WorldWideScience

Sample records for greenhouse tomato yield

  1. Cherry tomato yield in greenhouses with different plastic covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different plastic covers on microclimate and cherry tomato yield in greenhouses. The experiments were carried out in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo (Brazil, during three growing periods (2008/2009/2010. A greenhouse was divided in: Environment I (EI - covered with plastic film anti-UV and thermo-reflective shading screen, and Environment II (EII - covered with diffusive plastic film; monitored with automatic weather sensors; and cultivated with cherry tomato (‘Sweet Grape’ and ‘Sweet Million’. Use of diffusive plastic in greenhouses provides a better inside distribution of solar energy without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, resulting in higher yield (kg plant-1, fruits quantity (number plant-1 and fruits average weight than those obtained under thermo-reflective shading screen.

  2. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Plant and Fruit Yield in Greenhouse Organic Tomato Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Ulusu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production is in the first place in Turkey, 34% of total tomato production (3.614.472 tonnes is under greenhouse conditions. The increase in yield in Turkey is due to the spread of undergrowth cultivation besides the use of qualified varieties and seeds. Synthetic fertilizers can’t be used to obtain economic efficiency in underground organic tomato growing Therefore, the application of alternative fertilizers (barn stubble, green manure, organic fertilizer, vermicompost etc. needs to be improved. For this purpose, effect of the eight different fertilizer combination including organic and worm liquid fertilizer, humic acid and mycorrhizae applications on tomato plant and fruit yield were investigated in the study. Negative check without any fertilizer application growing and a positive check; a synthetic liquid fertilizer application was included. Experiment was set up according to completely randomised block design with 3 replications under greenhouse conditions. Tomato fruit length, diameter and weight was determined as fruit yield and fresh and dry weight as plant yield. There was not any statistical difference among fertilizer applications for fruit and plant yield. However, the highest tomato fruit yield was obtained in the treatments of organic (7.17 kg/ plot and worm fertilizers (4,80 kg/ plot in combination with mycorrhizae. The results were similar for fruit diameter and length. Plant fresh and dry weight was between 2.01 to 5.92 and 0.368 to 1.153 kg, respectively. The highest plant weight was belong to mycorrhizae and organic fertilizer application.

  3. Yields and Nutritional of Greenhouse Tomato in Response to Different Soil Aeration Volume at two depths of Subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Wenquan; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Jingwei; Zou, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1.5 times standard aeration volume compared with the no-aeration treatment. An interaction between aeration level and depth of irrigation line was also observed with yield, fruit number, fruit length, vitamin C and sugar/acid ratio of greenhouse tomato increasing at each aeration level when irrigation lines were placed at 40 cm depth. However, when the irrigation lines were 15 cm deep, the trend of total fruit yields, fruit width, fruit length and sugar/acid ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing aeration level. Total soluble solids and titrable acid decreased with increasing aeration level both at 15 and 40 cm irrigation line placement. When all of the quality factors, yields and economic benefit are considered together, the combination of 40 cm line depth and “standard” aeration level was the optimum combination. PMID:27995970

  4. Vermicompost Improves Tomato Yield and Quality and the Biochemical Properties of Soils with Different Tomato Planting History in a Greenhouse Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Xin; Zhao, Fengyan; Zhang, Guoxian; Zhang, Yongyong; Yang, Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    A greenhouse pot test was conducted to study the impacts of replacing mineral fertilizer with organic fertilizers for one full growing period on soil fertility, tomato yield and quality using soils with different tomato planting history. Four types of fertilization regimes were compared: (1) conventional fertilizer with urea, (2) chicken manure compost, (3) vermicompost, and (4) no fertilizer. The effects on plant growth, yield and fruit quality and soil properties (including microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, soil water-soluble organic carbon, soil pH and electrical conductivity) were investigated in samples collected from the experimental soils at different tomato growth stages. The main results showed that: (1) vermicompost and chicken manure compost more effectively promoted plant growth, including stem diameter and plant height compared with other fertilizer treatments, in all three types of soil; (2) vermicompost improved fruit quality in each type of soil, and increased the sugar/acid ratio, and decreased nitrate concentration in fresh fruit compared with the CK treatment; (3) vermicompost led to greater improvements in fruit yield (74%), vitamin C (47%), and soluble sugar (71%) in soils with no tomato planting history compared with those in soils with long tomato planting history; and (4) vermicompost led to greater improvements in soil quality than chicken manure compost, including higher pH (averaged 7.37 vs. averaged 7.23) and lower soil electrical conductivity (averaged 204.1 vs. averaged 234.6 μS/cm) at the end of experiment in each type of soil. We conclude that vermicompost can be recommended as a fertilizer to improve tomato fruit quality and yield and soil quality, particularly for soils with no tomato planting history.

  5. Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dorai , Martine; Papadopoulos , Athanasios; Gosselin , André

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The osmotic and ionic effects of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution and its interactions with climatic factors and cultural practices on tomato yield and fruit quality are reviewed. Adjusting the salinity of the nutrient solution allows growers to modify water availability to the crop and hence improve fruit quality. At some point, however, increases in salinity limit marketable yield. Under high ECs, fruit size is inversely related to EC while t...

  6. Studies on improvement of tomato productivity in a large-scale greenhouse: Prediction of tomato yield based on integrated solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisaeda, K.; Nishina, H.

    2007-01-01

    As there are currently many large-scale production facilities that have contracts with the large retailing companies, accurate prediction of yield is necessary. The present study developed a method to predict tomato yield accurately using the data on the outside solar radiation. The present study was conducted in a Venlo-type greenhouse (29,568 square m) at Sera Farm Co., Ltd. in Sera-cho in Hiroshima prefecture. The cultivar used for this experiment was plum tomato. The sowing took place on July 18, the planting took place on August 30, and the harvesting started on October 9, 2002. The planting density was 2.5 plants msup(-2). As the results of the analysis of correlation between the weekly tomato yield and the integrated solar radiation for the period from October 7 to July 28 (43 weeks), the highest correlation (r = 0.518) between the weekly tomato yield and the solar radiation integrated from seven to one weeks before the harvesting was observed. Further investigation by the same correlation analysis was conducted for the 25 weeks period from December 8 to May 26, during which time the effect of growing stages and air temperature were considered to be relatively small. The results showed the highest correlation (r = 0.730) between the weekly tomato yield and the solar radiation integrated from eight to one weeks before the harvesting. The tomato yield occasionally needed to be adjusted at Sera Farm. Consequently, the correlation between the three-week moving average of tomato yield and the integrated solar radiation was calculated. The results showed the highest correlation was obtained for the period from eight to one weeks before the harvesting (r = 0.860). This study therefore showed that it was possible to predict the tomato yield (y: kg.msup(-2).weeksup(-1)) using the following equation on the solar radiation integrated from eight to one weeks before the harvesting(x: MJ.msup(-2)): y = 7.50 x 10 sup(-6)x + 0.148 (rsup(2) = 0.740)

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiukang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013 study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10” growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 23 and 20 days after transplanting in 2012 and 2013, respectively. As individual factors, irrigation and fertilizer significantly affected the leaf expansion rate, but irrigation × fertilizer had no statistically significant effect on the leaf growth rate at 23 days after transplanting in 2012. Dry biomass accumulation was significantly influenced by fertilizer in both years, but there was no significant difference in irrigation treatment in 2012. Our study showed that an increased irrigation level increased the fruit yield of tomatoes and decreased the WUE. The fruit yield and WUE increased with the increased fertilizer rate. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation than to fertilization. An irrigation amount of 151 to 208 mm and a fertilizer amount of 454 to 461 kg·ha−1 (nitrogen fertilizer, 213.5–217 kg·ha−1; phosphate fertilizer, 106.7–108 kg·ha−1; and potassium fertilizer, 133.4–135.6 kg·ha−1 were recommended for the drip fertigation of tomatoes in greenhouse.

  8. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Daniel Ortega-Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill is the world's second most important vegetable. In Mexico, the crop gains economic and social relevance by the generation of foreign exchange and jobs, the production systems of this vegetable have been diversified in order to increase performance, incorporating innovative technologies such as plastic covers, drop irrigation and hydroponics. One of the main factors determining the success of the crop is the substrate, being the medium in which roots were developed which have great influence on the growth and development. In thisstudy, we evaluated during the crop season 2008-2009, the effect of substrate: pine sawdust, compost of sheep manure, agricultural land and red volcanic rock, on growth and yield of tomato. The experimental design used was randomized complete block with four repetitions and ten treatments were evaluated results from a combination of substrates in a volume of 1:1, each experimental unit consisted of four plants, the studied variables were subjected to an analysis of variance (ANOVA using the statistical package Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. The genotype used was Sun 7705. Significant differences between substrates, composting with sawdust mixing affected to a greater response for the variables height 4.61 m, 2.1 cm thick of stem, the fruits of greater weight 107.8 g, yield per plant and 4 kg and 25 kg/m-2. However, the number of flowers and clusters was higher in the sawdust substrate, so the composting with sawdust mixture may be a viable option for greenhouse tomato production.

  9. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

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    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  10. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  11. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  12. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  13. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

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    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  14. Greenhouse Tomato Producers’ Views on Soilless Agriculture in Antalya

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    Bilge Gözener

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato comes as the most commonly produced, consumed and subject for trading in the world. Alongside fresh consumption, on the other hand it forms the most significant raw material source of food industry, especially for tomato paste, frozen and dried vegetable-fruit and canned food industry. Turkey's greenhouse vegetable production field for 2016 year is 675173 decars and Antalya forms 51% of this field. Tomato forms 61.72% of Antalya's greenhouse production. The main material of the research consists of interviews made with producers resided in 5 villages/towns, where greenhouse tomato production is carried out densely in Antalya city, Alanya district. In 48 villages and towns, greenhouse tomato production is carried out, according to the official records. In the chosen areas, 365 producers exist. 20% of these producers (73 form the sample size. In the research, it was determined that the producers' average agricultural land possession is 9.13 decars and in 40.53% of these areas they grew tomatoes. None of these producers are engaged in contractual growing. All of the yield is produced for the edible (as table-top item. After the harvest, all of the products are sold in the wholesales market in county and city. 7.89% of the producers have no information on soilless agriculture, as 10.52% of them think that it has no advantages and 73.36% of them recommend traditional agriculture.

  15. Introgressions of Lycopersicon pennellii improve growth and development of greenhouse tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manga Owona, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis focused on the possibilities to improve greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Moneymaker) in terms of yield. The domestic tomato has a very narrow genetic base which makes breeding for better performance a difficult task. The wild, crossable relatives of tomato present the

  16. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  17. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  18. Economics-based optimal control of greenhouse tomato crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tap, F.

    2000-01-01

    The design and testing of an optimal control algorithm, based on scientific models of greenhouse and tomato crop and an economic criterion (goal function), to control greenhouse climate, is described. An important characteristic of this control is that it aims at maximising an economic

  19. Analysis of greenhouse tomato production in relation to salinity and shoot environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.L.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the yield loss caused by saline irrigation water in greenhouse tomato cultivation, and the way climate manipulation may be used to limit damage. The hypothesis is that by "controlling" the evaporative demand of the ambient, it is possible to manipulate plant water

  20. Rendimento comercial do tomateiro em resposta à salinização ocasionada pela fertigação em ambiente protegido Commercial yield of tomato in response to salinization caused by fertigation under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska M. Eloi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento comercial da cultura do tomate em resposta a diferentes níveis de salinidade e manejo da fertigação sob ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido em duas etapas, sendo a primeira desenvolvida no Laboratório de Solos e a segunda realizada em ambiente protegido, ambos localizados no Departamento de Engenharia de Biossistemas da ESALQ/USP, em Piracicaba. A primeira etapa consistiu de testes preliminares que possibilitaram a construção de curvas de salinização artificial, visando a salinização artificial do solo; na segunda etapa, conduziu-se a cultura utilizando-se seis níveis de salinidade inicial do solo e dois tipos de manejo. Observou-se que o aumento da salinidade do solo reduziu o rendimento comercial da cultura. Para valores de condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação (CEes acima de 3,17 dS m-1, a produção relativa decresce 11,79% por aumento unitário da CEes. A cultivar de tomate Débora Plus apresentou maior tolerância à salinidade do que o encontrado na literatura (2,5 dS m-1.The objective of this study was to evaluate tomato crop and its commercial yield in response to different salinity levels and management of fertigation under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted in two stages, being the first realized in the Laboratory of Soils and second accomplished in plastic greenhouse, both located in Department of Biosystems Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The first stage consisted of preliminary tests that made possible the construction of curves of soil salinization, for artificial salinization of the soil. In the second stage the effect of six levels of soil salinity and two types of crop management were studied. The increase of the soil salinity reduced the commercial crop yield. For values of electrical conductivity of the saturation extract over 3.17 dS m-1, production decreases by 11.79% per unit increase. "Débora Plus

  1. Desenvolvimento e produtividade do tomateiro sob diferentes freqüências de irrigação em estufa Tomato development and yield under different irrigation frequencies in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina CM Pires

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento de plantas em substrato em cultivo protegido requer conhecimento técnico apropriado para uso racional e eficientede água e de nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis freqüências de irrigação no desenvolvimento e na produção do tomateiro cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido em Campinas, de novembro de 2003 a abril de 2004. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em seis freqüências de irrigação: cinco, quatro, três, duas, uma vez por dia e irrigação em dias alternados. A irrigação foi aplicada por gotejamento. O substrato utilizado foi o composto de fibra de coco. As freqüências de irrigação de uma, três, quatro e cinco vezes por dia resultaram nas maiores produções de frutos comerciáveis de tomateiro. O maior número e peso médio dos frutos foram obtidos nos tratamentos com freqüência de irrigação de uma, duas, três, quatro e cinco vezes por dia. As freqüências de irrigação de uma vez por dia e em dias alternados proporcionaram maior número de frutos não comerciáveis (fundo preto.Plant cultivation in substrate under greenhouse conditions needs technical knowledge to promote water and nutrient use efficiency. In this work were evaluated the tomato development and yield under different irrigation frequencies cultivated in greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, from November, 2003 to April, 2004. The experimental design consisted of six treatments in randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments consisted of the irrigation frequencies: five, four, three, two and one times a day and irrigation on alternating days. The irrigation was applied by drip irrigation system. The substrate consisted of coconut fiber. The one, three, four and five times a day irrigation frequency provided better total marketable tomato yield

  2. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

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    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  3. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... compost had greater effect in improving tomato productivity. A decade-long application of composts on loamy sand improved basic chemical and physical properties which were reflected in increased fruit yield in tomato. Since no negative effect of compost was observed, we suggest that sandy soils may serve...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...

  4. Influence of Pollination Technique on Greenhouse Tomato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.K. Nazer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the effects of four pollination techniques; Bumblebees (Bombus terrerstris L., plant growth bioregulator (PGB (Parachlorophenoxy acetic acid, hand vibration, and control (natural pollination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill production in greenhouses. Bumblebees showed no problem in visiting flowers at a temperature range of 17-42°C during the day and 2-14°C at night. Bumblebee pollinated plants produced a yield per plant which was significantly higher than plants treated with PGB, vibration and the control, respectively. Fruit set of tomato flowers over 10 clusters was 99.1, 96.7, 76.7, and 65.7% for bumblebee treatment, PGB application, vibration and the control, respectively. In the bumblebee pollinated flowers, the quality of fruits was superior. The fruits were hard, with more seeds, and had a high specific gravity and better appearance. The average fruit weight was 100.3, 80.5, 84.1, and 70.6 g for the bumblebee, PGB, vibration and the control, respectively. The PGB treatment produced bigger sized but puffy fruits (108.4 ml. While fruit size in the vibration treatment was the highest (126.8 ml, followed by the bumblebee and the control which were 99.3 and 98.5 ml, respectively. Fruit specific gravity in the bumblebee treatment was significantly higher than other treatments, with no significant differences between the PGB and the vibration treatments. The least dense fruits were in the control treatment. Regarding the firmness of fruits, the bumblebee treatment gave the hardest fruits, while the PGB and the vibration treatments were intermediate and the control was the least. Average seed number per fruit was 177.0, 86.5, 61.8, and 89.8 for bumblebee, vibration, PGB and the control, respectively.

  5. Greenhouse tomato production with electricity generation by roof-mounted flexible solar panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena-Sanchez, Raul; Callejon-Ferre, Angel Jesus; Perez-Alonso, Jose; Carreno-Ortega, Angel [University of Almeria, Depto. de Ingenieia Rural, Almeria (Spain)], E-mail: acallejo@ual.es

    2012-07-15

    The integration of renewable energy sources into greenhouse crop production in southeastern Spain could provide extra income for growers. Wind energy could be captured by small to medium-sized wind turbines, gas could be produced from biomass, and solar energy could be gathered by solar panels. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of flexible solar panels, mounted on top of a greenhouse for electricity production, on yield and fruit quality of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv Daniela). This study was undertaken in a commercial raspa y amagado greenhouse, typical of the Almeria region (Spain). Tomato plantlets were planted at a density of 0.75 plants m{sup -2}. The flexible solar panels were mounted on two parts of the roof in different arrangements (T1 and T2), each blacking out 9.8 % of its surface area. A control area (T0 arrangement) was fitted with no panels. No difference was found in terms of total or marketable production under these three arrangements, although fruit mean mass and maximum diameter of T0 were significantly greater than T1 and T2. Fruit in T0 matured earlier with more intense color compared with those in T1 and T2. However, these differences had no effect on price as the tomatoes produced under three conditions fell into the same commercial class (G class; diameter 67-81 mm). Solar panels covering 9.8 % roof area of the greenhouse did not affect yield and price of tomatoes despite of their negative effect on fruit size and color. (author)

  6. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield of tomato, and later application in the growing stages favours fruit development, thus nitrogen has a dramatic effect on tomato growth and development ..... CRBD design in factorial experiment using SAS analytical Software. ..... with relatively fertile soil experimental conditions there is no existence of joint factor.

  7. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  8. Decision Support System (DSS) for prevention of Botrytis in tomato in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, de, P.H.B.; Nannes, L.; Bokhoven, van, E.H.; Buwalda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Interreg project ‘Gezonde Kas’ a decision support system (DSS) for Botrytis risk in tomato was developed. This report fi rst summarizes existing knowledge on botrytis in tomato. The quantitative relationships are subsequently laid down in computer code. This code formed the basis of a dynamic simulation model to predict the risk on botrytis in a tomato crop. The model requires input from the climate computer of the greenhouse, and can also manage input from manual ...

  9. Manipulating Sensory and Phytochemical Profiles of Greenhouse Tomatoes Using Environmentally Relevant Doses of Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovich, Michael P; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mitchell, Cary A

    2016-09-14

    Fruits harvested from off-season, greenhouse-grown tomato plants have a poor reputation compared to their in-season, garden-grown counterparts. Presently, there is a gap in knowledge with regard to the role of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) in determining greenhouse tomato quality. Knowing that UV-B is a powerful elicitor of secondary metabolism and not transmitted through greenhouse glass and some greenhouse plastics, we tested the hypothesis that supplemental UV-B radiation in the greenhouse will impart quality attributes typically associated with garden-grown tomatoes. Environmentally relevant doses of supplemental UV-B radiation did not strongly affect antioxidant compounds of fruits, although the flavonol quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) significantly increased in response to UV-B. Physicochemical metrics of fruit quality attributes and consumer sensory panels were used to determine if any such differences altered consumer perception of tomato quality. Supplemental UV-A radiation (315-400 nm) pre-harvest treatments enhanced sensory perception of aroma, acidity, and overall approval, suggesting a compelling opportunity to environmentally enhance the flavor of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. The expression of the genes COP1 and HY5 were indicative of adaptation to UV radiation, which explains the lack of marked effects reported in these studies. To our knowledge, these studies represent the first reported use of environmentally relevant doses of UV radiation throughout the reproductive portion of the tomato plant life cycle to positively enhance the sensory and chemical properties of fruits.

  10. The effects of humic acid on nutrient status yield and quality of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Işıl DEMİRTAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase organic matter content of soil, humic acid application is the most economic and fast method. In this study, the effects of humic acid and their dosages (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 L da-1 on nutritional, status of tomato and yield-quality were investigated. During the growing period, a dose of NPK was applied through drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out according to randomized complete block design with four replications under greenhouse conditions in 2011-2013 autumn tomato growing season. In order to determine effects of humic acid, plant and leaves fruit were analyzed during the experiment. The results of analysis showed that increases of N, P, K, Fe, Cu content of tomato leaves was found important whereas Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn and B content was not important statistically. The effect of humic acid+NPK applications on fruit quality of tomato was positive. Fruit yield was increased by humic acid applications compared to control.

  11. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    G. I. Yarovoy; V. I. Kuzmenko

    2017-01-01

    The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were ...

  12. Chemical oxifertigation through the irrigation of greenhouse hydroponic tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) as an oxygen source in the rhizosphere, in grafted tomato (cv. Durinta/cv Maxifor) and using coconut fiber as substrate. The study was conducted form 2009 to 2010 the study. Two treatments were used: a control without (H_2O_2) (T_0) and the other with used: a control without (H_2O_2) (T_1) applied in each irrigation. The parameters evaluated were: i- fertigation: oxygen concentration ([O_2]). pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and drainage percentage; ii- growth: basal diameter and plant height; iii- yield and iv- fruit quality: firmness, Brix degrees, dry weight, and pH. The average value of [O_2] in the irrigation solution through out the crop cycle increased from 9,92 mg/l at T_0 to 12,1 mg/ at T_1 (P [es

  13. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  14. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamyansurehn, D [Institut Fiziki i Matematiki Akademii Nauk Mongol' skoj Narodnoj Respubliki, Ulan Bator; Voloozh, D

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit.

  15. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhamyansurehn, D.; Voloozh, D.

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit. (author)

  16. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xingkai; Liu, Xiumei; Wang, Hongyan; Ji, Xiaoxue; Wang, Kaiyun; Wei, Min; Qiao, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1), respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  17. Effect of Emamectin Benzoate on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingkai Cheng

    Full Text Available Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita is an obligate, sedentary endoparasite of more than 3000 plant species, that causes heavy economic losses and limit the development of protected agriculture of China. As a biological pesticide, emamectin benzoate has effectively prevented lepidopteran pests; however, its efficacy to control M. incognita remains unknown. The purpose of the present study was to test soil application of emamectin benzoate for management of M. incognita in laboratory, greenhouse and field trials. Laboratory results showed that emamectin benzoate exhibited high toxicity to M. incognita, with LC50 and LC90 values 3.59 and 18.20 mg L(-1, respectively. In greenhouse tests, emamectin benzoate soil application offered good efficacy against M. incognita while maintaining excellent plant growth. In field trials, emamectin benzoate provided control efficacy against M. incognita and resulted in increased tomato yields. Compared with the untreated control, there was a 36.5% to 81.3% yield increase obtained from all treatments and the highest yield was received from the highest rate of emamectin benzoate. The results confirmed that emamectin benzoate has enormous potential for the control of M. incognita in tomato production in China.

  18. Modelling and evaluation of productivity and economic feasibility of a combined production of tomato and algae in Dutch greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, B.; Sapounas, A.; Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, S.

    2014-01-01

    Combination of production of algae and tomato increases efficient use of available resources of greenhouse enterprises, such as controlled environment, water and nutrients, carbon dioxide, greenhouse space and infrastructure and knowledge. No information is available, however, about the potential

  19. Chemical oxifertigation through the irrigation of greenhouse hydroponic tomato crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Soto-Bravo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available   The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxygen source in the rhizosphere, in grafted tomato (cv. Durinta/cv Maxifor and using coconut fiber as substrate The study was conducted from 2009 to 2010. Two treatments were used: a control without (H2O2 (T0 and the other with H2O2 (T1 applied in each irrigation. The parameters evaluated were i- fertigation: oxygen concentration ([O2], pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and drainage percentage; ii- growth: basal diameter and plant height; iii- yield and iv- fruit quality: firmness, Brix degrees, dry weight, and pH. The average value of [O2] in the irrigation solution through out the crop cycle increased from 9,92 mg/l at T0 to 12,1 mg/l at T1 (P<0,05, meanwhile in the drained solution the value increased from 8,75 mg/l at T0 to 9,22 mg/l at T1 (P<0,05. Although significant differences (P<0.05 were reached in the [O2] between treatments during some periods of the crop cycle, the [O2] in the T0 did not reach a critical threshold that would affect the proper oxygenation of the roots. Therefore, there was no effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on the growth, productivity and quality of the fruit.

  20. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From an economic viewpoint, tomato is considered as the second most valuable crop after potato. It is also preceded by the potato in terms of per capita consumption in the world. In 2008, the cultivation area used for the tomato as equal to 163,539 hectares in Iran and the production of it was equal to 5,887,715 tons with an average production of 117,887 tons in 4352 hectares in the provinces, respectively. Having high production volume and quality, costly hybrid seeds are currently used for the major planting areas of vegetable in Iran. Most of the used transplanted seedlings are 83%. Since the seeds are expensive, the percentage of seedlings and healthy and disease-free seeds should be used for maximized germination and be transferred to the fields of open space. Preparing seedlings in transplanting trays is a technology to respond to this need. Trays are covered with a layer of Peat and Miculite fertilizers. Then, one seed is manually placed in each cell after gauging and preparing a suitable field. However, manually placing seeds is time-consuming and requires hard labor. Sixteen working labors per hour are required for 15 × 7 cell in order to have 10200 seedlings grown in 100 trays. Due to lack of adequate labor, production capacity of greenhouses is reduced, especially in the farming season when finding labor for planting vegetable sprouts is laborious. Therefore, mechanizing tray seeding operations is essential to increase the capacity of the growing industry of greenhouses in Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, the tomato seeds were examined in the laboratory. The most important parameters of the study included size, shape, weight, the speed of getting out of the tank and the minimum carrying speed. Then, a vacuum-based single seed picking unit was prepared to investigate the factors influencing the design, so that a single tomato seed can be harvested from the masses. The most important factors considered in the

  1. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  2. Nitrogen utilization efficiency and yield response of drip-irrigated tomatoes grown in the glass house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil, as a single crop production, heated only for anti frost, was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0, 50, 100 or 150 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P,K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was equivalent to that amount applied through a single dripper. These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 400 kgN/ha that was equivalent to 100 mgN/l treatment. The resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha.The total amount of water applied was 427mm. The results obtainedshowed that the percentage fertilizer utilization by the tomatoes was the highest in 50 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment, 100 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) treatment, was on the second row, the percentage fertilizer utilization in 150 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) and soil applications (400 kgN/ha) were the same and were significantly lower than the other treatments. The highest yield was achieved in the 100 and 150 mgN/l (400 and 600 kgN/ha) treatments. This experiment demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes to obtain high yield in production under greenhouse conditions

  3. Can Tomato Inoculation with Trichoderma Compensate Yield and Soil Health Deficiency due to Soil Salinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karl; Apostolakis, Antonios; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major soil degradation threat, especially for arid coastal environments where it hinders agricultural production and soil health. Protected horticultural crops in the Mediterranean region, typically under deficit irrigation and intensive cultivation practices, have to cope with increasing irrigation water and soil salinization. This study quantifies the beneficial effects of the Trichoderma harzianum (TH) on the sustainable production of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), a major greenhouse crop of the RECARE project Case Study in Greece, the semi-arid coastal Timpaki basin in south-central Crete. 20 vigorous 20-day-old Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Elpida seedlings are treated with TH fungi (T) or without (N) and transplanted into 35 L pots under greenhouse conditions. Use of local planting soil with initial Electrical Conductivity (ECe) 1.8 dS m-1 and local cultivation practices aim to simulate the prevailing conditions at the Case Study. In order to simulate seawater intrusion affected irrigation, plants are drip irrigated with two NaCl treatments: slightly (S) saline (ECw = 1.1 dS m-1) and moderately (M) saline water (ECw = 3.5 dS m-1), resulting to very high and excessively high ECe, respectively. Preliminary analysis of below and aboveground biomass, soil quality, salinity, and biodiversity indicators, suggest that TH pre-inoculation of tomato plants at both S and M treatments improve yield, soil biodiversity and overall soil health.

  4. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  5. The Energy Balance and Energy-Saving Measures in Greenhouse Tomato Cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Kaarsemaker, R.C.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Braak, van de N.J.; Dueck, T.A.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable and quick assessment of energy conservation measures in greenhouse cultivation supports growers in their operations. Such an overview should quantify the consequences of changes in energy flows for total energy consumption, amount and quality of production, and farm economy. Using tomato as

  6. Developing hygiene protocols against mechanically transmitted pathogens in greenhouse tomato production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse tomato propagation and production require intensive crop work that promotes the spread of mechanically transmitted pathogens (e.g. fungi, bacteria, viruses and viroids). Therefore, a clean seed program is very important to prevent any un-intentional introduction of seed-borne pathogens t...

  7. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    tBiochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase cropproductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield andquality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, theplants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation(PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot waterholding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots,respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry sidedecreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DIand PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield, and quality...

  8. Water use efficiency of tomatoes - in greenhouses and hydroponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2010-01-01

    Massive amounts of water are required for the production of our food, varying from several cubic metres per kilogram of beef to as low as 4 litres per kilogram for tomatoes grown in high-tech glasshouses. This article presents data on Product Water Use (PWU) of some foods and discusses how the water

  9. Review of optimum temperature, humidity, and vapour pressure deficit for microclimate evaluation and control in greenhouse cultivation of tomato: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshiri, Redmond Ramin; Jones, James W.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Ahmad, Desa; Man, Hasfalina Che; Taheri, Sima

    2018-04-01

    Greenhouse technology is a flexible solution for sustainable year-round cultivation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), particularly in regions with adverse climate conditions or limited land and resources. Accurate knowledge about plant requirements at different growth stages, and under various light conditions, can contribute to the design of adaptive control strategies for a more cost-effective and competitive production. In this context, different scientific publications have recommended different values of microclimate parameters at different tomato growth stages. This paper provides a detailed summary of optimal, marginal and failure air and root-zone temperatures, relative humidity and vapour pressure deficit for successful greenhouse cultivation of tomato. Graphical representations of the membership function model to define the optimality degrees of these three parameters are included with a view to determining how close the greenhouse microclimate is to the optimal condition. Several production constraints have also been discussed to highlight the short and long-term effects of adverse microclimate conditions on the quality and yield of tomato, which are associated with interactions between suboptimal parameters, greenhouse environment and growth responses.

  10. Regulation of Vapor Pressure Deficit by Greenhouse Micro-Fog Systems Improved Growth and Productivity of Tomato via Enhancing Photosynthesis during Summer Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalong Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of a proposed micro-fog system in regulating greenhouse environments and enhancing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. productivity during summer season was studied. Experiments were carried out in a multi-span glass greenhouse, which was divided into two identical compartments involving different environments: (1 without environment control and (2 with a micro-fog system operating when the air vapor pressure deficit (VPD of greenhouse was higher than 0.5 KPa. The micro-fog system effectively alleviated heat stress and evaporative demand in the greenhouse during summer season. The physiologically favourable environment maintained by micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced elongation of leaf and stem, which contributed to a substantial elevation of final leaf area and shoot biomass. These improvements in physiological and morphological traits resulted in around 12.3% increase of marketable tomato yield per plant. Relative growth rate (RGR of micro-fog treatment was also significantly higher than control plants, which was mainly determined by the substantial elevation in net assimilation rate (NAR, and to a lesser extent caused by leaf area ratio (LAR. Measurement of leaf gas exchange parameters also demonstrated that micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced leaf photosynthesis capacity. Taken together, manipulation of VPD in greenhouses by micro-fog systems effectively enhanced tomato growth and productivity via improving photosynthesis during summer season.

  11. Regulation of Vapor Pressure Deficit by Greenhouse Micro-Fog Systems Improved Growth and Productivity of Tomato via Enhancing Photosynthesis during Summer Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dalong; Zhang, Zhongdian; Li, Jianming; Chang, Yibo; Du, Qingjie; Pan, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The role of a proposed micro-fog system in regulating greenhouse environments and enhancing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity during summer season was studied. Experiments were carried out in a multi-span glass greenhouse, which was divided into two identical compartments involving different environments: (1) without environment control and (2) with a micro-fog system operating when the air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of greenhouse was higher than 0.5 KPa. The micro-fog system effectively alleviated heat stress and evaporative demand in the greenhouse during summer season. The physiologically favourable environment maintained by micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced elongation of leaf and stem, which contributed to a substantial elevation of final leaf area and shoot biomass. These improvements in physiological and morphological traits resulted in around 12.3% increase of marketable tomato yield per plant. Relative growth rate (RGR) of micro-fog treatment was also significantly higher than control plants, which was mainly determined by the substantial elevation in net assimilation rate (NAR), and to a lesser extent caused by leaf area ratio (LAR). Measurement of leaf gas exchange parameters also demonstrated that micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced leaf photosynthesis capacity. Taken together, manipulation of VPD in greenhouses by micro-fog systems effectively enhanced tomato growth and productivity via improving photosynthesis during summer season.

  12. Tomatoes in oil recovery. [Plant waste additives improve yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The waste from processing tomato, squash and pepper stalks found unexpected use in recovery of oil. Even a negligible amount thereof in an aqueous solution pumped into an oil-bearing formation turned out to be sufficient to increase the yield. Substances of plant origin, which improve dramatically the oil-flushing properties of water, not only increase the recovery of oil, but reduce the volume of fluid to be pumped into the stratum. The staff of the Institute of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, who proved the technological and economical advantages of using the waste from plant processing, transmitted their findings to the oil workers of Baku. The scientists have concluded that there is a good raw material base in this republic for utilizing this method on oil-bearing formations.

  13. Adaptation of a leaf wetness duration model for tomato under Colombian greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production uses structures that protect crops from extreme environmental conditions; however, the climate inside Colombian greenhouses is often not optimal and crops are susceptible to attack by fungal diseases. The use of simulation models for early warnings of attack by diseases have helped to rationalize the use of chemical pesticides by increasing their efficiency when sprayed at critical times of disease onset. The aim of this study was to calibrate the surface wetness energy balance (SWEB model to estimate the leaf wetness duration (LWD for greenhouse tomatoes in the Alto Ricaurte province (Boyaca. For the validation, the performances of the SWEB model were evaluated by comparing a simulated LWD with records from dielectric leaf wetness sensors. The model adequately represented the phenomenon of free water on the leaves for plants in two greenhouses of Santa Sofia and Sutamarchan. The model simulated an average LWD of 9.9 and 12.1 hours day-1 in Santa Sofia and Sutamarchan, respectively. However, the simulations for the two greenhouses indicated different behaviors, with average differences between the observed and simulated daily number of hours with free water of 0.8 hours for Santa Sofia, while, for Sutamarchan, the difference reached 4 hours. The fraction of correct estimates index indicated the model had the ability to correctly predict 92 and 72% of the hours with a presence or absence of LWD in Santa Sofia and Sutamarchan, respectively. The SWEB model is a useful tool for early warnings for the attack of fungal diseases in greenhouse tomatoes. However, due to the shortcomings of the greenhouse structures used for production, the crops are highly susceptible to attack from these pathogens.

  14. Effect of irrigation and fertilization on the distribution and fate of nitrogen in greenhouse tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Xing, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. 'Jinpeng 10') was conducted to investigate the fate and transport of nitrogen using different methods of irrigation and fertilization. Three treatments were designed with two irrigation methods (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and two fertilizer application methods (fertigation and conventional fertilization). Tomato fruit yield and biomass in the fertigation treatment were significantly higher than those in the conventional fertilization treatment. The highest total uptake of nitrogen by tomato was obtained with drip fertigation and increased significantly in the conventional fertilization and CK treatments. With an increase in nitrate uptake by the fruit, the uptake of the leaf nitrogen also increased in both years of the study. The distribution of the soil nitrate-N concentration tended to be symmetrical along the center of the emitter for drip irrigation and the furrows. The nitrate-N concentration in the CK treatment was 2.85-fold higher than that in the drip fertigation treatment. The proportion of nitrogen uptake of the total nitrogen input varied from 25.38% and 53.73% in two consecutive years, and the residual nitrogen in the fertigation treatment was 48.20% and 44.64% lower than that in the CK treatment in the same two respective years. (author)

  15. Design of a monitoring system for the cultivation of garden tomato in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elizabeth Minda Gilces

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly discusses the design and implementation of a prototype that monitors temperature, humidity and ultraviolet solar radiation levels in a greenhouse set for the cultivation of garden tomato. The Scrum agile methodology was applied through the deployment of the prototype. The monitoring system is composed by low cost, commercially available sensors, a database and a computer program developed in JAVA. It provides charts, audible and visual alerts, as well as daily, monthly and yearly statistical reports of sensed data. Implementation in the greenhouse aids farmers in the decision- making process regarding crop exposure to the sun, water and ambient temperature, thus enhancing quality of the cultivation process.

