling. We evaluate the number of produced sprouts and the percentage of sprouted trees at 06, 12 and 15 months’ after the experiment installation. Results have indicated the feasibility of Calophyllum brasiliense vegetative rescue by cuttings method using epicormic shoots induced by coppicing and girdling. In contrast, partial girdling was not effective in epicormic shoots emission. Concerning adventitious roots, the sprouting technique had no influence in the rooting of cuttings, showing variation among the different stock plants.

  8. Plant regeneration through organogenesis and shoot proliferation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Effect of 2,4-D, NAA and BA (in MS medium) on Trichodesma indicum callus induction and shoot .... Structure/activity relationships of the fenotoxic potentcies of sixteen pyrrolizidine ... In vitro propagation of Cordia verbe- ...

  9. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  10. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Trujillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

  11. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The

  12. Characterization of somatic embryogenesis initiated from the Arabidopsis shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Kaoru; Tarr, Paul; Suzuki, Takamasa; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2018-04-28

    Somatic embryogenesis is one of the best examples of the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, in which committed somatic cells can dedifferentiate and acquire the ability to form an embryo and regenerate an entire plant. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the shoot apices of young seedlings have been reported as an alternative tissue source for somatic embryos (SEs) besides the widely studied zygotic embryos taken from siliques. Although SE induction from shoots demonstrates the plasticity of plants more clearly than the embryo-to-embryo induction system, the underlying developmental and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we characterized SE formation from shoot apex explants by establishing a system for time-lapse observation of explants during SE induction. We also established a method to distinguish SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants prior to anatomical SE formation, enabling us to identify distinct transcriptome profiles of these two explants at SE initiation. We show that embryonic fate commitment takes place at day 3 of SE induction and the SE arises directly, not through callus formation, from the base of leaf primordia just beside the shoot apical meristem (SAM), where auxin accumulates and shoot-root polarity is formed. The expression domain of a couple of key developmental genes for the SAM transiently expands at this stage. Our data demonstrate that SE-forming and non-SE-forming explants share mostly the same transcripts except for a limited number of embryonic genes and root genes that might trigger the SE-initiation program. Thus, SE-forming explants possess a mixed identity (SAM, root and embryo) at the time of SE specification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. GPU based numerical simulation of core shooting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-zhong Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Core shooting process is the most widely used technique to make sand cores and it plays an important role in the quality of sand cores. Although numerical simulation can hopefully optimize the core shooting process, research on numerical simulation of the core shooting process is very limited. Based on a two-fluid model (TFM and a kinetic-friction constitutive correlation, a program for 3D numerical simulation of the core shooting process has been developed and achieved good agreements with in-situ experiments. To match the needs of engineering applications, a graphics processing unit (GPU has also been used to improve the calculation efficiency. The parallel algorithm based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA platform can significantly decrease computing time by multi-threaded GPU. In this work, the program accelerated by CUDA parallelization method was developed and the accuracy of the calculations was ensured by comparing with in-situ experimental results photographed by a high-speed camera. The design and optimization of the parallel algorithm were discussed. The simulation result of a sand core test-piece indicated the improvement of the calculation efficiency by GPU. The developed program has also been validated by in-situ experiments with a transparent core-box, a high-speed camera, and a pressure measuring system. The computing time of the parallel program was reduced by nearly 95% while the simulation result was still quite consistent with experimental data. The GPU parallelization method can successfully solve the problem of low computational efficiency of the 3D sand shooting simulation program, and thus the developed GPU program is appropriate for engineering applications.

  14. Proteomic analysis of tea plants (Camellia sinensis with purple young shoots during leaf development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiongqiong Zhou

    Full Text Available Tea products made from purple leaves are highly preferred by consumers due to the health benefits. This study developed a proteome reference map related to color changes during leaf growth in tea (Camellia sinensis plant with purple young shoots using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were detected in the gel and successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. The pronounced changes in the proteomic profile between tender purple leaves (TPL and mature green leaves (MGL included: 1 the lower activity of proteins associated with CO2 assimilation, energy metabolism and photo flux efficiency and higher content of anthocyanins in TPL than those in MGL may protect tender leaves against photo-damage; 2 the higher abundance of chalcone synthase (CHS, chalcone isomerase (CHI and flavonol synthase (FLS likely contributes to the synthesis of anthocyanins, catechins and flavonols in TPL tissues; 3 higher abundance of stress response proteins, such as glutathione S-transferases (GST and phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx, could enhance the tolerance of TPL tissues to adverse condition in; and 4 the increased abundance of proteins related to protein synthesis, nucleic acids and cell wall proteins should be beneficial for the proliferation and expansion of leaf cell in TPL tissues. qPCR analysis showed that the expression of differentially abundant proteins was regulated at the transcriptional level. Therefore, the results indicated that higher abundance of CHI and CHS may account for the production of the purple-shoot phenotype in Wuyiqizhong 18 and thereby, enhancing the anthocyanin biosynthesis. The higher abundance of glutamine synthetase (GS proteins related to the theanine biosynthesis may improve the flavor of tea products from TPL materials. Thus, this work should help to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the changes in leaf color alteration.

  15. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  16. PRODUCTION OF THE NEW ANTIMALARIAL DRUG ARTEMISININ IN SHOOT CULTURES OF ARTEMISIA-ANNUA L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOERDENBAG, HJ; LUERS, JFJ; VANUDEN, W; PRAS, N; MALINGRE, TM; ALFERMANN, AW

    From aseptically grown Artemisia annua plantlets, shoot cultures were initiated. Using different concentrations of auxine, cytokinine and sucrose, a suitable culture medium was developed, with respect to the growth of the shoots and their artemisinin accumulation. Nitrate concentration and

  17. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palama, Tony L; Menard, Patrice; Fock, Isabelle; Choi, Young H; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Bahut, Muriel; Payet, Bertrand; Verpoorte, Robert; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-05-05

    Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM) containing TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS) arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg l(-1)). These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) and TDZ (0.3 mg l(-1)) during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l(-1)). By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS) analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P tissue culture, phenolic compounds such

  18. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Beland; Dongwoo Kim

    2015-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools’ test scores, enrollment, and number of teachers, as well as graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences strategy that uses other high schools in the same district as the comparison group. Our findings suggest that homicidal shootings s...

  19. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  20. Space-time analysis of gravitropism in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls using bioluminescence imaging of the IAA19 promoter fusion with a destabilized luciferase reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Matsuzaki, Jun; Satoh, Soichirou; Shimizu, Hisayo

    2017-07-01

    Imaging analysis was carried out during the gravitropic response of etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls, using an IAA19 promoter fusion of destabilized luciferase as a probe. From the bright-field images we obtained the local deflection angle to the vertical, A, local curvature, C, and the partial derivative of C with respect to time, [Formula: see text]. These were determined every 19.9 µm along the curvilinear length of the hypocotyl, at ~10 min intervals over a period of ~6 h after turning hypocotyls through 90° to the horizontal. Similarly from the luminescence images we measured the luminescence intensity of the convex and concave flanks of the hypocotyl as well as along the median of the hypocotyl, to determine differential expression of auxin-inducible IAA19. Comparison of these parameters as a function of time and curvilinear length shows that the gravitropic response is composed of three successive elements: the first and second curving responses and a decurving response (autostraightening). The maximum of the first curving response occurs when A is 76° along the entire length of the hypocotyl, suggesting that A is the sole determinant in this response; in contrast, the decurving response is a function of both A and C, as predicted by the newly-proposed graviproprioception model (Bastien et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:755-760, 2013). Further, differential expression of IAA19, with higher expression in the convex flank, is observed at A = 44°, and follows the Sachs' sine law. This also suggests that IAA19 is not involved in the first curving response. In summary, the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis hypocotyls consists of multiple elements that are each determined by separate principles.

  1. Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylin Pérez Bernal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, containing the hygromycin-phosphotransferase gene as selection marker. After two weeks on selection medium, hygromycin-resistant calli were transferred to regeneration medium. Regenerated shoots were extracted every 5 days (over a 30-day period and classified into three classes according to their morphological structure: class I: vigorous shoot having typical bipolar structure; class II: shoot having small root compared to apical length, or shoot without roots; class III: shoots having an abnormal appearance, such as malformed leaves or albinism. Individualised shoots were transferred to MS medium containing hygromycin for evaluating their resistance to antibiotics. A relationship was observed between regenerated shoots’ morphological characteristics and the percentage of shoots’ viability on hygromycin. Class I prevailed at early shoot extraction and was the most resistant to hygromycin. Drastic class I reduction was found with later shoot extraction, whilst classes II and III became increased. Likewise, shoot viability became radically reduced on MS medium containing hygromycin. This result might be applied for improving efficiency regarding obtaining transgenic rice plants, taking into account the best time for obtaining high percentages of hygromycin-resistant shoots having the best morphological characteristics.

  2. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  3. A Case Study of Two Chicago Suburban High Schools: Practices to Avoid a School Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Kevin G.

    2017-01-01

    Throughout 2015, there have been 52 school shootings within the United States that have left 30 individuals dead and another 53 injured (Reuters-USA, 2015). Since Friday, December 14, 2012, the date of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, in which 26 people lost their lives, there has been on average one school shooting per week. It is…

  4. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  5. Plantlets from encapsulated shoot buds of Catalpa ovata G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot buds isolated from in vitro shoot cultures of Catalpa ovata G. Don were encapsulated using 3% sodium alginate with sucrose (3% and 50 mM calcium chloride. The morphogenic response of encapsulated buds was affected by such factors, like composition of the media and the presence of growth regulators. The highest frequency of plantlet germination from encapsulated buds (70% within 4 weeks was obtained on Woody Plant medium (WP (Lloyd and McCown 1980 containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA (1 mg/l. The process was substantially inhibited by cold-storage (4oC of encapsulated buds. In this case, the frequency response ranged from 3% to 22% dependent on storage period (28 or 42 days and the presence of the paraffin coat covering the alginate capsules. The plantlets developed from both unstored and stored encapsulated buds of C. ovata were transplanted to soil and grew in pots to phenotypically normal plants.

  6. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  7. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  8. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  9. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  10. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  11. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  12. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  13. Effect of multiple subcultures on Musa shoots derived from cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot tip explants excised from in vitro plantlets of two Musa genotypes (TM3X 15108-6 and TMBX 612-74) were seeded singly into test tubes containing twenty milliliters each of Musa multiplication medium gelled differently in 60 and 70 gL-l cassava starch as well as 5 gL-l agar and placed on shelves under 14 h photo ...

  14. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Dynamic Simulated Shooting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    differences between tasks. All pairwise comparisons were adjusted with a Sidak correction for multiple comparisons. TLX scores 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35...research at multiple sites. Specific to the question of MTBI-related balance, we recommend that future studies seek, when feasible, to quantify body sway...higher ratings of perceived workload. In addition, the alternate analyses yielded some preliminary evidence of shooting performance decrements

  15. Cytokinin Activity in Water-stressed Shoots 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Chanan; Vaadia, Yoash

    1971-01-01

    Water stress applied to the plant shoot through enhanced evaporative demands reduced cytokinin activity in extracts of xylem exudate and leaves. This reduction resembled the changes in cytokinin activity caused by water stress applied to the root. Cytokinin activity in detached wilting leaves decreased rapidly. Recovery took place after several hours in a humid chamber. Experiments with 14C-kinetin indicated that the mechanism of the inactivation and its reversal involve a chemical transformation of the cytokinin molecule. PMID:16657585

  16. School Shooting : Threat Detection and Classification in Textual Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ajmal

    2013-01-01

    The continual occurrence of school shooting incidents underscores the need of taking preventive measures. Inductive measures of threat assessment have proved to be a bad strategy to solve the problem and new research is focusing on deductive approaches. Deductive threat assessment approaches are gaining ground and efforts are underway to mine text for automatic detection of threats in written text. Automatic detection and classification of threats in the digital world can help the decision ma...

  17. Micropropagation of chokeberry by in vitro axillary shoot proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwińczuk, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The black chokeberry-aronia (Aronia melanocarpa Elliot) is a shrub native to North America although nowadays well known in Eastern Europe. The fruits are regarded as the richest source of antioxidant phytonutrients among fruit crops and vegetables. Chokeberries can be easily propagated by seeds but this method is not recommended. Micropropagation is far more efficient than other conventional cloning methods like layering or softwood cuttings. Aronia clones are propagated in vitro through four- or three-stage method based on subculturing of shoot explants. The double diluted MS or full strength MS medium with elevated 50% Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) content are used in the initiation and proliferation chokeberry in vitro cultures, respectively. They are supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg LBA, and 0.05 mg LIBA. The double-phase medium is recommended in the last passage before shoot rooting. The regenerated shoots could be rooted both in vitro on double diluted MS with 0.05 mg L(-1) IBA or in vivo in peat and perlite substrate and subsequently grown in the greenhouse.

  18. Optoelectronics applications in multimedia shooting training systems: SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Tomasz; Hlosta, Pawel; Stepniak, Slawomir; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    Multimedia shooting training systems are increasingly being used in the training of security staff and uniformed services. An advanced practicing-training system SPARTAN for simulation of small arms shooting has been designed and manufactured by Autocomp Management Ltd. and Military Institute of Armament Technology for the Polish Ministry of National Defence. SPARTAN is a stationary device designed to teach, monitor and evaluate the targeting of small arms and to prepare soldiers for: • firing the live ammunition at open ranges for combat targets and silhouettes • detection, classification and engagement of real targets upon different terrains, weather conditions and periods during the day • team work as a squad during the mission by using different types of arms • suitable reactions in untypical scenarios. Placed in any room the training set consists of: • the projection system that generates realistic 3D imaging of the battlefield (such as combat shooting range) in high-resolution • system that tracks weapons aiming points • sound system which delivers realistic mapping of acoustic surroundings • operator station with which the training is conducted and controlled • central processing unit based on PC computers equipped with specialist software realizing individual system functions • units of smart weapons equipped with radio communication modules, injection laser diodes and pneumatic reloading system. The system make possible training by firing in dynamic scenarios, using combat weapons and live ammunition against visible targets moving on a screen. The use of infrared camera for detecting the position of impact of a projectile.