  16. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different irrigation and nitrogen levels on lettuce yield characteristics in greenhouse condition from December 2006 to March 2007. Irrigation levels of 100% of total class A pan (S1), 80% of total class A pan (S2), 60% of total class A pan (S3) and nitrogen levels of 0 kg ...

  17. Evapotranspiration Modeling by Linear, Nonlinear Regression and Artificial Neural Network in Greenhouse (Case study Reference Crop, Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid Rezaverdinejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse cultivation is a steadily developing agricultural sector throughout the world. In addition, it is known that water is a major issue almost all part of the world especially for countries which have insufficient water source. With this great expansion of greenhouse cultivation, the need of appropriate irrigation management has a great importance. Accurate determination of irrigation scheduling (irrigation timing and frequency is one of the main factors in achieving high yields and avoiding loss of quality in greenhouse tomato and cucumber. To do this, it is fundamental to know the crop water requirements or real evapotranspiration. Accurate estimation on crop water requirement is needed to avoid the excess or deficit water application, with consequent impacts on nutrient availability for plants. This can be done by using appropriate method to determine the crop evapotranspiration (ETc. In greenhouse cultivation, crop transpiration is the most important energy dissipation mechanisms that influence ETc rate. There are a large number of literatures on methods to estimate ETc in greenhouses. ETc can be measured or estimated by direct or indirect methods. The most common direct method estimates ETc from measurements with weighing lysimeters. Thisalsoincludes the evaporation measuring equipment, class A pan, Piche atmometer and modified atmometer. Indirect method includes the measurement of net radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and air vapour pressure deficit. A large number of models have been developed from these measurements to estimate ETc. Due to the fast development of under greenhouse cultivation all around the world, the needs of information on how it affects ETc in greenhouses has to be known and summarized. The existing models for ETc calculation have to be studied to know whether it is reliable for greenhouse climate (hereafter, microclimate or not. Regression and artificial neural network models are two

  18. YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) IN MUBI, ADAMAWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    fruits and can be taken raw or cooked (Adams et al.,. 1978). It was believed to have been originated from ... European literatures appeared as herbal swelling fruit used for cooking (Olayinka and Adebayo, 1985). Over ... largest consumers of tomato paste all over the world. Production indices of tomato in Nigeria as reported ...

  19. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  20. Disinfection of drain water of tomato by means of UV radiation and slow sand filtration in real greenhouse circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rocker, E; Goen, K; Van Poucke, K

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of the disinfection of drain water was tested at 11 greenhouses with tomato cultivation on rockwool substrate in Flanders (Belgium) by means of mycological analysis. In addition the presence of phytopathogenic fungi in the drain water was analysed at 2 supplementary greenhouses with recirculation without disinfection.

  1. Microclimatic changes caused by different plastic coverings in greenhouses cultivated with cherry tomato in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In regions with intense solar radiation it is common the use of aluminated covers in greenhouses, with the aim of reducing the inside temperature. However, the use of these covers reduces photosynthetic active radiation (PAR transmitted into the greenhouse. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different covers on microclimate in greenhouses cultivated with cherry tomato during three growing seasons. The environment I was covered with plastic film anti-UV and with thermo-reflective screen (40% disposed internally. The environment II was covered with diffusive plastic film (55%. The transmitted solar radiation to the interior of covered environments was, on average, 5.5 MJ m-2 day-1 in the environment I and 8.2 MJ m-2 day-1 in environment II. The air temperature in environment II was, on average, 1°C higher than external conditions. The highest difference for the relative humidity (RH was also observed between environment II and the outside conditions, with 10.7% for the minimum RH during the first growing period. Considering all growing periods, the diffusive plastic film provided higher solar energy availability inside the greenhouse than the plastic film with thermo-reflective screen, without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, and promoting greater productivity of tomato grown under this environment for the three periods evaluated.

  2. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  3. Effect of EC and transpiration on production of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Stanghellini, C.; Challa, H.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that manipulating water out-flow of a plant through the shoot environment (potential transpiration, ET0) in a glasshouse could modulate the effect of salinity/osmotic potential in the root environment upon yield of tomatoes. Contrasting root-zone salinity treatments

  4. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  5. Effect of solid and aqueous extract of vermicompost on growth characteristics of tomato and greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum)

    OpenAIRE

    A. Peimani Foroushani; N. Poorjavad; M. Haghigh; J. Khajehali

    2016-01-01

    Considering the increase of using vermicompost fertilizers in greenhouse cultivation, effect of vermicompost application on growth characteristics of tomato and one of its major pests [greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hem:Aleyrodidae)] was investigated. The experiment consisted of five treatments: control (without vermicompost), 30% and 60% solid vermicompost fertilizer, and 40% and 20% aqueous extracts of vermicompost. Effect of vermicompost on greenhouse whitefly was tested f...

  6. Feeding behaviour of helicoverpa armigera HBN (LEP. noctuidae) on tomatoes in greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Causse, R.

    1998-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of larvae of Helicoverpa arminegera was studied on tomato plants grown in a greenhouse using 32P -labelled caterpillars. When first larvae emerged from eggs deposited onto usual egg-laying sites, they fed on leaves, occasionally onto Inflorescence, and some burrowed into fruit when they reached the third instars. During the fourth and fifth instar, they fed alternately on leaves and fruit, and occasionally on stems. Toward the end of their development, the caterpillars went through a searching phase to look for a shelter for metamorphosis. This typical sequence could be altered and become more complex in relation with the emerging site of the caterpillars. Green fruits of tomato are usually damaged by larvae of at least 7-8 day old which made several entry holes. These entries were not usually followed by feeding, but they nevertheless damaged an average of 2 ± 0.75 fruits. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs

  7. Development of bioengineering processes to transform greenhouse waste into energy, fertilizer and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, D.; Masse, D.I. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, PQ (Canada). Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre; Juteau, P. [Quebec Univ., Laval, PQ (Canada). INRS-Institut Armand Frappier; Saint-Laurent CEGEP, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre des technologies de l' eau; Dorais, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Horticultural Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    Methods to promote sustainable production systems in greenhouses were discussed with particular reference to anaerobic digestion (AD) and nitrification processes for waste and nutrient management and energy consumption. The high cost of organic soluble fertilizers and the difficulty in obtaining a quality product are strong limitations for converting conventional greenhouses to organic practices. AD has been shown to be a promising solution for disposal of tomato leaves pruned during greenhouse operations. Studies have shown that AD generates end-products, notably supernatant sludge that have agronomic benefits of land application for forage and cereal crops. However, little has been done for horticultural crops. Unlike field crops, nitrification of digester effluents is a key step for using AD effluents as fertilizers for vegetable greenhouse plants. Greenhouse vegetables need nitrogen mainly under the nitrate form for an adequate growth because the other forms of nitrogen are detrimental to plant and fruit quality. However, nitrification of AD supernatant can be challenging because of its high ammonia content and its inhibition potential of nitrifying micro-organisms. This study examined the few nitrification processes that have the potential to operate under these conditions.

  8. The effect of greenhouse covering materials on phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of tomato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Latifeh; Hao, Xiuming; Tsao, Rong

    2018-02-13

    The effect of light transmission (direct and diffuse) on the phenolic compounds of five tomato cultivars was investigated under controlled conditions in greenhouses covered with different covering materials. The type of covering material and type of diffusion of light simultaneously affected the reducing power of cultivars. Two-way analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in total phenolic content for the different cultivars (P  0.05). This study showed that the use of solar energy transmission could positively affect the reducing power of cultivars and alter the biosynthesis of certain phytochemicals that are health-beneficial. Further study could lead to applications for producing greenhouse vegetables with greater health attributes. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genetic control of late blight, yield and some yield related traits in tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M.Y.; Asghar, M.; Khan, A.R.; Iqbal, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic control of late blight (LB) and some economic traits was assessed to identify genotypes suitable for the hybrids were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., development of late blight resistant hybrids in tomato. 10 F/sub 1/ hybrid were derived from crossing of 2 male sterile lines viz., TMS1 and TMS2 with 5 elite lines viz., Nagina, Riogrande, Roma, 88572 and Picdenato according to line x tester technique. Disease resistance was measured using detached leaf and whole plant assay techniques. Data were also recorded for days to maturity, number of fruit per plant, single fruit weight and yield per plant. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among crosses, lines, testers and line x tester interaction for almost all parameters. Estimate of genetic components indicated preponderance of additive type of gene action for detached leaf assay, whole plant assay, number of fruit per plant and yield per plant whereas non-additive type of gene action for days to maturity and single fruit weight. Among parents, TMS2, Nagina, Roma and Picdenato showed significant favorable general combing ability (GCA) effects for disease rating traits while TMS1 and Riogrande indicated desirable GCA effects for yield and some yield related traits. Among hybrids, TMS2 x Roma and TMS1 x Riogrande had significant specific combing ability (SCA) effects for detached and whole plant assays. However, hybrid TMS2 x Roma appeared as good combination of LB resistance as it had both parents with desirable GCA effects. All hybrids showed average type of SCA effects for yield and yield components. Genetic control of LB revealed that a multiple crossing program involving genotypes with high GCA effects would be rewarding to identify LB resistant genotypes in early generations. (author)

  10. Estimation of water consumption of tomato crops planted in rock wool bed in greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Senge, M.; Iwama, K.; Hashimoto, I.

    2002-01-01

    For estimating the crop water consumption, it is necessary to determine meteorological data in greenhouse from open field data and calculate potential evaporation. In this study, temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation were measured in greenhouse as well as in open field. Then, we compared the meteorological data of greenhouse with that of open field. Results of the comparison differed from the reference values of the Official Manual (1997). Humidity during heating period and wind velocity in the greenhouse cannot be evaluated from the steps of the Official Manual. We applied the original equation that was derived in this observation to calculate the potential evaporation in the greenhouse. It became apparent that the potential evaporation could be estimated using open field data. A portion of irrigated water was consumed by vegetation and remainder was discharged from rock wool bed. Mean daily water consumption during the measurement period was 2.50(mm/d), with a monthly maximum occurring in July with 3.54(mm/d). Discharged water amounted to 9% of irrigated water. Tomato's crop coeffieiency with rock wool cultivation was calculated by potential evaporation and water consumption. In this field, this value was smaller than those recorded in the Official Manual. The amount of irrigation was same in all segments of the greenhouse. However, water consumption was affected by incident energy. A portion of discharged water (5% of irrigation water in this greenhouse) could not be saved because there existed a differential volume need for some plants which consumed more water in relation to others

  11. Combined action of sex pheromone and wasp Apanteles gelechiidivoris in greenhouse Tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jessica; Munoz, Laura; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cantor, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The Tomato budworm, Tuta absoluta, is considered main pest of Tomato crops. Control of this pest is performed with hemicals, although, there are other strategies such as biological and ethological control. In Colombia there is not precedent that combines both strategies: ethological control with sexual pheromone and biological control with Apanteles gelechiidivoris, for the control of this pest in Tomato crops. In this work four different treatments under greenhouse conditions were evaluated including biological control with A. gelechiidivoris, ethological control with sexual pheromone traps, and combined action of both controls and traditional control (chemicals). The experiments aimed to developing a control strategy to reduce populations of T. absoluta. This was done sampling a plant every to 2 meters. From each plant a sample composed by one leaf by stratum was taken and the variables number of total larvae of third instar and parasited and number of captured adults for trap. The maximum parasitism in the population of susceptible larvae was 86.38 % and for total population of larvae was 68.75 %. The combined action of pheromone traps and A. gelechiidivoris presented a greater efficiency and permanence on the control of larvae of T. absoluta.

  12. Pollination of Greenhouse Tomatoes by the Mexican bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hernan Vergara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican native bumblebee Bombus ephippiatus Say was evaluated as a potential pollinator of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicon L.. The experiments were performed at San Andrés Cholula, Puebla, Mexico, from June to December 2004 in two 1 000 m2 greenhouses planted with tomatoes of the cultivar Mallory (Hazera ®. For the experiments, we used two colonies of Bombus ephippiatus, reared in the laboratory from queens captured in the field. Four treatments were applied to 20 study plants: pollination by bumble bees, manual pollination, pollination by mechanical vibration and no pollination (bagged flowers, no vibration. We measured percentage of flowers visited by bumble bees, number of seeds per fruit, maturing time, sugar content, fruit weight and fruit shape. All available flowers were visited by bumblebees, as measured by the degree of anther cone bruising. The number of seeds per fruit was higher for bumble bee-pollinated plants as compared with plants pollinated mechanically or not pollinated and was not significantly different between hand-pollinated and bumble bee-pollinated plants. Maturation time was significantly longer and sugar content, fresh weight and seed count were significantly higher for bumblebee pollinated flowers than for flowers pollinated manually or with no supplemental pollination, but did not differ with flowers pollinated mechanically.

  13. Effect of plant resistance and BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251) on Meloidogyne incognita in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of combining resistant tomato with BioAct WG (Purpureocillium lilacinum strain 251, Pl251) against Meloidogyne incognita was assessed in a tomato-cucumber rotation in a greenhouse over 2 years. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of the fungus, the percentage of fungal egg and juvenile parasitism, cardinal temperatures and the effect of water potential on mycelial growth and the soil receptivity to Pl251 were determined in vitro. Plant resistance was the only factor that suppressed nematode and crop yield losses. Percentage of egg parasitism in plots treated with BioAct WG was less than 2.6%. However, under in vitro conditions, Pl251 showed protease, lipase and chitinase activities and parasitised 94.5% of eggs, but no juveniles. Cardinal temperatures were 14.2, 24-26 and 35.4 °C. The maximum Pl251 mycelial growth was at -0.25 MPa and 25 °C. Soil temperatures and water potential in the greenhouse were in the range of the fungus. However, soil receptivity was lower in greenhouse soil, irrespective of sterilisation, than in sterilised sand. Plant resistance was the only factor able to suppress nematode densities, disease severity and yield losses, and to protect the following cucumber crop. Environmental factors involved in soil receptivity could have negatively affected fungus effectiveness. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. [Effects of interaction between vermicompost and probiotics on soil nronerty, yield and quality of tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fei; Zhu, Tong-bin; Teng, Ming-jiao; Chen, Yue; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of two strains of probiotic bacteria (Bacillus megaterium BM and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BA) combined with chemical fertilizers and vermicompost on the soil property, the yield and quality of tomato. The results showed that under the same nutrient level, vermicompost significantly increased the yield, soluble sugar and protein contents of fruit, the soil pH and available phosphorus when compared with chemical fertilizers. Vermicompost combined with probiotics not only increased the tomato yield, soluble sugar, protein and vitamin C contents, sugar/acid ratio of fruit, and reduced the organic acid and nitrate nitrogen contents of fruit, also increased the soil pH and nitrate nitrogen content, and reduced soil electric conductivity when compared with vermicompost treatment. This improved efficiency was better than that by chemical fertilizers combined with probiotics. For BA and BM applied with chemical fertilizers or vermicompost, both stains had no significant effect on tomato quality. When co-applied with vermicompost, BA and BM showed significant difference in tomato yield. High soil available phosphorus content was determined when BM was combined with chemical fertilizers, while high soil available potassium content was obtained when BA was combined with vermicompost. Our results suggested that probiotics and vermicompost could be used as alternatives of chemical fertilizers in tomato production and soil fertility improvement.

  15. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and N Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Tomato Grown Under Reduced Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The interactive effects of CO2 elevation, N fertilization, and reduced irrigation regimes on fruit yield (FY and quality in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. The plants were grown in two separate climate-controlled greenhouse cells at atmospheric [CO2] of 400 and 800 ppm, respectively. In each cell, the plants were fertilized at either 100 or 200 mg N kg-1 soil and were either irrigated to full water holding capacity [i.e., a volumetric soil water content of 18%; full irrigation (FI], or using 70% water of FI to the whole pot [deficit irrigation (DI] or alternately to only half of the pot [partial root-zone irrigation (PRI]. The yield and fruit quality attributes mainly from sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose and organic acids (OAs; citric acid and malic acid to various ionic (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43- concentrations in fruit juice were determined. The results indicated that lower N supply reduced fruit number and yield, whereas it enhanced some of the quality attributes of fruit as indicated by greater firmness and higher concentrations of sugars and OAs. Elevated [CO2] (e[CO2] attenuated the negative influence of reduced irrigation (DI and PRI on FY. Principal component analysis revealed that the reduced irrigation regimes, especially PRI, in combination with e[CO2] could synergistically improve the comprehensive quality of tomato fruits at high N supply. These findings provide useful knowledge for sustaining tomato FY and quality in a future drier and CO2-enriched environment.

  16. Biological control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum by Encarsia formosa on tomato in unheated greenhouses in the high altitude tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, de R.M.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Biological control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) by Encarsia formosa Gahan was tested during three consecutive production cycles (16-28 weeks) on a beef tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crop in a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse on the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. During the course of

  17. Cross-protection or enhanced symptom display in greenhouse tomato co-infected with different Pepino mosaic virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I.; Paeleman, A.; Goen, K.; Wittemans, L.; Lievens, B.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Ravnikar, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The potential of three mild Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) isolates, belonging to the CH2, EU and LP genotypes, to protect a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crop against an aggressive challenge isolate of the CH2 genotype was assessed in greenhouse trials and PepMV symptoms were rated at regular time

  18. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  19. Original Article. An evaluation of some eco-friendly biopesticides against Bemisia tabaci on two greenhouse tomato varieties in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Razek Atef S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has two main approaches. First, it exploits the susceptibility of tomato cultivars as a prophylactic measure to detect auto resistance characters of the tested tomato varieties against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae. Secondly, it evaluates the efficacy of different bio-rational insecticides against B. tabaci under greenhouse conditions. The results exhibited a special significance in B. tabaci infestation suitability between the two tomato varieties with a high infestation significance found in the Shifa F1 hybrid tomato variety compared to the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety in the first plantation period. Subsequently, in the second plantation period, there was a significant difference between the two tomato varieties. Bemisia tabaci showed a preference for the Shifa F1 hybrid over the Savera F1 hybrid tomato variety. These differences occurred during the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 10th weeks. In the experimental trial for the efficacy of eco-friendly biorational insecticides, spinosad, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, there were significant differences between the treated and untreated plants during the two plantation periods. A high efficacy of spinosad on the B. tabaci population was found. Bemisia tabaci infestation under all the applications was reduced from 50 to 94.61% for the two plantation periods. This obvious decrease in B. tabaci population increase attention to benefits of the different bio-rational insecticides.

  20. Biological control of Botrytis gray mould on tomato cultivated in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, F; Fiume, G

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of the Botrytis gray mould, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers., one of the most important fungal diseases of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, an antagonist that is a naturally occurring fungus found on some plants and in the soil worldwide. Trichoderma spp. are fungi diffused in nearly all agricultural soils and in other environments such as decaying wood. The object of this research is to find control strategies to reduce chemical treatments that cause damage to the environment and increase the pathogen resistance, applying the biological control by using T. harzianum against B. cinerea. A commercial product containing a natural isolate of T. harzianum is trichodex (Makhteshim Chemical Works, LTD). The research was performed in laboratory and in greenhouse. In laboratory, radial growth reduction of B. cinerea, in presence of T. harzianum, was calculated in relation to the growth of the pathogen control, by using a specific formula that measures the percentage of the inhibition of the radial mycelial growth. In greenhouse, starting from the tomato fruit setting, the research was carried out comparing, by a randomized complete block experiment design, replicated four times, the following treatments:1) untreated control; 2) pyrimethanil (400 g/L of a.i.), at 200 cc/hL of c.i. (pyrimidine fungicides); 3) trichodex at 100g/hL (1 kg/ha); 4) trichodex at 200 g/hL (2 kg/ha); 5) trichodex at 400 g/hL (4 kg/ha). Before fruit setting, the plots were all treated against Botrytis gray mould with iprodione 50% (100 g/hL), procymidone 50% (100 g/hL) and switch (Novartis plant protection) at 80 g/hL. In dual culture, the inhibition of B. cinerea radial mycelial growth was 76%. No inhibition halo was observed between B. cinerea and T. harzianum colonies but, after 3 days, the pathogen colony radius resulted no more than 1

  1. Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency - Coupling Effects between Growth Stage Specific Soil Water Deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Si; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of tomato yield and water use efficiency (WUE) to soil water content at different growth stages, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed in a five-factor-five-level pot experiment under regulated deficit irrigation. Two regression models concerning...... the effects of stage-specific soil water content on tomato yield and WUE were established. The results showed that the lowest available soil water (ASW) content (around 28%) during vegetative growth stage (here denoted θ1) resulted in high yield and WUE. Moderate (around 69% ASW) during blooming and fruit...... effects of ASW in two growth stages were between θ2 and θ5, θ3. In both cases a moderate θ2 was a precondition for maximum yield response to increasing θ5 and θ3. Sensitivity analysis revealed that yield was most sensitive to soil water content at fruit maturity (θ5). Numerical inspection...

  2. Effect of plant diversification on pest abundance and tomato yields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diakalia SON

    Effect of plant diversification on pest abundance and tomato yields in two cropping systems in ..... Table 2: Monitoring of evolution of the pests population in IPM plots. Pests ... For pollinators, the most abundant families ...... induced by chemical interaction between unattacked .... in a coastal savannah agro ecological zone.

  3. Effects of Bioinsecticides in Control of Greenhouse Whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood on Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Marčić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of commercial products of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana(Naturalis; 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, azadirachtin (NeemAzal T/S; 1% and 2% and oxymatrin(KingBo; 0.1% and 0.2% in the control of greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorumWestwood on tomato were tested in plastic covered greenhouse. The effects of the bioinsecticides,applied twice at five-day interval, were compared to effects of abamectin (AbastateEW; 0.075% and thiamethoxam (Actara 25-WG; 0.05%. Tested bioinsecticides reducedthe number of larvae by 82-97% (Naturalis, 90-99% (NeemAzal T/S and 90-96% (KingBo,with the efficacy of >96% according to Henderson-Tilton, in the assessment 16 days aftertreatment. In the same assessment, achieved percentages in adults reduction and efficacyamounted 24-89% and 67-95% (Naturalis, 85-93% and 93-97% (NeemAzal T/S, 86-96%and 94-98% (KingBo. Percentages of abundance reduction and efficacy after treatment withAbastate EW were 31% and 88% (larvae and 64% and 84% (adults, while after treatmentwith Actara 25-WG they amounted 96% and 99% (larvae and 83% and 92% (adults. The resultsobtained show that NeemAzal T/S, Naturalis and KingBo can be an efficient alternativeto current insecticides in control of T. vaporariorum populations.

  4. Assessment of genetic diversity in tomato for fruit morphology, composition and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaif, K.; Amjad, M.; Saeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest losses are of great concern in vegetable crops, including tomato, due to their perishable nature. Damage to tomato fruit during transportation is related to its shape besides other factors. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity in the available tomato germplasm (35 genotypes) for fruit morphology, biochemical composition and yield. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except number of locules per fruit, TSS and reducing sugars, for which very low range was recorded. While, moderate level of variation existed for stem-end blockiness, blossom-end blockiness and elongated shape which suggested that fruit of most of the varieties could belong to more than one category of fruit shape. Fruit length and diameter had significantly positive correlation with heart shape of tomato, while later was also correlated with blossom-end-blockiness. Heart shape of tomato fruit was also correlated with stem-end blockiness. Yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of inflorescence per plant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed PC-I to PC-VI had Eigen values >1, which contributed 73.86% of total variability for different traits. The highest factor loading values for blossom-end-blockiness, stem-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape was recorded in PC-6, PC-4, PC-6 and PC-2, respectively. Thirty five genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Higher yield and stem-end-blockiness was observed in genotypes from cluster II, while higher values for blossom-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape were noticed in cluster I followed by cluster III. So, it can be assumed that genotypes in cluster II showed higher yield and also possessed blocky fruit, a desirable character for transportation and processing purpose. Moreover, it is suggested that genotypes of cluster I and cluster II can be crossed to find heterosis for yield and fruit shape related traits. (author)

  5. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) protoplast yield

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Kuźniak; Marzena Wielanek; Urszula Małolepsza; Henryk Urbaniak

    2013-01-01

    The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to t...

  7. Effect of goat manure on some soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient status of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeniyi, S.O.; Awodun, M.A.; Akanni, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment were conducted at Akure, Negeria, in a rainforest zone of Southwest Nigeria to study the effect of goat manure (droppings) on some soil physical and chemical properties and nutrient status, growth and yied of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five levels of manure (0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha) were applied on the soil surface to two crops of tomato at each of two sites, namely, Federal College of Agriculture and Federal University of Technology. Soils were deficient in organic matter (OM), total N, exchangeable Ca and available P. Soil OM, total N, available P and moisture content increased with the level of manure, while soil bulk density decreased. Leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, growth and fruit yield of tomato were significantly increased by goat manure treatments. Leaf K, Ca and Mg, plant height, number of branches, leaf area, root length, number of fruits and fruit diameter increased with the level of manure, However, the 25 t/ha manure gave optimum values of number and weight of fruits. The mean fruit yields recorded for 0, 10, 25, 40 and 50 t/ha goat manure were 15.0, 19.7, 23.7, 24.3 and 22.3 t/ha, respectively. It is concluded that goat manure is suitable for impoving soil physical and chemical properties and growth and yield of tomato.(Author)

  8. Effect of drought stress on growth, yield and seed quality of tomato (lycopersicon esculentum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, M.A.; Ayub, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth is seriously affected by abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity or temperature. Drought is one of the most important limiting factors for agricultural crops and vegetable production in particular all around the world. Drought stress during vegetative or early reproductive growth usually reduces yield by reducing the number of seeds, seed size and seed quality. To assess the effect of drought stress on seed yield, seed quality and growth of tomato, the experiment was conducted in green house in plastic pots at Pen-y-Fridd field station, University of Wales, Bangor, U.K. during 2003-2004. Tomato cv. Moneymaker was used as a test crop. There were four treatments i.e. early stress (when first truss has set the fruits), middle stress (when fruits in first truss were fully matured and started changing their colour), late stress (when fruits on first truss were ripened fully), whereas in control no stress was imposed. Analysis of data regarding various attributes (fruit weight and shoot dry weight per plant, number of seeds per fruit, total number of seeds and seed weight per plant and vigour of seed) showed that drought stress had non-significant effect on vigour, quality and yield of tomato seed. Plant height, number of leaves and number of fruits per plant showed significant results toward drought stress signifying drought effects on growth of tomato. (author)

  9. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using NDVI and guided sampling to develop yield prediction maps of processing tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, A.; Henar Prieto, M. del; García-Martín, A.; Córdoba, A.; Martínez, L.; Campillo, C.

    2015-07-01

    The use of yield prediction maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. Vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are of potential use in the attainment of this objective. There are different types of vegetation indices based on crop reflectance, the most commonly used of which is the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). NDVI values are reported to have good correlation with several vegetation parameters including the ability to predict yield. The field research was conducted in two commercial farms of processing tomato crop, Cantillana and Enviciados. An NDVI prediction map developed through ordinary kriging technique was used for guided sampling of processing tomato yield. Yield was studied and related with NDVI, and finally a prediction map of crop yield for the entire plot was generated using two geostatistical methodologies (ordinary and regression kriging). Finally, a comparison was made between the yield obtained at validation points and the yield values according to the prediction maps. The most precise yield maps were obtained with the regression kriging methodology with RRMSE values of 14% and 17% in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively, using the NDVI as predictor. The coefficient of correlation between NDVI and yield was correlated in the point samples taken in the two locations, with values of 0.71 and 0.67 in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively. The results suggest that the use of a massive sampling parameter such as NDVI is a good indicator of the distribution of within-field yield variation. (Author)

  11. Next Generation of Greenhouse Cultivation Tomato 2010; Het Nieuwe Telen Tomaat 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gelder, A.; Warmenhoven, M. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Grootscholten, M. [GreenQ, Bleiswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In 2010 a second experiment with the next generation cultivation of tomato was performed. With 23 m{sup 3} natural gas per m{sup 2} greenhouse 68 kg of the truss tomato 'Komeett' was harvested. Extra transparent foil used at the start of the experiment was changed by AC-foil. The amount of CO2 used was high, but the registration of this amount was unsure. Botrytis control both for spore pressure and infection was controlled well. For the next generation cultivation a zero tolerance for Botrytis is necessary. The relation between global radiation and temperature used in this experiment to keep the plant in good balance was 17.5C + 1.5C per 1000 joule/cm{sup 2}.day. The realized energy input was simulated with KASPRO. The simulation fitted well to the measured values per week. Product quality was good [Dutch] In 2010 is het tweede experiment voor Het Nieuwe Telen met tomaat uitgevoerd. Daarin is met 23 m{sup 3} aardgas per m{sup 2} kas 68 kg grove trostomaat 'Komeett' geproduceerd. Het extra heldere folie waarmee de teelt startte is vanwege condens problemen vervangen door AC-Folie. Het CO2 gebruik was hoog maar onzeker is of dit goed is geregistreerd. De botrytis druk en infectie waren goed beheersbaar. Ook bij het nieuwe telen tomaat moet het uitgangspunt zijn geen botrytis infectie. De temperatuur in relatie tot de stralingssom per dag werd goed gerealiseerd. In deze proef was de relatie tussen straling en temperatuur 17.5C + 1.5C per 1000 joule/cm{sup 2}.dag. Het gerealiseerde energie gebruik was met KASPRO goed na te rekenen. De simulatie klopte zeer goed met de gemeten waarden per week. Er waren geen problemen met de vrucht kwaliteit.

  12. Evaluation of Self-Propelled High-Energy Ultrasonic Atomizer on Azoxystrobin and Tebuconazole Application in Sunlit Greenhouse Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jie Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a self-propelled high-energy ultrasonic atomizer was evaluated in terms of deposition on the canopy, the loss to the ground, and fungicide residues in cherry tomato and tomato. Artificial collectors fixed to the upper side and underside of the leaves at different depths and heights were used to collect the depositions. A reliable analytical method for determination of azoxystrobin and tebuconazole in artificial collectors and residue samples was developed by using liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results showed that the atomizer distributed the droplets evenly throughout the greenhouse with good uniformity (CVs below 39%. The ratio of depositions on the internal and external sides was 66–83%, and the ratio of depositions on the underside and upper side was 39–50%. There were no significant differences in depositions between two different height crops. The residues of azoxystrobin and tebuconazole in tomato and cherry tomato fruits were far below the maximum residue limits at harvest time. In general, self-propelled high-energy ultrasonic atomizer used in a greenhouse could increase the depositions, especially on the underside and internal side of the canopies, and lead to a reduction of operator exposure risk.

  13. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  14. The degradation of the insecticide Imidacloprid in greenhouse tomatoes and an estimation of the level of residues.

    OpenAIRE

    VJOLLCA VLADI; FATOS HARIZAJ; VALDETE VORPSI; MAGDALENA CARA

    2014-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method using UV detection was used to study the degradation of imidacloprid in tomatoes grown in greenhouses. A liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile/methanol (60/40, v/v) and a cleanup step with Florisil were combined with LC to isolate, recover, and quantities the pesticide. Average recoveries obtained at spike levels of 0.03 and 0.40 mg/kg were 93.2-94.7%. Determination limits were 0.012 mg/kg. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouses located in Du...

  15. Debranching improves morpho-physiological characters, fruit quality and yield of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, M.M.A.; Razzaque, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers are commercially cultivated tomato with different levels of shoot pruning but this production practice has not been defined clearly. The experiment was conducted under sub-tropical condition to assess the effect of different levels of debranching on morpho-physiological, reproductive and yield contributing characters in determinate tomato cultivar cv. Binatomato-5. The debranching levels were: i) control, ii) only main stem (MS), iii) MS with 2 branches, iv) MS with 3 branches and v) MS with 4 branches. Based on recommended spacing (50 cm * 50 cm), the higher fruit yield plant-1 as well as fruit yield per hectare were observed in more branch bearing plants of the treatment control (MS with 5-6 branches), MS with 3 branches and MS with 4 branches due to production of higher number of fruits plant-1 with being the highest in MS with 3 branches due to increase fruit size. The lowest fruit yield per plant as well as per hectare was observed in uniculm plants due to lower number of fruits per plant. This study suggests that plants that have MS with three branches may be recommended for commercial cultivation of tomato under sub-tropical condition. (author)

  16. Efficacy of zinc with nitrogen as foliar feeding on growth, yield and quality of tomato grown under poly tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.A.; Abbas, S.J.; Ullah, E.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is considered one of nutritional constraints for crop yield worldwide. In recent past, the deficiency of Zn has heavily declined the quality of vegetables, especially tomato. Thus, a study was planned to enhance the growth, yield and quality of tomato plant using Zn and N alone and in combination. ZnSO/sub 4/ was used as a source of Zn (10% and 12%) and urea as source of N (1% and 2%). The results showed that application of either Zn or N alone at both concentrations enhanced growth, yield and quality of tomato plants under poly tunnel. However, the combined use of both Zn and N further enhanced the growth, yield and fruit quality with application of Zn (12%) plus N (2%). Hence the combined use of Zn and N can be a viable strategy for improving yield and quality of tomato. (author)

  17. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. protoplast yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kuźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to transfer to enzyme mixture increased 4-fold the number of isolated protoplasts. Glycine and bovine serum albumin in the isolation medium did not significantly influence the protoplast yield.

  18. Irrigation and nitrogen level affect lettuce yield in greenhouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... and it achieves very high irrigation efficiency and uses. *Corresponding ... serious harmful effect on lettuce growing (Table 1). During the ... Seeds were sown in a seed bed under greenhouse conditions on. October 20th in ...

  19. Impact of Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water on the Growth and Yield of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamorudeen Olaniyi YUSUF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine whether magnetic treatment of the irrigation water may actually enhance vegetative growth and yield of tomato. Three magnetic flux densities of 124, 319 and 719 G (treatments T1, T2 and T3 were used to treat the water and a control experiment (Tc which was irrigated with non-magnetically treated water was also set up. The magnetic field was produced by an electromagnet that had a variable voltage unit varying the voltage from 4 to 12 V. The tomato were planted in buckets, kept in a transparent garden shed for 130 days and irrigated with magnetically treated water and non-magnetically treated water. A completely randomized design experimental layout was used in this study and each of the three treatments was replicated seven times. The results indicated that tomato crop irrigated with magnetically treated water grew faster than that of the non-magnetically treated water and the stem diameters were bigger than those of control. The heights of tomato plants (T1, T2 T3 and Tc after 47 days were 560.0, 556.4, 588.6 and 469.3 mm respectively. The total yield after 130 days of survey for T1, T2 T3 and Tc were 892.1, 1075.8, 1045.7 and 637.7 g respectively. The percentage increment in yield from the plants treated with magnetically treated water varied from 39.9 to 68.7% compared to the yield from untreated water.

  20. Effects of irrigation regime and salinity on soil characteristics and yield of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Leogrande

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Mediterranean conditions to evaluate the effects of different irrigation volumes and water quality on yield performance of tomato crop. The tomato crop was irrigated re-establishing 50 (I1, 75 (I2 and 100% (I3 of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc with two water quality: fresh water with EC 0.9 dS m-1 (FW and saline water with EC 6 dSm-1 (SW. At harvest, total and marketable yield, weight, number, , total soluble solids (TSS and dry matter of fruit were calculated, The results showed no statistical differences among the three different irrigation volumes on tomato yield and quality. The salinity treatment did not affect yield, probably because the soil salinity in the root zone on average remained below the threshold of tomato salt tolerance. Instead, salinity improved fruit quality parameters as dry matter and TSS by 13 and 8 %, respectively. After the first field application of saline water, soil saturated extract cations (SSEC, electrical conductivity of soil paste extract (ECe, sodium absorption ratio (SAR and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP cations increased; the largest increase of cations, in particular of Na, occurred in the top layer. At the end of the experiment, the absolute value of SSEC, ECe and SAR, for all the effects studied, were lower than those recorded in 2007. This behavior was suitable to the reduced volumes of treatments administered in 2009 in respect to the 2007. Furthermore, the higher total rainfall recorded in 2009 increased the leaching and downward movement of salts out of the sampling depth.

  1. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  2. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Belfry

    Full Text Available Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated and tomato cultivar (early vs. late was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L., winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (OSR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes, and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit

  3. Econometric Analysis of Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Usage on Tomato Yield in Tokat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on tomato yield by using econometric models. The data obtained by questionnaire from 53 farmers who produce tomatoes in Tokat province constitute the main material of the study. The Simple Random Sampling Method was used to determine the sample size with a 90% confidence interval and 10% margin of error. Nine models were tried to determine the best model to explain the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer usage in tomato cultivation. The data in the models were used to calculate the growers’ optimal fertilizer amount of use (physical optimum and economical optimum values were calculated and the results were compared to the ones suggested by the experts. As a result, through the statistical studies, quadratic model was found to be the most suitable one. It has been determined that tomato farmers use less (10.54 kg da-1 or excess (23.48 kg da-1 N fertilizer than the level at which economic optimum is achieved.

  4. Evaluation of tomato genotypes against tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and its effect on yield contributing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Ali, A.; Ahmad, M.; Din, N.; Ahmad, F.; Fahim, M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of resistant varieties is an effective, economic and environment friendly management of plant diseases particularly those caused by viruses. This paper reports, evaluation of 21 different tomato genotypes to find out resistance sources against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and to study effect of the virus on yield contributing parameters. The virus identity was confirmed both by Direct Antibody Coating Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (DAC-ELISA) and differential host assay. Characteristic necrotic lesions were observed on differential hosts viz., Nicotiana tabacum var. White burly and Chenopodium amaranticolor after 10 and 3-4 days of inoculation, respectively. Upon ToMV inoculation, plants of accession No. 017902 developed no symptoms and were rated as highly resistant. Its resistance was further confirmed by both DAC-ELISA and indicator host assay, while the remaining genotypes displayed a range of symptoms. Plants of accession No. 017883 showed lowest percent disease index (PDI) and were rated as resistant, while plants of cultivar Red jumbo showed maximum PDI (44.97%) and were rated as susceptible. In susceptible genotypes average ELISA absorbance A405 value (2.19) was found higher than resistant one (1.05), while in control healthy plants ELISA absorbance A405 was 0.18. Maximum virus titre 2.73 and 0.91 were found in leaf and root tissues of cultivar Red jumbo, respectively. Among tested genotypes, one was highly resistant, one resistant, four moderately susceptible and 15 were susceptible. The virus significantly (p<=0.05) reduced the yield contributing parameters i.e. plant height, fresh shoot and root weight, dry shoot and root weight in susceptible genotypes. (author)

  5. The influence of organic amendment and nickel pollution on tomato fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, G; Carbonell-Barrachina, A; Gómez, I; Mataix, J

    1999-01-01

    The effects of organic fertilization (sludge application) and/or different levels of Ni pollution on tomato fruit yield, quality, nutrition, and Ni accumulation were investigated. The mass loading of sewage sludge solids used in this study for the amendment of a calcareous soil with low organic matter content was 2% (w/w). A control with no sewage sludge amendment was also included (S). Nickel was added to the sludge amended soil at 0, 60, 120 and 240 mg kg-1 concentrations. Sewage sludge addition to the calcareous soil significantly increased fruit yield but did not adversely affect the quality and nutritional status of the tomato fruit. The results demonstrated that sewage sludge could be successfully used as a horticultural fertilizer. Only the highest addition rate of Ni (240 mg kg-1) to an organic amended calcareous soil had negative effects on fruit yield and quality, and caused a Ni accumulation in fruit that could be considered as a hazard for human health. Thus, no toxic problems will be encountered in tomato fruit due to Ni pollution provided the total Ni (soil Ni plus Ni incorporated with sludge amendment) concentration is kept below the maximum concentration of Ni allowed for agricultural alkaline soils in Spain (112 mg Ni kg-1).

  6. Effects of Presowing Pulsed Electromagnetic Treatment of Tomato Seed on Growth, Yield, and Lycopene Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia Efthimiadou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of magnetic field as a presowing treatment has been adopted by researchers as a new environmental friendly technique. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of magnetic field exposure on tomato seeds covering a range of parameters such as transplanting percentage, plant height, shoot diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh weight, dry weight, number of flowers, yield, and lycopene content. Pulsed electromagnetic field was used for 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes as a presowing treatment of tomato seeds in a field experiment for two years. Papimi device (amplitude on the order of 12.5 mT has been used. The use of pulsed electromagnetic field as a presowing treatment was found to enhance plant growth in tomato plants at certain duration of exposure. Magnetic field treatments and especially the exposure of 10 and 15 minutes gave the best results in all measurements, except plant height and lycopene content. Yield per plant was higher in magnetic field treatments, compared to control. MF-15 treatment yield was 80.93% higher than control treatment. Lycopene content was higher in magnetic field treatments, although values showed no statistically significant differences.

  7. Transportation behaviour of fluopicolide and its control effect against Phytophthora capsici in greenhouse tomatoes after soil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Hui; Qiao, Kang; Xia, Xiaoming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2015-07-01

    Fluopicolide, a novel benzamide fungicide, was registered for control of oomycete pathogens, including Phytophthora capsici. In this study, fluopicolide (5% SC) was applied in soil at rates of 1.5, 3 and 6 L ha(-1) [the normal (ND), double (DD) and quadruple dosages (QD) respectively] to investigate its transportation behaviour and control efficiency on tomato blight as a soil treatment agent. The results showed that fluopicolide applied to soil could be absorbed by tomato roots and then transplanted to stems and leaves. It could exist in tomato roots for more than 30 days, and in leaves and stems until day 20 after application. The decline in fluopicolide in soil was in accordance with a first-order dynamics equation, with half-lives of 5.33, 4.75 and 5.42 days for the ND, DD and QD treatments respectively. The control efficiencies of fluopicolide were better with soil application than with spraying application, and the inhibition ratios were 93.02, 97.67 and 100 on day 21 for the ND, DD and QD treatments respectively. Soil application of fluopicolide could control P. capsici in greenhouse tomatoes with high efficiency and long persistence. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  9. Assessment of energy consumption in organic tomato greenhouse production - a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptista, F.J.; Murcho, D.; Silva, L.; Stanghellini, C.; Montero, J.I.; Kempkes, F.; Munoz, P.; Gilli, Celine; Giuffrida, F.; Stepowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse production has increased over the last decades in the Mediterranean region. Greenhouses allow protecting crops from adverse climate conditions, creating microclimate conditions appropriate for obtaining high production with high quality all over the year. However, greenhouse production is

  10. Growth and yield of tomato cultivated on composted duck excreta enriched wood shavings and source-separated municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zoes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of growth substrates, made with duck excreta enriched wood shaving compost (DMC and the organic fraction of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW compost, on the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Campbell 1327. Substrate A consisted of 3:2 (W/W proportion of DMC and MSW composts. Substrates B and C were the same as A but contained 15% (W/W ratio of brick dust and shredded plastic, respectively. Three control substrates consisted of the commercially available peat-based substrate (Pr, an in-house sphagnum peat-based substrate (Gs, and black earth mixed with sandy loam soil (BE/S in a 1:4 (W/W ratio. Substrates (A, B, C and controls received nitrogen (N, phosphate (P and potassium (K at equivalent rates of 780 mg/pot, 625 mg/pot, and 625 mg/pot, respectively, or were used without mineral fertilizers. Compared to the controls (Pr, Gs and BE/S, tomato plants grown on A, B, and C produced a greater total number and dry mass of fruits, with no significant differences between them. On average, total plant dry-matter biomass in substrate A, B, and C was 19% lower than that produced on Pr, but 28% greater than biomass obtained for plant grown, on Gs and BE/S. Plant height, stem diameter and chlorophyll concentrations indicate that substrates A, B, and C were particularly suitable for plant growth. Although the presence of excess N in composted substrates favoured vegetative rather than reproductive growth, the continuous supply of nutrients throughout the growing cycle, as well as the high water retention capacity that resulted in a reduced watering by 50%, suggest that substrates A, B, and C were suitable growing mixes, offering environmental and agronomic advantages.

  11. Decision Support System (DSS) for prevention of Botrytis in tomato in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.; Nannes, L.; Bokhoven, van E.H.; Buwalda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Interreg project ‘Gezonde Kas’ a decision support system (DSS) for Botrytis risk in tomato was developed. This report fi rst summarizes existing knowledge on botrytis in tomato. The quantitative relationships are subsequently laid down in computer code. This code formed

  12. Genetic characterization of Pepino mosaic virus isolates from Belgian greenhouse tomatoes reveals genetic recombination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Paeleman, A.; Wittemans, L.P.F.; Goen, K.; Lievens, B.; Bragard, C.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Over a period of a few years, Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has become one of the most important viral diseases in tomato production worldwide. Infection by PepMV can cause a broad range of symptoms on tomato plants, often leading to significant financial losses. At present, five PepMV genotypes (EU,

  13. Effects of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mirzaei Talarposhti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although using animal manures and crop residues as a traditional method for increasing soil fertility and crop yield has a long history but Conventional agricultural systems rely on the use of chemical fertilizer due to its immediate availability of nutrients. In many of modern agricultural systems using chemical fertilizers as a fast and easiest way to reduce nutrient deficiency and increasing soil fertility is considered. Intensive and continuous use of chemical fertilizers leads to decreasing the stability and sustainability of agricultural systems and also poses major threat to environment and human health. Organic fertilizers have positive effects on physiochemical and biological attributes of soil and could be classified in three different groups (i.e. Animal manures, green manure and composts.Using animal manure not only increase soil fertility but also could result in increasing infiltration, aeration and water holding capacity of soil. The main role of these fertilizers is related to physical change in soil. Different types of composts such as municipal waste compost and vermicompost also have similar positive effects, but usually the farmers observe the main effect of these organic fertilizers in long term. In order to investigate the effects of different types of organic fertilizers on growth indexes, yield and yield component of tomato (Lycopersicon sculentum L. current experiment was conducted. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications and six treatments in the research station of Shahid Beheshti University. The experimental treatments were: Control or no fertilizer (NF, chemical fertilizer (CF, cow manure (CM, poultry manure (PM, vermicompost (VC and municipal waste compost (MC. Considering nitrogen concentration in all of the treatments different amounts of these fertilizers were used based on nitrogen recommendation for the field, so in

  14. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on tomato yield and nutrient uptake under different fertilization levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudovít Nedorost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza on tomato plants (Lycopersicon lycopersicum in the pot experiment was studied. Three different fertilization regimes (optimum – H1, stress a – H2, stress b - H3 and three different mycorrhizal treatments (control – Ctrl, Glomus mossae – Gm, Glomus intraradices – Gi were used. Economical parameter (yield, nutritional characteristic (vitamin C content, phosphates and minerals content, total antioxidant capacity, and level of root colonization were studied. The yield of the tomatoes was influenced by the basic dose of the fertilization, especially in the H2 and H3 treatment. The highest yield was in the H2 treatment in Gm (938 g per plant. The positive effect of the inoculation resulted in the increased content of the vitamin C. The highest significant influence was observed in the H2 treatment (plants inoculated with Gi with the average content of the vitamin C 289 mg.kg−1. The average rate of the colonization was in the range from 39 % to 65 %.

  15. Greenhouse energy use in 2011. Tomato, cucumber and ornamental plants; Energianvaendning i vaexthus 2011. Tomat, gurka och prydnadsvaexter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Joergen [Jordbruksverket, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    During the past decade, Swedish greenhouse cultivation has seen a continual structural and energy use transformation. As the number of holdings and the cultivated area has decreased, energy use has been reduced, streamlined and has changed character. The present report is a description of the current energy use pattern in the Swedish greenhouse business, as well as an overview of changes since 2002. The focus lies on the - from an area perspective - major branches: tomato-, cucumber- and ornamental plant cultivation. Between 2002 and 2011, the number of Swedish commercial greenhouse holdings has been reduced by 40 %, while the cultivated area has decreased by 12 %. During the same period, energy consumption for cultivation has been reduced from about 1,2 TWh to just over 0,6 TWh. The relatively large decrease in energy consumption as compared to cultivation area, signifies an increased energy efficiency. For the entire greenhouse cultivation, energy consumption was reduced from 371 to 215 kWh per square meter during the 2002-2011 period. For the specific branches, the decreased amounted to 21 %, 54 % and 58 % for tomato-, cucumber and ornamental plant cultivation, respectively. The use of various energy sources exhibited a distinct alteration between 2002 and 2011. The share of fossil fuels decreased from 77 % of the total energy consumption in 2002, to 43 % in 2011. Meanwhile, the share of biofuels increased from 5 % to 37 % of the energy used. Tomato- and cucumber cultivation exhibited a biofuel share of 55 % and 56 %, respectively, while the use of biofuels in the cultivation of ornamental plants reached 31 %. Holdings exhibiting different energy source use profiles also exhibited some general differences regarding cultivation branch, geographic location, greenhouse size and use of materials. Even as the change in direction towards a higher share of biofuels in the energy mix appears clear, changes on a holding level are more complex. While 95 holdings increased

  16. Dissipation rate of thiacloprid and its control effect against Bemisia tabaci in greenhouse tomato after soil application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sa; Qiao, Kang; Wang, Hongyan; Zhu, Yukun; Xia, Xiaoming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2014-08-01

    Thiacloprid is a chloronicotinyl insecticide that is quite effective against sucking insects. In this study, when thiacloprid was applied at two different rates (normal rate 15 kg ha(-1) , double rate 30 kg ha(-1) ), the systemic distribution and residue of thiacloprid as well as its control effect against whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) were investigated in greenhouse tomato after soil application. The results showed that thiacloprid was present in the tomato leaves until day 25, and then its amount was less than 0.005 mg kg(-1) and could not be detected. Thiacloprid residue in the tomato stems basically remained at a stable low level throughout the experimental period. Thiacloprid in soil had half-lives of 11.8 and 12.5 days for the normal treatment and the double treatment respectively. The control efficiency of whiteflies was about 90% from day 1 to day 10. This was followed by a slow decline, but efficiency was still higher than 50% until day 21. In addition, no significant differences were noted in the control effect of thiacloprid on whiteflies between the two different rates. Soil application of thiacloprid at the normal rate can effectively control whiteflies, with high efficiency and long persistence. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Effects of Application Vinasseand additive nitrogen and phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Golchin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Vinasse is a byproduct of the sugar industry. Sugarcane or Sugarbeet is processed to produce crystallinesugar, pulp and molasses. The latter isfurther processed by fermentation to ethanol, ascorbicacid or other products. After the removal of the desired product (alcohol, ascorbicacid, etc. the remaining material is called vinasse. Vinasse is sold after a partial dehydration and usually has a viscositycomparable to molasses. Commercially offered vinasse comes either from sugarcaneand is called cane-vinasse or from sugarbeet and is called beet-vinasse. On average, for each liter of vinasse, 12 liters alcohol produced. Vinasse is a material with dark brown color and the smell of burned sugar, which is rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Materials and Methods:To determine the effect of vinasse and additive nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of tomato, a factorial pot experiment was conducted at ZanjanUniversity in 2008. Two different plant nutrient including N and P and their combination (N+P were added to vinasse with three different concentrations to form experimental treatments. In addition to these treatments, three control treatments with vinasse of different concentrations, but with no additive were also included in the experiment. Each treatment used with two different application methods (soil application and soil + foliar application.The experiment had 24 treatments, a complete randomized design and three replications. The vinasse used in this experiment was diluted with water 10, 20 and 40 times to make a nutrient solution of three different concentrations of tomato plant. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus that were added to vinasse were 224 and 62 mg/l, respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen were applied to as super-phosphate triple and calcium nitrate and ammonium nitrate respectively. After being deployed to ensure complete installation of tomatoes in pots containing perlite (about 2

  18. Behavior and pollination efficiency of Nannotrigona perilampoides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) on greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) in subtropical México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauich, Orlando; Quezada-Euán, José Javier G; Macias-Macias, José Octavio; Reyes-Oregel, Vicente; Medina-Peralta, Salvador; Parra-Tabla, Victor

    2004-04-01

    The acclimation, foraging behavior, and pollination efficiency of stingless bees of the species Nannotrigona perilampoides Cresson were evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants cultivated in two greenhouses. The greenhouses were divided into three areas of 16 m2, and one of the following treatments was used for pollination: stingless bees (SB), mechanical vibration (MV), and no pollination (NP). Observations were conducted once a week from 0800 to 1600 hours during 2 mo. The acclimation of the bees to the greenhouses was estimated by the number of bees that did not return to the hive (lost bees) and by comparing the population of the colonies (brood and adults). The foraging activity of the bees across the day was evaluated by comparing the number of foragers per hour. The influence of environmental variables on the foraging activity was also analyzed. The pollination efficiency was compared among treatments through the percentage of fruit set, weight of individual fruit, kilograms of fruit produced per square meter, and the number of seed per fruit. The bees started foraging on the flowers approximately 7 d after the colonies were introduced to the greenhouse. There was a decline in the population of the colonies across the experiment, but colonies did not die out. Correlations of environmental variables with the foraging activity of the bees showed that none of them had a significant influence on pollen foraging. However, water collection was positively correlated with the temperature and negatively correlated with the humidity inside the greenhouse. The estimation of the pollination efficiency per treatment showed that there were significant differences in fruit set in SB (83 +/- 4.2) and MV (78.5 +/- 6.4) compared with NP (52.6 +/- 7.6). However, the average weight of the fruit was similar for the three treatments (65 g). There were significant differences for seed number in SB (200 +/- 15.3) and MV (232 +/- 21.4) compared with NP (120 +/- 16

  19. Testing the Suitability of a Terrestrial 2D LiDAR Scanner for Canopy Characterization of Greenhouse Tomato Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llop

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy characterization is essential for pesticide dosage adjustment according to vegetation volume and density. It is especially important for fresh exportable vegetables like greenhouse tomatoes. These plants are thin and tall and are planted in pairs, which makes their characterization with electronic methods difficult. Therefore, the accuracy of the terrestrial 2D LiDAR sensor is evaluated for determining canopy parameters related to volume and density and established useful correlations between manual and electronic parameters for leaf area estimation. Experiments were performed in three commercial tomato greenhouses with a paired plantation system. In the electronic characterization, a LiDAR sensor scanned the plant pairs from both sides. The canopy height, canopy width, canopy volume, and leaf area were obtained. From these, other important parameters were calculated, like the tree row volume, leaf wall area, leaf area index, and leaf area density. Manual measurements were found to overestimate the parameters compared with the LiDAR sensor. The canopy volume estimated with the scanner was found to be reliable for estimating the canopy height, volume, and density. Moreover, the LiDAR scanner could assess the high variability in canopy density along rows and hence is an important tool for generating canopy maps.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in the life-cycle of carrots and tomatoes. Methods, data and results from a study of the types and amounts of carrots and tomatoes consumed in Sweden. With arable land use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Kanyama, Annika

    1997-03-01

    Methods, data and results from an assessment of the arable land use and some greenhouse gas emissions during part of the life-cycle of the consumed carrots and tomatoes in Sweden during 1992-1993 are presented in the report. The life-cycle was delineated to transportation, storage, farm production and production of fertilizers. Carrots from six countries and tomatoes from four countries were analyzed. The study is reported with full transparency. The results are presented as the use of arable land (in m{sup 2}) and as the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (in g CO{sub 2} equivalents) required to sustain current Swedish consumption patterns of carrots and tomatoes. Emissions per kg of consumed tomato were 10 times higher than for carrots. Emissions from carrots were lowest when they were produced within or close to Sweden, while the opposite was the case for tomatoes. The key issues in the life-cycle of the analyzed carrots and tomatoes are identified and discussed. The general conclusions are that storage may be a key issue for vegetables with a long durability and adapted to a northern European climate. For vegetables with short durability, the key issue may be transportation if they are not adapted to a northern European climate but still cultivated in the open. The key issue for vegetables with a short durability may be energy requirements during farm production if the vegetables are not adapted to a northern European climate and therefore cultivated under glass. 3 figs, 57 tabs

  1. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albacete, Alfonso; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Balibrea, María E.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization of water and soil has a negative impact on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity by reducing growth of sink organs and by inducing senescence in source leaves. It has been hypothesized that yield stability implies the maintenance or increase of sink activity in the reproductive...... structures, thus contributing to the transport of assimilates from the source leaves through changes in sucrolytic enzymes and their regulation by phytohormones. In this study, classical and functional physiological approaches have been integrated to study the influence of metabolic and hormonal factors...... sucrolytic activities (mainly cwInv and sucrose synthase), sink strength, and fruit weight, whereas the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon had a negative effect in equivalent non-stressed fruits. Fruit yield was increased by both the constitutive expression of CIN1 in the fruits (up to 4-fold) or IPT...

  2. Produtividade do tomateiro em diferentes substratos e modelos de casas de vegetação Tomato crop production under different substrates and greenhouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar A. Carrijo

    2004-03-01

    coarse sawdust (9,0 kg m-2. On the other hand, the smallest production was obtained for tomatoes cultivated in rockwool (6,4 kg m-2 . There was a yield reduction between cultivation years due to the South American tomato moth (Tuta absoluta in all greenhouses. Coconut fiber and carbonized rice husk yielded the heaviest fruits, 128 g and 123 g respectively.

  3. Efficacy of insect-proof nets used in Tunisian tomato greenhouses against Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae and potential impact on plant growth and fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Harbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insect-proof screens constitute efficient physical means of protecting horticultural crops against insect pests and their use has become widespread. However, they may have a negative impact on plant growth and fruit quality by modifying climatic parameters of greenhouses. In case of tomato crops, they are used mainly against white flies and the tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick. In Tunisia, tomato plastic tunnels are often netted following two modalities: i complete netting of the greenhouse under the plastic screen (total netting; or ii netting only doors and lateral aeration windows (partial netting. Weekly monitoring of T. absoluta in two tomato greenhouses with different netting setups using pheromone traps and sampling of leaves and fruits showed no differences in the levels of infestation by the pest with a maximum average values of 6.66 eggs/leaf, 4.16 larvae/leaf and 4.16 mines/leaf. The maximum infestation rate of leaves was 86.66% and that of fruits was 10.83%. No effects of the netting setup used on plant growth parameters were detected. However, the study of fruit quality parameters revealed significant decrease in sugar contents in tomato fruits when using total netting setup (4.26°Brix versus 3.68°Brix. Recommendations regarding the combined use of pheromones traps and insect-proof nets are given and possibilities to enhance the efficiency of nets as physical barrier against T. absoluta are explored.

  4. Review of optimum temperature, humidity, and vapour pressure deficit for microclimate evaluation and control in greenhouse cultivation of tomato: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse technology is a flexible solution for sustainable year-round cultivation of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), particularly in regions with adverse climate conditions or limited land and resources. Accurate knowledge about plant requirements at different growth stages, and under vario...

  5. A 'Big leaf, big fruit, big substrate' model for experiments on receding horizon optimal control of nutrient supply to greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.; Vanthoor, B.H.E.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Elings, A.

    2006-01-01

    A dynamic model was set up to describe the mineral content, fruit dry matter content, and biomass of greenhouse tomato, for use in an experiment aiming at controlling the fertigation so as to reach the best compromise between disinfection costs of the recycled water and income from fruit fresh

  6. Protein, free amino acid, phenloic, ß-carotene, and lycopene content, and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects of 12 greenhouse-grown commercial cherry tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The content of water, free amino acids, amino acid metabolites, crude protein, the carotene pigments ß-carotene and lycopene, and 9 characterized and 2 incompletely characterized individual phenolic (flavonoid) compounds of 12 greenhouse-grown cherry tomato varieties of various colors (green, yellow...

  7. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, van den J.V.; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray

  8. Quantitative Effects of Early and Late Blights on Tomato Yields in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight caused by Alternaria solani and late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans are the major diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum in Cameroon. The effect of both diseases on fruit yield was evaluated during the 1995 growing season in Dschang, Cameroon.Ten varieties were planted in the first trial (March-July and nine in the second (July- November. In both trials, plots were sprayed weekly with Ridomil Plus (2.0 kg/ha before flowering and with maneb (1.6 kg/ha after flowering. Early blight was more severe in the early part of the first trial, while late blight caused most damage during the second. Marketable yields varied according to variety. High yields in sprayed plots were obtained in Dona F1 (61.63 t/ha and Heinz 1370 (68.24 t/ha during the first trial, and in Fline (58.35 t/ha, Mecline (64.25 t/ha, and Moboline (55.16 t/ha during the second trial. Percent fruit infection in sprayed plots caused by both diseases varied according to variety from 12 to 65% in the first season and from 14 to 52% in the second, while losses in marketable yields for both blights were as high as 100% in unsprayed plots.

  9. Tomato yield and potassium concentrations in soil and in plant petioles as affected by potassium fertirrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONTES PAULO CEZAR REZENDE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Santa Clara was grown on a silt clay soil with 46 mg dm-3 Mehlich 1 extractable K, to evaluate the effects of trickle-applied K rates on fruit yield and to establish K critical concentrations in soil and in plant petioles. Six potassium rates (0, 48, 119, 189, 259 and 400 kg ha-1 K were applied in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Soil and plant K critical levels were determined at two plant growth stages (at the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering. Total, marketable and weighted yields increased with K rates, reaching their maximum of 86.4, 73.4, and 54.9 ton ha-1 at 198, 194, and 125 kg ha-1 K , respectively. At the first soil sampling date K critical concentrations in the soil associated with K rates for maximum marketable and weighted yields were 92 and 68 mg dm-3, respectively. Potassium critical concentrations in the dry matter of the petioles sampled by the beginning of the second and fourth cluster flowering time, associated with maximum weighted yield, were 10.30 and 7.30 dag kg-1, respectively.

  10. Effect of vermicompost on growth, yield and nutrition status of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarmi, Rasool; Ziveh, Parviz Sharifi; Satari, Mohammad Reza

    2008-07-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of vermicompost on growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. Super Beta) in a field condition. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four replications. The different rates of vermicompost (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha(-1)) was incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. During experiment period, fruits were harvested twice in a week and total yield were recorded for two months. At the end of experiment, growth characteristics such as leaf number, leaf area and shoot dry weights were determined. The results revealed that addition of vermicompost at rate of 15 t ha(-1) significantly (at p Vermicompost with rate of 15 t ha(-1) increased EC of fruit juice and percentage of fruit dry matter up to 30 and 24%, respectively. The content of K, P, Fe and Zn in the plant tissue increased 55, 73, 32 and 36% compared to untreated plots respectively. The result of our experiment showed addition of vermicompost had significant (p < 0.05) positive effects on growth, yield and elemental content of plant as compared to control.

  11. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  12. Effects on Tomato Bacterial Canker of Resistance Inducers and Copper Compounds in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Baştaş, Kubilay

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis produces considerable economic losses in many countries because effective control measures are lacking. In this study, the effectiveness of some chemicals, a plant growth regulator (Prohexadione-Ca (PC)), two plant activators (hydrogen peroxide (HP)) and harpin protein (Hrp), fungicides, maneb+copper (MC), copper compounds (copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) copper hydroxide (CH) and copper oxychloride (CO)) an...

  13. Desempenho de cultivares de tomateiro em sistema orgânico sob cultivo protegido Performance of organically grown tomato cultivars under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César T de Melo

    2009-12-01

    in unheated plastic greenhouse. In both experiments tomato plants were staked. Plant spacing was 1.5 m between rows and 0.35 m between plants. They were planted in double line and spaced 0.8 m between lines and 0.6 m between plants (about 20,000 plants ha-1. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design, with four replications and eight treatments (cultivars: Avalon, Colibri, HTX-5415, HTX-8027, Sahel, San Marzano, San Vito, and Jane. Sahel hybrid exhibited an outstanding performance for marketable yield under organic cultivation. Tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta was a serious limiting pest for organically grown tomatoes, responding for 17% of damage in the fruits harvested from the evaluated cultivars.

  14. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Sinclair, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO 2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  15. Potting media, transplants and yields in the production of glasshouse tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spithost, L.S.

    1969-01-01

    Samples of potting composts for raising tomatoes on holdings in the South Holland glasshouse district were collected in 1960 and 1961.

    In propagation experiments with soil blocks, fresh weight of young tomato plants were found to vary widely. Some 3/4 out of the investigated composts were not

  16. Técnicas experimentais para tomateiro tipo salada sob estufas plásticas Salad tomato experimental techniques in plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um ensaio em branco com a cultura do tomateiro, cv. Monte Carlo, sob ambiente modificado por estufa plástica de 24 x 12m. Foram realizadas 11 colheitas dos frutos, sendo determinado o peso total. A unidade básica de colheita foi composta pelo agrupamento de três plantas na fila. O espaçamento entre as plantas na fila foi de 0,3m e 1,0m entre filas, resultando em 10 filas com 24 unidades básicas cada uma. Concluiu-se que o delineamento experimental mais adequado é o inteiramente casualizado com parcelas menores que 18 plantas na fila. Experimentos para avaliar a produtividade em função de diferentes tratamentos (adubos, biocidas, etc de uma mesma cultivar, em estufas plásticas, podem ser colhidos apenas até, aproximadamente, a terça parte inicial da produção esperada, visando economia de recursos e maior precisão. Observou-se uma estabilidade das diferenças mínimas significativas a partir de 30% do total colhido, para parcelas de três, nove e 18 plantas.An uniformity trial was carried out with tomate plants grown in a plastic greenhouse with an area of 24m x 12m. The total fruit yield of salad tomato cv. Monte Carlo was evaluated during 11 separat harvest. The basic plot was planted with three plants in the same row. The plants were grown in distances of 0.3m in the same row and by 1,0m between rows. All 24 plots were allocated in ten different rows. The results demonstrate that the completely randomized were more adequate with plots smaller than 18 plants in the same row. The yield evaluation in experiments with different traits using a same cultivar in plastic greenhouse should be conducted up to 30% of total yield. This is importam for more experimental precision and budged economy and time. Results showed that the minimal significance difference varies after 30% of the total yield, was harvested for three, nine and eighteen plants in each plot.

  17. Spatial distribution and sequential sampling plans for Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Serra, Giuseppe; Lentini, Andrea; Deliperi, Salvatore; Delrio, Gavino

    2015-09-01

    The within- and between-plant distribution of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), was investigated in order to define action thresholds based on leaf infestation and to propose enumerative and binomial sequential sampling plans for pest management applications in protected crops. The pest spatial distribution was aggregated between plants, and median leaves were the most suitable sample to evaluate the pest density. Action thresholds of 36 and 48%, 43 and 56% and 60 and 73% infested leaves, corresponding to economic thresholds of 1 and 3% damaged fruits, were defined for tomato cultivars with big, medium and small fruits respectively. Green's method was a more suitable enumerative sampling plan as it required a lower sampling effort. Binomial sampling plans needed lower average sample sizes than enumerative plans to make a treatment decision, with probabilities of error of sampling plan required 87 or 343 leaves to estimate the population density in extensive or intensive ecological studies respectively. Binomial plans would be more practical and efficient for control purposes, needing average sample sizes of 17, 20 and 14 leaves to take a pest management decision in order to avoid fruit damage higher than 1% in cultivars with big, medium and small fruits respectively. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driever, Steven M; Simkin, Andrew J; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J; Madgwick, Pippa J; Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A J; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-26

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf photosynthesis in wheat, the level of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7-biphosphatase (SBPase) has been increased through transformation and expression of a Brachypodium distachyon SBPase gene construct. Transgenic lines with increased SBPase protein levels and activity were grown under greenhouse conditions and showed enhanced leaf photosynthesis and increased total biomass and dry seed yield. This showed the potential of improving yield potential by increasing leaf photosynthesis in a crop species such as wheat. The results are discussed with regard to future strategies for further improvement of photosynthesis in wheat.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Ethylene emission and PR protein synthesis in ACC deaminase producing Methylobacterium spp. inoculated tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) challenged with Ralstonia solanacearum under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Woojong; Seshadri, Sundaram; Kim, Kiyoon; Lee, Gillseung; Sa, Tongmin

    2013-06-01

    Bacteria of genus Methylobacterium have been found to promote plant growth and regulate the level of ethylene in crop plants. This work is aimed to test the induction of defense responses in tomato against bacterial wilt by stress ethylene level reduction mediated by the ACC deaminase activity of Methylobacterium strains. Under greenhouse conditions, the disease index value in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated tomato plants was lower than control plants. Plants treated with Methylobacterium sp. challenge inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum (RS) showed significantly reduced disease symptoms and lowered ethylene emission under greenhouse condition. The ACC and ACO (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase) accumulation in tomato leaves were significantly reduced with Methylobacterium strains inoculation. While ACC oxidase gene expression was found higher in plants treated with R. solanacearum than Methylobacterium sp. treatment, PR proteins related to induced systemic resistance like β-1,3-glucanase, PAL, PO and PPO were increased in Methylobacterium sp. inoculated plants. A significant increase in β-1,3-glucanase and PAL gene expression was found in all the Methylobacterium spp. treatments compared to the R. solanacearum treatment. This study confirms the activity of Methylobacterium sp. in increasing the defense enzymes by modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and suggests the use of methylotrophic bacteria as potential biocontrol agents in tomato cultivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. An environmental systems analysis of greenhouse horticulture in the Netherlands : the tomato case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluimers, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective of the thesis

    The greenhouse horticulture sector in the Netherlands covers about 10,000 hectares and produces vegetables, cut flowers and pot plants. This agricultural sector is of social and economic importance because of its annual

  1. Emission index for evaluation of volatile organic compounds emitted from tomato plants in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takayama, K.; Jansen, R.M.C.; Henten, van E.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Nishina, H.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants allows us to monitor plant health status without touching the plant. To bring this technique a step further towards a practical plant diagnosis technique for greenhouse crop production, we have defined a numerical index named

  2. Responses of wild husk tomato, Physalis angulata L. to growth regulators and gamma rays on chlorophyll content and fruit yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghava, R.P.; Raghava, Nisha

    1994-01-01

    Effect of different growth regulators and gamma rays on the total chlorophyll content and fruit yield were studied in wild species of husk tomato and concluded that indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) 200 and kinetin (KIN) 10 ppm showed remarkable enhancement in both total chlorophyll content and fruit yield, while maleic hydrazide (MH) 100, 200 ppm and coumarin (COU) in all the treatments enhanced total chlorophyll content. Gamma ray treatments significantly enhanced both the parameters. Amongst all the treatments maximum fruit yield was in 20 kR of gamma rays. (author). 31 refs., 1 tab

  3. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  4. Effects of copper-based compounds, antibiotics and a plant activator on population sizes and spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in greenhouse tomato seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Milijašević Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepanović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate), two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin) and a plant activator (ASM) significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the regi...