  19. Energetic exploitation of vine shoot by gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Al-Kassir Abdulla, A. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Cuerda Correa, E.M. [Dpto. Quimica Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain); Macias-Garcia, A. [Dpto. Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda de Elvas s/n, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    In this study the energy potential generated by the biomass remnants of vine shoot produced in Extremadura (Spain) by a gasification process is evaluated. The raw material was characterised by elemental and proximate analysis, its Higher Heating Value (HHV) being evaluated as well. In order to determine the optimal gasification temperature for the production of gases, the vine shoots were treated at different temperatures, i.e., 650, 700, 750 and 800 {sup o}C in air atmosphere. The optimal temperature (800 {sup o}C) was selected and the vine shoot remnants were gasified in air stream (200 mL min{sup -1}) and for different times (8 and 50 min). The yield of the so-obtained phases was calculated and the study was focused on solid and gaseous phases. The solid phase was characterised by elemental and proximate analysis as well as by HHV. In order to determine their properties as precursors of activated carbons, the adsorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K were measured. Finally, the electric power that could be obtained by a combustion process in a vapor boiler was calculated. (author)

  20. Plants as green as phones: Novel insights into plant-mediated communication between below- and above-ground insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler Gamborena, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    can act as vertical communication channels or ‘green phones’ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The protection

  1. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  2. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  3. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  4. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  5. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  6. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  7. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Anjum, T.; Shah, M.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  8. Greening the Screen: An Environmental Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Gündüz Özdemirci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental themes and representations on screen are examined as a part of environmental social studies and can be considered a way of creating awareness of environmental issues. However, how often do we consider the environmental impact of a film or television shoot as an industrial process? In this article, I examine the sustainability practices in the motion picture industry and challenges to that by focusing on the British film and television industry as a case study. Using the interviews with industry representatives and some case studies, I discuss the possibilities of creating a change in behavior in the film industry, not only in terms of embedding green measures but also reconstituting industrial mechanisms on behalf of environmental sustainability.

  9. Mass Shootings: The Role of the Media in Promoting Generalized Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, James N; Ivy, Jonathan W

    2017-03-01

    Mass shootings are a particular problem in the United States, with one mass shooting occurring approximately every 12.5 days. Recently a "contagion" effect has been suggested wherein the occurrence of one mass shooting increases the likelihood of another mass shooting occurring in the near future. Although contagion is a convenient metaphor used to describe the temporal spread of a behavior, it does not explain how the behavior spreads. Generalized imitation is proposed as a better model to explain how one person's behavior can influence another person to engage in similar behavior. Here we provide an overview of generalized imitation and discuss how the way in which the media report a mass shooting can increase the likelihood of another shooting event. Also, we propose media reporting guidelines to minimize imitation and further decrease the likelihood of a mass shooting.

  10. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  11. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  12. Spine micromorphology of normal and hyperhydric Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peharec, P; Posilović, H; Balen, B; Krsnik-Rasol, M

    2010-07-01

    Artificial conditions of tissue culture affect growth and physiology of crassulacean acid metabolism plants which often results in formation of hyperhydric shoots. In in vitro conditions Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. (Cactaceae) growth switches from organized to unorganized way, producing a habituated organogenic callus which simultaneously regenerates morphologically normal as well as altered hyperhydric shoots. In this study, influence of tissue culture conditions on morphology of cactus spines of normal and hyperhydric shoots was investigated. Spines of pot-grown Mammillaria plants and of in vitro regenerated shoots were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope. The pot-grown plants had 16-17 spines per areole. In vitro grown normal shoots, even though they kept typical shoot morphology, had lower number of spines (11-12) and altered spine morphology. This difference was even more pronounced in spine number (six to seven) and morphology of the hyperhydric shoots. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed remarkable differences in micromorphology of spine surface between pot-grown and in vitro grown shoots. Spines of in vitro grown normal shoots showed numerous long trichomes, which were more elongated on spines of the hyperhydric shoots; the corresponding structures on spine surface of pot-grown plants were noticed only as small protrusions. Scanning electron microscopy morphometric studies showed that the spines of pot-grown plants were significantly longer compared to the spines of shoots grown in tissue culture. Moreover, transverse section shape varies from elliptical in pot-grown plants to circular in normal and hyperhydric shoots grown in vitro. Cluster and correspondence analyses performed on the scanning electron microscope obtained results suggest great variability among spines of pot-grown plants. Spines of in vitro grown normal and hyperhydric shoots showed low level of morphological variation among themselves despite the

  13. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  14. Estrategia para mejorar el acceso al tratamiento etiológico para la enfermedad de Chagas en el primer nivel de atención en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Klein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Mejorar la distribución del tratamiento etiológico para la enfermedad de Chagas mediante la identificación de barreras para su descentralización al primer nivel de atención en Argentina. Métodos Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo, de carácter exploratorio y descriptivo, en base a entrevistas semiestructuradas a actores clave pertenecientes al Programa Nacional de Chagas y miembros de los equipos de salud del primer nivel de atención con el objetivo de identificar barreras para el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas en diferentes niveles (administrativo, efectores de salud y comunidad que podrían afectar una estrategia descentralizada de distribución. Además, se implementó un piloto de descentralización en diez centros de atención primaria en una provincia argentina. Resultados Se realizaron 22 entrevistas semiestructuradas con responsables de programas y profesionales de la salud. Los principales obstáculos hallados fueron la falta de búsqueda sistemática de casos, la poca articulación entre los niveles de atención y los actores del sistema de salud, la falta de capacitación del equipo de salud respecto al tratamiento, el seguimiento de los pacientes y las barreras asociadas a los pacientes. Se llevó a cabo un programa piloto de descentralización y se evaluaron estrategias para optimizar la intervención a gran escala. Conclusiones Los resultados permitieron mejorar la implementación del plan de descentralización del tratamiento a través de una mejor articulación interprogramática, la capitalización de herramientas de monitoreo y de comunicación ya existentes, y la sensibilización de los equipos de salud. Además, se formularon recomendaciones tendientes a mejorar el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Chagas.

  15. Hemiparetic cerebral palsy: etiological risk factors and neuroimaging Paralisia cerebral hemiparética: fatores de risco etiológico e neuroimagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sedrez Gonzaga Piovesana

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper, which was conducted on 175 children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (H-CP, was to verify the etiological risk period for this disease. Etiological risk factors (ERF were detected through anamnesis: 23% in the prenatal period, 18% in the perinatal period and 59% of the patients the period was undefined (ERF in the prenatal and perinatal period was 41% and no ERF was 18% of the cases. The computerized tomographic scan (CT and MRI were performed on all the patients, who were then classified according to their etiopathogenic data: CT1= normal (18%; CT 2= unilateral ventricular enlargement (25%; CT 3= cortical/ subcortical cavities (28%; CT4= hemispheric atrophy and other findings (14%; CT 5= malformations (15%. CT 5 was associated with physical malformations beyond the central nervous system and with prenatal ERF's , while CT 2 was associated with the perinatal ERF's, mainly in premature births. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 57 patients and demonstrated a good degree of concordance with the CT. Etiology remained undefined in only 37% of the cases after neuroimaging was related to ERF. A high perinatal RF frequency (59% was observed and emphasized the need for special care during this period.Foram estudadas 175 crianças com paralisia cerebral hemiparética (PC-H para elucidar o período de risco etiológico. Através da anamnese constataram-se fatores de risco para etiologia (FRE pré-natal em 23%, perinatal em18% e período indefinido em 59% dos pacientes (com FRE pré e perinatal 41% e sem FRE 18%. A tomografia computadorizada (TC foi realizada em todos os sujeitos e classificada de acordo com dados etiopatogênicos em: TC1= normal (18%; TC2= alargamento ventricular unilateral (25%; TC3= cavidades córtico-subcorticais (28%; TC4= atrofia hemisférica e outros achados (14%; TC5= malformações (15%. A TC5 se associada a malformações físicas fora do sistema nervoso central e aos FRE pré-natais e a TC2 aos

  16. The correlation of the radiocaesium concentration of new shoots harvested in 2012 and old leaves, and new shoots harvested in 2011 grown in Kanagawa prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Kita, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between 137 Cs concentration of new shoots harvested in the first crop of tea in 2012, and new shoots harvested in the shuto-bancha in 2011 and old leaves harvested at the same time respectively. In the first crop of tea in 2012, the 137 Cs concentration of new shoots was related to that of old leaves, and the correlation of the coefficient was 0.663(p 137 Cs concentration(new shoots/old leaves) was related to the days until harvest of the first crop of tea in 2012, and the correlation coefficient was -0.771(p 137 Cs concentration was derived from the dilution effect due to growth and development of tea plants. Regression analysis was performed to forecast the 137 Cs concentration of the new shoots in the first crop of tea. The 137 Cs concentration of new shoots in the harvested first crop of tea(Y) was related to the 137 Cs concentration of old leaves harvested the previous winter(X). The correlation of the coefficient was 0.783(p 137 Cs concentration of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2012 decreased about 1/6 to 1/25 compared with that of new shoots of the first crop of tea in 2011. (author)

  17. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein in parasitic dodder as a tool for studying of cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaštier Peter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dodder (Cuscuta species cause severe agricultural damage in many countries throughout the world. To establish strategies for control of its growth and spreading it is important to study its life cycle and survival strategies. For these efforts genetic modification would represent a powerful tool. Here we report on Agrobacteriummediated transformation of dodder using green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to actin-binding protein as a vital marker. Since the shoot of germinating C. europaea contains a functional apical meristem and grows quickly comparing to the root-like structure, the shoot apex was used here as explant. The transgene expression was only transient, nevertheless it enabled to detect allocation of actin filaments and studying the cytoskeleton organization in dodder shoot apex. Transient expression of GFP appears to be a suitable method for studying Cuscuta development through cytoskeleton organisation that is presently largely unexplored.

  18. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  19. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  20. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-02

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress.

  1. Superfluid helium on on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPirro, M.J.; Kittel, P.

    1988-01-01

    The SHOOT flight demonstration is being undertaken to verify component and system level technology necessary to resupply large superfluid helium dewars in space. The baseline configuration uses two identical 210 liter dewars connected by a transfer line which contains a quick disconnect coupling. The helium is transferred back and forth between the dewars under various conditions of flow rate, parasitic heat load, and temperature. An astronaut Extra-Vehicular Activity is also planned to manually mate and demate the coupling. The components necessary for the flight and currently being developed are described

  2. Esquizofrenia, genética, epigênesis, ambiente: uma revisão sistemática das hipóteses etiológicas unifi cadas e do perfi l genética; e um novo algoritmo para o tratamento dos achados principais

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Dias, Alvaro; Luiz Rodriguez, E. Avelino

    2010-01-01

    Contexto: la esquizofrenia es un síndrome complejo relacionado con genes y factores de riesgo no genéticos. Estudios epidemiológicos reconocidos reportan su presencia en todas las culturas y regiones geográficas. En este sentido, las Hipótesis Etiológicas Unificadas enfrentan simultáneamente el desafío de presentar los datos experimentales y demostrar que éstos dan cuenta del perfil universal del síndrome. Objetivos: revisar sistemáticamente las más prominentes Hipótesis Etiológicas Unifi - c...

  3. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, W.H.; Aziz, M.A.; Sinniah, U.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  4. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  5. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  6. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2015. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 26-32. Syngonium podophyllum L. (arrowhead vine is a popular leafy indoor pot plant whose tissue culture has been established, primarily through in vitro shoot culture, but several interesting aspects have not yet been explored. In this study, cv. ‘White Butterfly’ was used to investigate the response of shoot formation to alternative gelling agents and media additives. Gellan gum (Gelrite® at 2 g/L resulted in greater leaf production, plantlet fresh weight and higher chlorophyll content (SPAD value than all other gelling agents tested, including agar, Bacto agar, phytagel, oatmeal agar, potato dextrose agar, barley starch and corn starch, when on a basal Hyponex® (NPK = 6.5: 6: 19; 3 g/L medium. Several alternative liquid medium additives tested (low and full fat milk, Coca-Cola®, coffee, Japanese green, Oolong and Darjeeling teas negatively impacted plant growth, stunted roots and decreased chlorophyll content (SPAD value of leaves. Plant growth on medium with refined sucrose or table sugar responded similarly. Poor growth was observed when crude extract from a high rebaudioside-containing stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni line - an artificial sweetener - was used. Leaf tissue from the control did not show any endopolyploidy but low levels of endopolyploidy (8C were detected in some treatments.

  7. Studies on the tissue culture of Stevia rebaudiana and its components; (II). Induction of shoot primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, H; Fujioka, N; Kohda, H; Yamasaki, K; Taniguchi, K; Tanaka, R

    1986-08-01

    Shoot primordia, which were able to propagate vegetatively with a very high rate and to redifferentiate easily to new plants, were induced from shoot tips of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on Gamborg B5 medium containing 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) under light. The propagation of the shoot primordia of Stevia rebaudiana is rapid, and they are highly stable in chromosome number and karyotype. The shoot primordia can propagate at a high rate for a long time without differentiation. At any time, the shoot primordia readily developed into plantlets with shoots and roots within 2 or 3 weeks in static culture on B5 medium containing 0.02 mg/l BAP and 2% sucrose. The plantlets were transplanted to sterilized soil to grow to normal adult plants.

  8. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  9. Shoot-derived abscisic acid promotes root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Brodribb, Timothy J; Ross, John J

    2016-03-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a major role in regulating root growth. Most work to date has investigated the influence of root-sourced ABA on root growth during water stress. Here, we tested whether foliage-derived ABA could be transported to the roots, and whether this foliage-derived ABA had an influence on root growth under well-watered conditions. Using both application studies of deuterium-labelled ABA and reciprocal grafting between wild-type and ABA-biosynthetic mutant plants, we show that both ABA levels in the roots and root growth in representative angiosperms are controlled by ABA synthesized in the leaves rather than sourced from the roots. Foliage-derived ABA was found to promote root growth relative to shoot growth but to inhibit the development of lateral roots. Increased root auxin (IAA) levels in plants with ABA-deficient scions suggest that foliage-derived ABA inhibits root growth through the root growth-inhibitor IAA. These results highlight the physiological and morphological importance, beyond the control of stomata, of foliage-derived ABA. The use of foliar ABA as a signal for root growth has important implications for regulating root to shoot growth under normal conditions and suggests that leaf rather than root hydration is the main signal for regulating plant responses to moisture. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genotypic diversity of root and shoot characteristics of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Root and shoot characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes are believed to be important in drought tolerance. There is a little information about the response of genotypes root growth in hydroponics and greenhouse culture, also the relationships between root size and drought tolerance. This study was conducted to observe whether genotypes differ in root size, and to see that root size is associated with drought tolerance during early vegetative growth. We found significant differences (p0.01 in root dry weight, total root length, tap root length, root area, leaf dry weight, leaf area and shoot biomass per plant among 30 genotypes of chickpea grown in hydroponics culture for three weeks. Each of these parameters correlated with all others, positively. Among 30 genotypes, 10 genotypes with different root sizes were selected and were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture experiment under drought stress (FC %30 for three weeks. There were not linear or non-linear significant correlations between root characters in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. It seems that environmental factors are dominant on genetic factors in seedling stage and so, the expression of genotypics potential for root growth characteristics of genotypes are different in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. In this study, the selection of genotypes with vigorous roots system in hydroponic condition did not lead to genotypes with the same root characters in greenhouse environment. The genotype×drought interactions for root characters of chickpea seedlings in 30 days were not significant (p

  11. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  12. Plant root and shoot dynamics during subsurface obstacle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Nathaniel; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Benfey, Philip; Goldman, Daniel

    As roots grow, they must navigate complex underground environments to anchor and retrieve water and nutrients. From gravity sensing at the root tip to pressure sensing along the tip and elongation zone, the complex mechanosensory feedback system of the root allows it to bend towards greater depths and avoid obstacles of high impedance by asymmetrically suppressing cell elongation. Here we investigate the mechanical and physiological responses of roots to rigid obstacles. We grow Maize, Zea mays, plants in quasi-2D glass containers (22cm x 17cm x 1.4cm) filled with photoelastic gel and observe that, regardless of obstacle interaction, smaller roots branch off the primary root when the upward growing shoot (which contains the first leaf) reaches an average length of 40 mm, coinciding with when the first leaf emerges. However, prior to branching, contacts with obstacles result in reduced root growth rates. The growth rate of the root relative to the shoot is sensitive to the angle of the obstacle surface, whereby the relative root growth is greatest for horizontally oriented surfaces. We posit that root growth is prioritized when horizontal obstacles are encountered to ensure anchoring and access to nutrients during later stages of development. NSF Physics of Living Systems.

  13. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency in Ice Hockey Shooting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Christie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are several important inter- and intra-individual variations in individual alpha peak frequency (IAPF in the cognitive domain. The rationale for the present study was to extend the research on IAPF in the cognitive domain to IAPF in the sport domain. Specifically, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to explore whether baseline IAPF is related to performance in an ice hockey shooting task and (b to explore whether a shooting task has an effect on IAPF variability. The present investigation is one of the first studies to examine links between IAPF and sport performance. Study results did not show significant changes in IAPF when comparing baseline IAPF and pre- to post-task IAPF across three performance levels. The findings support previous literature in the cognitive domain suggesting that IAPF is a stable neurophysiological marker. Future research should consider the following methodological suggestions: (a measuring IAPF during sport performance instead of at a resting state, (b changing the pre-performance resting baseline instructions to take into account sport-specific mental preparation, (c exploring an expert-novice paradigm to accentuate performance ability differences between groups (d comparing tasks with different levels of complexity, and (e analyzing the possible correlation between IAPF and performance on different days.

  14. Hyperhydricity in micropropagated carnation shoots: the role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Shady; Piqueras, Abel; Hellin, Eladio; Olmos, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The physiology of hyperhydricity in relation to oxidative stress, mineral nutrients, antioxidant enzymes and ethylene has been studied in three micropropagated carnation cultivars under experimentally induced hyperhydricity. A marked increase in Fe content in comparison with normal tissues was observed in the hyperhydric tissues from the three cultivars. The levels of ethylene, solute leakage and malondialdehyde content were also significantly higher in the hyperhydric tissues. In relation to the time course of H(2)O(2) production measured by fluorescence quenching, a similar trend could be observed for the three cultivars, with a clear increase in the generation of hydrogen peroxide in hyperhydric tissues. The activities of all the antioxidative enzymes studied, except lipoxygenase, were higher in the hyperhydric shoots. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) showed a significant decrease in activity in the hyperhydric tissues in comparison with the controls for the three cultivars. Soluble guaiacol peroxidase had a strong increase in activity in hyperhydric shoots of the three cultivars. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence of H(2)O(2) generation in hyperhydric tissues, characterize the response of the antioxidant system to an oxidative stress during hyperhydricity in carnation leaves and point to the accumulation of toxic forms of oxygen as the inducer of some of the abnormalities observed.

  15. In vitro establishment of Vasconcellea x helbornii (Badillo Badillo shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Jadán Guerrero

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Babaco [Vasconcellea x helbornii (Badillo Badillo] is a specie of commercial importance in Ecuador. The present work aimed to establish in vitro shoots of axillary buds from mother plants of babaco kept in greenhouse. Carbendazim and the biostimulant (GERMO-TB01 were applied to the plants. For the disinfection of the explants, three concentrations of Sodium Hypochlorite (1, 1.5 and 2% were evaluated during two times (5 and 10 minutes. In addition, the effect of the use of Gentamicin 50 mg l-1 and Streptomycin 25 mg l-1 in the culture medium was determined. The best results were achieved by using 1.5% Sodium Hypochlorite for 10 minutes and immersion in a solution with both antibiotics for 3 hours. A 68.5% in vitro establishment of the shoots was achieved at 21 days of culture. The results will contribute to in vitro mass propagation of this hybrid.   Key words: antibiotic mixture, babaco, disinfection, micropropagation

  16. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  17. Framing Mass Shootings: Fictional Depictions of Real-life Gun Massacres in American Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Tryggeseid, Ane Johannessen

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the concept of real-life mass shootings and its depiction in American fictional cinema. The issue of mass shootings is a highly controversial subject of discussion, both within the public and political sphere, as it necessarily touches upon rigid perceptions of civil liberties – specifically those of the Second Amendment – which further permeates the field of fictional cinema. As opposed to assessing the issue of mass shootings as a product of a prevailing culture of guns...

  18. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  19. Schools under fire? : school shootings and the construction of a cultural discourse of emergency

    OpenAIRE

    Braselmann, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, rampage violence at suburban and rural schools occurred before the infamous Columbine High School shooting in April 1999. While school shootings — before Columbine gained international media attention — were treated as a local rather than a national or even international problem, they are now seen as an emergent phenomenon that has to be addressed with appropriate urgency. In this paper, I want to examine whether school shootings are in fact increasing and addre...

  20. Translocation of sorbitol and other photosynthates in golden delicious apple shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkamp, J.; Terblanche, J.H.; De Villiers, O.T.

    1982-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine to what extent sorbitol and other photosynthates are translocated in Golden Delicious apple shoots. The distribution of radioactivity in the different fractions, after the leaves had been exposed to radiocarbon, was found in segment of the shoots directly below the treatment leaves. The highest 14 C activity was in the carbohydrate fraction. The results indicate that sorbitol is the principal carbohydrate transported in Golden Delicious apple shoots

  1. Comparative proteomics reveals the physiological differences between winter tender shoots and spring tender shoots of a novel tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar evergrowing in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-20

    A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the

  2. From gene manipulation to forest establishment: shoot cultures of woody plants can be a central tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, B.H.

    1985-05-01

    Establishing germplasm of woody plants in microculture as shoot cultures has proved to be an effective method of overcoming many of the obstacles in working with these crops. Shoot cultures eliminate the changes associated with seasonal growth cycles and phase change and put large plants into a more manageable form. Well-established shoot cultures are central to successful clonal propagation systems for forest trees as well as to genetic improvement based on the use of cellular techniques such as protoplast manipulation. The physiological basis as to why tissues from shoot cultures are so readily manipulated is not well understood.

  3. Effect of nitrogen salts on the growth of Ceratonia siliqua L. Shoot cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinterhalter Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of reduced nitrogen salt nutriton on the growth, lenticel hypertrophy and anthocyanin accumulation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L. shoot cultures were investigated in conditions of light and darkness. Growth of shoot cultures was not significantly affected until nitrogen salts were reduced to less than ¼ of full-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 values. Cultures in darkness were less affected and their main shoots even increased in length. Appearance of hypertrophied lenticels in light decreased, while in darkness they were absent in all treatments. Reduced nitrogen salt nutrition strongly affected anthocyanin accumulation of shoots and leaves, which greatly increased in both light and darkness. .

  4. Adaptive L1/2 Shooting Regularization Method for Survival Analysis Using Gene Expression Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ying Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new adaptive L1/2 shooting regularization method for variable selection based on the Cox’s proportional hazards mode being proposed. This adaptive L1/2 shooting algorithm can be easily obtained by the optimization of a reweighed iterative series of L1 penalties and a shooting strategy of L1/2 penalty. Simulation results based on high dimensional artificial data show that the adaptive L1/2 shooting regularization method can be more accurate for variable selection than Lasso and adaptive Lasso methods. The results from real gene expression dataset (DLBCL also indicate that the L1/2 regularization method performs competitively.

  5. Lippia dulcis shoot cultures as a source of the sweet sesquiterpene hernandulcin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, M; Flores, H E; Yamazaki, T; Shimomura, K

    1991-04-01

    The axenic shoot culture of Lippia dulcis Trev., Verbenaceae, was established on hormone-free Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 3% sucrose. Shoots were cultured in various liquid or solid media. Woody Plant liquid medium was best for shoot multiplication, but the production of hernandulcin was relatively low. The highest hernandulcin content (2.9% dry wt) was obtained after 28 days of culture on Murashige-Skoog solid medium containing 2% sucrose. The addition of chitosan to the culture media enhanced the growth of shoots as well as the production of hernandulcin, especially with the liquid medium.

  6. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes.

  7. Frequência etiológica da hipertensão pulmonar em ambulatório de referência na Bahia Frecuencia etiológica de la hipertensión pulmonar en un ambulatorio de referencia en Bahia Etiological frequency of pulmonary hypertension in a reference outpatient clinic in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Machado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A hipertensão pulmonar (HP resulta de diversas etiologias com possíveis influências geográficas, porém poucos trabalhos descrevem a frequência etiológica da HP, especialmente em nosso meio. Não está claro se existe associação entre etiologia e nível de pressão pulmonar ou intensidade da sintomatologia. OBJETIVO: 1 descrever a prevalência etiológica da HP na Bahia; 2 avaliar se a etiologia é fator determinante no nível de pressão pulmonar; 3 avaliar se a etiologia é fator determinante na classe funcional; 4 identificar os demais preditores do nível de pressão pulmonar e da classe funcional. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, de corte transversal, em portadores de HP atendidos no Ambulatório Magalhães Neto, entre junho de 2005 e dezembro de 2007. A HP foi definida como pressão sistólica da artéria pulmonar (PSAP > 40 mmHg pelo ecocardiograma. Pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica ou doença ventricular esquerda não foram incluídos. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 48 pacientes com PSAP de 86 ± 24 mmHg. Quanto à etiologia, 42% dos pacientes foram classificados como idiopáticos, seguidos de 25% de esquistossomose, 19% de cardiopatia congênita e 10% de embolia pulmonar crônica. O maior tempo de doença prediz pressões mais elevadas em cardiopatas. Indivíduos com esquistossomose tiveram melhor desempenho funcional quando comparados aos demais (456 ± 58 vs. 299 ± 138 metros, p = 0,005. Etiologia esquistossomótica e idades menores apresentam melhor classe funcional. CONCLUSÃO: 1 Prevalece a classificação idiopática, sendo a esquistossomose a causa específica mais frequente em nosso meio; 2 pacientes com etiologia esquistossomótica e de idades menores apresentam melhor classe funcional; 3 cardiopatia congênita resulta em maior nível de pressão na artéria pulmonar, provavelmente devido ao maior tempo de doença.FUNDAMENTO: La hipertensión pulmonar (HP es la resultante de diversas etiolog

  8. Surdez súbita idiopática: aspectos etiológicos e fisiopatogênicos Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: etiopathogenic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lazarini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Vários fatores têm sido postulados como causa da surdez súbita idiopática. Por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita uma análise crítica quanto aos aspectos etiológicos e fisiopatogênicos desta manifestação clínica. Estudos atuais sugerem que os distúrbios vasculares, a ruptura de membranas da orelha interna e as doenças auto-imunes são possíveis causas, mas a afecção viral tem recebido maior atenção nos últimos anos, embora ainda pouco se conheça sobre os mecanismos da surdez súbita idiopática. Os vírus podem causar a perda súbita da audição na infecção aguda, mas a forma latente, com uma possível reativação viral, também tem sido considerada no mecanismo de agressão à cóclea. Apesar de uma alteração da viscosidade sangüínea poder explicar a perda auditiva, estudos experimentais e clínicos não mostram sinais de ossificação e de fibrose na cóclea ou de ruptura de membranas do labirinto. Estes fatos contrapõem, respectivamente, a teoria vascular e a da fístula labiríntica. A eventual presença de anticorpos contra a orelha interna sugere que a surdez súbita idiopática possa ser de natureza auto-imune, fato este também não confirmado pela falta de relação entre os aspectos clínicos e morfológicos da doença auto-imune e da perda auditiva. A surdez súbita idiopática é, ainda, um tema controverso e obscuro em diversos aspectos.Several factors have been postulated to elicit the etiology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Through a bibliographic review, we made a critical analysis of the different etiopathogenic aspects of its clinical manifestation. The most recent studies concerning the possible causes of sudden hearing loss suggest vascular disorders, rupture of the inner ear membrane and autoimmune diseases; however, viral infections have received a great deal of attention in recent years. Little is known about the mechanism of sudden hearing loss. Viruses can cause