  5. Evaluation of the Yield and Water Use Efficiency of the Cucumber Inside Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abied Hamza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to provide fresh and good quality products during long periods throughout the year lead to the adoption of using greenhouses technology, so protected cropping has become a very popular production system in horticulture especially nowadays in Iraq. Evaluation the crop’s yield, water use efficiency and the irrigation system performance became essential. The main objectives of this research were to evaluate the yield index and the water use efficiency for the cucumber inside the greenhouses, and evaluate the performance of the drip irrigation efficiency inside the greenhouses. To accomplish these goals an experiment was conducted in the field located in AL-Mahawil Township in Babylon province .A set of measurements were recorded daily inside the greenhouses planting with cucumber for two consecutive seasons 2014 and 2015 related to weather parameters, crop evapotranspiration, drip system’s performance, and crop’s production. From the conducted field work inside the greenhouses and the analysis of the field data, the following conclusions were withdrawn: daily cucumber’s crop evapotranspiration was measured using the watermarks sensors, the total crop evapotranspiration for the seasons 2014 and 2015 were: 218.21mm and 281.86mm, respectively. The increasing in the crop evapotranspiration was due to change in weather parameters inside the greenhouses. The cucumber’s yield index for seasons 2014 and 2015 was: 8.87 and 8.53 kg/m2, respectively, which was close values between the two seasons. In this study, the yield index was high comparing with others approaches. The water use efficiency for the seasons 2014 and 2015 were: 23.23 and 18.22 kg/m3, respectively, which were low values comparing with other approaches. The reduction in the water use efficiency was due to the huge quantities of water applied through the seasons. Additionally, the irrigation efficiency for the drip system in this study for the seasons 2014 and 2015 were: 65

  6. Influence of Inter-Intra Row Spacing on Yield Losses of Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    losses of tomato growing under open field production with fresh market (Bishola) and processing ..... AVRDC. 2003. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre, Shanhua, Tainan, progress ... Australia national universities. 20: 1.

  7. Hormonal and metabolic regulation of tomato fruit sink activity and yield under salinity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albacete, A.; Cantero-Navarro, E.; Balibrea, M. E.; Grosskinsky, D. K.; de la Cruz Gonzalez, M.; Martínez-Andújar, C.; Smigocki, A. C.; Roitsch, Thomas; Pérez-Alfocea, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 20 (2014), s. 6081-6095 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cell wall invertase * cytokinins * fruit * salinity * sink activity * tomato Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.526, year: 2014

  8. Evaluation of Tomato Yield and Quality under Deficit Irrigation conditions and Simultaneous Application of Superabsorbent Polymer, Shading and Mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bostani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the most important environmental factors that influences yield and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Peralta & Spoonerin arid and semi-arid regions. Drought stress causes different physiological effects on plant growth. Vegetable crops are more sensitive to water shortage and any deficit in providing water requirement of plant leads to considerable reduction of yield. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved by many approaches and strategies. Super absorbent polymers (SAP as a soil improvement substance, covering soil by different types of mulches and blocking a part of sun light by shading have been used effectively to increase the water use efficiency sustainability of production in agricultural systems. But, still there is a limited knowledge on interactions of SAPs, plastic mulches and shading under deficit irrigation on yield and quality of tomato. Material and Methods In order to evaluate the effects of SAP, black plastic mulches and decreasing light intensity under deficit irrigation on yield and quality of tomato ‘Early Urbana VF 132- 7171’ fruits, the current research carried out in a field experiment at department of Horticulture, Ilam University during 2014 using a 3 × 8 × 3 split plot assay based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD with two factor. The main factor was including three irrigation intervals (once after 3, 6 or 9 days equivalent to soils field capacity and sub-factor was including eight treatments viz., mulch, superabsorbent, shading, mulch + superabsorbent, mulch + shading, superabsorbent¬ + shading, mulch + shading + superabsorbent and control. Light intensity was measured by a digital exposure meter ‘Mastech MS6610’. Data were subjected to ANOVA using SAS software version 9.3. Verification of significant differences was done using Duncan's Test at 5

  9. Synergistic Effects of Agronet Covers and Companion Cropping on Reducing Whitefly Infestation and Improving Yield of Open Field-Grown Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Mutisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill are one of the biggest vegetable crops in the world, supplying a wide range of vitamins, minerals and fibre in human diets. In the tropics, tomatoes are predominantly grown under sub-optimal conditions by subsistence farmers, with exposure to biotic and abiotic stresses in the open field. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius is one of the major pests of the tomato, potentially causing up to 100% yield loss. To control whitefly, most growers indiscriminately use synthetic insecticides which negatively impact the environment, humans, and other natural pest management systems, while also increasing cost of production. This study sought to investigate the effectiveness of agronet covers and companion planting with aromatic basil (Ocimum basilicum L. as an alternative management strategy for whitefly in tomatoes and to evaluate the use of these treatments ontomato growth and yield. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Training Field, Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya. Treatments comprised a combination of two factors, (1 growing environment (agronet and no agronet and (2 companion planting with a row of basil surrounding tomato plants, a row of basil in between adjacent rows of tomato, no companion planting. Agronet covers and companion cropping with a row of basil planted between adjacent tomato rows significantly lowered B. tabaci infestation in tomatoes by 68.7%. Better tomato yields were also recorded in treatments where the two treatments were used in combination. Higher yield (13.75 t/ha was obtained from tomatoes grown under agronet cover with a basil row planted in between adjacent rows of the tomato crop compared to 5.9 t/ha in the control. Non-marketable yield was also lowered to5.9 t/ha compared to 9.8 t/ha in the control following the use of the two treatments in combination. The results of this study demonstrate the potential viability of using companion cropping and agronet

  10. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  11. Economical analysis and relation between energy inputs and yield of greenhouse cucumber production in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Omid, Mahmoud [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    This paper studies the energy balance between the input and the output per unit area for greenhouse cucumber production. For this purpose, the data on 43 cucumber production greenhouses in the Tehran province, Iran, were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that a total energy input of 148836.76 MJ ha{sup -1} was consumed for cucumber production. Diesel fuel (with 41.94%) and chemical fertilizers (with 19.69%) were amongst the highest energy inputs for cucumber production. The energy productivity was estimated as 0.80 kg MJ{sup -1}. The ratio of energy output to energy input was approximately 0.64. Results indicate 10.93% and 89.07% of total energy input was in renewable and non-renewable forms, respectively. The regression results revealed that the contribution of energy inputs on crop yield (except for fertilizers and seeds energies) was significant. The human labour energy had the highest impact (0.35) among the other inputs in greenhouse cucumber production. Econometric analysis indicated that the total cost of production for one hectare of cucumber production was around 33425.70$. Accordingly, the benefit-cost ratio was estimated as 2.58. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Low Pressure Fogging System for Improving Crop Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.: Grown under Heat Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobi Shilo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean regions, many tomato plants are grown throughout the hot summer period (May–September in sheltered cultivation, mainly for plant protection reasons. Most of the shelters that are used are low cost net houses covered with 50 mesh insect proof net. In most cases these net houses have a flat roof and no ventilation or climate control measures. This insufficient ventilation during the hot summer leads to above optimal air temperatures and causes moderate heat stress inside the shelters, which leads to yield reduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of a simple and inexpensive low pressure fogging system installed in a naturally ventilated net house to lower temperatures and improve the yield during the summer. The study showed that in areas where relative air humidity (RH during the daytime is less than 60%, tomato plants improved their performance when grown through the summer in net houses under moderate heat stress. Under fogging conditions pollen grain viability and fruit set were significantly improved. This improvement influenced the yield picked during September (104–136 DAP. However, total seasonal yield was not affected by the fogging treatment.

  13. Improving the CROPGRO-Tomato model for predicting growth and yield to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boote, K.J.; Rybak, M.R.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Jones, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Parameterizing crop models for more accurate response to climate factors such as temperature is important considering potential temperature increases associated with climate change, particularly for tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), which is a heat-sensitive crop. The objective of this work

  14. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.R. Damaiyanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to study the effect mycorrhiza on growth and yield of tomato. The experiment was conducted in screen house 14 m x 10.5 m, in Pasuruan on November 2013 until March 2014, The experiment was conducted as a factorial randomized complete design. The first factor was dose of mycorrhiza (without mycorrhiza, 5 g mycorrhiza, 10 g mycorrhiza, and 20 g mycorrhiza. The second factor was the salinity stress level (without NaCl, 2500 ppm NaCl, 5000 ppm NaCl, and 7500 ppm NaCl. The results showed that salinity stress at the level 7500 ppm decreased the amount of fruit by 30.84% and fresh weight per hectare decreased by 51.72%. Mycorrhizal application was not able to increase the growth and yield in saline stress conditions; it was shown by the level of infection and the number of spores on the roots of tomato plants lower the salinity level 5000 ppm and 7500 ppm. But separately, application of 20 g mycorrhiza enhanced plant growth, such as plant height, leaf area, leaf number and proline. Application of 20 g mycorrhiza increased the yield by 35.99%.

  15. Effects of physical agitation on yield of greenhouse-grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Agronomic and horticultural crop species experience reductions in growth and harvestable yield after exposure to physical agitation (also known as mechanical stress), as by wind or rain. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the influence of mechanical stress on soybean yield and to determine if exposure to mechanical stress during discrete growth periods has differential effects on seed yield. A modified rotatory shaker was used to apply seismic (i.e., shaking) stress. Brief, periodic episodes of seismic stress reduced stem length, total seed dry weight, and seed number of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Lodging resistance was greater for plants stressed during vegetative growth or throughout vegetative and reproductive growth than during reproductive growth only. Seed dry weight yield was reduced regardless of the timing or duration of stress application, but was lowest when applied during reproductive development. Seismic stress applied during reproductive growth stages R1 to R2 (Days 3 to 4) was as detrimental to seed dry weight accumulation as was stress applied during growth stages R1 to R6 (Days 39 to 42). Seed dry weight per plant was highly correlated with seed number per plant, and seed number was correlated with the seed number of two- and three-seeded pods. Dry weight per 100 seeds was unaffected by seismic-stress treatment. Growth and yield reductions resulting from treatments applied only during the vegetative stage imply that long-term mechanical effects were induced, from which the plants did not fully recover. It is unclear which yield-controlling physiological processes were affected by mechanical stress. Both transient and long-term effects on yield-controlling processes remain to be elucidated.

  16. The Influence of the Plant Growth Regulator Maleic Hydrazide on Egyptian Broomrape Early Developmental Stages and Its Control Efficacy in Tomato under Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Venezian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Phelipanche spp. and Orobanche spp. are holoparasitic plants that cause tremendous losses of agricultural crops worldwide. Broomrape control is extremely difficult and only amino acid biosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides present an acceptable control level. It is expected that broomrape resistance to these herbicides is not long in coming. Our objective was to develop a broomrape control system in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. based on the plant growth regulator maleic hydrazide (MH. Petri-dish and polyethylene-bag system experiments revealed that MH has a slight inhibitory effect on Phelipanche aegyptiaca seed germination but is a potent inhibitor of the first stages of parasitism, namely attachment and the tubercle stage. MH phytotoxicity toward tomato and its P. aegyptiaca-control efficacy were tested in greenhouse experiments. MH was applied at 25, 50, 75, 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 to tomato foliage grown in P. aegyptiaca-infested soil at 200 growing degree days (GDD and again at 400 GDD. The treatments had no influence on tomato foliage or root dry weight. The total number of P. aegyptiaca attachments counted on the roots of the treated plants was significantly lower at 75 g a.i. ha-1 and also at higher MH rates. Phelipanche aegyptiaca biomass was close to zero at rates of 150, 300, and 600 g a.i. ha-1 MH. Field experiments were conducted to optimize the rate, timing and number of MH applications. Two application sequences gave superior results, both with five split applications applied at 100, 200, 400, 700, and 1000 GDD: (a constant rate of 400 g a.i. ha-1; (b first two applications at 270 g a.i. ha-1 and the next three applications at 540 g a.i. ha-1. Based on the results of this study, MH was registered for use in Israel in 2013 with the specified protocol and today, it is widely used by most Israeli tomato growers.

  17. Eco-Friendly Nets and Floating Row Covers Reduce Pest Infestation and Improve Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Yields for Smallholder Farmers in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha O. Gogo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important vegetable for supplying vitamins, minerals and fiber in human diets worldwide. Successful open field production of tomato in the tropics is limited by insect pests among other constraints. Two trials were conducted at the Horticulture Research and Teaching Field, Egerton University, Kenya with the objective of evaluating the effects of agricultural nets (agronets herein called eco-friendly nets (EFNs and floating row covers (FRCs on pest population and yield of tomatoes. A randomized complete block design with five replications was used. Tomato plants were protected with either fine mesh EFN (0.4-mm pore diameter, large mesh EFN (0.9-mm pore diameter or FRC. The EFN and FRC were maintained permanently closed or opened thrice a week from 9 am to 3 pm. Two control treatments were used: open unsprayed (untreated control or open and sprayed with alpha-cypermethrin based insecticide (treated control. The use of EFN and FRC helped to manage pests with the lowest pest population obtained under FRC maintained permanently covered and the highest population recorded in the untreated control. Covering tomato plants with EFN or FRC also resulted in more marketable fruit and lower yield losses compared with the unprotected systems. The EFN and FRC offer great potential as part of integrated systems for pest management and yield improvement in tomato production in regions with a tropical climate.

  18. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins

    OpenAIRE

    Belfry, Kimberly D.; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J.; Loewen, Steven A.; Van Eerd, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and ...

  19. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Candido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  20. Effect of a formulation of Bacillus firmus on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infestation and the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse and nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Metasebia; Tefera, Tadele; Sakhuja, P K

    2009-02-01

    Bacillus firmus, commercial WP formulation (BioNem) was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in a laboratory, greenhouse and under field conditions on tomato plants. In the laboratory tests, an aqueous suspension of BioNem at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentration reduced egg hatching from 98% to 100%, 24-days after treatment. Treatment of second-stage juveniles with 2.5% and 3% concentration of BioNem, caused 100% inhibition of mobility, 24 h after treatment. In the green house trials, BioNem applied at 8 g/pot (1200 cc soil) planted with a tomato seedlings reduced gall formation by 91%, final nematode populations by 76% and the number of eggs by 45%. Consequently, plant height and biomass was increased by 71% and 50%, respectively, compared to the untreated control, 50-days after treatment application. Application of BioNem at 16 g/pot was phytotoxic to plants. In the field trails, BioNem applied at 200 and 400 kg ha(-1) was effective in reducing the number of galls (75-84%), and increased shoot height (29-31%) and weight (20-24%) over the untreated control, 45-days after treatment. Our results indicate that B. firmus is a promising microorganism for the biological control of M. incognita in tomato pots.

  1. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  2. Application of drum compost and vermicompost to improve soil health, growth, and yield parameters for tomato and cabbage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Linee; Nath, Anil; Sutradhar, Sweety; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kalamdhad, Ajay; Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-09-15

    Utilization of different types of solid wastes through composting is important for environmental sustainability and restoring soil quality. Although drum composting is an efficient technology, the possibility of heavy metal contamination restricts its large-scale use. In this research, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of water hyacinth drum compost (DC) and traditional vermicompost (VC) on soil quality and crop growth in an agro-ecosystem cultivated intensively with tomato and cabbage as test crops. A substantial improvement in soil health was observed with respect to nutrient availability, physical stability, and microbial diversity due to the application of drum compost and traditional vermicompost. Moreover, soil organic carbon was enriched through increased humic and fulvic acid carbon. Interestingly, heavy metal contamination was less significant in vermicompost-treated soils than in those receiving the other treatments. The use of VC and DC in combination with recommended chemical fertilization effectively stimulated crop growth, yield, product quality, and storage longevity for both tomato and cabbage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of different irrigation practices using treated wastewater on tomato yields, quality, water productivity, and soil and fruit mineral contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Azize Dogan; Sahin, Ustun

    2017-11-01

    Wastewater use in agricultural irrigation is becoming a common practice in order to meet the rising water demands in arid and semi-arid regions. The study was conducted to determine the effects of the full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation practices using treated municipal wastewater (TWW) and freshwater (FW) on tomato yield, water use, fruit quality, and soil and fruit heavy metal concentrations. The TWW significantly increased marketable yield compared to the FW, as well as decreased water consumption. Therefore, water use efficiency (WUE) in the TWW was significantly higher than in the FW. Although the DI and the PRD practices caused less yields, these practices significantly increased WUE values due to less irrigation water applied. The water-yield linear relationships were statistically significant. TWW significantly increased titratable acidity and vitamin C contents. Reduced irrigation provided significantly lower titratable acidity, vitamin C, and lycopene contents. TWW increased the surface soil and fruit mineral contents in response to FW. Greater increases were observed under FI, and mineral contents declined with reduction in irrigation water. Heavy metal accumulation in soils was within safe limits. However, Cd and Pb contents in fruits exceeded standard limits given by FAO/WHO. Higher metal pollution index values determined for fruits also indicated that TWW application, especially under FI, might cause health risks in long term.

  4. Influence of Inter-Intra Row Spacing on Yield Losses of Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on major yield loss agents such as, blossom end rot, decay, insect, disease, sunburn, crack, catface and others minor disorders were collected; as well as total yield, percent of marketable and unmarketable fruit yield parameters were analyzed. Results of the study showed that inter-intra row spacing and cultivar had a ...

  5. THE YIELD OF LETTUCE BREEDING LINE UNDER LED LAMPS IN WINTER GREENHOUSE IN THE NORTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dalke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is widely known and favorite vegetable crop among people. In Europe the main production of lettuce is performed on protected ground with application of  artificial  light  sources. The artificially-lighted  culture  of salad became very actually acquired in the north. Previously, on the basis of multi-year studies on yield registration and experiments with different regimes of lighting we have defined the appropriate parameters of supplementary lighting for lettuce with sodium high-pressure lamps that provided the production in different seasons per year. The aim was to study the accumulation of biomass and yield quality in lettuce ‘Aphytsion’ being grown in winter rotation under light-emitting diodes lamps. The accumulation of biomass and yield quality was studied in ‘Aphytsion’,  grown in winter rotation under lightemitting diodes lamps ECOLED-BIO-112-185WD120 UniversaLED (ООО ‘GK’  ‘CET’, Perm, in  industrial greenhouse OOO ‘Prigorodniy’  at Syktyvkar city. The commodity  output  was obtained  for  two  cycle  of  cultivation, November-December  and  December-January.  Yield  of foliage biomass was 2.4 kg/m2 with flow density PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation about 90 μmole quantum/m2  s. at 20 W/m2 with total light energy 54 MJ/m2  supplied to plants from LED lamps. The plants produced about 0.5 g. of dry weight calculated on one mole of spent light energy. Energy efficiency of PAR was 3% that corresponded with data observed earlier with sodium high-pressure lamps. The conclusion was made about the suitableness of this type of light-emitting diode lamps for lettuce cultivation in winter rotation in first photic zone. It was recommended to increase duration of supplemental lighting up to 22-24 hours in December and up to 20-22 hours in January to improve the productivity and biological value of plant output. It enables to raise RAP income in plants by 35 %, on

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on growth, yield and chemical constituents for three tomato varieties and their crosses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanien, E H; Abdeltawab, F M; Elsouedy, A [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Sharabash, M T; Mahmoud, A A [National Center for Research and Radiation Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Three tomato varieties named no. 10 (I); bison (II) and Kecskement (III),as well as their crosses and their reciprocal crosses were irradiated and involved in this investigation. Variety (II) was the earliest in flowering, The shortest stem with the least number of branches per plant. Whereas variety (III) was the latest latest in flowering, the longest stem with the highest number of branches per plant. Meanwhile, variety (I) was in the intermediate between the other 2 varieties. Generally, days for 50% flowering were decreased for all varieties and all genotypes as a function of gamma irradiation. This response reached the maximum in M2. Whereas, plant height and number of branches did not gain the same trend. Variety (I) produced the highest number of fruits per plant, while variety (III) gained the lowest. The average weight of fruit was in reversal correlation with the average number of fruits per plant. All crosses and their reciprocal crosses were almost intermediate between their parents in number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, and seed setting per fruit. Irradiating seeds of tomato varieties and expected crosses stimulated the fruit characters, however, they were still less than the best parent. This enhancement was extended to M2. Variety (I) verified the highest concentration of vitamin. C, and chlorophyll A, B and carotenoids in leaves, comparing to the other 2 varieties. Meanwhile, lycopene in fruits reached the maximum concentration in variety (III). All genotypes obtained could not exceed their respective parents in vitamin. C except the crosses (I x II), (I x III),(II x III) and (III x II) which overcame their original parents, particularly in M2. Meanwhile all crosses, as well as, their reciprocal crosses could not gain the prominancy in both lycopene and carotenoids over the best parent. Vitamin. C, and lycopene in fruits were decreased decreased in fruits as a function of gamma irradiation. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makarian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental problems such as water resource pollution and decrease in soil fertility. Organic matters are excellent sources of plant-available nutrients and their addition to soil could maintain high microbial populations and activities. In crop studies, Prabha et al. (2007 reported that there was excellent plant growth as well as yield in garlic plants that received vermicompost as nutrient in the field (28. Recent studies confirmed that, a number of bacterial species mostly associated with the plant rhizosphere, are found to be beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the growth promoting effects of organic and bio-fertilizers on tomato growth and yield. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood in 2011. Geographically, the site is located in Bastam (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l..The climate of this region is semi-arid. Treatments included three levels of organic fertilizers: vermicompost (1300 kgha-1, cow manure (3350 kgha-1, and control, biological fertilizer in four levels (Pseudomonas putyda, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chrococcum and control. The bacterial suspension for each species was applied at a rate of 3 liters per hectare. Metribuzin herbicide (wettable 80% powder was used at a rate of 1000 gr. ha-1. Petopride No. 2' variety of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was used in the present experiment. At the time of harvesting, the plant characteristics namely lengths and diameter of stem, number and weight of fruit, weight of stem and leaf were also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software Mstatc. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results

  8. A novel two-step ultrasound post-assisted lye peeling regime for tomatoes: Reducing pollution while improving product yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruiping; Ye, Fayin; Lu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jiajia; Li Shen, Xiao; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, the effects and mechanisms of a novel two-step tomato peeling method, hot lye with a post-assistance of ultrasound, were investigated. The present work aims to improve the environmental friendliness of the conventional hot lye tomato peeling method (10% w/v, 97 °C, 45 s). The results showed that 4% (w/v) lye treatment at 97 °C for 30 s with a post-assistance of a 31.97 W/L ultrasound treatment at 70 °C for 50 s achieved a 100% peelability. In this scenario, the peeling yield and lycopene content in the peeled product were significantly higher than the peeling yield and lycopene content with the conventional hot lye peeling method. The present two-step peeling method was concluded with a mechanism of chemico-mechanical synergism, in which the hot lye functions mainly in a chemical way while the ultrasound is a mechanical process. Especially from the lye side, this work first demonstrated that the lye penetrated across the tomato skin via a pitting model rather than evenly. The findings reported in this paper not only provide a novel tomato peeling method with significant environmental benefits but also discover new clues to the peeling mechanism using hot lye. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of biodegradable mulch for tomato and broccoli production: Crop yield and quality, mulch deterioration, and growers' perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jeremy Scott

    Biodegradable mulch may offer the benefits of polyethylene mulch for crop production with the added benefit of biodegradability. Four studies were carried out in Mount Vernon, WA to evaluate biodegradable mulch for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) production. The first study compared four biodegradable mulch treatments: BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus (cellulose product), and SB-PLA-10/11/12 (experimental, non-woven fabric), to polyethylene mulch and bare ground in high tunnels and in the open field for tomato yield and fruit quality over three growing seasons. Biodegradable plastic films produced yields and fruit quality comparable to polyethylene. Moreover, high tunnels increased total and marketable fruit weight five and eight times, respectively, compared to the open field. The second study quantified relationships among visual assessment parameters and mulch mechanical properties. Visual assessments and mechanical property tests of polyethylene, BioAgri, BioTelo, WeedGuardPlus, and SB-PLA-10/11/12, were made over three growing seasons. Regression analyses found the strongest relationship overall (r2 = 0.41) to be between the percent of initial breaking force in the machine direction and log 10 of percent visual deterioration. However, evaluating mulch products individually and increasing sample frequency are recommended for future research. The third study evaluated three biodegradable mulch products, BioAgri, Crown 1, and SB-PLA-11, after soil-incorporation. The average area of recovered mulch fragments decreased for all mulch products over time. The number of mulch fragments initially increased for all mulch products, with the greatest number of Crown 1 and BioAgri fragments recovered 132 and 299 days after incorporation, respectively. At 397 days after soil-incorporation, the total area of recovered fragments of Crown 1 and BioAgri was 0% and 34% of the theoretical maximum area, respectively. The fourth study

  10. Effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under simulated seawater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Jun Kang, Yi; Li Wang, Huan; Sheng Zhang, Xiang; Xin Zhao, Qing

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effects of three PGPRs on plant growth, yield, and quality of tomato under simulated seawater irrigation, a two consecutive seasons' field experiment was conducted in Yancheng Teachers University plot from April to June and August to October, 2011. The results showed that Erwinia persicinus RA2 containing ACC deaminase exhibited the best ability compared with Bacillus pumilus WP8 and Pseudomonas putida RBP1 which had no ACC deaminase activity to enhance marketable yields of fresh and dried fruits in tomato under simulated seawater irrigation especially under HS condition. B. pumilus WP8 had significant effects on improving tomato fruit quality under the conditions of irrigating with 1.0% NaCl solution (MS) and with 2.0% NaCl solution (HS). Na(+) contents were generally accumulated much more in tomato plant mid-shoot leaves than in fruits whatever the salt concentration. More sodium accumulation in leaves of E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 treatments under HS condition were found than in control. E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 can promote tomato growth, improve fruit quality more firmly than P. putida RBP1 during two consecutive seasons. Our study suggested that E. persicinus RA2 and B. pumilus WP8 are considered to be promising PGPR strains which are suited for application in salt marsh planting, ACC deaminase activity was not unique index on screening for PGPRs with the aim of salt stress tolerance, and plant growth promoting activities may be relevant to different growth indices and different stress conditions.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on growth, yield and chemical constituents for three tomato varieties and their crosses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanien, E.H.; Abdeltawab, F.M.; Elsouedy, A.; Sharabash, M.T.; Mahmoud, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Three tomato varieties named no. 10 (I); bison (II) and Kecskement (III),as well as their crosses and their reciprocal crosses were irradiated and involved in this investigation. Variety (II) was the earliest in flowering, The shortest stem with the least number of branches per plant. Whereas variety (III) was the latest latest in flowering, the longest stem with the highest number of branches per plant. Meanwhile, variety (I) was in the intermediate between the other 2 varieties. Generally, days for 50% flowering were decreased for all varieties and all genotypes as a function of gamma irradiation. This response reached the maximum in M2. Whereas, plant height and number of branches did not gain the same trend. Variety (I) produced the highest number of fruits per plant, while variety (III) gained the lowest. The average weight of fruit was in reversal correlation with the average number of fruits per plant. All crosses and their reciprocal crosses were almost intermediate between their parents in number of fruits per plant, average fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, and seed setting per fruit. Irradiating seeds of tomato varieties and expected crosses stimulated the fruit characters, however, they were still less than the best parent. This enhancement was extended to M2. Variety (I) verified the highest concentration of vitamin. C, and chlorophyll A, B and carotenoids in leaves, comparing to the other 2 varieties. Meanwhile, lycopene in fruits reached the maximum concentration in variety (III). All genotypes obtained could not exceed their respective parents in vitamin. C except the crosses (I x II), (I x III),(II x III) and (III x II) which overcame their original parents, particularly in M2. Meanwhile all crosses, as well as, their reciprocal crosses could not gain the prominancy in both lycopene and carotenoids over the best parent. Vitamin. C, and lycopene in fruits were decreased decreased in fruits as a function of gamma irradiation. This was true for all

  12. The impact of enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide on yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid and vitamin C contents of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ikhtiar; Azam, Andaleeb; Mahmood, Abid

    2013-01-01

    The global average temperature has witnessed a steady increase during the second half of the twentieth century and the trend is continuing. Carbon dioxide, a major green house gas is piling up in the atmosphere and besides causing global warming, is expected to alter the physico-chemical composition of plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the hypothesis that increased CO(2) in the air is causing undesirable changes in the nutritional composition of tomato fruits. Two varieties of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown in ambient (400 μmol mol(-1)) and elevated (1,000 μmol mol(-1)) concentration of CO(2) under controlled conditions. The fruits were harvested at premature and fully matured stages and analyzed for yield, proximate composition, elemental concentration, fatty acid, and vitamin C contents. The amount of carbohydrates increased significantly under the enhanced CO(2) conditions. The amount of crude protein and vitamin C, two important nutritional parameters, decreased substantially. Fatty acid content showed a mild decrease with a slight increase in crude fiber. Understandably, the effect of enhanced atmospheric CO(2) was more pronounced at the fully matured stage. Mineral contents of the fruit samples changed in an irregular fashion. Tomato fruit has been traditionally a source of vitamin C, under the experimental conditions, a negative impact of enhanced CO(2) on this source of vitamin C was observed. The nutritional quality of both varieties of tomato has altered under the CO(2) enriched atmosphere.

  13. Increased sbpase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, Steven M.; Simkin, Andrew J.; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J.; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A.J.; Raines, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf

  14. Polyethylene mulch modifies greenhouse microclimate and reduces infection of phytophthora infestans in tomato and Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, D; Elad, Y; Bornstein, M; Ziv, G; Grava, A; Cohen, S

    2010-01-01

    The individual and joint effects of covering the soil with polyethylene mulch before planting and fungicides commonly used by organic growers on tomato late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans) were studied in three experiments conducted from 2002 to 2005. Application of fungicides resulted in inconsistent and insufficient late blight suppression (control efficacy +/- standard error of 34.5 +/- 14.3%) but the polyethylene mulch resulted in consistent, effective, and highly significant suppression (control efficacy of 83.6 +/- 5.5%) of the disease. The combined effect of the two measures was additive. In a second set of three experiments carried out between 2004 and 2006, it was found that the type of polyethylene mulch used (bicolor aluminized, clear, or black) did not affect the efficacy of late blight suppression (control efficacy of 60.1 to 95.8%) and the differences in the effects among the different polyethylene mulches used were insignificant. Next, the ability of the mulch to suppress cucumber downy mildew (caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis) was studied in four experiments carried out between 2006 and 2008. The mulch effectively suppressed cucumber downy mildew but the effect was less substantial (control efficacy of 34.9 +/- 4.8%) than that achieved for tomato late blight. The disease-suppressing effect of mulch appeared to come from a reduction in leaf wetness duration, because mulching led to reductions in both the frequency of nights when dew formed and the number of dew hours per night when it formed. Mulching also reduced relative humidity in the canopy, which may have reduced sporulation.

  15. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation...... only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (p

  16. Field evaluation of a self-propelled sprayer and effects of the application rate on spray deposition and losses to the ground in greenhouse tomato crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; Rincón, Víctor J; Páez, Francisco; Agüera, Francisco; Carvajal, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In the greenhouses of south-eastern Spain, plant protection products are applied using mainly sprayers at high pressures and high volumes. This results in major losses on the ground and less than uniform spray deposition on the canopy. Recently, self-propelled vehicles equipped with vertical spray booms have appeared on the market. In this study, deposition on the canopy and the losses to the ground at different spray volumes have been compared, using a self-propelled vehicle with vertical spray booms versus a gun sprayer. Three different spray volumes have been tested with a boom sprayer, and two with a spray gun. The vehicle with the vertical spray boom gave similar depositions to those made with the gun, but at lower application volumes. Also, the distribution of the vertical spray boom was more uniform, with lower losses to the ground. The vertical spray booms used in tomato crops improve the application of plant protection products with respect to the spray gun, reducing the application volumes and the environmental risks of soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. LED lighting and the Next Generation of Greenhouse Cultivation. Scenario analyses Tomato; LED belichting en Het Nieuwe Telen. Scenario analyses Tomaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoldt, C. [EcoCurves, Kamperfoelieweg 17, 9753 ER Haren (Netherlands); Schapendonk, A.H.C.M. [Plant-Dynamics, Englaan 8, 6703 EW Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    The results of calculations with the Explorer greenhouse climate simulation model are reported. The model calculates the greenhouse climate and crop growth and thus simulates both energy consumption and productivity. Based on an experiment, carried out at the Improvement Center in Bleiswijk, Netherlands, in the period 2010-2011, calculations were also carried out to test effects of climate control on yields and energy costs. Attention is paid to illumination, the use of air conditioning, heating and screens [Dutch] Er wordt verslag gedaan van berekeningen met het Explorer kasklimaat simulatiemodel. Dat model berekent het kasklimaat en de gewasgroei en simuleert daarmee zowel energiegebruik als opbrengst. Aan de hand van een experiment op het Improvement Center in Bleiswijk (2010-2011) werden berekeningen verricht om het effect van diverse klimaatregelingen te testen op opbrengsteffecten en energiekosten. Er is aandacht voor belichten, de inzet van luchtbehandeling, schermen en verwarmen.

  18. Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo do tomate caqui cultivado em ambiente protegido Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of Kaki tomato cultivated in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia S. Reis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os parâmetros aerodinâmicos de uma cultura cultivada em ambiente protegido podem ser considerados dependentes do nível de radiação global, temperatura do ar e umidade do ar, com base em leis exponenciais. Assim sendo se propôs com este trabalho, estimar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultivo da cultura do tomate caqui em ambiente protegido, sob irrigação por gotejamento, utilizando-se o modelo de Penman-Monteith. Os parâmetros aerodinâmicos foram medidos com sensores conectados à estação automática instalada dentro do ambiente protegido. A evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc foi determinada experimentalmente por meio de lisímetros de drenagem e a umidade do solo foi medida através de sensores instalados a uma profundidade de 20 cm. O desempenho do modelo de Penman-Monteith foi comparado aos valores decendiais do balanço hídrico nos lisímetros; já a evapotranspiração de referência foi calculada com dados externos e utilizada para o cálculo do Kc da cultura; enfim, os resultados indicaram que o modelo de Penman-Monteith subestima os valores de evapotranspiração encontrados pelo balanço hídrico nos lisímetros.The aerodynamic parameters of a crop cultivated in greenhouse can be considered dependent upon the level of global radiation, air temperature and relative humidity, based on exponential laws. Consequently, this work intends to estimate the evapotranspiration and the crop coefficient of Kaki tomato in greenhouse, under drip irrigation, using the Penman-Monteith model. The aerodynamic parameters were measured with sensors connected to the automatic station installed inside the greenhouse. The ETc was determined experimentally through drainage lysimeters and the soil water content was measured through sensors installed at a depth of 20 cm. The performance of the Penman-Monteith model was compared to decennial values of the water balance in the lysimeters, while the reference evapotranspiration was calculated

  19. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  20. Effects of sewage sludge on the yield of plants in the rotation system of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arif Özyazıcı

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried to determine the effects of sewage sludge applications on the yield and yield components of plants under crop rotation system. The field experiments were conducted in the Bafra Plain, located in the north region of Turkey. In this research, the “wheat-white head cabbage-tomato” crop rotation systems have been examined and the same crop rotation has been repeated in two separate years and field trials have been established. Seven treatments were compared: a control without application of sludge nor nitrogen fertilization, a treatment without sludge, but nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization, applied at before sowing of wheat and five treatments where, respectively 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 tons sludge ha-1. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. The results showed that all the yield components of wheat and yield of white head cabbage and tomato increased significantly with increasing rates of sewage sludge as compared to control. As a result, 20 t ha-1 of sewage sludge application could be recommended the suitable dose for the rotation of wheat-white head cabbage-tomato in soil and climatic conditions of Bafra Plain.