  9. Exogenous Supplementation of Silicon Improved the Recovery of Hyperhydric Shoots in Dianthus caryophyllus L. by Stabilizing the Physiology and Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundararajan, Prabhakaran; Manivannan, Abinaya; Cho, Yoon S.; Jeong, Byoung R.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. ‘Green Beauty’. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1.8 mM, or 3.6 mM of potassium silicate (K2SiO3). After 2 weeks of culture, we observed only 20% of hyperhydric shoots were recovered in control. On the other hand hyperhydricity, shoot recovery percentage in 1.8 mM and 3.6 mM of Si were 44% and 36%, respectively. Shoots in control possessed higher lipid peroxidation rate compared to the Si treatments. Similarly, damaged stomata were detected in the control, while Si treatments restored the normal stomatal development. Expressions of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and catalase varied between the control and Si treatments. Furthermore, a proteomic analysis showed that as compared with the control Si up-regulated 17 and 10 protein spots in abundance at 1.8 and 3.6 mM of Si, respectively. In comparison to the 3.6 mM, 1.8 mM of Si treatment up-regulated 19 proteins and down-regulated 7 proteins. Identified proteins were categorized into six groups according to their biological roles such as ribosomal binding, oxido-reduction, hormone/cell signaling, metal/ion binding, defense, and photosynthesis. The proteomic results revealed that Si actively involved in the various metabolisms to accelerate the recovery of the shoots from hyperhydricity. Thus, the outcomes of this study can be utilized for addressing the molecular insight of hyperhydricity and its recovery mechanism by the supplementation of Si. Therefore, we conclude that active involvement of Si in the regulation and signaling process

  10. Disruption of the rice nitrate transporter OsNPF2.2 hinders root-to-shoot nitrate transport and vascular development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuge; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Ya-Yun; Hu, Rui; Xia, Kuaifei; Duan, Jun; Wang, Yaqin; Tsay, Yi-Fang; Zhang, Mingyong

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved to express some members of the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) to uptake and transport nitrate. However, little is known of the physiological and functional roles of this family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we characterized the vascular specific transporter OsNPF2.2. Functional analysis using cDNA-injected Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that OsNPF2.2 is a low-affinity, pH-dependent nitrate transporter. Use of a green fluorescent protein tagged OsNPF2.2 showed that the transporter is located in the plasma membrane in the rice protoplast. Expression analysis showed that OsNPF2.2 is nitrate inducible and is mainly expressed in parenchyma cells around the xylem. Disruption of OsNPF2.2 increased nitrate concentration in the shoot xylem exudate when nitrate was supplied after a deprivation period; this result suggests that OsNPF2.2 may participate in unloading nitrate from the xylem. Under steady-state nitrate supply, the osnpf2.2 mutants maintained high levels of nitrate in the roots and low shoot:root nitrate ratios; this observation suggests that OsNPF2.2 is involved in root-to-shoot nitrate transport. Mutation of OsNPF2.2 also caused abnormal vasculature and retarded plant growth and development. Our findings demonstrate that OsNPF2.2 can unload nitrate from the xylem to affect the root-to-shoot nitrate transport and plant development. PMID:25923512

  11. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  12. The growth and survival of plants in urban green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-04-01

    Green roofs as one of the components of water-sensitive urban design have become widely used in recent years. This paper describes performance monitoring of four prototype-scale experimental green roofs in a northern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, undertaken over a 1-year period. Four species of indigenous Australian ground cover and grass species comprising Carpobrotus rossii, Lomandra longifolia 'Tanika,' Dianella caerula 'Breeze' and Myoporum parvifolium were planted in extensive and intensive green roof configurations using two different growing media. The first medium consisted of crushed brick, scoria, coir fibre and composted organics while the second comprised scoria, composted pine bark and hydro-cell flakes. Plant growth indices including vertical and horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot and root biomasses, water use efficiency and irrigation regimes were studied during a 12-month period. The results showed that the succulent species, C. rossii, can best tolerate the hot, dry summer conditions of South Australia, and this species showed a 100% survival rate and had the maximum horizontal growth rate, leaf succulence, shoot biomass and water use efficiency. All of the plants in the intensive green roofs with the crushed brick mix media survived during the term of this study. It was shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during 8 months of the year in Adelaide. However, supplementary irrigation is required for some of the plants over a full annual cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perfil etiológico das diarréias agudas de crianças atendidas em São Paulo Etiologic profile of acute diarrhea in children in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa C. Souza

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar o perfil etiológico das diarréias agudas de um grupo de crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico atendidas em um serviço regional de pronto-atendimento pediátrico. Método: durante dois anos, as crianças com diarréia aguda atendidas durante um horário pré-estabelecido do dia e da semana foram incluídas no estudo. Os outros critérios seletivos eram: a idade inferior a 5 anos; b não utilização de antibiótico no mês precedente; c ausência de viagem para fora da cidade no mês precedente. Foram pesquisados nas fezes: a rotavírus (imunofluorescência e contra-imunoeletroforese; b bactérias - cultura em ágar MacConkey, ágar SS, ágar Columbia, verde brilhante, soroaglutinação, detecção de toxinas - INV, LT,ST,SLT I, SLT II, teste de Séreny, detecção de fatores de virulência -- EAF, eae ,BFP; c protozoários (Hoffman e Faust. No mesmo período, um grupo controle sem diarréia foi também avaliado para os mesmos patógenos fecais. Resultados: no período de março de 1994 a junho de 1996, foram selecionadas para o estudo 154 crianças com diarréia aguda (GDA e 42 crianças sem diarréia (GSDA. Foram detectados agentes enteropatogênicos em 112 casos (72,8% do GDA, e em 9 (21,5% do GSDA. A associação de dois ou mais enteropatógenos ocorreu em 47 (30,5% casos do GDA, e em 3 (7,1% do GSDA. Os patógenos encontrados por caso, do GDA, foram: rotavírus 32 (20,8%, bactérias 53 (34,4%, ambos 25 (16,2%, e 2 (1,4% com Giardia lamblia (em um caso associada a rotavírus e noutro à bactéria. No GSDA, foram detectadas bactérias em 8 casos (19,1%, e bactéria associada à Giardia lamblia em 1 (2,4% caso. Das 105 bactérias isoladas no GDA, 90 eram Escherichia coli (EPEC 27, DAEC 24, ETEC 21, EAEC 18, 12 eram Shigella sp, 2 eram Salmonella sp, e uma era Yersinia sp. As crianças com infecção mista - viral e bacteriana - apresentaram maior ocorrência de vômitos repetidos, desidratação e interna

  14. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  15. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  16. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  17. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  18. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  19. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  20. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  1. Developing resilient green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Brien, C J

    2014-08-15

    Living roofs are an emerging green infrastructure technology that can potentially be used to ameliorate both climate change and urban heat island effects. There is not much information regarding the design of green roofs for dry climates and so the aim of this study was to develop low maintenance and unfertilized green roofs for a dry climate. This paper describes the effects of four important elements of green roofs namely slope, depth, growing media and plant species and their possible interactions in terms of plant growth responses in a dry climate. Sixteen medium-scale green roofs were set up and monitored during a one year period. This experiment consisted of twelve vegetated platforms and four non-vegetated platforms as controls. The design for the experiment was a split-split-plot design in which the factors Slope (1° and 25°) and Depth (100mm, 300 mm) were randomized to the platforms (main plots). Root depth and volume, average height of plants, final dry biomass and ground cover, relative growth rate, final dry shoot-root ratio, water use efficiency and leaf succulence were studied during a twelve month period. The results showed little growth of the plants in media type A, whilst the growth was significant in both media types B and C. On average, a 90% survival rate of plants was observed. Also the growth indices indicated that some plants can grow efficiently in the harsh environment created by green roofs in a dry climate. The root growth pattern showed that retained water in the drainage layer is an alternative source of water for plants. It was also shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during six months of the year at the study site. In summary, mild sloping intensive systems containing media type C and planted with either Chrysocephalum apiculatum or Disphyma crassifolium showed the best performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  3. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  4. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

    2011-10-01

    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is interesting and attractive to students—the ballistic cart, i.e., the shooting of a ball from a cart moving along a slope. For that, one has to be familiar with one-dimensional uniform motion and one-dimensional motion with constant acceleration, as well as curvilinear motion that is a combination of such motions.1,2 The experimental results confirm theoretical predictions.

  5. 2D flight shooting game design and implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yunqing

    2016-01-01

    The game, which is already one of the most popular entertainment, brings us a lot of fun.A lot of big games are great (plot, graphics, sound effects, etc.), but it takes time. So a simple, playable game is also very popular.This game is in Windows 7, with Visual Studio 2013 as the editor, in c + + as the scripting language, and a flying shooter game designed by the Unity3D game engine. Mainly implements a simple flight shooting, recruit, UI text display function, but not too much pains in the interface and the picture and sound effects, can realize the basic function of the game, and game for hardware requirement is not high also, entertainment and games also is beter. It's a casual game that is simple and fun to play, and it's a great way to bring happiness to people.

  6. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  7. The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV

  8. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  9. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  10. Influence of shoot topping on yield and quality of Vitis vinifera L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Key words: Vitis vinifera L., shoot topping, yield, quality, canopy management, shoot topping, fruit set, yield components, fruit .... Sensory characteristics were under the interaction effect of year and topping level. Berry weight was influenced separately by the year and topping (Table 2 and 3). Yield per vine ...

  11. Unexpected Genome Variability at Multiple Loci Suggests Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus Comprises Multiple, Divergent Molecular Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) [Badnavirus, Caulimoviridae] causes swollen shoot disease of Theobroma cacao L. in West Africa. Since ~2000, various diagnostic tests have failed to detect CSSV in ~50-70% of symptomatic cacao plants, suggesting the possible emergence of new, previously uncharacteriz...

  12. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This section provides for the annual hunting of sandhill cranes in designated portions of the 48 contiguous...

  13. Nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium in five Lolium perenne genes with putative role in shoot branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazauskas, Gintaras; Pašakinskienė, Izolda; Asp, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge on nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns is prerequisite for association analyses. However, little is known about the nucleotide diversity in the evolutionary important ryegrass shoot morphology genes. Five candidate genes, LpIAA1, LpRUB1, LpBRI1, LpSHOOT1 and Lp...

  14. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper. PMID:27433496

  15. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  16. Shooting method for solution of boundary-layer flows with massive blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T.-M.; Nachtsheim, P. R.

    1973-01-01

    A modified, bidirectional shooting method is presented for solving boundary-layer equations under conditions of massive blowing. Unlike the conventional shooting method, which is unstable when the blowing rate increases, the proposed method avoids the unstable direction and is capable of solving complex boundary-layer problems involving mass and energy balance on the surface.

  17. Violent mass shootings in Sweden from 1960 to 1995: profiles, patterns, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, O; Lidberg, L

    1998-03-01

    During the past few decades, violent mass shooting in Sweden has increased rapidly. In the 36 years between 1960 and 1995, fourteen such occasions were recorded, during which 32 people were killed and 57 were wounded. The 14 offenders were men between the ages of 17 and 61 years. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1979, five shootings were committed by five offenders, leaving 10 dead and 13 wounded; in the 16 years between 1980 and 1995, there were nine different shootings committed by nine offenders, with 22 dead and 44 wounded. Seven of the shootings were classified as mass shootings, six as spree shootings, and one as a serial shooting. In all but four of these cases, the firearms used were illegal weapons. The four legal firearms belonged to an unemployed young laborer, an officer, a former United Nations (U.N.) soldier, and a member of the Swedish military volunteer corps. Of those killed, 68.8% were strangers to the offender; among the wounded, the corresponding figure was 89.5%. Profiles of the offenders and of the victims were studied. The psychiatric diagnoses among the offenders and the measures taken to prevent the increase in mass shooting in Sweden are presented.

  18. Determination of sink intensity of side shoots by the use of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.D.; Forche, E.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of side shoots in the source-sink system of tomato plants was demonstrated by following the translocation of 32 P and 14 C applied to different leaves. The results showed that the side shoots were important sinks for photosynthetic products until the growing fruits of adjoining inflorescences became predominant attraction centres. (orig.) [de

  19. Reality-based practice under pressure improves handgun shooting performance of police officers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether reality-based practice under pressure may help in preventing degradation of handgun shooting performance under pressure for police officers. Using a pre-post-test design, one group of nine police officers practised handgun shooting under pressure evoked by an

  20. Effects of anxiety on handgun shooting behavior of police officers: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, A.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2010-01-01

    The current pilot study aimed at providing an initial assessment of how anxiety influences police officers' shooting behavior. Seven police officers participated and completed an identical shooting exercise under two experimental conditions: low anxiety, against a non-threatening opponent, and high

  1. Growth and morphogenesis of shoot initials of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    An optimalized method of micropropagation of Douglas fir is described. Seasonal changes were found in optima for nitrate and sucrose in the medium and in the optimum for the light intensity during the culture of shoot initials. Differences in morphogenesis were obtained from shoot initials that had

  2. performance routines followed by free throw shooting accuracy in secondary basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Ashley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of the current study was to determine whether existing pre-performance routines had an effect on free throw shooting accuracy in high school pupils as compared to shooting without a pre-performance routine.