  1. Injeção de CO2 e lâminas de irrigação em tomateiro sob estufa CO2 injection and irrigation levels in greenhouse tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cesar Cararo

    2002-09-01

    -se os dados a funções quadráticas, foram de 78,82 t.ha-1 e 86,36 t.ha-1, correspondentes à aplicação de 335,2 mm e 333,6 mm de água para as estufas sem e com aplicação de CO2, respectivamente. Para uma faixa de variação do produto físico marginal de 0 a 1, as lâminas economicamente ótimas variaram de 335,2 mm a 322,4 mm em ausência de CO2 e de 333,6 mm a 323,8 mm com utilização do gás.The application of appropriate amounts of water and the usage of associated techniques improve the yield and quality of tomato fruits, assuring better profits to the farmer. We studied the effect of different water depth applications and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection in the irrigation system of a tomato crop, cv. Débora-Plus. An experiment was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo State (Brazil, under two greenhouses, using 40; 60; 80; 100; 120 and 140% of the water depth needed by the crop and C0 = 0 g of CO2.L-1 of water and C1 = 7.73 g.L-1 of CO2 concentrations were applied through irrigation water during 1999. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. The CO2 treatments were applied in separate greenhouses. The irrigation was accomplished by using a drip irrigation system, based on reduced evaporimeters and tensiometers. The gas application was accomplished using a commercial cylinder and a Venturi type injector during the period necessary to reach the minimum water level. The application of CO2 through irrigation water increased the yield by 8.2%, raised the weight of small size fruits by 13% and the dry matter content of fruits by 8.5%. However, CO2 injection was ineffective in increasing the number and weight of medium sized fruits. The soil solution analysis indicated that CO2 possibly contributes to the improvement of the nutritional conditions of the tomato crop. The gas injection was economically feasible. The water depth did not have any significant effect on the yield, on total number of fruits, medium fruit weight

  2. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on tomato yield, nutrient uptake, water relations, and soil carbon dynamics under deficit irrigation in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Barrios-Masias, Felipe H; Carlisle, Eli A; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Jackson, Louise E

    2016-10-01

    Plant strategies to cope with future droughts may be enhanced by associations between roots and soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. But how AM fungi affect crop growth and yield, together with plant physiology and soil carbon (C) dynamics, under water stress in actual field conditions is not well understood. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant nonmycorrhizal tomato genotype rmc were grown in an organic farm with a deficit irrigation regime and control regime that replaced evapotranspiration. AM increased marketable tomato yields by ~25% in both irrigation regimes but did not affect shoot biomass. In both irrigation regimes, MYC+ plants had higher plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations (e.g. 5 and 24% higher N and P concentrations in leaves at fruit set, respectively), 8% higher stomatal conductance (gs), 7% higher photosynthetic rates (Pn), and greater fruit set. Stem water potential and leaf relative water content were similar in both genotypes within each irrigation regime. Three-fold higher rates of root sap exudation in detopped MYC+ plants suggest greater capacity for water uptake through osmotic driven flow, especially in the deficit irrigation regime in which root sap exudation in rmc was nearly absent. Soil with MYC+ plants also had slightly higher soil extractable organic C and microbial biomass C at anthesis but no changes in soil CO2 emissions, although the latter were 23% lower under deficit irrigation. This study provides novel, field-based evidence for how indigenous AM fungi increase crop yield and crop water use efficiency during a season-long deficit irrigation and thus play an important role in coping with increasingly limited water availability in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. as affected by genotype and production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govedarica-Lučić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted in winter growing seasons in order to evaluate the effects of genotype and production methods on yield and nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. A three-year (2009-2011 study was conducted by randomized block system in a greenhouse without additional heating. The trial included three genotypes of lettuce (Archimedes RZ, Santoro RZ, Kibou RZ. Each row with these genotypes was exposed to the following variants of covering: control-planting on bare soil, mulching before sowing with PE-black foil, agro textile-covering plants after planting with agro textile (17 g, a combination of mulching + agro textile. Throughout of all the three years of the trial, it was continuously evidenced that the genotype “Santoro RZ” had the biggest heads and the highest yield (15.33 kg 10 m-2, which leads to conclusion that the yield of lettuce is a genotype characteristics. Moreover, the nutritional value (ascorbic acid concentration has shown that, depending on the method of production, in average, the combination of mulching + agro textile (26.77 mg 100 g-1 had the highest content while the control variant had significantly lower vitamin C content (21.10 mg 100 g-1. The three-year researches have shown that the production method and genotype significantly affect the nitrate content. An average nitrate content was 2196.33 mg kg-1 on the control variant, and 2526.24 mg kg-1 on agro textile. Leafy lettuce of genotyp „Kibou RZ“ had lower nitrate content (2176.85 mg kg-1 compared to „Archimedes RZ“ (2843.05 mg kg-1 and „Santoro RZ“ (2221.37 mg kg-1. However nitrate concentration in all treatments remained within the European Union’s permissible levels.

  4. Aplicações de fertilizantes foliares na nutrição e na produção do pimentão e do tomateiro Foliar fertilizer applications on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper and tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton S. Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de fertilizantes foliares, contendo Ca e B, na nutrição e produção do pimentão cv. Mayata e do tomate cv. Carmem, cultivados em estufas. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos, três e quatro repetições, respectivamente, para o tomateiro e pimentão. Os tratamentos foram a água de retortagem de xisto (100; 78; 3,0; 12,5; 3,0; 12,5; 4,0 e 0,2 g.L-1 de N, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Mn e Mo, respectivamente a 0,1; 0,25; 0,5 e 1%; os sais ácido bórico (170 g.kg-1 de B a 0,15% mais cloreto de cálcio a 0,15% e o quelato de cálcio (200 g.kg-1 de Ca a 0,1% e boro orgânico (10 g.kg-1 de B a 0,15%. A aplicação de água de retortagem de xisto a 0,5% via foliar aumentou em 27,4% a produção de frutos de pimentão e os teores foliares de Mg e S em relação à aplicação desse fertilizante a 0,1%. Para o tomateiro, as pulverizações com água de retortagem de xisto a 0,5 e 1% elevaram em 60,5 e 93,8% a produção de frutos em comparação à menor dose desse fertilizante. Os maiores teores de B nas folhas de pimentão e de tomate foram obtidos com as aplicações de sais e resultaram em sintomas visuais de toxicidade de B no início do desenvolvimento das culturas.The efficiency of foliar fertilizers was evaluated on nutrition and yield of sweet pepper cv. Mayata and tomato cv. Carmem, cultivated in plastic greenhouse. For the two experiments the experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with three and four replications for tomato and sweet pepper, respectively, and six treatments (schist retortage water 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 and 1%; boric acid 0.15% plus clorate calcium 0.15% and quelate Ca 0.1% plus organic B 0.15%. The foliar application of schist retortage water 0.5% increased 27.4% the sweet pepper fruit yield and foliar concentrations of Mg and S compared to this fertilizer 0.1%. For tomato, the application of schist retortage water 0.5 and 1% increased 60.5 and 93.8% the fruit yield

  5. Modeling osmotic salinity effects on yield characteristics of substrate-grown greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Bos, van den A.L.; Voogt, W.

    2004-01-01

    In a series of experiments with different osmotic potentials in the root environment, various vegetables, and ornamentals were grown in a substrate system. The osmotic potential was varied by addition of nutrients. Yield characteristics of the crop were related to the osmotic potential of the

  6. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  7. Integrated effect of nutrients from a recirculation aquaponic system and foliar nutrition on the yield of tomatoes Solanum lycopersicum L. and Solanum pimpinellifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullian Klanian, Mariel; Delgadillo Diaz, Mariana; Aranda, Javier; Rosales Juárez, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of tomato plants to efficiently use the nitrogen (N) of a recirculation aquaponic system (RAS) and to evaluate the effects of foliar fertilization as a complement to the water nutrition on the growth of the two tomato cultivars. The significant effect of six macro- and seven micronutrients was evaluated on the plant growth and on the fruit yield. Two experiments were performed in a nutrient film aquaponic unit. The first experiment was designed to study the effects of foliar fertilization on the seedlings of two tomato cultivars Costoluto Genovese (CG) (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and Currant tomato (Ct) (Solanum pimpinellifolium) with 8% of weekly water exchange (WE8%-RAS). The foliar fertilizer was formulated with N restriction in the last 11 weeks (TF1). In the second experiment, two other foliar fertilization treatments (TF2 and TF3) were applied with a concentration of nutrients twice and triple that in TF1, but with a lower proportion of NPK ratio. These treatments were tested on the cultivar CG in a RAS with zero water exchange (WE0%-RAS). The data from the 1st experiment showed a positive effect of the foliar fertilization on the yield of both cultivars. The fertilization markedly influenced the dry matter weight of the CG; however, this effect was not observed in the Ct. The root length of both cultivars was positively influenced by the P content, whereas the plant height was affected by the excess of Co and S. According to the results from the 2nd experiment, the TF2 plants had the highest number of fruits with a high mean weight. The system was efficient in utilizing N from fish tank; the water K favored the yield of the CG fruit and the foliar K favored the growth of the TF2 plants. With a decrease in the foliar N, the CG plants were able to absorb 27.5% of the NO 3 - and 7.06% of total ammonia nitrogen from water. The absolute and relative growth rate of Nile tilapia was not affected by the rate

  8. Effect of low doses gamma radiation on the yield of tomato (local variety) grown in the open field (1990 and 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Ayyoubi, Z.

    1994-04-01

    The stimulating effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on growth of various plants has been reported by many investigators. In 1970, the FAO/IAEA consultant group strongly recommended tomato as a test plant due to its economic importance and good adaptability to many climatic conditions. This work was carried out during the summer seasons of 1990 and 1992 in two sites in Damascus region. Samples of air dried seeds of tomato (Local variety) of previous season were irradiated by gamma-rays from a 137 Cs source using doses of 5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, 30 and 40 Gy at dose rate of 9 Gy/min. Seeds were sown after 2 days from irradiation in complete randomized block design and replicated 4 times. The data revealed that gamma irradiation at interval doses of 5-12.5 Gy (in Khan-El-Sheeh) and 10-30 Gy (in Deir-El-Hajar) have stimulating effects on number of branches and early yield. The results of total yield as well as fruits number were significantly increased when doses of 10 and 12.5 Gy in Khan-El-Sheeh and 12.5-25 Gy in Deir-El-Hajar, were used. The percentage of increment varied from 12.6 to 18.2% in Khan-El-Sheeh and 14.3 to 30.9% in Deir-El-Hajar. In view of all above mentioned results, the use of radiation might be recommended as an easy tool for seed treatments to stimulate and increase the productivity of tomato. (author). 12 tabs

  9. Quantification of the growth response of light quantity of greenhouse grown crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Broekhuijsen, A.G.M.; Nijs, E.M.F.M.; Raaphorst, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Growers have often assumed that a 1% increment in light results in a 1% yield increase. In this study, this rule of thumb has been evaluated for a number of greenhouse grown crops: fruit vegetables (cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper), soil grown vegetables (lettuce, radish), cut flowers (rose,

  10. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  11. Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

    2009-05-27

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition.

  12. Effect of mycorrhiza and phosphorus content in nutrient solution on the yield and nutritional status of tomato plants grown on rockwool or coconut coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of P level in nutrient solution and the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on P uptake by tomato plants, their nutritional status, yield and quality of fruits were studied. Plants were grown on rockwool or coconut coir. Inoculation by a mixture of several AMF species was performed three times during the growing period. The mycorrhizal frequency in roots inoculated with AMF amounted to 35.79 – 50.82%. The highest level of mycorrhiza was found in plants receiving nutrient solution with a lower concentration of P. Among the experimental factors, only P level influenced the fruit yield, being higher from plants receiving a nutrient solution with a higher P level. A higher concentration of P in nutrient solution imposed better nutritional status of plants. Higher contents of ascorbic acid and total soluble sugars were found in fruits collected from inoculated plants, grown on rockwool.

  13. The effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from rice paddies without compromising yield by early-season drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Syed Faiz-Ul; van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Sander, Bjoern Ole; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    Global rice production systems face two opposing challenges: the need to increase production to accommodate the world's growing population while simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Adaptations to drainage regimes are one of the most promising options for methane mitigation in rice production. Whereas several studies have focused on mid-season drainage (MD) to mitigate GHG emissions, early-season drainage (ED) varying in timing and duration has not been extensively studied. However, such ED periods could potentially be very effective since initial available C levels (and thereby the potential for methanogenesis) can be very high in paddy systems with rice straw incorporation. This study tested the effectiveness of seven drainage regimes varying in their timing and duration (combinations of ED and MD) to mitigate CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in a 101-day growth chamber experiment. Emissions were considerably reduced by early-season drainage compared to both conventional continuous flooding (CF) and the MD drainage regime. The results suggest that ED+MD drainage may have the potential to reduce CH 4 emissions and yield-scaled GWP by 85-90% compared to CF and by 75-77% compared to MD only. A combination of (short or long) ED drainage and one MD drainage episode was found to be the most effective in mitigating CH 4 emissions without negatively affecting yield. In particular, compared with CF, the long early-season drainage treatments LE+SM and LE+LM significantly (pemissions were small and not significantly affected by ED. It is concluded that ED+MD drainage might be an effective low-tech option for small-scale farmers to reduce GHG emissions and save water while maintaining yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity in rice agriculture driven by high yields and nitrogen use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xu, Xin; Liu, Yinglie; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2016-05-01

    Our understanding of how global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) is affected by management practices aimed at food security with respect to rice agriculture remains limited. In the present study, a field experiment was conducted in China to evaluate the effects of integrated soil-crop system management (ISSM) on GWP and GHGI after accounting for carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent emissions from all sources, including methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, agrochemical inputs and farm operations and sinks (i.e., soil organic carbon sequestration). The ISSM mainly consisted of different nitrogen (N) fertilization rates and split, manure, Zn and Na2SiO3 fertilization and planting density for the improvement of rice yield and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Four ISSM scenarios consisting of different chemical N rates relative to the local farmers' practice (FP) rate were carried out, namely, ISSM-N1 (25 % reduction), ISSM-N2 (10 % reduction), ISSM-N3 (FP rate) and ISSM-N4 (25 % increase). The results showed that compared with the FP, the four ISSM scenarios significantly increased the rice yields by 10, 16, 28 and 41 % and the agronomic NUE by 75, 67, 35 and 40 %, respectively. In addition, compared with the FP, the ISSM-N1 and ISSM-N2 scenarios significantly reduced the GHGI by 14 and 18 %, respectively, despite similar GWPs. The ISSM-N3 and ISSM-N4 scenarios remarkably increased the GWP and GHGI by an average of 69 and 39 %, respectively. In conclusion, the ISSM strategies are promising for both food security and environmental protection, and the ISSM scenario of ISSM-N2 is the optimal strategy to realize high yields and high NUE together with low environmental impacts for this agricultural rice field.

  15. Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiema, Paligwende; Rothstein, David E.; Min, Doo-Hong; Kapp, Christian J.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha -1 (control), 56 kg ha -1 (low) and 112 kg ha -1 (high) of N applied as urea. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 were measured every two weeks using static chambers. Indirect GHG emissions associated with field activities, manufacturing and transport of fertilizer and pesticides were derived from the literature. Switchgrass aboveground biomass yield was evaluated at the end of the growing season. Nitrogen fertilization contributed little to soil GHG emissions; relative to the control, there were additional global warming potential of 0.7 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 1.5 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq), calculated using the IPCC values, in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. However, N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by switchgrass, resulting in 1.5- and 2.5-fold increases in biomass yield in the low and high N fertilization treatments, respectively. Nitrogen amendments improved the net GHG benefits by 2.6 Mg ha -1 y -1 and 9.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 as CO 2 eq relative to the control. Results suggest that N fertilization of switchgrass in this region could reduce (15-50%) the land base needed for bioenergy production and decrease pressure on land for food and forage crop production. -- Highlights: → We examine the effects of N fertilization of switchgrass on GHG emissions. → Effects of N fertilization on biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop. → N fertilization contributed little to greenhouse gas emissions. → N fertilization greatly stimulated CO 2 uptake by the switchgrass. → N

  16. Control of the Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Open-Field Tomatoes by Indigenous Natural Enemies Occurring in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltiel-Harpaz, Liora; Gerling, Dan; Graph, Shaul; Kedoshim, Hendrika; Azolay, Lotem; Rozenberg, Tamir; Nachache, Yaakov; Steinberg, Shimon; Allouche, Arnon; Alon, Tamar

    2016-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), had established in Israel by 2010, attacking both open-field tomatoes and greenhouse crops.We searched for its natural enemies in open-field tomatoes, and tried to determine their potential for controlling this pest. We surveyed the local natural enemies in open tomato fields and measured their impact on pest populations in an unsprayed field. We assessed the suppressive ability of the dominant hemipteran predator, Nesidiocoris tenuis Reuter, against T. absoluta under controlled laboratory conditions and evaluated the impact of its augmentation on T. absoluta control in open-field tomatoes. We found five natural enemy species:the predator, N. tenuis, two braconids, and two eulophids. Predation accounted for 64.5±9.2% (mean ± SE) of T. absoluta larval mortality, whereas parasitism accounted for 20.96±7.5%. Together, they eliminated the pest population at tomato harvest time. Under controlled conditions, predation by N. tenuis rose from 58 to 72% with increased density of T. absoluta, suggesting positive density dependence. The reduction of T. absoluta (83%) by N. tenuis was higher than that of Bemisia tabaci (32%), suggesting a preference of N. tenuis for T. absoluta. Augmentation of N.tenuis was as effective as conventional treatment insecticide treatment, and plant damage was low and did not seem to affect yield. Results indicate that reduced pesticide use enables indigenous natural enemies, particularly N.tenuis, to successfully control T. absoluta and prevent crop damage in open-field tomatoes.

  17. LED lighting and the Next Generation of Greenhouse for Tomatoes. Proof of Principle; LED belichting en Het Nieuwe Telen bij tomaat. Proof of Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, T.; Janse, J.; Eveleens, B. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Nieboer, S.; Valstar, W.; Grootscholten, M. [GreenQ Improvement Centre, Bleiswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this Proof of Principle project a tomato crop was grown under artificial lighting with the aim of 30% energy saving at the same level of production. Tomatoes (cultivar Komeett) were illuminated with 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} HPS (High Pressure Sodium) above the crop and 85 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} LED interlighting. The LEDs hung in 2 rows, approximately 40 cm above the lower leaves and the second strand at 40 or 70 cm above that. There were two types of LEDs used: production LEDs (light efficiency 1.6 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 87% red/13% blue) and inter-lighting LEDs (light efficiency 1.9 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 95% red/5% blue), with the same light intensity. At the start, the crop was given as much light as it could handle, and because the crop developed so well, the stem density was increased relatively early. This resulted in high fruit load, while insufficient light was available to compensate for the low levels of sunlight in the winter. In the 192 cm row spacing system the plants were too close to each other. Additional problems occurred with trace elements, lesser bumble bee activity, and a moist greenhouse climate which weakened the crop in the winter. Thus Botrytis occurred on the leaves and stems. The crop struggled with its recovery until early spring with more sunlight. Compared to a reference crop with 79 kg m{sup -2} tomatoes, 75 kg m{sup -2} were produced under-production LEDs, and 80 kg m{sup -2} under the interlighting LEDs, mainly because latter LEDs were used longer during the summer. 30% of the energy for dehumidification and heat energy, and 27% of the electricity was saved, relative to the reference crop. Thus it appears possible to save 30% energy with a near identical production [Dutch] In dit Proof of Principle project is een belichte tomatenteelt geteeld met als doel 30% energiebesparing bij een gelijke productie. Tomaten van het ras Komeett werden belicht met 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} SON-T belichting boven

  18. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  19. Chemical and physical characterization of fruits of different tomato accessions in the greenhouse. = Caracterização química e física de frutos de diferentes acessos de tomateiro em casa de vegetação.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataiza de Andrade Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon is cultivated on a large scale in Brazil and worldwide. Due to the fact that it has a relatively short cycle and higher yields, the tomato crop has good economic prospects and the cultivated area is increasing dayle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of fruits of different tomato accessions in the greenhouse conditions in Boa Vista-RR. The following accessions were evaluated: 18 (cherry tomato, 209 (cherry tomato,243 (CNPH 738, 101 (tomato Santa Cruz - KADA, 102 (tomato Yoshimatsu, and 246 (CNPH 0171. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The fruit at the point of harvest, were collected properly identified and evaluated for the following characteristics: vitamin C content, pH, acidity, soluble solids, soluble solids /acidity, fresh, transverse and longitudinal diameter of the fruit, the pericarp thickness and dry matter content. The data were subjected to variance analysis and means were compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Except for the variable content of soluble solids, the other variables showed statistical differences. All accesses have attributes suitable for eating raw. With the exception of access 101 and 102 due to high pH (Access 101 and low dry matter content (access 101 and 102, others have attributes suitable for industrial processing.=O tomate (Solanum lycopersicon é cultivado em grande escala na agricultura brasileira sendo uma das culturasmais difundidas em todo mundo. Por se tratar de uma cultura de ciclo relativamente curto e de altos rendimentos, a culturado tomate tem boas perspectivas econômicas e a área cultivada vem aumentando a cada dia. Objetivou-se com este trabalhoavaliar as características físicas e químicas de frutos de diferentes acessos de tomateiro nas condições de casa de vegetação emBoa Vista-RR. Foram avaliados seis acessos, sendo: 18 (tomate cereja

  20. Biochar and flyash inoculated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria act as potential biofertilizer for luxuriant growth and yield of tomato plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripti; Kumar, Adarsh; Usmani, Zeba; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2017-04-01

    Overuse of agrochemical fertilizers alarmingly causes deterioration in soil health and soil-flora. Persistence of these agrochemicals exerts detrimental effects on environment, potentially inducing toxic effects on human health, thus pronouncing an urgent need for a safer substitute. The present study investigates the potential use of agricultural and industrial wastes as carrier materials, viz. biochar and flyash, respectively, for preparation of bioformulations (or biofertilizers) using two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, Bacillus sp. strain A30 and Burkholderia sp. strain L2, and its effect on growth of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato). The viability of strains was determined based on colony forming units (cfu) count of each bioformulation at an interval of 60 days for a period of 240 days. Seeds were coated with different carrier based bioformulations and pot experiment(s) were carried out to access its effects on plant growth parameters. Biochar based bioformulations showed higher cfu count and maximum viability for strain L2 (10 7  cfu g -1 ) at 240 days of storage. Maximum percentage of seed germination was also observed in biochar inoculated with strain L2. Significant (p < 0.05) increase in plant growth parameters (dry and fresh biomass, length, number of flowers) were ascertained from the pot experiment and amongst all bioformulations, biochar inoculated with strain L2 performed consistently thriving results for tomato yield. Furthermore, post-harvest study of this bioformulation treated soil improved physico-chemical properties and dehydrogenase activity as compared to pre-plantation soil status. Overall, we show that prepared biochar based bioformulation using Burkholderia sp. L2 as inoculum can tremendously enhance the productivity of tomato, soil fertility, and can also act as a sustainable substitute for chemical fertilizers. In addition, mixture of biochar and flyash inoculated with strain L2 also showed noteworthy results for the

  1. Yield and fruit quality of industrial tomato under saline irrigation Rendimento e qualidade de fruto do tomate tipo industrial sob irrigação salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness. Few researches have evaluated the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 dS m-1 and two equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on yield and quality of fruits of industrial tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seedlings were transplanted in rhizotrons and grown under plastic covering until fruit ripening. Volume of water for daily irrigations was determined by the difference between the applied and drained volume in the previous irrigation. Unitary increase of water salinity above 1 dS m-1 reduced the commercial and total yield by 11.9 and 11.0%, respectively, and increased the concentration of soluble solids and the titratable acidity of the fruits by 13.9 and 9.4%, respectively. The increase of the proportion of sodium reduced the total and marketable yield, the number of marketable fruits and pulp yield. Water of moderate salinity, with low concentration of sodium, can be used in the irrigation of the industrial tomato, without significant yield losses.O tomate para processamento industrial é a hortaliça mais importante da agroindústria brasileira. Poucas pesquisas têm sido desenvolvidas para avaliar a tolerância da cultura ao estresse salino. Neste estudo, foram testados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação (1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 dS m-1 e duas proporções equivalentes de Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0,5 e 7:1:0,5 sobre a produção e a qualidade dos frutos de tomateiro tipo industrial, cultivar IPA 6. As mudas foram transplantadas em rhizotrons e o cultivo foi conduzido sob cobertura plástica até a maturação dos frutos. O volume de água necessário para irrigações diárias foi determinado pela diferença entre o volume aplicado e o drenado na irrigação anterior. O aumento unitário da salinidade da água acima de 1 dS m-1

  2. Rendimiento de plantas de tomate injertadas y efecto de la densidad de tallos en el sistema hidropónico Yield of tomato crop as a result of grafting and shoot density in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M.N. Peil

    2004-06-01

    superficie; asimismo, dio un tamaño más uniforme de fruto, comparando con plantas cultivadas desde el inicio del ciclo en alta densidad (3,0 plantas m-2 sin adición de tallos laterales.Tomato cultivated in spring at a low plant density and then increasing the effective plant density by means of allowing side shoots to develop, when daily light integrals are high, appears a promising way of increasing spring-season tomato crop fruit number per square meter and to produce fruits of more uniform size; and has the added advantage that fewer plants have to be purchased per cropped area. The effects of side shoots on fruit uniformity and yield of tomato crop were evaluated in a trial carried out from March to July 1998 in a greenhouse in Almería (south-eastern Spain. The initial plant densities were 2.4 and 3.0 plants m-2, in the case of non-grafted plants, which had one main stem; and 1.2 plants m-2 in grafted plants, which had two main stems (2.4 shoots m-2 at setting. From April, by allowing side shoots to develop (when the treatment required, population densities of 2.4; 3.0 and 3.5 shoots m-2 (grafted and non-grafted plants were raised; and 3.0 non-grafted plants m-2 without side shoots during all cropping-season treatment was maintained. The results showed that grafted tomato plants set with two main stems presented the same final yield but produced fruits of more uniform size than non-grafted plants set with one main stem and double initial plant density. In a range from 2.4 to 3.5 shoots m-2, increasing shoot density increased early yield and produced fruits of more uniform size but presented no effect on the mean fruit weight and the final yield. The addition of side shoots (3.0 shoots m-2 was accompanied by a 20% loss of final yield but from 21% and 39% fewer non-grafted and grafted plants, respectively, and produced fruits of more uniform size, relative to the high initial density treatment (3.0 plants m-2 without side shoots.

  3. Energy use pattern analyses of greenhouse vegetable production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canakci, M.; Akinci, I. [Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07070 Antalya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    Greenhouse farming is a growing industry in many states. It is a very expensive way to produce greenhouse crops and there are many variables to consider before the farmer decides to take this route. A good location is essential for crop planning and growing. However, current studies related to energy use patterns and resources present in vegetable production are very limited. This research attempts to investigate the energy use patterns in greenhouse vegetable production, to determine the energy output-input ratio and their relationships. Antalya province, which has greenhouse area of about 13,337ha (30.2%), is the center of greenhouse farming in Turkey. A questionnaire was distributed to 101 greenhouse farms from 11 villages in order to obtain the available data for vegetable production. Power requirement of the machines used in greenhouse operations were measured by using a computer based data acquisition system. Energy and economical variables (i.e. output-input ratio, specific energy, production cost, net return, etc.) were calculated by using the standard equations. As a result, the operational energy and energy source requirements of the greenhouse vegetable production were found between the ranges of 23,883.5-28,034.7 and 45,763.3-49,978.8MJ/1000m{sup 2}, respectively. The energy ratio of four major greenhouse vegetables-tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant-was 0.32, 0.19, 0.31, 0.23, respectively. The crop yields increased as a function of the total energy inputs with the best form being second-degree polynomial. The net return of the vegetable production was found in the 595.6-2775.3$/1000m{sup 2} ranges. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation resulted in being the most profitable. (author)

  4. Effect of different rates of potassium fertilizer and soil moisture on nitrogen and potassium use efficiencies and tomato yield using an 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Chamma'a, M.

    2005-03-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of tomato to 4 potassium rates (0, 90, 120, 150 kg K 2 O/ha), one rate of N (150 kg/ha) and two irrigation regimes 65 % and 85 % of field capacity (FC) on yield and the efficient use of N and K fertilizers. Results showed that dry matter yield was positively correlated with the rate of K fertilizer applied under the two irrigation regimes. However the increase in production of fruits and dry matter was higher at the 85% FC. The K-uptake in fruit and whole plant increased with increasing K application levels and was higher at the 85 % but the opposite was observed in shoots and roots. Potassium use efficiency increased with increasing K levels at the two irrigation regimes and the values were higher at the 85 %. The nitrogen use efficiency in shoots, roots , fruits and the whole plant increased with increasing K levels and was highest at the 85 % FC and 150 kg K 2 O/ ha fertilizer rate. (Authors)

  5. Health monitoring of plants by their emitted volatiles: A temporary increase in the concentration of nethyl salicylate after pathogen inoculation of tomato plants at greenhouse scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hofstee, J.W.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Henten, van E.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method to alert growers of the presence of a pathogen infection in their greenhouse based on the detection of pathogen-induced emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants. Greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated with spores of a fungus to learn more about this

  6. Biomass yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a drained fen peatland cultivated with reed canary grass under different harvest and fertilizer regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Elsgaard, Lars; Karki, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) is a suitable energy crop for cultivation in northern peatlands. However, the atmospheric impact of RCG cultivation as influenced by harvest frequency and fertilization is not clear. Here, we compared the biomass yield and greenhouse gas (GHG......) balance for RCG cultivation in peatlands affected by cutting frequency and fertilizer managements. The managements included one-cut (OC) and two-cut (TC) systems that were either fertilized (TC-F) or unfertilized (TC-U) after the first cut in summer. Biomass yield of OC, TC-F and TC-U were 12, 16 and 11...

  7. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  8. Nitrogen utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and eventually to identify the best N fertilizer rate greenhouse experiments were conducted for two years. Yazgi F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be the suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. Five N treatments [N 0 =0, N 1 =150, N 2 =300, and N 3 =450 kg/ha; also, soil N application treatment (N soil ) equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 300 kg/ha was included for tomato and pepper, however N rates for cucumber was 131, 266 and 339 kg N/ha; N soil being 266 kg N/ha] were investigated using 15 N labeled urea fertilizer. Significantly higher marketable fresh fruit and total dry matter yields and N uptakes values were obtained from N 3 treatments for tomato and cucumber, but from N 2 treatment for pepper. Also, significantly higher yields, N uptakes and % NUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. (author)

  9. Comparison the Efficiency of Aquasorb and Accepta Superabsorbent Polymers in Improving Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties of Soil and Tomato Turnover under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi nourzadeh haddad

    2017-06-01

    condition of soil improving the crop production finally. Material and Methods: This experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in Shushtar city at northern Khuzestan Province using the randomized complete block design using 13 treatments and with 3 replications. Soil samples were taken from a field in the study area, air dried, and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Seven concentration (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 percentage of superabsorbent polymers (Aquasorb and Accepta were used in greenhouse condition. Superabsorbent and 10 Kg soil thoroughly mixed in each pot. All treatments were irrigated when the plants at control showed sign of wilting. There were three replications of each treatment. NPK fertilizers were applied as urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP and potassium sulphate (K2SO4 based the soil test. Soil samples were again collected which were analyzed for nitrate-N, total organic carbon (TOC, phosphorus and potassium, bulk density, particle density and saturation percentage.NPK of plant samples were also determined. Data were statistically analysed by Duncan test using SPSS. Results and Discussion: Results had shown that the highest bulk density (1.515 gr/cm3 seen in control treatment and with increasing the polymer, bulk density decreased significantly to 0.91 gr/cm3 in treatment No.2. Also the treatments No. 4 and 11 shown decreasing EC significantly from 0.9 in control treatment to 0.68 in No.4. Adding superabsorbent had significant effect on Potassium amount of soil. Using superabsorbent had no significant effect on real density, pH, N amount, Phosphorous, soil organic carbon after yield harvesting in soil and amount of Phosphorous in plant. Significant increasing in number of leaves, branches, fresh weight of plant, and fruit weight with using superabsorbent polymers and the highest used polymer level (treatments No. 7 and 13 had the highest effect on fresh weight of plant which reported 47.2 g for No.7 and 90.47 g for No.13. Also using 1

  10. Aschersonia aleyrodis as a microbial control agent of greenhouse whitefly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects of the development of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersoniaaleyrodis as a control agent of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodesvaporariorum , were investigated. For control of greenhouse whitefly in tomato

  11. Supplementary material from "Increased SBPase activity improves photosynthesis and grain yield in wheat grown in greenhouse conditions"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Simkin, Andrew J.; Alotaibi, Saqer; Fisk, Stuart J.; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.; Lawson, Tracy; Parry, Martin A.J.; Raines, Christine A.

    2017-01-01

    To meet the growing demand for food, substantial improvements in yields are needed. This is particularly the case for wheat, where global yield has stagnated in recent years. Increasing photosynthesis has been identified as a primary target to achieve yield improvements. To increase leaf

  12. Potential of biofertilisers to improve performance of local genotype tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Puia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex microbial communities in the plant rhizosphere are responsible for their success in ecosystems. Supplementary inoculation of soil with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizospheric bacteria may act as a plant growth-promoting factor. The present study aims to assess the potential use of biofertilisers on tomato as a way of increasing yield and stability of root exploration area. The experiment was set up in greenhouse, regarding the evaluation of growing dynamics of plants, mycorrhization level and obtained yield. The identification of effective inoculation variants can lead to a standardisation of technologies of growing for local plant genotypes. Data analysis was performed based on the ANOVA test, followed by Tukey HSD, principal component analysis and cluster analysis in order to identify the potential of bioproducts to stimulate the development of tomato plants. Application of bacterial biofertilisers does not stimulate enough the aboveground development of plants. An antagonistic reaction is visible between exogenous mycorrhizas and those specific in soil, acting slightly different for each genotype. Mycorrhizal level in root systems is more dependent on applied biofertilisers than on analyzed genotypes. For the variants without additional fertilisers, a high level of mycorrhization is visible only after 75 days from the transplantation. Based on results we can conclude that microbial active fertilisers may represent viable solutions to increase yield capacity and root exploration area for local tomato genotypes.

  13. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P.J.; Inubushi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH 4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N 2 O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH 4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and inorganic amendments

  14. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam, E-mail: litonaslam@yahoo.com [Dept. of Environmental Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Kim, P.J., E-mail: pjkim@nongae.gsnu.ac.kr [Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Inubushi, K. [Division of Environmental Horticulture, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK + fly ash, NPK + silicate slag, NPK + phosphogypsum(PG), NPK + blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK + revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK + silicate slag (50%) + RFS (50%), NPK + biochar, NPK + biochar + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + silicate slag + Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK + phosphogypsum (PG) + Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH{sub 4} emissions were significantly increased by 9.5–14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0–12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0–30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43–50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. - Highlights: • Azolla-cyanobacteria with organic and

  15. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Adrian M., E-mail: adrian.bass@glasgow.ac.uk [Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia); Bird, Michael I. [Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia); Kay, Gavin [Terrain Natural Resource Management, 2 Stitt Street, Innisfail, Queensland 4860 (Australia); Muirhead, Brian [Northern Gulf Resource Management Group, 317 Byrnes Street, Mareeba, Queensland 4880 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    ABSTRACT: The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4} and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO{sub 2} was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N{sub 2}O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N{sub 2}O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term. - Highlights: • Biochar and compost amendment has potential to improve tropical agriculture. • We monitored soil health, gas fluxes and crop yield under biochar and compost. • Biochar improved soil nutrient content, water retention and reduced N{sub 2}O emissions. • Biochar significantly reduced banana yield performance and did not affect papaya yield. • Organic amendment is not an ‘always win’ scenario for tropical

  16. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, Adrian M.; Bird, Michael I.; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO_3, NH_4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO_2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N_2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N_2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term. - Highlights: • Biochar and compost amendment has potential to improve tropical agriculture. • We monitored soil health, gas fluxes and crop yield under biochar and compost. • Biochar improved soil nutrient content, water retention and reduced N_2O emissions. • Biochar significantly reduced banana yield performance and did not affect papaya yield. • Organic amendment is not an ‘always win’ scenario for tropical agriculture.