  3. Experts Appear to Use Angle of Elevation Information in Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…

  4. The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P  0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy.

  5. A Hybrid Finite Element/Helmholtz-Kirchhoff-Integral Model for Shooting Range Sound Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    National legislation enforces a limit on the Sound Levels of outdoor military shooting ranges observed in nearby residential areas. These restrictions directly influence the number of shots that may be fired at a specific shooting range, which may conflict with the required/ scheduled training

  6. When the Exception Is the Rule: School Shootings, Bare Life, and the Sovereign Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Much discourse on school shootings tends to imply a binary separation between what is considered normal and exceptional, between an expected course of human events and sociohistorical aberrations. In this article Harvey Shapiro suggests the need for new directions in our responses: First, he shows how responses to school shootings tend to…

  7. What Can Be Done about School Shootings? A Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Randy; Cornell, Dewey G.; Modzeleski, William; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2010-01-01

    School shootings have generated great public concern and fostered a widespread impression that schools are unsafe for many students; this article counters those misapprehensions by examining empirical evidence of school and community violence trends and reviewing evidence on best practices for preventing school shootings. Many of the school safety…

  8. The Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting as tipping point: "This Time Is Different".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Muschert, Glenn W; Dingwall, Alison; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2013-01-01

    Among rampage shooting massacres, the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting on December 14, 2012 galvanized public attention. In this Commentary we examine the features of this episode of gun violence that has sparked strong reactions and energized discourse that may ultimately lead toward constructive solutions to diminish high rates of firearm deaths and injuries in the United States.

  9. Bud removal affects shoot, root, and callus development of hardwood Populus cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.H. Wiese; J.A. Zalesny; D.M. Donner; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny

    2006-01-01

    The inadvertent removal and/or damage of buds during processing and planting of hardwood poplar (Populus spp.) cuttings are a concern because of their potential impact on shoot and root development during establishment. The objective of the current study was to test for differences in shoot dry mass, root dry mass, number of roots, length of the...

  10. Simulating the partitioning of biomass and nitrogen between roots and shoot in crop and grass plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    Quantification of the assimilate partitioning between roots and shoot has been one of the components that need improvement in crop growth models. In this study we derived two equations for root-shoot partitioning of biomass and nitrogen (N) that hold for crops grown under steady-state conditions.

  11. Ontogeny of axillary buds and shoots in roses: Leaf initiation and pith development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis-van Acker, C.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The ontogeny of an axillary bud (in the middle region of a shoot) from initiation up to flowering of the subsequent shoot was studied. The first secondary buds appeared in the axillary bud (primary bud) when the leaf subtending the primary bud unfolded. By that time, the primary bud contained seven

  12. Effects of visual control training on the shooting performance of elite female basketball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, a method was tested to train visual control in basketball shooting. Using a sender/receiver system, Plato liquid-crystal goggles were wirelessly and manually controlled by the experimenter to manipulate vision of players while they were shooting. During the training the goggles

  13. Long-term impact of shoot blight disease on red pine saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Haugen; Michael E. Ostry

    2013-01-01

    Damage from Sirococcus and Diplodia shoot blights of red pine is widespread and periodically severe in the Lake States. An outbreak of shoot blight occurred in red pine sapling plantations across northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1993. We established monitoring plots in red pine sapling...

  14. Development of Sirococcus shoot blight following thinning in western hemlock regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Shaw; Thomas H. Laurent; Spencer. Israelson

    1981-01-01

    Shoot mortality from Sirococcus strobilinus Preuss. and other causes was recorded by crown position from April 1978 through October 1979 in younggrowth western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) crop trees released in a 1977 thinning at Thomas Bay, Alaska. All study trees contained some infected shoots, but no terminal...

  15. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  16. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...

  17. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  18. Effects of irradiation on physicochemical and sensory qualities of fermented shoot tip of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Li; Liu Chunquan; Li Dajing; Song Jiangfeng; Jiang Ning; Liu Chunju; Wu Haihong; Zhu Danyu

    2011-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on sensory quality, physicochemical and functional prosperities of fermented shoot tips of sweet potatoes were studied. The results showed that total content of free amino acids in fermented shoot tips of sweet potato were not influenced at 4 kGy irradiation, but increased at 6 kGy. Total content of organic acids in shoot tips were not influenced by 2 ∼ 6 kGy of irradiation. The total viable cells of the tips was reduced from 7.35 to 4.67 log CFU/g at 2 kGy irradiation, and no growth of total viable cells was observed at 4 and 6 kGy irradiated fermented shoot tips. It is recommended that 4 kGy was the endurance irradiation dose for fermented shoot tips of sweet potato to ensure the maximum retention of taste quality and health-relevant functionality. (authors)

  19. THE PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF SHOOTING RANGES ON ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Wodnik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the shooting activity on the environment. The studies were conducted in the area of the sports shooting range. The invertebrates assemblages were identified to the family level as well as morphospecies. The second method do not require the proficiency in identification. The following indices of the biodiversity were used for the assessment of the impact of sports shooting ranges: Simpson, Shannon-Wiener, Margalef, Berger-Parker and Menhinick. A decreased biodiversity was observed at two studied sites comparing to the reference site what proves the influence of shooting activity on the biodiversity and suggest disturbance of the ecosystem integrity because of shooting activity.

  20. Distribution of radiocesium in bamboo leaves, roots and shoots. Application of an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Haruka; Ogata, Yoshimune; Satou, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    When radiocesium is taken into a wild plant accidentally, it will circulate for a certain period of time. Bamboo is that in some cases relative high concentration of radiocesium have been reported. Radiocesium is considered to be concentrated in bamboo shoot by translocation in plants from bamboo leaves or roots. In this study, to investigate the behavior of radiocesium, shoots, roots, branches and leaves of bamboo (Phyllostadhys edulis) were collected at Yamakiya area, Kawamata-machi, Date-gun, Fukushima Prefecture. Radiation image analysis was conducted using an imaging plate BAS 2040 (Fujifilm) and an image analyzer Typhoon FLA7000 (GE Healthcare Japan Corp.). The content of radiocesium was about 500 Bq for "1"3"4Cs and 700 Bq for "1"3"7Cs per the bamboo shoot (500 g approximately). In the edible parts of bamboo shoots, the skin of bamboo shoots and leaves of newly-grown, radiocesium uptake was in high concentration, especially at the tip. (author)

  1. THE EFFICIENCY OF SHOOT AND PLANTLET FORMATION OF Cephaelis ipecacuanha AFTER THREE SUBCULTURES IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Alves Lameira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple adventitious shoot formed from internodal segments of Cephaelis ipecacuanha cultured 25 days on Gamborg basal medium (GAMBORG et al., 1968 supplemented with 6.66mM 6-benzylaminopurine there was a maximum of nine shoots per segment and an average of five shoots per segment formed. The presence of gibberellic acid in the subculture media promoted shoot elongation in all treatments. The shoots attained 3cm in height and rooting of 100% after 35 days of culturing upon Murashige and Skoog's basal medium (MS, added with 4.92mM indole-3-butyric acid, 0.87m gibberellic acid and 0.1% activated charcoal. Further growth was accelerated after the transfer to 1/2 MS without growth regulators. Rooted plantlets transferred to potting soil could be successfully established.

  2. Queratitis infecciosa no viral: factores predisponentes, agentes etiológicos y diagnóstico de laboratorio Non viral infectious keratitis: predisposing factors, etiologic agents and laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Nicola

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las queratitis infecciosas poseen una elevada morbilidad, poniendo en riesgo la visión en casos graves. Dada la eficaz protección que brinda el epitelio corneal, para que ocurra una infección se requiere la presencia de factores condicionantes. El principal predisponente para las queratitis infecciosas es el uso de lentes de contacto, seguido por traumatismos y cirugías oculares y luego diversas afecciones locales o generales. Los agentes etiológicos abarcan una enorme diversidad de microorganismos, incluyendo bacterias, micobacterias, virus, hongos y parásitos. Para poder instaurar un tratamiento acotado se necesita un diagnóstico etiológico, lo que requiere una correcta toma de muestra y un exhaustivo análisis microbiológico.Infectious keratitis cause significant morbidity and, if it is not promptly and appropriately treated, can lead to severe ocular disability. Almost all cases of keratitis are associated to predisposing conditions. In occident, the main risk factor is contact lens wear, but previous ocular surgery or trauma are also important, as well as various ocular surface diseases. An enormous diversity of etiologic agents for infectious keratitis exist, including virus, bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi and parasites. This review provides literature and personal based information about main predisposing factors, etiologic agents and pathophysiology of infectious keratitis, excluding those of viral origin. Focus is made on microbiologic procedures, describing stains and media that should be used, and highlighting their utility. A special mention on particular situations is made, including laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, utility of lens cases analysis, keratitis in patients with previous treatment, as well as molecular biology techniques described in ophthalmology.

  3. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  4. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism in date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their off-shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J-G; Chao, C T

    2007-07-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this study, the extent and patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in date palm mother-plants and their off-shoots using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Three types of bands were generated using 12 pairs of primers. Type I were present in both ECOR I + HPA II and ECOR I + MSP I lanes; type II were present in ECOR I + HPA II lanes, but not in ECOR I + MSP I lanes; and type III bands were present in ECOR I + MSP I lanes, but not in ECOR I + HPA II lanes. The total numbers of these three types of bands were 782, 55, and 34, respectively. Among these three types of bands, the polymorphic bands were, respectively, 37, 10, and 0. The distribution of polymorphic bands among mother-plants and off-shoots suggests the methylation variation was present in both the mother-plants and off-shoots. Forty- four out of these 47 polymorphic bands show clear difference between mother-plant and off-shoots: 38 were present only in off-shoots and 6 in both mother-plants and off-shoots. Compared to methylation status in mother-plants, the methylation variation during off-shoot growth of date palm can be characterized as a process involving primarily de-methylation. Hypomethylation of DNA in off-shoots, compared with mother-plants, reflects the marked expression of this molecular feature, which may be related to gene expression during off-shoot development. The methylation or de-methylation status of specific loci in the mother-plants and their off-shoots were probably random events.

  5. Differential TOR activation and cell proliferation in Arabidopsis root and shoot apexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Xu, Lin; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan

    2017-03-07

    The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root.

  6. Relationship between the shoot characteristics and plant resistance to vascular-streak dieback on cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score. This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting

  7. Disentangling the intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouteillé

    Full Text Available Root growth and architecture are major components of plant nutrient and water use efficiencies and these traits are the matter of extensive genetic analysis in several crop species. Because root growth relies on exported assimilate from the shoot, and changes in assimilate supply are known to alter root architecture, we hypothesized (i that the genetic bases of root growth could be intertwined with the genetic bases of shoot growth and (ii that the link could be either positive, with alleles favouring shoot growth also favouring root growth, or negative, because of competition for assimilates. We tested these hypotheses using a quantitative genetics approach in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred lines population. In accordance with our hypothesis, root and shoot growth traits were strongly correlated and most root growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs colocalized with shoot growth QTLs with positive alleles originating from either the same or the opposite parent. In order to identify regions that could be responsible for root growth independently of the shoot, we generated new variables either based on root to shoot ratios, residuals of root to shoot correlations or coordinates of principal component analysis. These variables showed high heritability allowing genetic analysis. They essentially all yielded similar results pointing towards two regions involved in the root--shoot balance. Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families (a kind of near-isogenic lines, we validated part of the QTLs present in these two regions for different traits. Our study thus highlights the difficulty of disentangling intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth and shows that this difficulty can be overcome by using simple statistical tools.

  8. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  9. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  10. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  11. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  12. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  13. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects...

  14. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  15. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  16. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  17. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...; it affords the broad-spectrum decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents. Composed entirely of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics, detergents, laundry boosters, and vitamins, Decon Green (trademark...

  18. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  19. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  20. What is a green building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreenegoor, R.C.P.; Krikke, T.; Mierlo, van B.P.; Pluijm, van der W.M.P.; Poortvliet, R.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    2009-01-01

    What is a green building? A large amount of definitions and green rating tools prove that an exact definition is still a point of discussion. To research the differences between green rating tools, four different buildings are assessed with: EPN, BREEAM, LEED, GreenCalc+ and EcoQuantum. These tools

  1. Fruit production and branching density affect shoot and whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio in olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Adolfo; Paoletti, Andrea; Al Hariri, Raeed; Famiani, Franco

    2018-02-14

    The amount of shoot stem (i.e., woody part of the shoot) dry matter per unit shoot leaf dry matter (i.e., the shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio) has been reported to be lower in short shoots than in long ones, and this is related to the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. This is important in fruit trees, since the greater and earlier carbon export ability of shoots with a lower wood to leaf biomass ratio improves fruit production. This ratio may vary with cultivars, training systems or plant age, but no study has previously investigated the possible effect of fruit production. In this study on two olive cultivars (i.e., Arbequina, with low growth rate, and Frantoio, with high growth rate) subject to different fruit production treatments, we found that at increasing fruit production, shoot length and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio were proportionally reduced in the new shoots growing at the same time as the fruit. Specifically, fruit production proportionally reduced total new-shoot biomass, length, leaf area and average shoot length. With decreasing shoot length, shoot diameter, stem mass, internode length, individual leaf area and shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio also decreased. This may be viewed as a plant strategy to better support fruit growth in the current year, given the greater and earlier ability of short shoots to export carbon. Moreover, at the whole-tree level, the percentage of total tree biomass production invested in leaves was closely correlated with branching density, which differed significantly across cultivars. By branching more, Arbequina concentrates more shoots (thus leaves) per unit of wood (trunk, branches and root) mass, decreasing wood to leaf biomass ratio at the whole-tree level. Therefore, while, at the shoot level, shoot length determines shoot wood to leaf biomass ratio, at the canopy level branching density is also an important determinant of whole-tree wood to leaf biomass ratio. Whole-tree wood to leaf

  2. Phosphorus Response and Amino Acid Composition of Different Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Genotypes from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kywe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata L. is an important component of rice-based cropping systems in Myanmar, where grain yields of around 800 kg ha^(-1 are much below its yield potential of 3000 kg ha^(-1. The reasons for this shortfall are as under-investigated as is the genotype-specific response of this crop to phosphorus (P application, which is critically low in many Myanmar soils, and the genetic variation in grain quality. For green gram quality, the concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid is particularly important given its scarcity in many cereal-based diets of Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effects of P application on the root and shoot growth, yield and its components for a range of green gram varieties, and to analyse the protein concentration and amino acid composition in green gram seed of different origins. To this end from 2001 to 2003, field experiments were conducted under rain-fed conditions in Yezin and Nyaung Oo. Fifteen landraces and five introduced green gram cultivars were grown at two levels of P (0 and 15 kg ha^(-1. There were large genotypic differences in P effects and a significant interaction between green gram genotypes and P for shoot and root growth. An unexpected benefit of P application was a reduction of pest and plant virus infestation in the field. Significant genotypic differences in the amino acid profile of seeds were also observed. The results indicate the potential for breeding efforts to increase seed yield and protein quality in green gram.