  17. The Effects of Foliar Application of Urea, Calcium Nitrate and Boric Acid on Growth and Yield of Greenhouse Cucumber (cv. Khassib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Nasrolahzadehasl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumis sativus L. is one of the most eminent and consuming vegetables which is widely cultivated in the Middle East. Using the controlled and greenhouse cultivation is one of the most appropriate methods to increase production per unit area. In this method, controlling the effective factors of production such as plant nutrition is the important factor to achieve high performance. Besides the accuracy applied in nutritional regulation of plant roots (both in soil and hypothermic environments, in many cases, foliar nutrition is considered by breeder of greenhouse productions. Foliar nutrition is more effective on young leaves, and deficiency of macro and micro nutrients can be removed by this factor. Khassib is one of the most important cultivar of greenhouse cucumber which is widely cultivated in Iran. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application on greenhouse cucumber. Materials and Methods: The experiment was performed on greenhouse cucumber (cv. Khassib for five months (from March 2007 to July 2008 in Ziba Dasht Technical Instruction Center which is located near Karaj, Iran. For this reason the experiment was conducted based on split-split-plot design with three replications. Eight experimental treatments were applied for foliar application including U1C1B1: urea + calcium nitrate +boric acid, U1C1B0: urea + calcium nitrate, U1C0B1: urea + boric acid, U1C0B0: urea, U0C1B1: calcium nitrate + boric acid, U0C1B0: calcium nitrate, U0C0B1: boric acid, U0C0B0: control. The effects of urea, calcium nitrate and boric acid in concentrations 3, 10 and 0.5 (gL-1 respectively on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of greenhouse cucumber, including fruit yield, yield of first class fruit, number of fruits, percentage of first class fruit, fruits T.S.S, plant length, percentage of leaf dry matter, and leaf weight ratio were studied. Results and Discussion: The results showed that calcium nitrate had a

  18. Effect of Shoot Pruning and Flower Thinning on Quality and Quantity of Semi-Determinate Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali HESAMI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many constraints of space, light and availability of fruits to harvest in tomatoes greenhouse. Therefore, two experiments were carried out to determine the effect of shoot pruning and flower thinning on quality and quantity of fruits of semi-determinate tomato in a greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Persian Gulf University of Bushehr. Experimental design was randomized complete block designs in which the effect of shoot pruning (single branch pruning, double branch pruning, pyramidal pruning and control or flower thinning (Cluster with 4 and 5 remained flowers and control were studied separately. Results showed that, leaf area and plants yield were higher in treatments which were pruned than control. Yields from pyramidal pruning and cluster thinning with 5 remaining flowers were significantly higher than other treatments. On the other hand, qualitative study identified that pyramidal pruning increases vitamin C in fruits, but had no significant effect on total soluble solids.

  19. Cultivar e adubação NPK na produção de tomate salada Cultivar and NPK fertilization on yield of fresh market tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Z. Santos

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de cultivar, da adubação NPK e da interação desses fatores na produção de tomate salada tutorado. O experimento foi conduzido em Pelotas (RS no ano agrícola 1995/96. Foram utilizadas cinco cultivares (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific e Diva e três níveis (2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 t/ha de adubação NPK (3,6-7,2-10. Os tratamentos foram dispostos sob esquema fatorial em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. As cultivares Empire e Pacific apresentaram frutos com maior peso médio do que Flora-Dade, Max e Diva. O número de frutos por planta aumentou com a elevação do nível de adubação de 2,0 para 3,5 t/ha, enquanto que o peso médio de frutos diminuiu, sem alterar a produção. As cultivares apresentaram respostas diferenciais aos níveis de adubação, em relação ao peso médio de frutos.The objective of this work was to study the effect of cultivar, NPK fertilization and the interaction on yield components of fresh market tomatoes. The experiment was carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1995/96 season. Five cultivars (Flora-Dade, Max, Empire, Pacific and Diva and three fertilization levels (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 t/ha of NPK (3.6-7.2-10 were used. The treatments were displayed under a factorial scheme, in a randomized complete block design, with three repetitions. Empire and Pacific cultivars showed higher average fruit weight than Flora-Dade, Max and Diva. The number of fruits per plant increased with the elevation of fertilization levels from 2.0 to 3.5 t/ha, while the average fruit weight diminished, without changing yield. The cultivars showed differential response to fertilization levels, in relation to average fruit weight.

  20. Comparison of energy inputs in glasshouse double crop (fall and summer crops) tomato production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Ceylan, R. Figen; Kizilay, Hatice [Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Akdeniz University, Antalya 07070 (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    The study examines energy use patterns and the relationship between energy inputs and yield for double crop (fall and summer) glasshouse tomato production in Antalya province, where is one of the most important greenhouse centres in Turkey. The data of the study was retrieved from 37 fall and 25 summer glasshouse tomato producers via face to face survey in 2007. The research findings revealed energy use values for inputs such as manure, electricity, chemical fertilizer and fuel. While the average yield per hectare is 25025.4 kg for enterprises involved in tomato production in fall, it is 22392.9 kg for summer production. The overall energy consumption is higher in fall production with 81362.2 MJ ha{sup -1} in comparison to summer production 63023.2 MJ ha{sup -1}. In addition, the specific energy requirement is 3521.2 MJ t{sup -1} and 2814.4 MJ t{sup -1} for fall and summer production in order and the energy efficiency was found out to be 0.31 kg MJ{sup -1} and 0.36 kg MJ{sup -1} respectively. Finally, the energy relationship was tested using the production relationship. The findings indicated that direct energy sources are effective in tomato yield for both of the two seasons. More clearly, the most significant energy input was electrical energy for summer production and a combination of electrical energy, human power and machinery for fall production. Yet, excess and unconscious use of chemical ingredients in glasshouse tomato production was confirmed as energy derived from chemical drugs leaded a declination in the yield for fall season. Therefore, the paper revealed energy relationship for double crop glasshouse tomato production in Antalya, being a reference for similar production methodologies. (author)

  1. Technical feasibility and carbon footprint of biochar co-production with tomato plant residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach-Massana, Pere; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Peña, Javier; Rieradevall, Joan; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Puy, Neus

    2017-09-01

    World tomato production is in the increase, generating large amounts of organic agricultural waste, which are currently incinerated or composted, releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere. Organic waste is not only produced from conventional but also urban agricultural practices due recently gained popularity. An alternative to current waste management practices and carbon sequestration opportunity is the production of biochar (thermally converted biomass) from tomato plant residues and use as a soil amendment. To address the real contribution of biochar for greenhouse gas mitigation, it is necessary to assess the whole life cycle from the production of the tomato biomass feedstock to the actual distribution and utilisation of the biochar produced in a regional context. This study is the first step to determine the technical and environmental potential of producing biochar from tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum arawak variety) waste biomass and utilisation as a soil amendment. The study includes the characterisation of tomato plant residue as biochar feedstock (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and metal content); feedstock thermal stability; and the carbon footprint of biochar production under urban agriculture at pilot and small-scale plant, and conventional agriculture at large-scale plant. Tomato plant residue is a potentially suitable biochar feedstock under current European Certification based on its lignin content (19.7%) and low metal concentration. Biomass conversion yields of over 40%, 50% carbon stabilization and low pyrolysis temperature conditions (350-400°C) would be required for biochar production to sequester carbon under urban pilot scale conditions; while large-scale biochar production from conventional agricultural practices have not the potential to sequestrate carbon because its logistics, which could be improved. Therefore, the diversion of tomato biomass waste residue from incineration or composting to biochar production for use as a soil amendment

  2. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar–compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agegnehu, Getachew [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia); Bass, Adrian M. [Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, University of Western Sydney, Science Road, Richmond, New South Wales 2753 (Australia); Nelson, Paul N.; Bird, Michael I. [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland 4870 (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10 t ha{sup −1} biochar (B) + F; 3) 25 t ha{sup −1} compost (Com) + F; 4) 2.5 t ha{sup −1} B + 25 t ha{sup −1} Com mixed on site + F; and 5) 25 t ha{sup −1} co-composted biochar–compost (COMBI) + F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}{sup −} N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N{sub 2}O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar–compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems. - Graphical abstract: Grain yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil

  3. Benefits of biochar, compost and biochar–compost for soil quality, maize yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a tropical agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agegnehu, Getachew; Bass, Adrian M.; Nelson, Paul N.; Bird, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Soil quality decline represents a significant constraint on the productivity and sustainability of agriculture in the tropics. In this study, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two on soil fertility, maize yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was investigated in a tropical Ferralsol. The treatments were: 1) control with business as usual fertilizer (F); 2) 10 t ha"−"1 biochar (B) + F; 3) 25 t ha"−"1 compost (Com) + F; 4) 2.5 t ha"−"1 B + 25 t ha"−"1 Com mixed on site + F; and 5) 25 t ha"−"1 co-composted biochar–compost (COMBI) + F. Total aboveground biomass and maize yield were significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in grain yield between 10 and 29%. Some plant parameters such as leaf chlorophyll were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Significant differences were observed among treatments for the δ"1"5N and δ"1"3C contents of kernels. Soil physicochemical properties including soil water content (SWC), total soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), nitrate-nitrogen (NO_3"− N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH_4"+-N), exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly increased by the organic amendments. Maize grain yield was correlated positively with total biomass, leaf chlorophyll, foliar N and P content, SOC and SWC. Emissions of CO_2 and N_2O were higher from the organic-amended soils than from the fertilizer-only control. However, N_2O emissions generally decreased over time for all treatments and emission from the biochar was lower compared to other treatments. Our study concludes that the biochar and biochar–compost-based soil management approaches can improve SOC, soil nutrient status and SWC, and maize yield and may help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in certain systems. - Graphical abstract: Grain yield, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC) and N_2O

  4. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  5. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  6. Soil properties, greenhouse gas emissions and crop yield under compost, biochar and co-composted biochar in two tropical agronomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Adrian M; Bird, Michael I; Kay, Gavin; Muirhead, Brian

    2016-04-15

    The addition of organic amendments to agricultural soils has the potential to increase crop yields, reduce dependence on inorganic fertilizers and improve soil condition and resilience. We evaluated the effect of biochar (B), compost (C) and co-composted biochar (COMBI) on the soil properties, crop yield and greenhouse gas emissions from a banana and a papaya plantation in tropical Australia in the first harvest cycle. Biochar, compost and COMBI organic amendments improved soil properties, including significant increases in soil water content, CEC, K, Ca, NO3, NH4 and soil carbon content. However, increases in soil nutrient content and improvements in physical properties did not translate to improved fruit yield. Counter to our expectations, banana crop yield (weight per bunch) was reduced by 18%, 12% and 24% by B, C and COMBI additions respectively, and no significant effect was observed on the papaya crop yield. Soil efflux of CO2 was elevated by addition of C and COMBI amendments, likely due to an increase in labile carbon for microbial processing. Our data indicate a reduction in N2O flux in treatments containing biochar. The application of B, C and COMBI amendments had a generally positive effect on soil properties, but this did not translate into a crop productivity increase in this study. The benefits to soil nutrient content, soil carbon storage and N2O emission reduction need to be carefully weighed against potentially deleterious effects on crop yield, at least in the short-term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tomato yield, biomass accumulation, root distribution and irrigation water use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dukes, M.D.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Florida is the largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Production areas are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this 3-year field study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation

  8. Comportamento da cultura do tomateiro sob diferentes tensões de água no solo em ambiente protegido Behavior of tomato crop under different soil water tensions in a greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. A. de Sá

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do tomateiro corresponde a uma atividade expressiva no Brasil, bastante exigente em água e, sob cultivo protegido, a irrigação deve ser usada para o suprimento hídrico total. O manejo adequado da irrigação é importante não apenas por suprir as necessidades hídricas das plantas mas, também, por minimizar problemas com doenças e lixiviação de nutrientes, além de gastos desnecessários com água e energia. Visando definir critérios para o manejo da irrigação, avaliou-se, através deste trabalho, o efeito de diferentes tensões de água no solo sobre o comportamento produtivo do tomateiro de crescimento indeterminado, híbrido Raísa N, em ambiente protegido, na região de Lavras, MG. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação com delineamento em blocos casualizados, tendo quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de seis níveis de tensões de água no solo como indicativos do momento de irrigar. As tensões preestabelecidas foram 15, 30, 50, 70, 120 e 170 kPa e os resultados permitiram concluir-se que, para a obtenção de maiores produtividades de frutos totais, frutos comerciais e menor incidência de frutos com podridão apical, as irrigações devem ser realizadas quando as tensões de água no solo a 0,10 m de profundidade estiverem em torno de 80 kPa. Também foi possível observar que a eficiência no uso da água apresentou resposta linear crescente com o aumento da tensão de água no solo.The tomato crop corresponds to an expressive activity in Brazil, being a quite demanding crop in water and under greenhouse conditions the irrigation should be used for the total water supply. The appropriate irrigation management is not only an important factor to supply plant's water needs, but also to minimize problems with diseases, nutrient leaching as well as unnecessary expenses with water and energy. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil water tensions on the

  9. An input-output energy analysis in greenhouse vegetable production: a case study for Antalya region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan, Burhan; Akcaoz, Handan [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Antalya (Turkey); Kurklu, Ahmet [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output in greenhouse vegetable production in the Antalya province of Turkey. For this purpose, the data for the production of four greenhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, eggplant and pepper) were collected in eighty-eight greenhouse farms by questionnaire. The results revealed that cucumber production was the most energy intensive of among the four crops investigated. Cucumber production consumed a total of 134.77 GJha{sup -1} followed by tomato with 127.32 GJha{sup -1}. The consumption of energy by eggplants and pepper were 98.68 and 80.25 GJha{sup -1}, respectively. The output-input energy ratio for greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and eggplant were estimated to be 1.26, 0.99, 0.76 and 0.61, respectively. This indicated an intensive use of inputs in greenhouse vegetable production not accompanied by increase in the final product. This can lead to problems associated with these inputs such as global warming, nutrient loading and pesticide pollution. Therefore, there is a need to pursue a new policy to force producers to undertake energy efficient practices to increase the yield without diminishing natural resources. (Author)

  10. The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Olle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the light emitting diode (LED technology for greenhouse plant lighting and to give an overview about LED light effects on photosynthetic indices, growth, yield and nutritional value in green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper transplants. The sole LED lighting, applied in closed growth chambers, as well as combinations of LED wavelengths with conventional light sources, fluorescent and high pressure sodium lamp light, and natural illumination in greenhouses are overviewed. Red and blue light are basal in the lighting spectra for green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, and pepper transplants; far red light, important for photomorphogenetic processes in plants also results in growth promotion. However, theoretically unprofitable spectral parts as green or yellow also have significant physiological effects on investigated plants. Presented results disclose the variability of light spectral effects on different plant species and different physiological indices.

  11. The influence of various doses of phosphorus and of the addition of calcium or potassium fertilization upon the yield of tomatoes in Wrocław hydroponic culture using two intensities of light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gumicka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out with phosphate fertilization of tomatoes in hydroponic culture. It has been proved that an additional dose of phosphorus given during the second cluster bloom, caused an yield increase. The optimal dose is 12 g of superphosphate (16% P2O5 per plant. The "green back" symptoms did not appear in these conditions. The parallel additional applying of calcium or potassium gave a decrease of the yield. When the light intensity was lowered to about 50%, the yield has decreased by half. In these conditions an additional applying of calcium (0,4 g CaCO3 and phosphorus (1g superphosphate annulated the negative influence of the low light intensity.

  12. Rendimento de cultivares de tomate para processamento em Goias Yield of processing tomato cultivars in Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei Peixoto

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Seis ensaios de competição de cultivares de tomate para processamento industrial foram conduzidos nos municípios goianos de Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú e Santa Isabel, em 1990, e Anápolis e Porangatu, em 1991. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, tendo as parcelas 80 plantas em 1990 e 70 em 1991. Em Porangatu, em 1990, as plantas foram mais precoces, florescendo 35 e 41 dias após a semeadura e iniciando-se a colheita 38 dias após a antese. Em Anápolis, também em 1990, a floração iniciou-se de 54 a 60 dias após a semeadura e, a colheita, 46 dias após a antese. As cultivares Petomech, IPA 6 e Topmech Melhorado destacaram-se entre as mais produtivas, apresentando frutos firmes, seguidas das cultivares IPA 5 e Agrocica 72. As cultivares Roma VFN, Rossol e Agrocica 08, por outro lado, revelaram-se produtivas, mas com frutos pouco firmes, sendo impróprias para o transporte a longa distância. Com exceção da cultivar Itaparica, que apresentou melhor desempenho relativo nos ambientes menos favoráveis, os genótipos apresentaram, para rendimento, resposta diretamente proporcional à melhoria do ambiente, caracterizado pela média geral dos genótipos dentro de cada experimento. As cultivares Agrocica 08, IPA 5, Nemadoro e UC 204, foram as mais influenciadas pelas variações do ambiente, enquanto as cultivares Agrocica 33, Calmec VF, IPA 6, Rio Fuego, Santa Adélia, Topmec Melhorado e UC 82 foram as mais estáveis.Six field trials were carried out to evaluate processing tomato cultivars in four counties in the State of Goiás, Brazil (Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú and Santa Isabel, in 1990, and Anápolis and Porangatu, in 1991. The experiment was conducted as a randomized block design, with four replications, and plots of 80 plants in 1990 and 70 plants in 1991. The plant cycle was shorter in Porangatu (1990, where temperatures were higher than Anápolis. In Porangatu, plant flowering

  13. Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions from acidic paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sardar; Chao, Cai; Waqas, Muhammad; Arp, Hans Peter H; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-06

    Biochar addition to soil has been proposed to improve plant growth by increasing soil fertility, minimizing bioaccumulation of toxic metal(liod)s and mitigating climate change. Sewage sludge (SS) is an attractive, though potentially problematic, feedstock of biochar. It is attractive because of its large abundance; however, it contains elevated concentrations of metal(loid)s and other contaminants. The pyrolysis of SS to biochar (SSBC) may be a way to reduce the availability of these contaminants to the soil and plants. Using rice plant pot experiments, we investigated the influence of SSBC upon biomass yield, bioaccumulation of nutrients, and metal(loid)s, and green housegas (GHG) emissions. SSBC amendments increased soil pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and available nutrients and decreased bioavailable As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Pb (but not Cd, Cu, and Zn). Regarding rice plant properties, SSBC amendments significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased shoot biomass (71.3-92.2%), grain yield (148.8-175.1%), and the bioaccumulation of phosphorus and sodium, though decreased the bioaccumulation of nitrogen (except in grain) and potassium. Amendments of SSBC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the bioaccumulation of As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb, but increased that of Cd and Zn, though not above limits set by Chinese regulations. Finally regarding GHG emissions, SSBC significantly (P rice paddy soil but the actual associated benefits will depend on site-specific conditions and source of SS; long-term effects remain a further unknown.

  14. Partial stem and leaf resistance against the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea in wild relatives of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten A.; Berloo, van R.; Lindhout, P.; Kan, van J.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of many greenhouse crops that can be infected by the necrotrophic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea. Commercial cultivation of tomato is hampered by the lack of resistance. Quantitative resistance has been reported in wild tomato relatives, mostly based on leaf assays.

  15. Mitigating yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions through combined application of soil amendments: A comparative study between temperate and subtropical rice paddy soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Kim, P J; Inubushi, K

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different soil amendments were investigated on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, global warming potential (GWP) and yield scaled GWPs in paddy soils of Republic of Korea, Japan and Bangladesh. The experimental treatments were NPK only, NPK+fly ash, NPK+silicate slag, NPK+phosphogypsum(PG), NPK+blast furnace slag (BFS), NPK+revolving furnace slag (RFS), NPK+silicate slag (50%)+RFS (50%), NPK+biochar, NPK+biochar+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+silicate slag+Azolla-cyanobacteria, NPK+phosphogypsum (PG)+Azolla-cyanobacteria. The maximum decrease in cumulative seasonal CH4 emissions was recorded 29.7% and 32.6% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus phospho-gypsum amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh respectively, followed by 22.4% and 26.8% reduction with silicate slag plus Azolla-cyanobacteria application. Biochar amendments in paddy soils of Japan and Bangladesh decreased seasonal cumulative N2O emissions by 31.8% and 20.0% respectively, followed by 26.3% and 25.0% reduction with biochar plus Azolla-cyanobacteria amendments. Although seasonal cumulative CH4 emissions were significantly increased by 9.5-14.0% with biochar amendments, however, global warming potentials were decreased by 8.0-12.0% with cyanobacterial inoculation plus biochar amendments. The maximum decrease in GWP was calculated 22.0-30.0% with Azolla-cyanobacteria plus silicate slag amendments. The evolution of greenhouse gases per unit grain yield (yield scaled GWP) was highest in the NPK treatment, which was decreased by 43-50% from the silicate slag and phosphogypsum amendments along with Azolla-cyanobacteria inoculated rice planted soils. Conclusively, it is recommended to incorporate Azolla-cyanobacteria with inorganic and organic amendments for reducing GWP and yield scaled GWP from the rice planted paddy soils of temperate and subtropical countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Incidence, Distribution and Characteristics of Major Tomato Leaf Curl and Mosaic Virus Diseases in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Ssekyewa, C

    2006-01-01

    In Uganda, about 3 million households consume tomato. However, tomato yields (10 ton/ ha) are low due to poor agronomic practices, lack of high yielding and disease resistant varieties, and pests (Varela, 1995; Hansen, 1990; Defrancq, 1989). Viral diseases are the third major cause of low tomato productivity in Uganda. Therefore, a survey was conducted; symptoms observed on tomato were categorized, and screened for both ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid tomato viruses. Genetic identity fo...

  17. Controle de mosca-branca com extratos vegetais, em tomateiro cultivado em casa-de-vegetação Use of plant extracts on whitefly control in tomato grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson LL Baldin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando buscar métodos alternativos no controle da mosca-branca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B em tomateiro, foram realizados testes de atratividade e preferência para oviposição em casa-de-vegetação, utilizando-se quatorze extratos aquosos a 3% (peso/volume. Os extratos foram preparados com partes de Azadirachta indica, Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora,Cymbopogon nardus e Coriandrum sativum. Numa segunda etapa, os extratos mais eficientes em casa-de-vegetação foram observados em laboratório, a fim de avaliar o possível efeito sistêmico dos mesmos sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. Constatou-se que as plantas de tomateiro pulverizadas com extratos à base de folhas de M. pulegium e folhas e sementes de A. indica foram menos atrativas aos adultos do inseto. Plantas pulverizadas com extratos de folhas de A. indica e folhas + ramos de R. communis mostraram efeitos deterrentes à oviposição do inseto, reduzindo o número de ovos; em contrapartida, o extrato à base de folhas de C. nardus estimulou a oviposição da mosca-branca sobre as plantas. O uso dos extratos por via sistêmica não afetou o período de desenvolvimento (ovo-adulto da mosca-branca; entretanto, a presença de extratos de sementes e folhas de A. indica e de folhas de M. pulegium provocou aumento significativo na mortalidade de ninfas de B. tabaci biótipo B.Looking for alternative methods of control to silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B in tomato, attractiveness and oviposition preference tests were accomplished in greenhouse using fourteen aqueous extracts at 3% (weight/volume. The extracts were prepared with parts from Azadirachta indica,Trichilia pallida,Chenopodium ambrosioides,Piper nigrum,Melia azedarach,Ruta graveolens,Ricinus communis,Mentha pulegium,Tagetes erecta,Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon nardus and

  18. Effects of Copper-based Compounds, Antibiotics and a Plant Activator on Population Sizes and Spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Greenhouse Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin and a plant activator (ASM significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomatoseedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the region most distant from the inoculumfocus. Copper hydroxide mixed with streptomycin significantly limited the pathogen population, compared with copper hydroxide alone, the other copper-based compounds, ASM and kasugamycin. However, combining streptomycin with copper hydroxide did notcontribute to its greater efficacy against the pathogen population. Copper-based compounds, in general, were less effective in limiting pathogen population sizes than the other treatments in all three sampling regions, primarily copper oxychloride and the combinationof copper hydroxide and mancozeb. Among copper compounds, copper hydroxide was the most prominent in reducing the bacterial population, especially in the region closest to the inoculum focus, while its combination with mancozeb did not improve the effects. Kasugamycin significantly limited pathogen population size, compared to copper bactericides, but it was less effective than the other antibiotic compound, i.e. streptomycin. The plant activator ASM significantly reduced population density, and it was more effectivewhen used three days prior to inoculation than six days before inoculation.

  19. Pepino mosaic virus isolates and differential symptomatology in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Paeleman, A.; Vandewoestijne, E.; Bergen, Van L.; Bragard, C.; Lievens, B.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted in commercial tomato production in Belgium in 2006, four Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) isolates that differed in symptom expression in the crop of origin were selected for greenhouse trials. The selected isolates were inoculated onto tomato plants grown in four separate

  20. Evaluation of the Water Requirements for a Greenhouse Tomato Crop using the Priestley-Taylor Method Evaluación del Consumo de Agua de un Cultivo de Tomate en Invernadero Usando el Método de Priestley-Taylor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Valdés-Gómez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Priestley-Taylor (PT model was evaluated for estimating the real evapotranspiration (ETreal of a drip-irrigated greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crop. The net radiation incorporated in the PT model was estimated using meteorological variables. For this experiment, an automatic weather station (AWS was installed inside the greenhouse to measure solar radiation (Rgi, net radiation (Rn, air temperature (Ta and relative humidity (RH. Another AWS was installed over a grass cover to measure atmospheric conditions outside the greenhouse. The experiment was carried out at the Panguilemo experimental station (35°23' S, 71°40' W, 110 m.a.s.l. from August to December 2000. The PT model was evaluated using the ETreal obtained from the water balance (WB method. In this case, values of ETreal by PT model were calculated using: a Rgi and soil heat flux (G = 0; b Rgi and G ≠ 0; c solar radiation measured outside the greenhouse (Rge and G = 0; and d Rge and G ≠ 0. For these cases, results indicated that PT model was able to compute ETreal with errors less than 5%. Also, Rn was calculated with a relative absolute error and a mean deviation lower than 6% and 0.07 mm d-1, respectively, using Rgi or Rge. Daily soil heat flux values equal to zero did not affect the calculation of ETreal values. Thus, the PT model evaluated in this study could be used for scheduling irrigation for a greenhouse tomato crop, using internal measurements of air temperature and relative humidity, and external measurements of solar radiation. In this case, PT model predicted the ETreal with an error of 6.1%.Se evaluó el comportamiento del modelo de Priestley-Taylor (PT para la estimación de la evapotranspiración real (ETreal de un cultivo de tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en condiciones de invernadero. La radiación neta incorporada en el modelo de PT fue calculada usando variables meteorológicas clásicas. Para este experimento, una estación meteorol

  1. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  2. Evaluation of a Biostimulant (Pepton Based in Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Animal Protein in Comparison to Seaweed Extracts on Root Development, Vegetative Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Gold Cherry Tomatoes Grown under Low Stress Ambient Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Polo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of different application rates of an enzyme hydrolyzed animal protein biostimulant (Pepton compared to a standard application rate of a biostimulant derived from seaweed extract (Acadian on plant growth parameters and yield of gold cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Biostimulant treatments were applied starting at 15 days after transplant and every 2 weeks thereafter for a total of 5 applications. One treatment group received no biostimulant (Control. Three treatment groups (Pepton-2, Pepton-3, Pepton-4 received Pepton at different application rates equivalent to 2, 3, or 4 kg/ha applied by foliar (first 2 applications and by irrigation (last 3 applications. Another treatment group (Acadian received Acadian at 1.5 L/ha by irrigation for all five applications. All groups received the regular fertilizer application for this crop at transplantation, flowering, and fruiting periods. There were four plots per treatment group. Each plot had a surface area of 21 m2 that consisted of two rows that were 7 m long and 1.5 m wide. Plant height, stem diameter, distance from head to bouquet flowering, fruit set distance between the entire cluster and cluster flowering fruit set, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant was recorded for 20 plants (5 plants per plot at 56 and 61 days after the first application. Root length and diameter of cherry tomatoes were determined at harvest from 20 randomly selected plants. Harvesting yield per plot was registered and production per hectare was calculated. Both biostimulants improved (P < 0.05 all vegetative parameters compared with the control group. There was a positive linear (P < 0.001 effect of Pepton application rate for all parameters. The calculated yield was 7.8 and 1 Ton/ha greater that represent 27 and 2.9% higher production for Pepton applied at 4 kg/ha compared to the control and to Acadian, respectively. In conclusion, Pepton was

  3. Carbon footprint calculation of Finnish greenhouse products; Kasvihuonetuotteiden ilmastovaikutuslaskenta. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yrjaenaeinen, H.; Silvenius, F.; Kaukoranta, T.; Naekkilae, J.; Saerkkae, L.; Tuhkanen, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    This report presents the results of climate impact calculations for five products produced in Finnish greenhouses: tomatoes, cucumbers, salad crops, tulips and Elatior begonias. The study employed 16 greenhouses for the investigation; two greenhouses each for the tulips and the begonias and four each for the tomatoes, cucumbers and salad crops. Based on these calculations a greenhouse gas calculator was developed for greenhouse cultivators. The calculator is available at internet in www.kauppapuutarhaliitto.fi {yields} hiilijalanjaelki. In terms of environmental impacts this study concentrated on the climate impacts of the investigated products, and the calculations were made for the most significant greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. The following processes were included in the system boundaries: plant growing, manufacturing of lime, fertilizers and pesticides, manufacturing and disposal of pots, carbon dioxide production, irrigation, lighting, thermal curtains and cooling systems, the production and use of electricity and heat energy, distribution of products by the growers, other transportation, end-of-life and recycling. Processes excluded from the study were: distribution by other actors, retail functions, the consumer stage, and maintenance and manufacturing of infrastructure. The study used MTT's calculation model for the climate impact of food products excluding distribution and retail processes. The greenhouses selected for the study had some variation in their energy profiles and growing seasons. In addition, scenarios were created for different energy sources by using the average figures from this study. Monthly energy consumption values were also obtained from a number of the greenhouses and these were used to assess the variations in climate impact for different seasons. According to the results of the study the use of energy is the most significant source of climate impact of greenhouse products. In the tomato farms the

  4. Estudo preliminar do controle biológico da traça-do-tomateiro com o parasitóide Trichogramma pretiosum em ambientes protegidos A preliminar survey on the biological control of South American tomato pinworm with the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum in greenhouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Medeiros

    2009-03-01

    ógico permitiu a produção de tomates por doze semanas em todas as casas de vegetação testadas; c de acordo com a análise econômica, o tomate produzido em casa de vegetação tipo convectivo apresentou melhor rendimento.Greenhouse tomato cropping is economically advantageous for the producers. However, the hot and dry environment inside the greenhouse is conducive to tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick population growth and as a consequence it is difficult to control the pest. Nowadays, the pest is controlled mainly by insecticides. The biological control using the parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum Riley is pointed out as one of those alternative methods and was evaluated in greenhouse. Experiments were carried out in stacked plants of tomato cv. Larissa, in three greenhouse roof models: arc, chapel and convective, with 288 plants in a 160m² area in each type of greenhouse. All treatments were associated with weekly sprays of Bacillus thuringiensis and weekly release of the parasitoid: 1 convective greenhouse: one single release of 200 cm² of parasitized eggs, once a week; 2 arc roof greenhouse: release of 200 cm² of parasitized eggs twice a week, 100 cm² in each release; 3 chapel greenhouse model 400 cm² of parasitized eggs release twice a week, 200 cm² in each release. Once a week, 50 leaflets were collected in each greenhouse. The number of eggs/leaf was determined in the laboratory and then the eggs were kept individually in a chamber in order to determine the number of emerged larvae or the number of parasitized eggs. Tomato production and damage to the fruits were determined weekly in 50 tomato plants randomly chosen in each treatment. The technical and economic efficiency of production system were analyzed in the different greenhouse models. The main results were: a different conditions of temperature and humidity affected parasitoid performance, b biological control technique provided tomato production for twelve weeks in all greenhouse tested; c the tomato

  5. Correlations between yield and fruit quality characteristics of fresh market tomatoes Correlações entre caracteres de produção e qualidade de frutos de tomate de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia M de Souza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic, phenotypic and environmental correlations were estimated for all possible pairs among eleven characters of tomatoes. Fifteen treatments including five parents and ten hybrids of Instituto Agronômico (IAC tomato breeding program were evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design, with tree replications in Itatiba, São Paulo state, Brazil, during 2005/2006. The following traits were evaluated: fruit yield per plant (FP, fruit number per plant (FN, average fruit weight (FW, cluster number per plant (CN, fruit number per cluster (FC, number of locules per fruit (NL, fruit length (FL, fruit width (WI, fruit wall thickness (FT, total soluble solids (SS, and total titratable acidity (TA. The genotypic (rG, phenotypic (rF and environmental correlations (rA for two pairs of plant traits were estimated using the Genes© program. High similarity was found among the estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations. Positive and high phenotypic and genotypic correlations were observed between FP and the traits FN, FW and FT, and these associations contributed for yield increasing. FW and FT contributed to yield increase and should be considered together as primary yield components in tomato. Positive values of the genotypic and phenotypic correlations revealed that FP influenced FN with high direct effect and significant positive correlation. These traits may be included as the main selection criteria for tomato yield improvement.Correlações fenotípica, genotípica e ambiental foram estimadas entre todos os possíveis pares de onze caracteres de tomate de mesa. Quinze tratamentos, incluindo cinco parentais e dez híbridos do programa de melhoramento de tomate do Instituto Agronômico (IAC foram testados no delineamento em blocos casualizados completos, em Itatiba-SP, em 2005/2006. Os seguintes caracteres foram avaliados: produção (FP, número (FN e peso médio do fruto (FW, número de pencas por planta (CN, número de

  6. THE CHARACTERISATION OF FUNGI Passalora fulva (Cooke U.Braun&Crous PATHOTYPES, CAUSER OF TOMATO LEAF MOLD IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrijana Novak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is considered one of the most widely grown vegetable crops in the world and production of it is rising every year in Croatia as well as in the world. This research paper shows results on tomato leaf mould caused by Passalora fulva (Cooke U.Braun & Crous (syn. Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke, which can cause significant reduction of yield and quality of tomato. Other than economic loss, tomato leaf mould can be the cause of allergies because it produces lots of spores. During research, the following materials and methods have been used: collecting samples of plant material infected with tomato leaf mould and assessments of disease intensity, isolation and determination of the pathogen, detecting pathotypes using biassay, susceptibility testing of different tomato genotypes infected with P. fulva, molecular identification and testing the effects of essential oils in vitro on conidia germination. Visual controls of greenhouse and outdoor growing tomato were conducted during the period from 2006 to 2011. Samples (17 from 14 localities in 10 counties (Istra County, Koprivnica-Križevci County, KrapinaZagorje County, Međimurje County, Osijek-BaranjaCounty, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Varaždin County, Virovitica-Podravina County, Zadar County and Zagreb County were collected. Symptoms were detected on 6 different tomato genotypes: Belle, Jeremy, Minaret, Amaneta, Gravitet and test genotype. Outdoors, P. fulva was not found. For isolation and determination of P. fulva 4 different growing media were used: PDA (potato – dextrose agar, tomato – agar, carrot – agar and V8 – agar. By measuring the size of conidia on carrot – agar it was determined that they were the closest in size to the conidia from infected tomato leaf. Bioassay for the first time in Croatia confirmed presence of two different physiological pathotypes of P. fulva, Cf – 0 and Cf – 5. Other pathotypes obtained by bioassay were not confirmed by sequencing because the

  7. Presença dos gêneros Trichoderma e Fusarium em solo rizosférico e não rizosférico cultivado com tomateiro e pepineiro, em horta e estufa Presence of the genus Trichoderma and Fusarium in rhizosphere and bulk soil cultivated with tomato and cucumber, in vegetable garden and greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Zago Ethur

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Para a elaboração adequada de programas de biocontrole de patógenos de solo, é necessário conhecer a distribuição de patógenos e antagonistas nesse ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a presença dos gêneros Trichoderma e Fusarium em solo rizosférico e não-rizosférico, cultivado com tomateiro e pepineiro, em horta e estufa, e identificar os isolados de Fusarium spp. patogênicos às culturas. Para isso, em horta e estufa, foram realizadas 40 amostragens de solo rizosférico (tomateiro e pepineiro e 20 de solo não-rizosférico. As suspensões dos solos foram diluídas, incubadas em meio BDA e os fungos identificados. Posteriormente, foi realizado o teste de patogenicidade para o tomateiro e o pepineiro, com os isolados de Fusarium spp. obtidos dos solos coletados. Em estufa, para o tomateiro e para o pepineiro, o número de pontos de amostragem com a presença de Trichoderma spp. em solo rizosférico foi significativamente maior (95 e 45%, respectivamente do que em solo não-rizosférico (10%. Neste ambiente, ocorreu diferença na presença de Trichoderma spp. e Fusarium spp., sendo encontrados, respectivamente, em 10 e 55% dos pontos de amostragem. No teste de patogenicidade, cinco isolados de Fusarium oxysporum do tomateiro e seis do pepineiro foram patogênicos às respectivas culturas. Em estufa, Trichoderma spp. ocorre com maior freqüência na rizosfera, enquanto Fusarium spp. está distribuído no solo, e a maioria dos isolados de Fusarium spp. não é patogênica ao tomateiro nem ao pepineiro.For the adequate elaboration of biocontrol programs of soil borne pathogens, it is necessary to understand the distribution of pathogens and antagonists in this environment. This research was aimed at studing the presence of the fungi Trichoderma and Fusarium in rhizosphere and bulk soil, cultivated with tomato and cucumber, in vegetable garden and greenhouse, and to quantify the isolates of Fusarium spp. pathogenic to the

  8. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  9. Produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo solteiro e consorciado com espécies aromáticas e medicinais Yield of tomato in monocrop and intercropping with aromatics plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M de Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    environmental risks. The intercropping has been used as a form to reduce these risks. In this work the yield of tomato in sole crop and intercropping with Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum and Ruta graveolens was evaluated. The monocrop of tomato and its intercropping was evaluated with aromatic plants in a complete randomized design, with five treatments and four blocks. We evaluated height, canopy area, production, yield and land equivalent ratio. On the population density adopted, the F. vulgare (fennel presented greater height and canopy area, and caused significant reduction on total production of tomato, from 12.23 kg, in monocrop, to 7.88 kg, when intercropped with fennel. However, intercropping with fennel contributed to a lesser loose caused by fruits borer (24%. The greatest loose caused by fruits borer occurred in monocropping and in intercropping with M. piperita (peppermint. Intercropping with Ruta graveolens (rue resulted significant increase of commercial production of fruits, about 26%. The relative yield of tomato was greater in intercropping with rue (13.6 t ha-1, followed by intercropping with peppermint (9.8 t ha-1 and with O. basilicum (basil (9.1 t ha-1, and lesser on intercropping with fennel (6.4 t ha-1. These results showed that the intercropping with rue was more advantageous than others producing more fruits. Among the studied aromatic plants, basil presented the highest yield (96.5 t ha-1. The tomato intercropping with aromatic cultures permits better use of land and higher yield, mainly when intercropping with rue. All aromatics plants evaluated represent an alternative source of gain.

  10. The use of artificial wetlands to treat greenhouse effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque, Vicky; Dorais, Martine; Gravel, Valérie; Ménard, Claudine; Antoun, Hani; Rochette, Philippe; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Untreated greenhouse effluents or leak solution constitute a major environmental burden because their nitrate and phosphate concentrations may induce eutrophication. Artificial wetlands may offer a low cost alternative treatment of greenhouse effluents and consequently improve the sustainability of greenhouse growing systems. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the efficiency of different types of wetland to reduce ion content of greenhouse tomato effluent, and 2) improve the...

  11. field reactions of interspecific hybrids of tomato (solanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Leaf spot is a major disease of tomato causing reduction in fruit yield under humid environments. It's control using some of the major systemic fungicides available is environmentally unfriendly and costly. Heterosis known to increase productivity in crops was used to assess improvement in tomato yield and ...

  12. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  13. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. CROPPING SYSTEM IN THE STATE OF JALISCO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Rosana Cih Dzul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems of tomatoes in the State of Jalisco, Mexico, were characterized variables useful to explain the technical and economic problems of these systems were prioritized. Five producing regions were identified: Sayula, La Cienega, Sierra de Amula, Costa Sur, and Zapotlan El Grande. A stratified random sampling was performed and face to face structured interviews with tomato producers were applied. The questionnaire included sections to record the sociodemographic characteristics, production performance, technology, food safety and production marketing system. The characterization of production systems was performed using the technological variables: Type of protection, cultivated surface, type of irrigation system, wadding (mulch, input use, yield, production costs, market and food safety. Systems were classified in three groups: open field, greenhouse and mesh shade production system, whit two subsystem organic production with mesh shade and greenhouse without mulch. 84% of producers use an open field system, 8% produce in greenhouse, 4% use the mesh shade system and the remaining 4% produce with any combination of the above systems. The main cultivated variety is Saladette. Productivity of each system is determined by the level and type of technology. All producers use drip irrigation systems and 96% use plastic mulching (wadding. 90% of producers allocate its production through a broker and 10% sell directly to wholesale markets; the main broker usually is the person who owns the warehouse. Weather conditions, pests and diseases are the main factors affecting negatively the productivity and yield of the crop, with negative economic impact on farmers.Â

  15. Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, S A Bispo; Roselino, A C; Hrncir, M; Bego, L R

    2009-06-30

    The pollination effectiveness of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera was tested in tomato plots. The experiment was conducted in four greenhouses as well as in an external open plot in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The tomato plants were exposed to visits by M. quadrifasciata in one greenhouse and to A. mellifera in another; two greenhouses were maintained without bees (controls) and an open field plot was exposed to pollinators in an area where both honey bee and stingless bee colonies are abundant. We counted the number of tomatoes produced in each plot. Two hundred tomatoes from each plot were weighed, their vertical and transversal circumferences were measured, and the seeds were counted. We collected 253 Chrysomelidae, 17 Halictidae, one Paratrigona sp, and one honey bee from the flowers of the tomato plants in the open area. The largest number of fruits (1414 tomatoes), the heaviest and largest tomatoes, and the ones with the most seed were collected from the greenhouse with stingless bees. Fruits cultivated in the greenhouse with honey bees had the same weight and size as those produced in one of the control greenhouses. The stingless bee, M. quadrifasciata, was significantly more efficient than honey bees in pollinating greenhouse tomatoes.

  16. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  17. Yield and Quality of Sequentially Grown Cherry Tomato and Lettuce under Long-Term Conventional, Low-Input and Organic Soil Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moccia, S.; Chiesa, A.; Oberti, A.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Besides to conventional fertiliser use, organic and low-input technologies are being increasingly used for soil management in vegetable production. However, different factors operating during crop growth (i.e. the pre-harvest factors) and related to soil properties may affect yield and quality of

  18. Analysis of gas exchange, stomatal behaviour and micronutrients uncovers dynamic response and adaptation of tomato plants to monochromatic light treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carrigan, Andrew; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Thomas, Richard; Bellotti, Bill; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Light spectrum affects the yield and quality of greenhouse tomato, especially over a prolonged period of monochromatic light treatments. Physiological and chemical analysis was employed to investigate the influence of light spectral (blue, green and red) changes on growth, photosynthesis, stomatal behaviour, leaf pigment, and micronutrient levels. We found that plants are less affected under blue light treatment, which was evident by the maintenance of higher A, gs, Tr, and stomatal parameters and significantly lower VPD and Tleaf as compared to those plants grown in green and red light treatments. Green and red light treatments led to significantly larger increase in the accumulation of Fe, B, Zn, and Cu than blue light. Moreover, guard cell length, width, and volume all showed highly significant positive correlations to gs, Tr and negative links to VPD. There was negative impact of monochromatic lights-induced accumulation of Mn, Cu, and Zn on photosynthesis, leaf pigments and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the light-induced significant changes of the physiological traits were partially recovered at the end of experiment. A high degree of morphological and physiological plasticity to blue, green and red light treatments suggested that tomato plants may have developed mechanisms to adapt to the light treatments. Thus, understanding the optimization of light spectrum for photosynthesis and growth is one of the key components for greenhouse tomato production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Arthrobotrys oligospora-mediated biological control of diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U B; Sahu, A; Sahu, N; Singh, R K; Renu, S; Singh, D P; Manna, M C; Sarma, B K; Singh, H B; Singh, K P

    2013-01-01

    To study the biocontrol potential of nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in protecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse and field conditions. Five isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora isolated from different parts of India were tested against Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown under greenhouse and field conditions. Arthrobotrys oligospora-treated plants showed enhanced growth in terms of shoot and root length and biomass, chlorophyll and total phenolic content and high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity in comparison with M. incognita- and R. solani-inoculated plants. Biochemical profiling when correlated with disease severity and intensity in A. oligospora-treated and untreated plants indicate that A. oligospora VNS-1 offered significant disease reduction in terms of number of root galls, seedling mortality, lesion length, disease index, better plant growth and fruit yield as compared to M. incognita- and R. solani-challenged plants. The result established that A. oligospora VNS-1 has the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita and R. solani. Arthrobotrys oligospora can be a better environment friendly option and can be incorporated in the integrated disease management module of crop protection. Application of A. oligospora not only helps in the control of nematodes but also increases plant growth and enhances nutritional value of tomato fruits. Thus, it proves to be an excellent biocontrol as well as plant growth promoting agent. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Pest management in organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The management of pests is one of the major challenges in organic greenhouse cropping systems. In this paper, I summarize the currently most problematic and persistent, as well as the newly emerging pest species in organic tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and aubergine crops in Europe. Furthermore, I

  1. Pepino mosaic virus, a first report of a virus infecting tomato in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV occurring in tomato plants grown in plastic greenhouses in a Mediterranean city in Syria. One tomato fruit from sixty samples tested positive for this virus by DAS-ELISA. Biotest assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing confirmed the presence of PepMV. The highest sequence identity of the Syrian isolate was with the EU-tomato strains of PepMV.

  2. 77 FR 50553 - Fresh Tomatoes from Mexico: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ..., cherry, grape, plum, greenhouse, and pear tomatoes, all of which are covered by this investigation...: August 14, 2012. Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-20552 Filed 8...

  3. 78 FR 9366 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico: Intent To Terminate Suspension Agreement and Resume Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... include common round, cherry, grape, plum, greenhouse, and pear tomatoes, all of which are covered by this..., 2013. Paul Piquado, Assistant Secretary for Import Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-02914 Filed 2-7-13; 8...

  4. Changes in volatile production during an infection of tomato plants by Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Miebach, M.; Kleist, E.; Henten, van E.J.; Wildt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not

  5. Variation among volatile profiles induced by Botrytis cinerea infection of tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not

  6. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  7. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  8. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  9. Evaluation of Resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato Genetic Resources at Seedling Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Gyu Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt of tomatoes caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating disease that limits the production of tomato in Korea. The best way to control this disease is using genetically resistant tomato plant. The resistance degree to R. solanacearum was evaluated for 285 tomato accessions conserved in the National Agrobiodiversity Center of Rural Development Administration. These accessions of tomato were originated from 23 countries. Disease severity of tomato accessions was investigated from 7 days to 14 days at an interval of 7 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum under greenhouse conditions. A total of 279 accessions of tomato germplasm were susceptible to R. solanacearum, resulting in wilt and death in 70 to 90% of these plants. Two tomato accessions were moderately resistant to R. solanacearum. Only four accessions showed high resistance against R. solanacearum. No distinct symptom of bacterial wilt appeared on the resistant tomato germplasms for up to 14 days after inoculation of R. solanacearum. Microscopy of resistant tomato stems infected with R. solanacearum revealed limited bacterial spread with thickening of pit membrane and gum production. Therefore, these four resistant tomato germplasms could be used in tomato breeding program against bacterial wilt.

  10. Management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato with endophytic bacteria and fresh residue of Wasabia japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G J; Dong, Q E; Ma, L; Huang, Y; Zhu, M L; Ji, Y P; Wang, Q H; Mo, M H; Zhang, K Q

    2014-10-01

    To characterize the nematicidal endophytic bacteria (NEB) of Wasabia japonica (wasabi) and evaluated the control efficacies of promising NEB as well as fresh wasabi residue (FWR) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. By in vitro bioassay, 53 NEB strains showing nematicidal efficacies of >50% against J2 of M. incognita were isolated from wasabi. Basing on 16S rRNA gene sequences, these NEB were identified into 18 species of 11 genera. In greenhouse, incorporation of selected NEB culture or FWR into potted soil significantly reduced infection of M. incognita on tomato. Treating tomatoes with either FWR or NEB of Raoultella terrigena RN16 and Pseudomonas reinekei SN21 in the field yielded excellent control efficacies against M. incognita, especially the combinations of FWR with either R. terrigena RN16 or Ps. reinekei SN21 at doses of 50 g plus 100 ml per plant or more. The results established that R. terrigena RN16 and Ps. reinekei SN21 applied separately or combined with FWR have the potential to provide bioprotection agents against M. incognita. This study provides novel way for disease management using combination of endophyte and host residue. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... one tomato leaf sample while PVMV + CMV occurred on three pepper leaf samples. The control of aphid vectors that transmit these viruses and good sanitary practices against soil borne ToMV would minimize disease incidences and subsequent yield loss. Keywords: Tomato, Pepper, virus distribution, PVMV, CMV, PVY ...

  12. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  13. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  14. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... and the eggplant is the fourth in rank within the green- house products, after tomato, pepper and cucumber. (Boyaci .... network near the greenhouse and distributed to the pilots by laterals ..... environmental friendly production.

  15. Poda apical, densidade de plantas e cobertura plástica do solo na produtividade do tomateiro em cultivo protegido Tip pruning, plant density and plastic mulching in tomato yield in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Bogiani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito de duas combinações entre densidade de plantas e altura de poda apical, associados à utilização de cobertura plástica do solo, sobre o desenvolvimento e a produção de frutos do tomateiro, híbrido Duradoro (EMBRAPA, em ambiente protegido. Foram estabelecidos dois sistemas de cultivo com haste única: SC1 - poda apical após a 5ª inflorescência, com 20.000 plantas ha-1 e SC2 - poda apical após a 2ª inflorescência com 50.000 plantas ha-1; e três condições de cobertura do solo: solo nu; filme de polietileno branco e filme de polietileno preto, adotando-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O experimento foi desenvolvido de junho a novembro de 2003, na UNESP, Câmpus de Ilha Solteira. A adoção do tratamento SC2 determinou maior altura de plantas aos 45 dias após o transplante, maior número de frutos por área e maior produtividade, além da concentração do período de colheita em sete semanas. As coberturas plásticas do solo não influenciaram as variáveis que compõem a produtividade do tomateiro.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two combinations between plant density and tip pruning height, associated to the use of plastic mulching, on plants development and fruit yield of the tomato (Duradoro hybrid grown under protected environment. Two single stem cultivation systems were compared: SC1 - tip pruning after the fifth inflorescence with 20,000 plants ha-1; SC2 - tip pruning after the second inflorescence with 50,000 plants ha-1, and three different soil cover conditions: bare soil, white polyethylene film, 50 mm-thick, and black polyethylene film, 50 mm-thick. The experimental design used was randomized block, in a split plot array. The work was carried out from June to November of 2003, at the UNESP, Ilha Solteira (São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatment SC2 increased plant height at 45 days after the transplant, and

  16. The Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR and Phosphate Solubilizing Microorganism (PSM on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat (cv. N80 under Different Nitrogen and Phosphorous Fertilizers Levels in Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Bahari saravi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and phosphate solubilizing microorganism (PSM on yield and yield components of wheat a pot experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2009. Experiment was arranged in factorial based on completely randomized design in three replicates. Treatments were included bio-fertilizer in four levels (non-inoculation control, Phosphate Barvare 2 (Pseudomonas fluorescens+Bacillus subtilis, Supernitroplus (Azotobacter brasilense+Azospirillum lipoferum and Nitroxine (Azospirillum + Pseudomona + Bacillus, three levels of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 75 and 150 kg urea/ha and three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 60 and 120 kg super phosphate triple/ha. Results showed that the studied treatments (biofertilizer, nitrogen and phosphate inorganic fertilizers had significant effect on grain number per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index. Interaction effect between biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers was significant in terms of grain yield. The maximum grain yield was resulted from simultaneously applying of Nitroxine and 75 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer. By contrast, the highest straw yield was obtained when 150 kg nitrogen fertilizer was used. Grain yield had the maximum correlation with biological yield (r=0.85**. Grain yield positively and significantly correlated with grain number per spike (r=0.73**, 1000 grain weight (r=0.68**, straw yield (r=0.56** and harvest index (r=0.69**. In conclusion biofertilizer inoculations could reduce application of nitrogen and phosphorus chemical fertilizers and increase plant performance.

  17. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  18. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sortino, Orazio [Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali, Universita degli Studi di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipasquale, Mauro [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Montoneri, Enzo, E-mail: enzo.montoneri@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Valorizzazione e Protezione delle Risorse Agroforestali, Universita di Torino, Via L. da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  19. Morphological and physico-biochemical characterization of various tomato cultivars in a simplified soilless media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Ahmad Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate nine commercial cultivars of tomato, in order to identify the most suitable cultivar in terms of morphological (plant height, fruit size, fruit weight and total yield and physico-biochemical (color, firmness, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar, β-carotene and lycopene attributes. Plants were cultured hydroponically in the greenhouse. Results revealed that the morphological attributes of Beefsteak Group (BG of tomatoes was significantly better than that of Cherry Group (CG. In addition, CG has higher concentration of biochemical attributes, mainly β-carotene, sugars, total soluble solids (TSS and ascorbic acid contents. Within CG, cv. Aria was found to be the best for higher sugar contents, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents; while, TSS was higher in the cv. Claree. Similarly in BG, cv. Sahel had the highest value of lycopene, β-carotene, TSS; whereas, lowest sugar contents were found in cv. Dirk. As far as firmness is concerned, cv. Naram (BG was found to be more firm, than cv. Aria (CG. The highest total yield was recorded for cv. Vernal; in BG and in cv. Claree for CG, depicting that BG had significantly higher total yield, compared with CG.

  20. Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhancing tomato plant growth and productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sortino, Orazio; Dipasquale, Mauro; Montoneri, Enzo; Tomasso, Lorenzo; Perrone, Daniele G.; Vindrola, Daniela; Negre, Michele; Piccone, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Municipal bio-wastes are a sustainable source of bio-based products. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics promote chlorophyll synthesis. ► Refuse derived soluble bio-organics enhance plant growth and fruit ripening rate. ► Sustainable chemistry exploiting urban refuse allows sustainable development. ► Chemistry, agriculture and the environment benefit from biowaste technology. - Abstract: Municipal bio-refuse (CVD), containing kitchen wastes, home gardening residues and public park trimmings, was treated with alkali to yield a soluble bio-organic fraction (SBO) and an insoluble residue. These materials were characterized using elemental analysis, potentiometric titration, and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and then applied as organic fertilizers to soil for tomato greenhouse cultivation. Their performance was compared with a commercial product obtained from animal residues. Plant growth, fruit yield and quality, and soil and leaf chemical composition were the selected performance indicators. The SBO exhibited the best performance by enhancing leaf chlorophyll content, improving plant growth and fruit ripening rate and yield. No product performance-chemical composition relationship could be assessed. Solubility could be one reason for the superior performance of SBO as a tomato growth promoter. The enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content is discussed to identify a possible link with the SBO photosensitizing properties that have been demonstrated in other work, and thus with photosynthetic performance.

  1. Analysis of Furaneol in tomato using dynamic headspace sampling with sodium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttery, R G; Takeoka, G R; Naim, M; Rabinowitch, H; Nam, Y

    2001-09-01

    High-flow dynamic headspace sampling with excess anhydrous sodium sulfate was found to be an effective method of isolating Furaneol from fresh tomatoes. Quantitative analysis was carried out by gas chromatography using maltol as internal standard. Furaneol was found in the highest concentrations (660-1100 ppb) in the summer crop of home-grown tomatoes and in some of the greenhouse hydroponically grown tomatoes, which are ripened on the plant before being transported to the supermarkets. Furaneol was found in the lowest concentrations (38-180 ppb) in the common ethylene-ripened, field-grown, supermarket tomatoes.

  2. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização Cherry tomato growth and yield in soilless system using wastewater from desalination process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonath Werissimo da Silva Gomes

    2011-12-01

    water and with saline waters prepared by dilution of reject water from brine desalination at 75; 50; 25 and 0% (CE of 2.1; 3.55; 4.88; 6.02 and 6.96 dS m-1, respectively. A completely randomized design was used with four replications and 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions. The hídrico consumption of the culture was influenced by the addition of rejects saline in the nutritional solution and the salinity threshold, considering itself it productivity of the culture, was around 3,51 dS m-1 in the nutrient solution. Addition of up to 25% of reject (75% dilution to nutrient solution allow cropping cherry tomato, cv. 'Samambaia', without any yield reduction.

  4. Gas exchanges and water use efficiency in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, M E A; Maciel, G M; Fraga Júnior, E F; Machado Júnior, C S; Marquez, G R; Silva, I G; Almeida, R S

    2017-06-20

    Water stress can affect the yield in tomato crops and, despite this, there are few types of research aiming to select tomato genotypes resistant to the water stress using physiological parameters. This experiment aimed to study the variables that are related to the gas exchanges and the efficiency in water use, in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress. It was done in a greenhouse, measuring 7 x 21 m, in a randomized complete block design, with four replications (blocks), being five genotypes in the F 2 BC 1 generation, which were previously obtained from an interspecific cross between Solanum pennellii versus S. lycopersicum and three check treatments, two susceptible [UFU-22 (pre-commercial line) and cultivar Santa Clara] and one resistant (S. pennellii). At the beginning of flowering, the plants were submitted to a water stress condition, through irrigation suspension. After that CO 2 assimilation, internal CO 2 , stomatal conductance, transpiration, leaf temperature, instantaneous water use efficiency, intrinsic efficiency of water use, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll a and b, and the potential leaf water (Ψf) were observed. Almost all variables that were analyzed, except CO 2 assimilation and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, demonstrated the superiority of the wild accession, S. pennellii, concerning the susceptible check treatments. The high photosynthetic rate and the low stomatal conductance and transpiration, presented by the UFU22/F 2 BC 1 #2 population, allowed a better water use efficiency. Because of that, these physiological characteristics are promising in the selection of tomato genotypes tolerant to water stress.

  5. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  6. Drifting bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers in commercial greenhouses may be social parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birmingham, A.L.; Hoover, S.E.; Winston, M.L.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial greenhouses require high densities of managed bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis Greene, 1858 and Bombus impatiens Cresson, 1863) colonies to pollinate crops such as tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller). We examined drifting, a behavioural consequence of introducing closely aggregated

  7. Environmental system analysis of tomato production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify the most important sources of greenhouse gases, acidifying and eutrophying compounds associated with tomato production in Ghana and identify options to reduce the environmental impacts. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology was used in the analysis (Cradle to gate approach).

  8. Evaluation of allyl isothiocyanate as a soil fumigant against soil-borne diseases in commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225-4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), and moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999-29.497 mg kg -1 ) and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300-47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates that AITC significantly improved plant vigor. Field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both ∼ 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both ∼ 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30-50 g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Isolation screening and characterisation of local beneficial rhizobacteria based upon their ability to suppress the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and tomato foot and root rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato crown and root rot or tomato foot and root rot (TFRR) is caused by the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (Forl). The disease occurs in both greenhouse and outdoor tomato cultivations and cannot be treated efficiently with the existing fungicides. We conducte...

  10. Environmental impact assessment of dutch tomato crop production in a Venlo glasshouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antón, A.; Torrellas, M.; Montero, J.I.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Vermeulen, P.C.M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2012-01-01

    This environmental impact assessment of the current situation of Dutch tomato production in a Venlo greenhouse in a temperate climate was developed as part of the EUPHOROS project. The project aims to develop a more sustainable greenhouse system with a reduction of external inputs yet with high

  11. Effect of different rootstocks on growth, chlorophyll a fluorescence and mineral composition of two grafted scions of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goto, R.; Miguel, de A.; Marsal, J.I.; Gorbe, E.; Calatayud, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two tomato scions (cvs. ‘Raf’ and ‘Gorety’) were grafted on three different rootstocks: S. torvum, ‘Beaufort’ (Lycopersicum esculentum × Lycopersicum hirsutum) and intermediate grafting of eggplant ‘Cristal’ between tomato and S. torvum (double graft). Plants were grown in Mediterranean greenhouse

  12. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the right terminal region of Mexican papita viroid is a virulent determinant factor on tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexican papita viroid (MPVd), a pospiviroid, causes serious disease outbreaks on greenhouse tomato in North America. Two dominant genotypes (MPV-S and MPV-M), sharing 93.8% sequence identity, incited striking different symptom expression (severe and mild) on tomato ‘Rutgers’. To determine genetic ...

  13. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  14. Yield and quality of tomato produced on substrates and with application of humic acids Produtividade e qualidade de tomate produzido em substratos e com aplicação de ácidos húmicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the yield and quality of tomato fruits, hybrid "Vênus", produced on substrates and with application of nutrient solution and humic acids (AH. Four doses of AH were evaluated (0, 20, 40 and 80 L ha-1 and 4 substrates: S1 (coconut fiber (CF, S2 (FC + carbonized coffee husk (CC in the ratio 1:3, S3 (CF + CC in the ratio 2:3 and S4 (CC, were evaluated following the randomized blocks design in factorial 4x4 scheme with four replications. The 35-day old seedlings were transplanted into plastic bags of 7 L. The humic acids were applied four times in eight-day intervals, and the first application was carried out eight days after transplanting. There was no significant effect of AH on the yield and quality of fruit, except in relation to soluble solids (SS/titratable acidity (AT. Doses of up to 36 L ha-1, increase the AT, above that amount favored increase of SS. The carbonized coffee husk in treatments S2, S3 and S4, did not alter the production of small fruits, medium, non-commercial, moisture, pH, SS, AT and SS/AT, however, significantly reduced the total production, commercial and large size fruit. The production of fruits in S1 was significantly higher compared to the other treatments, with an average of 142.6 t ha-1, showing average increase in yield of 24.4%, 29.3% and 36.1% compared to plant of treatments S2, S3 and S4, respectively.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e qualidade de frutos de tomateiro, híbrido Vênus, produzidos em substratos, com aplicação de solução nutritiva e de ácidos húmicos (AH. Foram avaliadas 4 doses de AH (0, 20, 40 e 80 L ha-1 e 4 substratos: S1 (fibra de coco (FC, S2 (FC + casca de café carbonizada (CC na proporção 1:3, S3 (FC + CC na proporção 2:3 e S4 (CC. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x4. As mudas foram transplantadas com 35 dias para sacolas plásticas com capacidade de 7

  15. Effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of seeds on physico-chemical properties of glasshouse tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koper, R.; Rybak, P.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented results of study on the effect of pre-sowing laser biostimulation of glasshouse tomato seeds, Recento cultivar, on physico-chemical properties of yielded fruits. Tomato fruit resistance to elastic strains was tested in laboratory as well as the extract content and total acidity of fruits were analysed. Positive influence of laser treatment on tested tomato fruit properties was noted

  16. Reaction of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum], cucumber [Cucumis sativus] and eggplant [Solanum melongena] cultured under the film altered the ratio of red and far-red photon flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Y.; Hayashi, G.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of covering films which altered the ratio of red (R 600-700nm) and far-red (FR 700-800nm) photon flux to control succulent growth of seedlings on character of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings Were determined. Also the effects on growth and yield of eggplant cultured in plastic greenhouse covered with the same films were investigated. The results were as follows: 1) The stem length of tomato, cucumber and eggplant seedlings cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film which intercepted far-red photon flux in the greenhouse got shorter than for cheesecloth (1.00) which had sane level of photosynthetic photon flux transmittance, especially evident on eggplant. There was no difference in the number of leaves on these seedlings between tested film and the cheesecloth, but the top and root dry weight of these seedlings cultured under tested film got lighter than the one using cheesecloth. The leaves got smaller in eggplant too. 2) The stem of eggplant cultured under the high R/FR ratio (2.28) film got shorter and thicker than the control PVC film; but there was no difference on the yield. But eggplant cultured under the low R/FR ratio (0.66) film which intercepted red photon flux grew similarly as control, but its yield decreased

  17. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5tha(-1) biochar (BC1), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC2), application of 10tha(-1) biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400kgha(-1)(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p<0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20tha(-1)) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Water Stress and Polymer on Water Use Efficiency, Yield and several Morphological Traits of Sunflower under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein NAZARLI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In many part of Iran, the reproductive growth stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. are exposed to water deficit stress. Therefore, the investigation of irrigation management in the farm conditions is a necessary element for increasing irrigation efficiency and decreasing water losses. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and levels of water stress on water use efficiency (WUE, yield and some morphological traits of sunflower (cultivar Master. Factorial experiment was carried out in completely randomized design with 3 replications. Factors were water stress in three levels (irrigation in 0.75; 0.50 and 0.25% of field capacity and super absorbent polymer in five levels (0; 0.75; 0.150; 2.25; 3 g/kg of soil. Super absorbent polymer was added in eight leaves stage of sunflower to pots in deepness of roots development. Water stress treatment was also applied in this growth stage of sunflower. For stress application, pots were weighted every day and irrigated when soil water received to 0.75; 0.50 and 0.25 of field capacity, respectively. The results of ANOVA indicated that the effect of different rates of super absorbent polymer and different rates of consumed water in all traits were significant. ANOVA also revealed that the interactive effects of two mentioned factors were significant except for seed yield trait. Polynomial model based on the ANOVA results was fitted for each trait. The results indicated that water stress significantly convert in decreasing the number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll content, 100 weight of seeds, seed yield and WUE in sunflower, whereas the application of super absorbent polymer moderated the negative effect of deficit irrigation, especially in high rates of polymer (2.25 and 3 g/kg of soil. The above mentioned rates of polymer have the best effect to all characteristics of sunflower in all levels of water stress treatment. The findings

  19. Genetic diversity among some productive genotypes of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... weight, cluster VIII had highest number of locules per fruit, fruit yield per plant and yield per hectare and cluster XVII was .... Cluster means for yield and quality contributing characters of 60 genotypes of tomato. Cluster lycopene β- ..... Sharma JP, Singh AK, Satesh K, Sanjeev K. (2009). Identification of.

  20. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  1. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  2. Biological control of corky root in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, G; Fiume, F

    2008-01-01

    Corky root caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici (Schneider et Gerlach) is one of the most important soil borne fungal pathogens which develops in the soils, causing diseases in different crops. The research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of corky root on tomato. Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma viride Pers. 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and Bacillus subtilis M51 PI. According to present and future regulations on the use of chemical fungicides and considering that treatments must avoids environmental pollution, the main object of this research was to find alternative strategies by using biocontrol agents against P. lycopersici that affect tomato plants. In laboratory, the effectiveness of T. viride 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and B. subtilis M51 PI to control P. lycopersici were studied. In greenhouse, the research was carried out comparing the following treatments: 1) untreated control; 2) T. viride 18/17 SS; 3) Streptomyces spp. AtB42; 4) B. subtilis M51 PI. Roots of plants of tomato H3028 Hazera were treated with the antagonist suspensions just prior of transplant. Treatments were repeated about 2 months after, with the same suspensions sprayed on the soil to the plant collar. In dual culture, the inhibition of P. lycopersici ranged up to 81.2% (caused from T. viride 18/17 SS), 75.6% (from Streptomyces spp. AtB42) and 66.8% (from B. subtilis M51 PI). In greenhouse trials, with regard to corky root symptoms, all treated plots showed signifycative differences compared to untreated. T. viride gave the better results followed by Streptomyces spp. and then by B. subtilis. The fungus antagonist showed good root surface competence such as demonstrated its persistence on the roots surface of the tomato plants whose roots were treated with T. viride 18/17 SS up to 2 months before.

  3. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiro cultivado em substrato com zeólita Yield and fruit quality of tomato grown in substrate with zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. de Campos Bernardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção e a qualidade dos frutos de tomateiro cv. Finestra, cultivado em substrato com zeólita enriquecida com N, P e K. Os tratamentos utilizados foram quatro doses (20; 40; 80 e 160 g por vaso de zeólitas enriquecidas com H3PO4/apatita, KNO3 e KH2PO4, além de uma testemunha cultivada em solução nutritiva. Foram avaliados a produção de frutos por vaso, firmeza, sólidos totais, pH, acidez titulável e ácido ascórbico dos frutos, dos 80 aos 90 dias de cultivo. O fornecimento de nutrientes através do mineral zeólita enriquecido com N, P e K comprovou ser uma alternativa para o aumento da produção. As maiores produções foram obtidas nos tratamentos com adição de P e K e nas maiores doses de zeólita (160 e 80 g por vaso. A produção de frutos foi 11 a 17% maior em relação à testemunha cultivada com solução nutritiva. Houve efeitos positivos das zeólitas enriquecidas com fontes de fósforo sobre a firmeza e efeito negativo sobre o pH. A firmeza dos frutos variou 104% entre tratamentos, de 7,06 N (ZNK 160 a 14,38 (ZPK 40. O aumento da disponibilidade de potássio contribuiu para o aumento do teor de ácido ascórbico dos frutos.We evaluated yield and quality of tomato fruits, cv. Finestra, grown in a zeolite substrate enriched with N, P and K. Treatments comprised four levels (20; 40; 80 and 160 g per pot of zeolite enriched with H3PO4/apatite, KNO3 and KH2PO4, and a control grown in a nutrient solution. Fruit production, firmness, total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were evaluated from 80 to 90 days of plant cultivation. Nutrients supplied through the mineral zeolite enriched with N, P and K was an adequate alternative to increase the production. Higher fruit production was obtained with addition of P and K and higher zeolite dosis (160 and 80 g per pot. Fruit production was 11% and 17% higher when compared to the plants grown in nutritive solution (check treatment. Positive effects

  5. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  6. Produtividade do morangueiro em função da adubação orgânica complementar em cultivo protegido / Strawberry yield under supplementary organic fertilization in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produtividade, a emissão de estolhos e o teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos de morangueiro, em função da adubação com esterco de bovino complementar à adubação química, em cultivo protegido, na região Centro-Sul do Paraná. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições, com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, compreendendo quatro cultivares (Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie, Dover e Camarosa e quatro doses de adubação orgânica com esterco (0, 30, 60 e 90 t ha-1. As cultivares Camarosa e Oso Grande tiveram incremento na produtividade com as doses intermediárias, mas reduziram sua produção na dose máxima. A produtividade da cultivar Dover foi reduzida linearmente com o aumento das doses, provavelmente devido ao aumento no número de estolhos emitidos. A cultivar Sweet Charlie não apresentou resposta em produtividade. Os teores de sólidos solúveis totais dos frutos de Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande foram influenciados pela adubação orgânica.AbstractThe study aimed to evaluate the yield of strawberry, the issuance of stolons and soluble solids contents of fruits, in dependence on organic fertilization with cattle manure to supplement chemical fertilizer, in greenhouse, in South-Central region of Paraná State. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications, with treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial, with four cultivars (Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie, Camarosa and Dover and four doses of cattle manure (0, 30, 60 and 90 t ha-1. The cultivars Oso Grande and Camarosa had increased the yield with the intermediate doses, but reduced yield at the maximum dose. The yield of Dover was reduced linearly with increasing dose, probably due to the increasing number of stolons. The cultivar Sweet Charlie did not respond in yield. The contents of total soluble solids of the fruits of Oso Grande and Sweet Charlie were

  7. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tomatoes. (a) Identity—(1) Description. (i) Canned tomatoes is the food prepared from mature tomatoes...). Without shifting the tomatoes, so incline the sieve as to facilitate drainage of the liquid. Two minutes...