  3. Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari; Ali, Khaled; Hong, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A device that enables the automated cutting and transfer of plant shoots is undergoing development for use in the propagation of plants in a nursery or laboratory. At present, it is standard practice for a human technician to use a knife and forceps to cut, separate, and grasp a plant shoot. The great advantage offered by the present device is that its design and operation are simpler than would be those of a device based on the manual cutting/separation/grasping procedure. [The present device should not be confused with a prior device developed for partly the same purpose and described in Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator (NPO-21104), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 59.]. The device (see figure) includes a circular tube sharpened at its open (lower) end and mounted on a robotic manipulator at its closed (upper) end. The robotic manipulator simply pushes the sharpened open end of the tube down onto a bed of plants and rotates a few degrees clockwise then counterclockwise about the vertical axis, causing the tube to cut a cylindrical plug of plant material. Exploiting the natural friction between the tube and plug, the tube retains the plug, without need for a gripping mechanism and control. The robotic manipulator then retracts the tube, translates it to a new location over a plant-growth tray, and inserts the tube part way into the growth medium at this location in the tray. A short burst of compressed air is admitted to the upper end of the tube to eject the plug of plant material and drive it into the growth medium. A prototype has been tested and verified to function substantially as intended. It is projected that in the fully developed robotic plant-propagation system, the robot control system would include a machine- vision subsystem that would automatically guide the robotic manipulator in choosing the positions from which to cut plugs of plant material. Planned further development efforts also include more testing and

  4. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  5. 78 FR 69707 - Notice of Temporary Closure to Recreational and Target Shooting on Public Lands at Hartman Rocks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Temporary Closure to Recreational and Target Shooting on Public Lands at Hartman Rocks Recreation Area, CO... recreational shooting affects public lands at Hartman Rocks Recreation Area in Gunnison County, Colorado. The... Hartman Rocks in Gunnison County, Colorado. The area is unsafe for target shooting due to its proximity to...

  6. Metabolomic homeostasis shifts after callus formation and shoot regeneration in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Ray, Kamalika; Sadhna, Sadhna; Pandey, Arun Kumar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Plants can regenerate from a variety of tissues on culturing in appropriate media. However, the metabolic shifts involved in callus formation and shoot regeneration are largely unknown. The metabolic profiles of callus generated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cotyledons and that of shoot regenerated from callus were compared with the pct1-2 mutant that exhibits enhanced polar auxin transport and the shr mutant that exhibits elevated nitric oxide levels. The transformation from cotyledon to callus involved a major shift in metabolite profiles with denser metabolic networks in the callus. In contrast, the transformation from callus to shoot involved minor changes in the networks. The metabolic networks in pct1-2 and shr mutants were distinct from wild type and were rewired with shifts in endogenous hormones and metabolite interactions. The callus formation was accompanied by a reduction in the levels of metabolites involved in cell wall lignification and cellular immunity. On the contrary, the levels of monoamines were upregulated in the callus and regenerated shoot. The callus formation and shoot regeneration were accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid in wild type and mutants. The transformation to the callus and also to the shoot downregulated LST8 and upregulated TOR transcript levels indicating a putative linkage between metabolic shift and TOR signalling pathway. The network analysis indicates that shift in metabolite profiles during callus formation and shoot regeneration is governed by a complex interaction between metabolites and endogenous hormones. PMID:28481937

  7. Glyphosate (Ab)sorption by Shoots and Rhizomes of Native versus Hybrid Cattail (Typha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianye; Sutton, Nora B; de Jager, Pim; Grosshans, Richard; Munira, Sirajum; Farenhorst, Annemieke

    2017-11-01

    Wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America are integrated with farmland and contain mixtures of herbicide contaminants. Passive nonfacilitated diffusion is how most herbicides can move across plant membranes, making this perhaps an important process by which herbicide contaminants are absorbed by wetland vegetation. Prairie wetlands are dominated by native cattail (Typha latifolia) and hybrid cattail (Typha x glauca). The objective of this batch equilibrium study was to compare glyphosate absorption by the shoots and rhizomes of native versus hybrid cattails. Although it has been previously reported for some pesticides that passive diffusion is greater for rhizome than shoot components, this is the first study to demonstrate that the absorption capacity of rhizomes is species dependent, with the glyphosate absorption being significantly greater for rhizomes than shoots in case of native cattails, but with no significant differences in glyphosate absorption between rhizomes and shoots in case of hybrid cattails. Most importantly, glyphosate absorption by native rhizomes far exceeded that of the absorption occurring for hybrid rhizomes, native shoots and hybrid shoots. Glyphosate has long been used to manage invasive hybrid cattails in wetlands in North America, but hybrid cattail expansions continue to occur. Since our results showed limited glyphosate absorption by hybrid shoots and rhizomes, this lack of sorption may partially explain the poorer ability of glyphosate to control hybrid cattails in wetlands.

  8. Cell lineage patterns in the shoot meristem of the sunflower embryo in the dry seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegla, D.E.; Sussex, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    We mapped the fate of cells in the shoot meristem of the dry-seed embryo of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovic, using irradiation-induced somatic sectors. We analyzed 249 chlorophyll-deficient or glabrous (hairless) sectors generated in 236 plants. Most sectors observed in the inflorescence extended into vegetative nodes. Thus cell lineages that ultimately gave rise to reproductive structures also contributed to vegetative structures. No single sector extended the entire length of the shoot. Thus the shoot is not derived from one or a few apical initials. Rather, the position, vertical extent, and width of the sectors at different levels of the shoot suggest that the shoot is derived from three to four circumferential populations of cells in each of three cell layers of the embryo meristem. Sectors had no common boundaries even in plants with two or three independent sectors, but varied in extent and overlapped along the length of the shoot. Thus individual cells in a single circumferential population behaved independently to contribute lineages of different vertical extents to the growing shoot. The predicted number of circumferential populations of cells as well as the apparent cell number in each population was consistent with the actual number of cells in the embryo meristem observed in histological sections

  9. Bamboo shoot preservation for enhancing its business potential and local economy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Lalit M; Singhal, Poonam; Satya, Santosh; Naik, S N; Kar, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo shoot as food has been used in traditional ways by the tribal community the world over. For enhancing its business potential, research on various aspects of bamboo shoot as food is being carried out in Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Asian countries and several products are available in the market. Bamboo shoots are used as a delicacy in human food, are a good source of dietary fiber, low in fat and calories. The research studies included in this review paper focus on post-harvest preservation of bamboo shoot. In view of the seasonal availability of bamboo shoot, the post-harvest preservation system for handling cynogenic toxicity in raw shoot while keeping nutrients intact and enhancement of shelf life of the value added products assume great significance for the business potential of this natural product. A yardstick of assessing the "Shelf life-Quality Matrix" developed in this review paper would give a new perspective of quality control in case of preservation of bamboo shoot. Also, knowledge gaps identified in this paper would give impetus to new academic and R&D activities, in turn generating an innovative job profile in the food industry as well as rural entrepreneurship.

  10. Anomalous needle numbers on dwarf shoots of Pinus mugo and P. uncinata (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Boratyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of occurrence of abnormal, three- (or more needle dwarf shoots of most southern and central European two-needle pine (Pinus species were studied. No specimens with more than two-needle dwarf shoots were found in a population of P. nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal Franco from the Iberian Peninsula and in two populations of P. uliginosa Neumann from the Sudeten Mountains in Central Europe. Single specimens were found within one population of P. pinaster Aiton from the Iberian Peninsula and among six populations of P. sylvestris L. from the Iberian Peninsula and Central Europe. Abnormal dwarf shoots mostly with three, but also four, five or six needles were found among 24 of 25 surveyed populations of P. mugo Turra and P. uncinata Ramond. The average frequency of specimens with at least one three-needle dwarf shoot was 24% for P. mugo and 20% for P. uncinata. The frequencies of occurrence varied significantly among studied populations and were highest in samples collected from the upper elevational range limits of the species in the mountains and near the northern limits of their ranges. The frequency of abnormal dwarf shoots in the same populations was significantly high in 2-3 consecutive years. Needles from three-needle dwarf shoots were not significantly shorter than those of two-needle shoots.

  11. Induction of shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants of the oilseed crop Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masochon Zimik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesamum indicum is an ancient oilseed crop known for its high quality edible oil and its medicinally important lignans. The crop is said to be recalcitrant to plant tissue culture thus limiting the use of modern biotechnology for its genetic improvement. We present here a protocol describing plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from cotyledons dissected from sesame seeds soaked for four hours in water. Subculturing of the cotyledons after two weeks of culture on to a fresh Murashige and Skoog medium leads to differentiation of adventitious shoots from the proximal cut end of the explant. Culture of cotyledons on a medium containing 9% sucrose for a couple of weeks prior to transfer to MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose induced a higher frequency of shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of 25% adventitious shoot regeneration was observed for S. indicum variety UMA. This variety also turned out to be the best among the ten genotypes tested for shoot regeneration through tissue culture. While addition of IAA marginally improved regeneration, silver nitrate was found essential for enhancing the frequency of shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots formed roots on full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA and the rooted plants were established in soil.

  12. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  13. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne; Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Berger, Bettina; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Trittermann, Christine; Coventry, Stewart; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Nguyen, Martin; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  14. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.; Webb, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ''MS Expert'' system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills avilable on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system ''shell.'' The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it will also provide structures diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell. 22 refs., 5 figs

  15. Gibberellins in shoots and developing capsules of Populus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David W; Hutt, Oliver E; Rood, Stewart B; Mander, Lewis N

    2002-03-01

    Extracts of stems of growing shoots of Populus deltoides and P. trichocarpa, and developing capsules of P. deltoides were analysed for gibberellins (GAs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The following known GAs were identified by comparison of their Kovats retention indices (KRIs) and mass spectra with those of standards: GA1, GA8, GA9, GA19, GA20, 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA20, GA23, GA28, GA29, GA34, GA44, and GA97. Several of these have not been previously reported from Populus. In addition, two new GAs were identified as 12 beta-hydroxy GA53 (GA127) and 16 beta,17-dihydro-17-hydroxy GA53 and their structures were confirmed by partial synthesis. Evidence was found of 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA9, 16,17-dihydro-16,17-dihydroxy GA12, 12-hydroxy GA14, and GA34-catabolite by comparison of mass spectra and KRIs with published data. Several putative GAs (hydroxy- and dihydroxy-GA12-like) were also found. The catabolites of active GAs or of key precursors, hydroxylated at C-2 in stems and either C-2, C-12, C-17, or C-16,17 in capsules, were the major proportion of the GAs.

  16. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.; Webb, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The MS Expert system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho General Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills available on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system shell. The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it also provides structured diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and, a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell

  17. Cryopreservation of in vitro shoot apices of Oxalis tuberosa Mol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Mendoza-Condori, V H; Molina-Garcia, A D

    2007-01-01

    Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) is an under-utilized tuber crop from the Andean region. Cryopreservation would allow the safe and long-term preservation of the genetic resources of this crop. A protocol for the cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoots has been developed using the vitrification solution PVS2. Two genotypes were studied (G1 and G27). Nodal segments were cultured on MS medium and incubated at 10 degree C with 16 h photoperiod and 10 mol per square meter per second irradiance, for two weeks. Apices were then excised and cultured on MS+0.15 M sucrose for 3 days at 5 degree C in darkness. Subsequently, apices were immersed in a loading solution (liquid MS medium+2 M glycerol+0.4 M sucrose), and then treated with the vitrification solution PVS2 for 0 to 40 minutes. Cryovials were then immersed in liquid nitrogen. Four weeks after rewarming and culture on recovery medium, genotype G1 showed approximately 60 percent recovery (normal growth) with 20 min PVS2 treatment. Genotype G27 showed lower recovery (30 percent). Differential scanning calorimetry yielded a Tg midpoint for PSV2 solution of ca. -120 degree C. Calorimetric studies on apices at different stages of the cryopreservation protocol showed a change in calorimetric parameters consistent with a decrease in the amount of frozen water as the protocol advanced.

  18. Carbon dioxide exchange in Norway spruce at the shoot, tree and ecosystem scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, G; Linder, S; Lindroth, A; Räntfors, M; Flemberg, S; Grelle, A

    2001-08-01

    Net CO2 exchange in a 35-year-old boreal Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in northern Sweden was measured at the shoot (NSE), tree (NTE) and ecosystem levels (NEE) by means of shoot cuvettes, whole-tree chambers and the eddy covariance technique, respectively. We compared the dynamics of gross primary production (GPP) at the three levels during the course of a single week. The diurnal dynamics of GPP at each level were estimated by subtracting half-hourly or hourly model-estimated values of total respiration (excluding light-dependent respiration) from net CO(2) exchange. The relationship between temperature and total respiration at each level was derived from nighttime measurements of NSE, NTE and NEE over the course of 1 month. There was a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.93) between the hourly estimates of GPP at the shoot and tree levels, but the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was weaker (r2 = 0.69). However, the correlation between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP was improved (r2 = 0.88) if eddy covariance measurements were restricted to periods when friction velocity was > or = 0.5 m s(-1). Daily means were less dependent on friction velocity, giving an r2 value of 0.94 between shoot- and ecosystem-level GPP. The correlation between shoot and tree levels also increased when daily means were compared (r2 = 0.98). Most of the measured variation in carbon exchange rate among the shoot, tree and ecosystem levels was the result of periodic low coupling between vegetation and the atmosphere at the ecosystem level. The results validate the use of measurements at the shoot and tree level for analyzing the contribution of different compartments to net ecosystem CO2 exchange.

  19. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of �Punjab Upma� and (2.93 in case of �IPA-3�. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and � MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  20. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Punjab Upma and IPA-3 for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in Punjab Upma and IPA-3 per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of Punjab Upma and (2.93 in case of IPA-3. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  1. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  2. In vitro propagation of Stevia rebaudina plants using multiple shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepovím, A; Vanek, T

    1998-12-01

    A multiple shoot culture was induced from nodal segments on MS medium containing half concentration of macroelements, 1% sucrose, and supplemented with NAA (0.01 mg/l). A bioreactor with hormone-free MS medium (300 ml) was inoculated with 1.5 g of the multiple shoot culture and cultivated for a month. The cultivating process of the multiple shoot culture in the bioreactor and the transfer into ex vitro conditions took about 8-9 weeks and produced approx. 600 new seedlings, that could be transferred from greenhouse to field conditions.

  3. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat - a review of root and shoot physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    :shoot ratio. Genotypes differ in seminal root anoxia tolerance, but mechanisms remain to be established; ethanol production rates do not explain anoxia tolerance. Root tip survival is short-term, and thereafter, seminal root re-growth upon re-aeration is limited. Genotypes differ in adventitious root numbers....... Although photosynthesis declines, sugars typically accumulate in shoots of waterlogged plants. Mn or Fe toxicity might occur in shoots of wheat on strongly acidic soils, but probably not more widely. Future breeding for waterlogging tolerance should focus on root internal aeration and better N...

  4. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  5. Shoot regeneration of callus culture from irradiated sheed of piper nigrum L by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak; Hutabarat, D.

    1988-01-01

    Shoot regeneration was obtained from callus that induced by irradiated seed with 25 and 50 Gy of gamma-rays and then on M.S. medium containing NAA 1 ppm and 2-ip 0.5 ppm. Irradiated seed with a dose of 25 Gy produced normal root and failed to produce shoot, but rice callus. Irradiated seed with a dose of 50 Gy pruduce callus only. Shoot differentiation occured after the callus were cultured on M.S., medium containing 2-ip 1 ppm and Kinetin 2.5 ppm. (authors). 9 refs, 3 figs

  6. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed eRiyazaddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1’s and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. Genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146 and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/ susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilised in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to sca (σ2s, dominance variance (σ2d, and lower predictability ratios than the variance due to gca (σ2g and additive variance (σ2a for shoot fly resistance traits indicated the predominance of dominance type of gene action, whereas trichome density, leaf

  7. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  8. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  9. Influence of calcium content of tissue on hyperhydricity and shoot-tip necrosis of in vitro regenerated shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of two CaCl2.2H2O levels (440 and 1320 mg L-1 and two subcultures were evaluated on in vitro shoots of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Provence Blue. Ca2+ content of the apical, middle and basal portion of shoots was determined. Increasing CaCl2.2H2O level in the culture medium increased tissue Ca2+ content and decreased hyperhydricity. Shoot-tip necrosis also decreased with 1320 mg L-1 CaCl2.2H2O, but it did not occur in the second subculture. The middle and basal portion had higher Ca2+ content than apical portion. In non-hyperhydric tissues, there were smaller and more juxtaposed cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaves demonstrated that trichomes from in vitro leaf surface occurred in smaller quantities.

  10. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-01-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sul...

  11. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  12. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  13. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  14. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  15. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...... and much in favour of industry. In fact, CO2 tax rates for industry are, on average, six times lower than those for households. We argue that the reason for this tax differentiation is that industry, in contrast to households, has a strong capability to lobby. Therefore, green taxation is effectively...... blocked and the desired environmental results are not being achieved. Why then is green taxation persistently applied in relation to industry? We argue that strong fiscal incentives drive this policy choice at the expense of environmental concerns because it allows environmental bureaucracies to budget-maximize....

  16. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  17. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  18. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  19. Citrus flush shoot ontogeny modulates biotic potential of Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-Arenas, Juan Camilo; de Goes, António; de Miranda, Marcelo Pedreira; Beattie, George Andrew Charles; Lopes, Silvio Aparecido

    2018-01-01

    The biology and behaviour of the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Liviidae), the major insect vector of bacteria associated with huanglongbing, have been extensively studied with respect to host preferences, thermal requirements, and responses to visual and chemical volatile stimuli. However, development of the psyllid in relation to the ontogeny of immature citrus flush growth has not been clearly defined or illustrated. Such information is important for determining the timing and frequency of measures used to minimize populations of the psyllid in orchards and spread of HLB. Our objective was to study how flush ontogeny influences the biotic potential of the psyllid. We divided citrus flush growth into six stages within four developmental phases: emergence (V1), development (V2 and V3), maturation (V4 and V5), and dormancy (V6). Diaphorina citri oviposition and nymph development were assessed on all flush stages in a temperature controlled room, and in a screen-house in which ambient temperatures varied. Our results show that biotic potential of Diaphorina citri is not a matter of the size or the age of the flushes (days after budbreak), but the developmental stage within its ontogeny. Females laid eggs on flush V1 to V5 only, with the time needed to commence oviposition increasing with the increasing in flush age. Stages V1, V2 and V3 were most suitable for oviposition, nymph survival and development, and adult emergence, which showed evidence of protandry. Flush shoots at emerging and developmental phases should be the focus of any chemical or biological control strategy to reduce the biotic potential of D. citri, to protect citrus tree from Liberibacter infection and to minimize HLB dissemination.

  20. Localization of cells containing sedimented amyloplasts in the shoots of normal and lazy rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Takahashi, H; Suge, H

    1994-12-01

    We have examined the localization of the cells containing sedimented amyloplasts (putative statocytes) and its relation to the graviresponding sites in the shoots of normal and lazy rice seedlings. All graviresponsive organs of the shoots of normal rice seedlings, the mesocotyl, the coleoptile and the leaf-sheath base, were found to possess the statocytes. This is the first indication that mesocotyl senses gravity by its own cells in inducing gravitropic bending in rice seedlings. In lazy-Kamenoo, although the shoots lost their gravitropic response with the advance of age, sedimentation of amyloplasts itself might not be attributable to the agravitropic growth of the shoots, because, including those of the leaf-sheath bases that had lost their response to gravity, sedimented amyloplasts appeared to be identical to those of normal Kamenoo and of younger seedlings of lazy-Kamenoo whose gravitropism is still apparent.

  1. Study on the growth and development of brinjal shoot and fruit borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. ... various aspects of the insect's life and activity with a view to evolving .... of brinjal shoot and fruit borer is still a difficult job. Many.

  2. Solution of Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Multiple Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    of this paper is the use of ESDIRK integration methods for solution of the initial value problems and the corresponding sensitivity equations arising in the multiple shooting algorithm. Compared to BDF-methods, ESDIRK-methods are advantageous in multiple shooting algorithms in which restarts and frequent...... algorithm. As we consider stiff systems, implicit solvers with sensitivity computation capabilities for initial value problems must be used in the multiple shooting algorithm. Traditionally, multi-step methods based on the BDF algorithm have been used for such problems. The main novel contribution...... discontinuities on each shooting interval are present. The ESDIRK methods are implemented using an inexact Newton method that reuses the factorization of the iteration matrix for the integration as well as the sensitivity computation. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the algorithm....

  3. Mass shootings: a meta-analysis of the dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the dose-response theory as it relates to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) following mass shootings. It was hypothesized that greater exposure to a mass shooting would be associated with greater PTSSs. Trauma exposure in the current study was broadly defined as the extent to which a person experienced or learned about a mass shooting. The meta-analysis identified 11 qualifying studies that included 13 independent effect sizes from a total of 8,047 participants. The overall weighted mean effect size, based on a random effects model, was r = .19, p shooting on the relationship between exposure and PTSSs. Because so few studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, the present study also documents that this area of the literature is underresearched. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Application of tape unit in data acquisition system and its maintenance and trouble shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Jianping; Qian Xicheng

    1995-01-01

    Application of magnetic tape unit in data acquisition system of DEC computer imported from German and its maintenance as well as trouble shoot is described. The system is used for nuclear data acquisition and processing

  5. Empirical models in the description of prickly pear shoot (Nopal drying kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel M. Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to describe the technological process involved in the drying kinetics of fresh-cut prickly pear shoots through numerical and analytical solutions. Shoots of two different prickly pear species were used, ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’. Drying was performed at different temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C and weighing procedures were made continuously. The experimental data were expressed as moisture ratio. The Page model showed the best fit to the drying kinetics of minimally processed ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots, with the best coefficients of determination and Chi-square. Peleg and Wang & Singh models can not be used to simulate the drying of ‘Gigante’ and ‘Miúda’ prickly pear shoots within the evaluated range of temperatures, showing an incoherent graphic pattern.

  6. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  7. beta-Blockade used in precision sports: effect on pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, P; Ladefoged, J; Nielsen, U; Paulev, P E; Sørensen, J P

    1986-08-01

    In a double-blind cross-over study of 33 marksmen (standard pistol, 25 m) the adrenergic beta 1-receptor blocker, metoprolol, was compared to placebo. Metoprolol obviously improved the pistol shooting performance compared with placebo. Shooting improved by 13.4% of possible improvement (i.e., 600 points minus actual points obtained) as an average (SE = 4%, 2P less than 0.002). The most skilled athletes demonstrated the clearest metoprolol improvement. We found no correlation between the shooting improvement and changes in the cardiovascular variables (i.e., changes of heart rate and systolic blood pressure) and no correlation to the estimated maximum O2 uptake. The shooting improvement is an effect of metoprolol on hand tremor. Emotional increase of heart rate and systolic blood pressure seem to be a beta 1-receptor phenomenon.

  8. Absence of Hg transpiration by shoot after Hg uptake by roots of six terrestrial plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria; Wang Yaodong; Neuschuetz, Clara

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigated if, and to what extent, six different plant species accumulate, translocate and emit mercury (Hg) into the air. The Hg uptake by roots, distribution of Hg to the shoot and release of Hg via shoots of garden pea, spring wheat, sugar beet, oil-seed rape, white clover and willow were investigated in a transpiration chamber. The airborne Hg was trapped in a Hopcalite trap or a gold trap. Traps and plant materials were analysed for content of Hg by CVAAS. The results show that all plant species were able to take up Hg to a large extent from a nutrient solution containing 200 μg L -1 Hg. However, the Hg translocation to the shoot was low (0.17-2.5%) and the Hg that reached the leaves was trapped and no release of the absorbed Hg to the air was detected. - Mercury translocation to shoots was low

  9. The effect of different doses of caffeine on cardiovascular variables and shooting performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight of caffeine on heart rate, blood pressure and shooting performance among elite shooters.

  10. Phytochrome quantitation in crude extracts of Avena by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, Y; Cordonnier, M M; Pratt, L H

    1983-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which uses both rabbit polyclonal and mouse monoclonal antibodies to phytochrome, has been adapted for quantitation of phytochrome in crude plant extracts. The assay has a detection limit of about 100 pg phytochrome and can be completed within 10 h. Quantitation of phytochrome in crude extracts of etiolated oat seedlings by ELISA gave values that agreed well with those obtained by spectrophotometric assay. When etiolated oat seedlings were irradiated continuously for 24 h, the amount of phytochrome detected by ELISA and by spectrophotometric assay decreased by more than 1000-fold and about 100-fold, respectively. This discrepancy indicates that phytochrome in light-treated plants may be antigenically distinct from that found in fully etiolated plants. When these light-grown oat seedlings were kept in darkness for 48 h, phytochrome content detected by ELISA increased by 50-fold in crude extracts of green oat shoots, but only about 12-fold in extracts of herbicide-treated oat shoots. Phytochrome reaccumulation in green oat shoots was initially more rapid in the more mature cells of the primary leaf tip than near the basal part of the shoot. The inhibitory effect of Norflurazon on phytochrome accumulation was much more evident near the leaf tip than the shoot base. A 5-min red irradiation of oat seedlings at the end of a 48-h dark period resulted in a subsequent, massive decrease in phytochrome content in crude extracts from both green and Norflurazon-bleached oat shoots. These observations eliminate the possibility that substantial accumulation of chromophore-free phytochrome was being detected and indicate that Norflurazon has a substantial effect on phytochrome accumulation during a prolonged dark period. 25 references, 9 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  12. Direct adventitious shoot bud formation on hypocotyls explants in Millettia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi- a biodiesel producing medicinal tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Durga Singh; Jha, Suman Kumar; Jani, Jigar

    2015-04-01

    A reproducible protocol developed for in vitro regeneration of Milletia pinnata using hypocotyl segments. Multiple shoots were induced from hypocotyl explants through direct adventitious shoot bud regeneration. The proximal end of hypocotyls was responsive for shoot bud induction. Silver nitrate and adenine sulphate had a positive effect on shoot bud induction and elongation. The maximum response and number of shoot bud produced in media supplemented with 8.88 μM BAP with 108.6 μM adenine sulphate and 11.84 μM silver nitrate. Elongated shoots were harvested and successful rooting of microshoots achieved on MS media supplemented with 9.84 μM IBA, with 81.1 % rooting. Remaining shoot buds sub-cultured for further multiplication and elongation. Each subculture produced eight to nine elongated microshoots up to four subcultures. The rooted microshoots were successfully hardened and transferred to field.

  13. Studies of Complex Behavior and Their Relation to Trouble Shooting in Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-06-01

    discussed. It has been concluded that the study of human problem • . solving, concept formation, probability learning, and so forth, has i. provided litt 1...five actions) used by men in trouble shooting radio problemson the MASTS , AUTOMI STS, arid a job—sample test . There were five L categories so defined...Defense Human Research Unit ’ s proposed Task MA INTRAIN• will be drawn upon as needed for the non—trouble —shooting topics. I

  14. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Conor D. A.; Lockey, David J.; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Background Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future p...

  15. [Identifying transcription factors involved in Arabidopsis adventious shoot regeneration by RNA-Seq technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchun; Chen, Zhao; Fan, Juan; He, Miaomiao; Han, Yuanhuai; Yang, Zhirong

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the major regulations in plant adventious shoot regeneration, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. In our study, the RNA-seq technology based on the IlluminaHiSeq 2000 sequencing platform was used to identify differentially expressed transcription factor (TF) encoding genes during callus formation stage and adventious shoot regeneration stage between wild type and adventious shoot formation defective mutant be1-3 and during the transition from dedifferentiation to redifferentiation stage in wildtype WS. Results show that 155 TFs were differentially expressed between be1-3 mutant and wild type during callus formation, of which 97 genes were up-regulated, and 58 genes were down-regulated; and that 68 genes were differentially expressed during redifferentiation stage, with 40 genes up-regulated and 28 genes down-regulated; whereas at the transition stage from dedifferentiation to redifferention in WS wild type explants, a total of 231 differentially expressed TF genes were identified, including 160 up-regualted genes and 71 down-regulated genes. Among these TF genes, the adventious shoot related transcription factor 1 (ART1) gene encoding a MYB-related (v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog) TF, was up-regulated 3 217 folds, and was the highest up-regulated gene during be1-3 callus formation. Over expression of the ART1 gene caused defects in callus formation and shoot regeneration and inhibited seedling growth, indicating that the ART1 gene is a negative regulator of callus formation and shoot regeneration. This work not only enriches our knowledge about the transcriptional regulation mechanism of adventious shoot regeneration, but also provides valuable information on candidate TF genes associated with adventious shoot regeneration for future research.

  16. Efficient regeneration of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, from shoot-tip explant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamala, D; Devi, Prathibha

    2003-12-01

    Novel protocols for production of multiple shoot-tip clumps and somatic embryos of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench were developed with long-term goal of crop improvement through genetic transformation. Multiple shoot-tip clumps were developed in vitro from shoot-tip explant of one-week old seedling, cultured on MS medium containing only BA (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/l) or both BA (1 or 2 mg/l) and 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) with bi-weekly subculture. Somatic embryos were directly produced on the enlarged dome shaped growing structures that developed from the shoot-tips of one-week old seedling explants (without any callus formation) when cultured on MS medium supplemented with both 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l). However, the supplementation of MS medium with only 2,4-D (0.5 mg/l) induced compact callus without any plantlet regeneration. Each multiple shoot-clump was capable of regenerating more than 80 shoots via an intensive differentiation of both axillary and adventitious shoot buds, the somatic embryos were capable of 90% germination, plant conversion and regeneration. The regenerated shoots could be efficiently rooted on MS medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 1 mg/l). The plants were successfully transplanted to glasshouse and grown to maturity with a survival rate of 98%. Morphogenetic response of the explants was found to be genotypically independent.

  17. The FANTASTIC FOUR proteins influence shoot meristem size in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Vanessa; Brand, Luise H; Guo, Ya-Long; Schmid, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Throughout their lives plants produce new organs from groups of pluripotent cells called meristems, located at the tips of the shoot and the root. The size of the shoot meristem is tightly controlled by a feedback loop, which involves the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) and the CLAVATA (CLV) proteins. This regulatory circuit is further fine-tuned by morphogenic signals such as hormones and sugars. Results Here we show that a family of four plant-specific pro...

  18. Roles of abscisic acid and auxin in shoot-supplied ammonium inhibition of root system development

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Baohai; Li, Qing; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2011-01-01

    A plastic root system is a prerequisite for successful plant acclimation to variable environments. The normally functioning root system is the result of a complex interaction of root-borne signals and shoot-derived regulators. We recently demonstrated that AUX1, a well-studied component of auxin transport, mediates shoot-supplied ammonium (SSA) inhibition of lateral root (LR) formation in Arabidopsis. By contrast, the response did not involve ABA pathways, via which several other abiotic stre...

  19. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  20. Fatal school shootings and the epidemiological context of firearm mortality in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, James M; Cohen, Alyssa M; Muschert, Glenn W; Flores de Apodaca, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Background The December 14, 2012 mass shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut, USA, vaulted concerns regarding gun violence to the forefront of public attention. This high-visibility incident occurred within the epidemiological context of U.S. firearm mortality that claims more than 88 lives daily. Methods National epidemiologic data on firearm deaths over two decades were analyzed along with data registries on school shootings in order to place the tragedy at Sandy H...

  1. Differences between height- and light-dependent changes in shoot traits in five deciduous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Okabe, Yoshihiko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf and shoot traits is important for the scaling of these traits to individual trees. We investigated the biomass allocation and structure of current-year shoots at the top of the crowns of five deciduous tree species in Japan. Height effect was investigated by comparing shoot traits among trees of different heights growing under a high light environment. The effects of light were examined by comparing saplings growing in high- and low-light environments. The effects of light were significant for most traits, while those of height were not significant for some traits. The magnitudes of the effects of light were larger than those of height for most traits related to biomass allocation. There was an extreme difference between the effects of height and light in the direction of change in the length of current-year shoots and in the number of standing leaves. The measures of both parameters increased with the increase in light, but decreased with the increase in tree height. Thus, the effects of height and light on diverse traits at the level of current-year shoots were not always similar. These results suggest that great care must be taken when scaling shoot traits from small trees to tall trees because the effects of height and light can be complex.

  2. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  3. Giant panda foraging and movement patterns in response to bamboo shoot growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingchun; Zhang, Zhizhong; Li, Zhong; Hong, Mingsheng; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhou, Shiqiang; Zhang, Jindong; Hull, Vanessa; Huang, Jinyan; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-03-01

    Diet plays a pivotal role in dictating behavioral patterns of herbivorous animals, particularly specialist species. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is well-known as a bamboo specialist. In the present study, the response of giant pandas to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo shoots was explored using field surveys and GPS collar tracking. Results show the dynamics in panda-bamboo space-time relationships that have not been previously articulated. For instance, we found a higher bamboo stump height of foraged bamboo with increasing elevation, places where pandas foraged later in spring when bamboo shoots become more fibrous and woody. The time required for shoots to reach optimum height for foraging was significantly delayed as elevation increased, a pattern which corresponded with panda elevational migration patterns beginning from the lower elevational end of Fargesia robusta distribution and gradually shifting upward until the end of the shooting season. These results indicate that giant pandas can respond to spatiotemporal variation of bamboo resources, such as available shoots. Anthropogenic interference of low-elevation F. robusta habitat should be mitigated, and conservation attention and increased monitoring should be given to F. robusta areas at the low- and mid-elevation ranges, particularly in the spring shooting season.

  4. Shoot Organogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Lysionotus serratus D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiansheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gesneriaceous perennial plant, Lysionotus serratus, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. It also has a great development potential as an ornamental plant with its attractive foliage and beautiful flowers. An efficient propagation and regeneration system via direct shoot organogenesis from leaf explant was established in this study. High active cytokinin (6-benzyladenine (BA or thidiazuron (TDZ was effective for direct organogenesis of initial induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS growth media containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone or with combination of 0.1 mg L−1  α-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA were the most effective for shoot proliferation. High BA concentration (1.0 mg L−1 in the media caused high percentage of vitrified shoots though they introduced high shoot proliferation rate. Histological observation indicated that adventitious shoot regeneration on the medium containing 0.5 mg L−1 BA alone occurred directly from leaf epidermal cells without callus formation. Regenerated shoots rooted well on medium containing half-strength MS medium with 0.5 mg L−1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, and the plantlets successfully acclimatized and grew vigorously in the greenhouse with a 94.2% and 92.1% survival rate.

  5. The impact of personality traits and professional experience on police officers' shooting performance under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect.

  6. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, G; Sankaranarayanan, R; Jeeva, S; Rajarathinam, K

    2011-06-01

    To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 µM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (Pdulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 µM KI and 4.44 µM BAP) 2.85 µM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 µM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.

  7. Strategies of copper tolerance in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latef, A.A.H.; Alhmad, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dry mass and some physiological parameters were investigated in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO/sub 4/ (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg/sup -1/) for 15 days. Low Cu concentration did not affect dry mass of root and shoot. However, the negative effect of copper on dry mass was noticed in root than shoot especially at the higher concentrations of copper due to the accumulation of Cu was higher in root than that in shoot. Cu induced changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, Zn, K and Ca. Exposure to Cu induced the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugar, soluble protein and total free amino acids) in root than shoot. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was correlated with the concentration of Cu in broad bean tissues. Copper stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and this stimulation was more obvious in shoot than root. (author)

  8. Capability and opportunity in hot shooting performance: Evidence from top-scoring NBA leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the “hot hand fallacy.” To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015–2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders’ shooting performances. We first reflect on the meaning of “hot hand” and the “Matthew effect” in actual basketball competition. Second, this study employs statistical models to integrate three different shooting perspectives (field goal percentage, points scored, and attempts). This study’s findings shed new light not only on the existence or nonexistence of streaks, but on the roles of capability and opportunity in NBA hot shooting. Furthermore, we show how hot shooting performances resulting from capability and opportunity lead to actual differences for teams. PMID:29432458

  9. Capability and opportunity in hot shooting performance: Evidence from top-scoring NBA leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Chuan

    2018-01-01

    In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the "hot hand fallacy." To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015-2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders' shooting performances. We first reflect on the meaning of "hot hand" and the "Matthew effect" in actual basketball competition. Second, this study employs statistical models to integrate three different shooting perspectives (field goal percentage, points scored, and attempts). This study's findings shed new light not only on the existence or nonexistence of streaks, but on the roles of capability and opportunity in NBA hot shooting. Furthermore, we show how hot shooting performances resulting from capability and opportunity lead to actual differences for teams.

  10. Capability and opportunity in hot shooting performance: Evidence from top-scoring NBA leaders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Chuan Chang

    Full Text Available In basketball games, whenever players successfully shoot in streaks, they are expected to demonstrate heightened performance for a stretch of time. Streak shooting in basketball has been debated for more than three decades, but most studies have provided little significant statistical evidence and have labeled random subjective judgments the "hot hand fallacy." To obtain a broader perspective of the hot hand phenomenon and its accompanying influences on the court, this study uses field goal records and optical tracking data from the official NBA database for the entire 2015-2016 season to analyze top-scoring leaders' shooting performances. We first reflect on the meaning of "hot hand" and the "Matthew effect" in actual basketball competition. Second, this study employs statistical models to integrate three different shooting perspectives (field goal percentage, points scored, and attempts. This study's findings shed new light not only on the existence or nonexistence of streaks, but on the roles of capability and opportunity in NBA hot shooting. Furthermore, we show how hot shooting performances resulting from capability and opportunity lead to actual differences for teams.

  11. Assessment of carbon sources on in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.H.; Jan, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative approach for in vitro shoot regeneration by both direct and indirect means was developed in three tomato genotypes culturing hypocotyls and leaf discs explants on MS and N6 basal media fortified with various concentrations of carbon sources (sucrose and sorbitol) individually, accumulatively and also in amalgamation with various plant growth regulators. No response of in vitro shoot regeneration was recorded in all the genotypes by the individual application of carbon sources in both MS and N6 basal media. On the other hand, their accumulative effect rapidly enhanced the in vitro shoot regeneration frequency in all the genotypes. The highest shoot organogenesis frequency (100, 99.00 and 97.69%) was recorded in Rio Grande, Roma and Moneymaker, respectively on MS medium fortified with carbon sources (30: 30 g/l) culturing hypocotyls. Supplementation of sucrose: sorbitol (30: 30 g/l) in N6 medium along with different PGRs (0.1 mg/l IAA, 1.0 mg/l ZEA and 2.0 mg/l BAP) produced the highest shoot regeneration frequency (96.33, 92.69 and 88.74%) in Roma, Rio Grande and Moneymaker culturing leaf discs. Our findings suggest an alternative approach as hormone-free protocol for in vitro shoot regeneration in tomato that would save the resources with regard to hormonal costs and time. (author)

  12. Evolutionary potential of root chemical defense: genetic correlations with shoot chemistry and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D; Salminen, J-P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2012-08-01

    Root herbivores can affect plant fitness, and roots often contain the same secondary metabolites that act as defenses in shoots, but the ecology and evolution of root chemical defense have been little investigated. Here, we investigated genetic variance, heritability, and correlations among defensive phenolic compounds in shoot vs. root tissues of common evening primrose, Oenothera biennis. Across 20 genotypes, there were roughly similar concentrations of total phenolics in shoots vs. roots, but the allocation of particular phenolics to shoots vs. roots varied along a continuum of genotype growth rate. Slow-growing genotypes allocated 2-fold more of the potential pro-oxidant oenothein B to shoots than roots, whereas fast-growing genotypes had roughly equivalent above and belowground concentrations. Phenolic concentrations in both roots and shoots were strongly heritable, with mostly positive patterns of genetic covariation. Nonetheless, there was genotype-specific variation in the presence/absence of two major ellagitannins (oenothein A and its precursor oenothein B), indicating two different chemotypes based on alterations in this chemical pathway. Overall, the presence of strong genetic variation in root defenses suggests ample scope for the evolution of these compounds as defenses against root herbivores.

  13. Sustainable house construction and green financing. Explanation for 'green mortgages'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Dutch government finances the sustainable construction of new houses by means of so-called 'green loans'. Extra costs for the construction of a sustainable house are compensated by a lower interest rate for a green loan. In this brochure it is explained when green financing of house construction is possible and how to apply for such loans

  14. Putting on the green

    Science.gov (United States)

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  15. Green, Brown, and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kai Lai

    1995-01-01

    This volume shows modern probabilistic methods in action: Brownian Motion Process as applied to the electrical phenomena investigated by Green et al., beginning with the Newton-Coulomb potential and ending with solutions by first and last exits of Brownian paths from conductors.

  16. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  17. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  18. The Green Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  19. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  20. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their