  8. Energy saving potential of long-term climate adaptive greenhouse shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C.; Costola, D.; Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes yearly and monthly optimization of greenhouse shells. Simulations adopt a validated building energy simulation program, adapted and re-validated for simulation of commercial greenhouses, including a tomato crop model. The work focuses on multi-objective optimization of thermal

  9. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Xiaobo [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1030, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S9H 3X2 (Canada); Li, Yu' e, E-mail: liyue@caas.cn [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Hong [Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 1030, Swift Current, Saskatchewan S9H 3X2 (Canada); Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, No.12 Zhongguancun South Street, Haidian district, Beijing 100081 (China); Fan, Fenliang [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liao, Yulin [Soils and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha 410125 (China)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC1), application of 10 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC2), application of 10 t ha{sup −} {sup 1} biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400 kg ha{sup −} {sup 1}(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400 kg ha{sup −} {sup 1}(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH{sub 4}) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH{sub 4} flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p < 0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20 t ha{sup −} {sup 1}) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. - Graphical abstract: Relative change ratio of different biochar amendments and rice straw residues to CK treatment during the

  10. Long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions in a rice paddy cropping system: A four-year case study in south China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Xiaobo; Li, Yu'e; Wang, Hong; Liu, Chong; Li, Jianling; Wan, Yunfan; Gao, Qingzhu; Fan, Fenliang; Liao, Yulin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate long-term effect of biochar application on yield-scaled greenhouse gas emissions (YSGE) in a paddy rice cropping system, a 4-year field experiment by static chamber - gas chromatograph method was conducted in South China. Principal component analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time qPCR was used to unravel the microbial mechanisms of biochar addition. Six treatments were included: control (CK), application of 5 t ha"− "1 biochar (BC1), application of 10 t ha"− "1 biochar (BC2), application of 10 t ha"− "1 biochar (BC3), rice straw return at 2400 kg ha"− "1(RS) and inoculated rice straw return at 2400 kg ha"− "1(RI). The results indicated that biochar amendment significantly decreased methane (CH_4) and gross greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This may primarily be ascribed to the stimulated biodiversity and abundance of methanotrophic microbes, increased soil pH and improved aeration by reducing bulk density after biochar incorporation. Compared with CK, RS and RI, 26.18%, 70.02%, 66.47% of CH_4 flux and 26.14%, 70.16%, 66.46% of gross GHG emissions were reduced by biochar (mean of three biochar treatments), respectively. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased harvest index of double rice production (p < 0.05). In comparison with CK, RS and RI, 29.14%, 68.04%, 62.28% of YSGE was reduced by biochar, respectively, and the highest biochar addition rate (20 t ha"− "1) contributed most to the mitigation of GHG emissions (36.24% decrease compared to CK) and improvement of rice yield (7.65% increase compared to CK). Results of our study suggested that long-term application of biochar should be the potential way to mitigate GHGs emissions and simultaneously improve rice productivity in the paddy rice system. - Graphical abstract: Relative change ratio of different biochar amendments and rice straw residues to CK treatment during the rice growing seasons from 2012 to 2015. * and *** stand for

  11. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  12. Sugarcane agricultural-industrial facilities and greenhouses integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andres da [Estufas Agricolas Comercio e Assessoria Ltda. (EACEA), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches Brazilian greenhouse market and technology, food market trends, integration of bioethanol distilleries with GH production, recovering CO{sub 2} from fermentation process, recovering low temperature energy, using vinasse and bagasse in GH processes, examples of integrated GH in the world, a tomato integrated GH study case, and a business model.

  13. Evaluation of gypsum rates on greenhouse crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was to determine the potential of an added value distribution channel for gypsum waste by evaluating various greenhouse crops with captious pH and calcium needs. Three studies consisting of: Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida); tomato (Solanum lycoper...

  14. Soil amendment with chopped or ground dry leaves of six species of plants for the control of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato under greenhouse conditions Incorporação ao solo de folhas secas picadas ou moídas de seis espécies de plantas para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaldo Antônio Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with chopped (1cm² or ground (1mm sieve dry leaves of assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, lemon-grass (Cymbopogon citratus, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora, castor (Ricinus communis, mango (Mangifera indica or neem (Azadirachta indica for the control Meloidogyne javanica. Into the soil (Yellow red oxisol of each pot were added leaves (5g kg-1 of soil and 5,000 eggs of the nematode. After seven days, one tomato seedling "Santa Cruz Kada" was transplanted to each pot. The tomato root weight, galls and eggs/root system were determined 60 days after transplant. None of the soil amendments reduced gall or eggs, when applied as leaf pieces. However, all tested plant species reduced the gall number, when they were incorporated into the soil as powder, and maximum nematode suppression occurred in soil amended with neem leaves (61%. The amendment with ground leaves of castor, neem, eucalyptus and lemon-grass reduced the number of eggs, with maximum reduction occurring in soil amended with ground castor leaves (69%, evidencing that these organic amendments can be an alternative for M. javanica control in tomato. Further studies are required under field conditions to confirm the potential of these organic amendments on the control of M. javanica.Experimentos em casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição ao solo de folhas secas picadas (1cm² ou trituradas (peneira de 1mm de assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora, mamona (Ricinus communis, manga (Mangifera indica ou nim (Azadirachta indica para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica. Ao solo de cada vaso (latossolo vermelho-amarelo, foram adicionadas folhas (5g kg-1 de solo e 5.000 ovos do nematoide. Após sete dias, uma muda de tomateiro "Santa Cruz Kada" foi transplantada em cada vaso. O peso das raízes e os números de galhas e

  15. Variation among volatile profiles induced by Botrytis cinerea infection of tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, R.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Botrytis blight caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea is probably the most common disease of greenhouse-grown crops like tomato. Botrytis blight in tomato plants is mainly detected by visual inspection or destructive biochemical and molecular determinations. These methods are time consuming and not suitable for large sample sizes. In contrast we propose a fast and non-destructive detection method for plant diagnosis using volatiles as an early indicator of plant diseases. This report presents...

  16. The impact of an extreme climatic disturbance and different fertilization treatments on plant development, phenology, and yield of two cultivar groups of Solanum betaceum Cav.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffre V Tandazo-Yunga

    Full Text Available Changing climatic conditions impose a challenge both to biodiversity and food security. The effects of climate change affect different aspects of the plant or crop, such as morphological and phenological aspects, as well as yield. The effects of greenhouse conditions might be comparable in some cases to a permanent extreme disturbance in climate and weather, thus, contributing to our knowledge on climate change impacts on plant species. We have investigated the differences for 23 traits in two cultivar groups of an Andean traditional crop, Solanum betaceum, under two different environmental conditions that correspond to the traditional practices in the open field and three cultural managements under greenhouse conditions (no fertilization or control, organic, and mineral. We found that traditional practices in the open field are the less productive. Moreover, in warmer and drier conditions the treatment with organic fertilization was the most productive. Greenhouse conditions, however, delay production. We further identified traits that differentiate both cultivar groups and traits that are linked to either the new climate conditions or the fertilization treatments. Fruit characteristics were quite homogeneous between the two cultivar groups. Overall, our results provide insight on the consequences that climate change effects might exert on crops such as tree tomato, reveal that greenhouses can be a robust alternative for tree tomato production, and highlight the need to understand how different managements are linked to different solutions to fulfil the farmers' demands.

  17. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide. Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato against two common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to both root-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eight in globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’, ‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  18. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide.Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato againsttwo common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to bothroot-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eightin globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’,‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  19. Water levels and soil mulches in relation to strawberry diseases an yield in a greenhouse Irrigação e cobertura do solo em relação à sanidade e produtividade do morangueiro sob estufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia de Matos Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of diseases and its influence on strawberry yield in a greenhouse as well as its association with water management are still not well known. So, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different water levels and soil mulches on strawberry plant health and yield in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out at Atibaia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from April to December 1995. The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial, in randomized blocks, with five replications, and consisted of two soil mulches and three water levels. The soil mulches consisted of clear or black plastic. Trickle irrigation was applied whenever the soil water potential reached -10, -35 and -70 kPa at a depth of ten centimeters. Cultivar Campinas IAC 2712 was used. Plants grown at a soil water potential of -10 and -35 kPa, with clear plastic mulch provided the best yields. A linear function fitted well considering total yield data and irrigation depths. The equation was y = -233.54 + 1.56x (R² = 0.78. The irrigation level of -70 kPa and the use of black plastic favored a greater incidence of soil-borne diseases late in the harvest season.A influência de doenças na produtividade do morangueiro cultivado em estufa, bem como sua associação com o manejo da irrigação é pouco conhecida. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de água e coberturas do solo na sanidade e produtividade do morangueiro, sob ambiente protegido. O experimento foi realizado em Atibaia, estado de São Paulo, Brasil, de abril a dezembro de 1995. O delineamento utilizado foi o fatorial 2 × 3, em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, sendo estudados duas coberturas do solo (plástico transparente e preto e três níveis de água. A irrigação, por gotejamento, foi aplicada quando o potencial de água no solo alcançava -10, -35 e -70 kPa à profundidade de dez centímetros. A cultivar utilizada foi a Campinas IAC 2712

  20. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or .... stored at -20°C. Enzymatic in vitro synthesis of radiolabeled ..... with nematicidal activity from Culture of basidiomycetes.

  1. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  2. Biogenic versus abiogenic emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands and options for emission control in tomato cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluimers, J.C.; Kroeze, C.; Bakker, E.J.; Challa, H.; Hordijk, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, present-day emissions of greenhouse gases and acidifying compounds from agriculture are analysed at the farm level. Quantitative estimates are given for these emissions from three nested systems in the Netherlands: the agricultural sector, greenhouse horticulture, and tomato

  3. Fertirrigação com água salina e seus efeitos na produção do pepino enxertado cultivado em ambiente protegido Fertigation with saline water and its effects on yield of greenhouse grafted cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F. Blanco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de fertilizantes via água de irrigação nos cultivos protegidos, bem como a utilização de água subterrânea com alta concentração salina, tem resultado no aumento da salinidade do solo, ocasionando perdas de produtividade. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a produção da cultura do pepino enxertado, cultivado em ambiente protegido, quando irrigado com águas de diferentes condutividades elétricas (S1=1,54; S2=3,10 e S3=5,20 dS.m-1 e duas lâminas de irrigação associadas às suas freqüências de aplicação (L0=1,00.ETc; L1F1=1,25.ETc em todas as irrigações e L1F2=1,25.ETc quando a lâmina de água de irrigação acumulada em L0 atingia 100 mm, sendo ETc a evapotranspiração da cultura. O ensaio foi conduzido em blocos casualizados com três repetições e os fatores foram arranjados no esquema fatorial 3x3. O número de frutos comerciais por planta reduziu linearmente com o aumento da salinidade, enquanto a produção total e comercial, bem como o número total de frutos por planta e a produção de matéria seca de frutos não foram afetados significativamente pela salinidade, embora todas as características tenham apresentado tendência de redução com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. As diferentes lâminas de irrigação não foram suficientes para reduzir os efeitos do estresse salino, independente das suas freqüências de aplicação.Fertiliser application through irrigation water in greenhouse crops, as well as the use of groundwater with high salt concentration, has been the cause of increasing soil salinity, leading to an expressive yield reduction. The yield of grafted cucumber in greenhouse when irrigated with waters of different electrical conductivity was evaluated (S1=1.54; S2=3.10 and S3=5.20 dS.m-1 and two irrigation water depths associated to their application frequencies (L0=1.00.ETc; L1F1=1.25.ETc in all irrigation and L1F2=1.25.ETc when the irrigation water depth of L0

  4. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  5. Evaluation of tomato genotypes for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most popular vegetable crops worldwide, owing to its high nutritive value and diversified use. Tomato production in Ghana is threatened by plant parasitic nematodes, especially the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), which are responsible for huge economic yield losses.

  6. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aflitos, S.A.; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Ridder, de D.; Smit, S.; Finkers, H.J.; Bakker, F.T.; Geest, van de H.C.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Haarst, van J.C.; Smits, L.W.M.; Koops, A.J.; Sanchez-Perez, M.J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Visser, R.G.F.; Schranz, M.E.; Peters, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative for the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon, and Neolycopersicon groups which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new

  7. Exploring genetic variation in the tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) clade by whole-genome sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aflitos, S.; Schijlen, E.; de Jong, H.; de Ridder, D.; Smit, S.; Finkers, R.; Wang, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, N.; Mao, L.; Bakker, F.; Dirks, R.; Breit, T.; Gravendeel, B.; Huits, H.; Struss, D.; Swanson-Wagner, R.; van Leeuwen, H.; van Ham, R.C.H.J.; Fito, L.; Guignier, L.; Sevilla, M.; Ellul, P.; Ganko, E.; Kapur, A.; Reclus, E.; de Geus, B.; van de Geest, H.; te Lintel Hekkert, B.; van Haarst, J.; Smits, L.; Koops, A.; Sanchez-Perez, G.; van Heusden, A.W.; Visser, R.; Quan, Z.; Min, J.; Liao, L.; Wang, X.; Wang, G.; Yue, Z.; Yang, X.; Xu, N.; Schranz, E.; Smets, E.; Vos, R.; Rauwerda, J.; Ursem, R.; Schuit, C.; Kerns, M.; van den Berg, J.; Vriezen, W.; Janssen, A.; Datema, E.; Jahrman, T.; Moquet, F.; Bonnet, J.; Peters, S.

    2014-01-01

    We explored genetic variation by sequencing a selection of 84 tomato accessions and related wild species representative of the Lycopersicon, Arcanum, Eriopersicon and Neolycopersicon groups, which has yielded a huge amount of precious data on sequence diversity in the tomato clade. Three new

  8. The role of natural antibiotics in storage diseases resistance in irradiated tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaway, N.S.M.

    1981-01-01

    Tomato (lycopersicum esculantum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops in egypt. Fruit rot, mainly due to fungi, are essential obstacles facing the nowadays prejects plannings of the yield production and exportation. Tomato fruits, variety money maker at green mature exposed to acute gamma irradiation doses at 5, 10, 20, 30 and 100 K rad after inoculated with spore suspension of alternaria tenuis , the main casual organism of fruit rot of tomato and control without inoculation. The source of irradiation was cobalt 60. After irradiation , 50 tomato fruits were packed into exporting carton boxes and then were stored at room temperature

  9. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar eSchwarz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape and colour. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar Heinz 1706 (≈900 Mb and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8-16 hours. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10-35°C, relative humidity 30-90 % and CO2 concentration 200-1500 µmol mol-1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners.

  11. Guidelines to use tomato in experiments with a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Dietmar; Thompson, Andrew J.; Kläring, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the most important horticultural crop worldwide. Low polymorphism at the DNA level conflicts with the wealth of morphological variation. Fruits vary widely in size, shape, and color. In contrast, genetic variation between the 16 wild relatives is tremendous. Several large seed banks provide tomato germplasm for both domesticated and wild accessions of tomato. Recently, the genomes of the inbred cultivar “Heinz 1706” (≈900 Mb), and S. pimpinellifolium (739 Mb) were sequenced. Genomic markers and genome re-sequencing data are available for >150 cultivars and accessions. Transformation of tomato is relatively easy and T-DNA insertion line collections are available. Tomato is widely used as a model crop for fruit development but also for diverse physiological, cellular, biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies. It can be easily grown in greenhouses or growth chambers. Plants grow, flower, and develop fruits well at daily light lengths between 8 and 16 h. The required daily light integral of an experiment depends on growth stage and temperature investigated. Temperature must be 10–35°C, relative humidity 30–90%, and, CO2 concentration 200–1500 μmol mol−1. Temperature determines the speed of the phenological development while daily light integral and CO2 concentration affect photosynthesis and biomass production. Seed to seed cultivation takes 100 days at 20°C and can be shortened or delayed by temperature. Tomato may be cultivated in soil, substrates, or aeroponically without any substrate. Root volume, and water uptake requirements are primarily determined by transpiration demands of the plants. Many nutrient supply recipes and strategies are available to ensure sufficient supply as well as specific nutrient deficits/surplus. Using appropriate cultivation techniques makes tomato a convenient model plant for researchers, even for beginners. PMID:25477888

  12. Computational fluid dynamics in greenhouses: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... reduce environmental impact while enhancing crop qua- lity and yields .... within a mild climate, appropriate design and control of ventilation are required .... crucial parameter in the pattern of internal greenhouse temperatures ...

  13. Nitrogen use efficiencies of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as affected by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.; Besiroglu, A.

    1996-01-01

    This greenhouse study conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an unheated plastic greenhouse was designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and peppers (Capsicum annum) to four nitrogen levels continually applied with irrigation stream. Water containing 0,67,134 or 201 mgN/l and uniformly supplied with 80 and 240 mg/l of P and K, respectively, were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N 15 labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). For each plant the amount of water, P, K and the N 15 applied through the bottles was to that amount applied through a single dripper. In addition to the fertigation soil application of 400 kgN/ha was included with three adjacent plants in each plot were fertilized receiving N 15 labeled (3.3 % a.e. enrichment) The total amount of water applied was 392 mm and the resulting N application totals ranged from 200 to 600 kgN/ha. According to the results obtained, the maximum yield of tomatoes and peppers were achieved with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha) treatment. The percentage fertilizer utilization by tomatoes was highest with 67 mgN/l (200 kgN/ha), which was followed by 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) .The percentage fertilizer utilization was the lowest with 201 mgN/l (600 kgN/ha) or soil application (400 kgN/ha). The results indicated that the percentage fertilizer utilization of tomatoes was significantly greater by the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha). The fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with 134 mgN/l (400 kgN/ha) than the other applications. The results indicated that although the percentage fertilizer utilization was the same, the fertilizer N uptake by peppers was significantly greater with the fertigation than the soil application of N at the same level fertilization (400 kgN/ha)

  14. Holistic greenhouse gas management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P. [Dept. of Applied and International Economics, Massey Univ. (New Zealand); Parshotam, A. [Inst. of Fundamental Sciences, Massey Univ. (New Zealand)

    2005-07-01

    A holistic greenhouse gas management strategy is described. The first stage is the growth of a large-scale global bio-energy market with world trade in bio-fuels and with a strategic stock of biomass raw material in new plantation forests. Later stages, more costly - as needs may be in response to possible future precursors of abrupt climate change - would involve linking CO2 capture and sequestration to bio-energy, yielding a negative emissions energy system. Illustrative calculations point to the feasibility of a return to pre-industrial CO{sub 2} levels before mid-century. This result is subject to significant caveats, but, prima facie, the first stage can provide several environmental and socio-economic side-benefits while yielding a positive financial return if oil prices remain above 35$/bbl. The vision is that the polluter pays principle can be turned to a greening of the earth. (orig.)

  15. A targeted management of the nutrient solution in a soilless tomato crop according to plant needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo eSignore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of closed soilless systems is useful in minimizing the environmental impact of the greenhouse crops. Instead, a significant problem in closed soilless systems is represented by the accumulation of ions in the recycled nutrient solution, in particular the unabsorbed or poorly absorbed ones. To overcome such problem, we: 1 studied the effect of several values of the electrical conductivity (EC of nutrient solution in a NFT (Nutrient Film Technique system on a cherry type tomato crop, and 2 define a NS (called recovery solution, based on the concept of uptake concentration and transpiration-biomass ratio, that fits the real needs of the plant with respect to water and nutrients. Three levels of EC set point (SP, above which the NS was completely replaced (SP5, SP7.5, and SP10 for the EC limit of 5, 7.5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were established. The SP10 treatment yield was not different from other treatments, and it allowed a better quality of the berries (for dry matter and total soluble solids and higher environmental sustainability due to a lower discharge of total nutrients into the environment (37 and 59% with respect to SP7.5 and SP5, respectively.The recovery solution used in the second trial allowed a more punctual NS management, by adapting to the real needs of the crop. Moreover, it allowed a lesser amount of water and nutrients to be discharged into the environment and a better use of brackish water, due to a more accurate management of the EC of the NS. The targeted management, based on transpiration-biomass ratio, indicates that, in some stages of the plant cycle, the nutrient solution used can be diluted, in order to save water and nutrients. With such management a closed cycle can be realized without affecting the yield, but improving the quality of the tomato berries.

  16. ORANGE VARIETY OF RUFIN AND PROSPECTS OF ITS UTILIZATION IN SELECTION PROGRAMS FOR THE CREATION OF NEW FORMS OF TOMATOES FOR PROTECTED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pinchuk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Priority directions in tomato breeding for protected ground remain stable productivity ness and quality of fruit, early ripeness, resistant to the most harmful diseases. Creating such varieties is a required component of ecological agriculture. Recently, the demand of appropriate species increases and hybrids of tomato with different colouring of the fruit, which is determined by the contents of xanthophylls and various carotenoids (lycopene, β-carotene, lutein, etc. with antioxidant properties. According to the state program of research for 2000-2010, the staff of the laboratory of gamete and molecular methods of selection of Federal Scientific Vegetable Center created orange early crop variety Rufina for greenhouses. The article describes the brief history of its creation and characterization on major valuable features. Tomato cultivar Rufina is a source of economically useful traits: early ripeness, resistant to abiotic and biotic stresses, yield, palatability and nutritional value of fruits. Therefore, at present it is used when creating new forms of tomato, adapted to the conditions of various modern technologies protected ground - low-volume cultivation and multi-level narrow column hydroponics (MUG. A perspective starting material was received. These are five productive selection forms for the low-volume technology, haracterized by early ripeness (the beginning of harvesting on the 50-70 day of sowing, the weight of the fruit from 90 to 130 g, resistance to apical rot. For a MUG - two low forms with orange fruits weighing more than 30 grams, created as a result of hybridization with determinants of dwarfish redplant varieties Natasha.

  17. The deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 又四; 寺下, 隆夫

    1988-01-01

    [Author abstract]Deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits is generally thought to be caused by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue of apparently healthy fruit. Counts of viable airborne microorganisms showed that there were more in plastic greenhouses than in open culure of tomatoes. Altemaria, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Pseudomonas were among t...

  18. Solar radiation availability for tomato cropping during winter in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefanel, V.; Buriol, G.A.; Andriolo, J.L.; Lima, C.P.; Luzzi, N.

    1998-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of days with solar radiation bellow the critical value for the development of tomato inside greenhouse in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, were calculated during May, June, July and August. It was considered the flue density of solar radiation of 200 cal cm -2 dia -1 as the lowest value to tomato growth and 180 cal cm -2 dia -1 as the low value reference of solar radiation for crop growth. Daily values of solar radiation were estimated by sunshine duration during the time period from 1912 to 1996. Results showed that the availability of solar radiation in Santa Maria was lower than the required by tomato crop inside plastic greenhouse during Winter, mainly in June and July. (author) [pt

  19. Investigating the Tolerance of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Cultivars to Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers in Khorassan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafarian,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the tolerance of tomato cultivars to Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca pers., an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 11 treatments and 3 replications in mazrae Nemoune Astan Quds Razavi in Mashhad, Iran, 2012. Treatment were 11 varieties (Peto early CH, Sterling (Karon, Khorram, Petorak, DNP 3005, PS 6515, SPEEDY, IDEN, VADI STAR, FIRINZEH and DNP 3001 which were transplanted in the field along with broomrape. Sampling was done at two stages: 1- after appearance and establishment of broomrape on tomato root where the dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and tomato dry weight were measured and 2- at the end of growing season where tomato fruit weight and its yield were determined. Result indicated that Sterling and Khorram cultivars did have the least broomrape dry weight, stem number and node numbers of broomrape on tomato root and while produced highest plant dry weight, fruit and yield as compared to the other cultivars. Thus, may be considered as tolerant cultivars. Petorak and DNP 3001 on the other hand, presented the most broomrape dry weight, stem number and node number on tomato root. However, Petorak, Peto early CH and FIRINZEH cultivars produced the least plant weight, fruit and yield and thus, they can be called the sensitive cultivars. DNP 3001 being highly attacked by broomrape produced increased fruit yield and therefore compensated its ill effects.

  20. Productive variability, border use and plot size in trials with cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Knowing the productive variability within protected environments is crucial for choosing the experimental design to be used in that conditions. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the variability of fruit production in protected environment cultivated with cherry tomatoes and to verify the border effect and plot size in reducing this variability. To this, data from an uniformity test carried out in a greenhouse with cherry tomato cv. ‘Lili’ were used. Total fresh mass of fruits per plant was considered being these plants arranged in cropping rows parallel to the lateral openings of the greenhouse and also the same plants arranged in columns perpendicular to these openings. To generate the borders, different scenarios were designed by excluding rows and columns and using different plot sizes. In each scenario, homogeneity of variances among the remaining rows and columns was tested. There is no variability of fruit production among rows or columns in trials with cherry tomatoes carried out in greenhouses and the use of border does not bring benefits in terms of reduction of coefficient of variation or reduction of cases of variance heterogeneity among rows or columns. Plots with a size equal to or greater than two plants make possible to use the completely randomized design in the cherry tomato trials in greenhouses.

  1. Genetic diversity of tomato-infecting Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) isolates in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sue Hoon; Oh, Sung; Oh, Tae-Kyun; Park, Jae Sung; Kim, Sei Chang; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Sim, Sang-Yun; Park, Kwon Seo; Lee, Hwan Gu; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Chang Won

    2011-02-01

    Epidemic outbreaks of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) diseases occurred in greenhouse grown tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants of Busan (TYLCV-Bus), Boseong (TYLCV-Bos), Hwaseong (TYLCV-Hwas), Jeju Island (TYLCV-Jeju), and Nonsan (TYLCV-Nons) in Korea during 2008-2009. Tomato disease by TYLCV has never occurred in Korea before. We synthesized the full-length genomes of each TYLCV isolate from the tomato plants collected at each area and determined their nucleotides (nt) sequences and deduced the amino acids of six open reading frames in the genomes. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos genomes shared higher nt identities with four Japanese isolates -Ng, -Omu, -Mis, and -Miy. On the other hand, TYLCV-Hwas, -Jeju, and -Nons genomes shared higher nt identities with five Chinese isolates TYLCV-AH1, -ZJ3, -ZJHZ12, -SH2, -Sh10, and two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa. On the basis of a neighbor-joining tree, five Korean TYLCV isolates were separated into three clades. TYLCV-Bus and -Bos formed the first clade, clustering with four Japanese isolates TYLCV-Mis, -Omu, -Ng, and -Miy. TYLCV-Jeju and -Nons formed the second clade, clustering with two Chinese isolates -ZJHZ212 and -Sh10. TYLCV-Hwas was clustered with two Japanese isolates -Han and -Tosa and three Chinese isolates -AH1, -ZJ3, and -SH2. Two fragments that had a potentially recombinant origin were identified using the RDP, GENECONV, BootScan, MaxChi, Chimaera, SiScan, and 3Seq methods implemented in RDP3.41. On the basis of RDP analysis, all TYLCV isolates could originated from the interspecies recombination between TYLCV-Mld[PT] isolated from Portugal as a major parent and TYLCTHV-MM isolated from Myanmar as a minor parent.

  2. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adam

    Full Text Available The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  3. Bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens also control root-knot nematodes by induced systemic resistance of tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such "multi-purpose" bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses.

  4. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  5. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  6. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  7. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  8. Organic fertilization in cherry tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is highly demanding with regard to mineral nutrients. The use of animal manure shows to be an efficient and sustainable fertilization way for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of cattle manure in the vegetative and reproductive growth of cherry tomato. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Plant Science Department of Universidade Federal de Vicosa, using a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and 4 replications, besides 1 control treatment using chemical fertilizer as a source of NPK. After 45 days from the beginning of the experiment, the number of leaves, flowers, and fruits, the dry mass of leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, and roots, the stem length, and the root volume were evaluated. The nutrient content in leaves, stem, and roots was also evaluated. Plants grown with chemical fertilizer obtained a lower average for all phytotechnical variables analyzed. The number of leaves and fruits, and the production of dry matter of leaves, fruits, and stems showed an upward linear response with an increase in manure doses. The Ca, Mg, and S leaf contents were higher in the treatment with chemical fertilization.

  9. Effect of a Bacterial Grass Culture on the Plant Growth and Disease Control in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Seong Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the plant growth-promoting and biocontrol potential of a grass culture with Paenibacillus ehimensis KWN8 on tomato. For this experiment, treatments of a chemical fertilizer (F, a bacterial grass culture (G, a 1/3 volume of G plus 2/3 F (GF, and F plus a synthetic fungicide (FSf were applied to tomato leaves and roots. The result showed that the severity of Alternariasolani and Botrytiscinerea symptoms were significantly reduced after the application of the bacterial grass culture (G and GF and FSf. In addition, root mortality in G and GF was lower compared to F. Tomato plants treated with G or GF had better vegetative growth and yield compared to F. Application of G affected the fungal and bacterial populations in the soil. In conclusion, treatment with a bacterial grass culture decreased disease severity and increased tomato growth parameters. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between disease occurrence and tomato yields. This experiment presents the possibility to manage diseases of tomato in an environmentally friendly manner and to also increase the yield of tomato by using a grass culture broth containing P. ehimensis KWN38.

  10. Mutation effect of ion implantation on tomato breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Baoshan; Ling Haiqiu; Mao Peihong; Jin Xiang; Zeng Xianxian

    2003-01-01

    The mutation effects of N + ion implantation on cultivated tomato, Catchup type and Eatable type were studied. The result show that the mutation ranges of single-fruit weight and fruit number per plant were increased and their mutation frequencies were high, however the effect of ion implantation on germination rate of seed and quality of fruit was very weak. Using doses of 4 x 10 16 and 6 x 10 16 N + /cm 2 , the yield was greatly improved. The optimum mutation dosage was slightly different for seed of 2 tomato lines

  11. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  12. Effect of aluminum treatment on proteomes of radicles of seeds derived from Al-treated tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint to plant growth and crop yield in acid soils. Tomato cultivars are especially susceptible to excessive A1 3+ accumulated in the root zone. In this study, tomato plants were grown in a hydroponic culture system supplemented with 50 uM AlK(SO4)2. Seeds harv...

  13. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  14. Comparative energy input–output and financial analyses of greenhouse and open field vegetables production in West Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswardhani, Nita; Soni, Peeyush; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates energy consumption per unit floor area of greenhouse and open field for tomato, chili and lettuce production. Primary data were collected from 530 vegetable farmers during Jan–Dec, 2010 in West Java, Indonesia. Energy estimates were calculated from actual amount of inputs and outputs and corresponding conversion factors. Results reveal that the total input energy used in greenhouse (GH) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 47.62, 41.55, 58.84, and 24.54 GJ/ha respectively. Whereas, the requirement of total input energy for open field (OF) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 49.01, 41.04, 57.94 and 23.87 GJ/ha, respectively. The ratio of output to input energy was higher in greenhouse production (0.85, 0.45 and 0.49) than open field vegetable production (0.52, 0.175 and 0.186) for tomato, chili medium land and chili highland, respectively, but output–input ratio of lettuce open field production was twice as that of greenhouse vegetable production. Financial analysis revealed higher mean net returns from greenhouse vegetable production as 7043 $/ha (922–15,299 $/ha) when compared to 571 $/ha (44–1172 $/ha) from open field vegetable production. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation was the most profitable in terms of energy efficiency and financial productivity. - Highlights: ► Energy input–output analysis is carried out to compare vegetables production in greenhouse and open field. ► Tomato, Chili and Lettuce production in West Java, Indonesia. ► Economic analysis is conducted to compare the two production systems

  15. Impact of substrate on soilless tomato cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Suvo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four different media based hydroponics on plant growth, yield and nutritional values at Biochemistry laboratory of Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU, Bangladesh during November 2014 to April 2015. Tomato plants were grown in closed soilless system where Hoagland solution as nutrient solution and jute fiber, cotton (jhut, coconut husk as substrate. Among four types of media, the media composed with Hoagland solution and jute fiber showed good impact on growth and nutritional values than the other three media (media of Hoagland solution with coconut husk, Hoagland solution with cotton and only Hoagland solution. It was revealed that the highest plant height, yield, vitamin C, fruit protein, fat and fiber content of all were related to media combination of jute fiber and Hoagland solution. Among all the verities, the highest plant height (106 cm, yield (5.3 kg plant-1, fruit Vitamin C content (64.54 mg 100 g-1, fruit protein (17.67 %, fat (5.2% and fiber (7.9% content was recorded from Patharkuchi tomato variety.

  16. Influence of Inter and Intra-rows Spacing on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abyssinia

    yield and yield components of fresh market(Bishola) and processing (Cochoro) tomato cultivars. ... row spacing had a significant effect on plan canopy width, above ground dry biomass, ... Poor varietal performance and management practices that includeinter and intra-row spacing ..... of assimilate export from the leaves.

  17. Desenvolvimento do tomateiro e modificações nas propriedades químicas do solo em função da aplicação de resíduos orgânicos, sob cultivo protegido Development of tomato and changes in soil properties with organic materials application in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C. Mello

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido de fevereiro a agosto de 1997 no município de Piracicaba (SP, a fim de avaliar os efeitos de doses e resíduos orgânicos no desenvolvimento do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cultivado em estufa e nos atributos químicos de um solo Podzólico vermelho-amarelo abrupto, A moderado, textura arenosa/média. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 3 x 4, sendo usados três resíduos orgânicos [composto de lodo de cervejaria e cavaco de eucalipto (CLC, composto de lixo (CL e cama de frango (CF] e quatro doses equivalentes a 0; 100; 150 e 200 kg ha-1 de N, com quatro repetições. A produção de frutos de tomate não aumentou com a adição dos materiais orgânicos. A aplicação de CF reduziu o pH e o teor de Mg no solo. As doses do CLC elevaram o conteúdo de matéria orgânica, o teor de cálcio trocável e a capacidade de troca de cátions do solo. O CL, por sua vez, não alterou as propriedades químicas do solo.An experiment was carried out between February and August/97 to evaluate the effects of different organic wastes on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill plants and on the chemical properties of an Ultisol soil. The experimental design was of complete randomized blocks with four replicates and treatments disposed in a factorial 3x4: three organic wastes [malt residue and eucalyptus chip compost (CLC, urban solid waste compost (CL and chicken litter (CF] and four rates equivalent to 0; 100; 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of N. The fruit yield did not increase with organic waste additions. CF application decreased the pH and exchange Mg of soil. CLC addition increased the organic matter; exchange Ca and cation exchange capacity of soil. However, CL did not change the soil chemical properties.

  18. Improving carotenoid extraction from tomato waste by pulsed electric fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eLuengo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the influence of the application of Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF of different intensities (3-7 kV/cm and 0-300 μs on the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel and pulp in a mixture of hexane:acetone:ethanol was studied with the aim of increasing extraction yield or reducing the percentage of the less green solvents in the extraction medium. According to the cellular disintegration index, the optimum treatment time for the permeabilization of tomato peel and pulp at different electric field strengths was 90 µs. The PEF permeabilization of tomato pulp did not significantly increase the carotenoid extraction. However, a PEF-treatment at 5 kV/cm improved the carotenoid extraction from tomato peel by 39 % as compared with the control in a mixture of hexane:ethanol:acetone (50:25:25. Further increments of electric field from 5 to 7 kV/cm did not increase significantly the extraction of carotenoids. . The presence of acetone in the solvent mixture did not positively affect the carotenoid extraction when the tomato peels were PEF-treated. Response surface methodology was used to determine the potential of PEF for reducing the percentage of hexane in a hexane:ethanol mixture. The application of a PEF-treatment allowed reducing the hexane percentage from 45 to 30 % without affecting the carotenoid extraction yield. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts obtained from tomato peel was correlated with the carotenoid concentration and it was not affected by the PEF-treatment.

  19. Evaluation of some varieties and breeding lines of tomato (Lycopersison sp) against tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi-Adjei, R.

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate ten (10) tomato varieties and breeding lines against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in Ghana. The research was undertaken at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were evaluated in the field under natural whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. The field trial was done in the dry season from October, 2010 to February, 2011 and wet season from March, 2011 to July, 2011. Plants in the fields and in the cage exhibited varied symptoms such as leaf curling, leaf yellowing and reduced leaf sizes. Assessment of disease incidence and symptom severity using a four point scale (0-4) showed that, in the field there was higher disease incidence in the dry season as compared to the wet season. This was attributed to the higher number of whiteflies in the dry season as demonstrated through a whitefly population survey conducted in the field. Differences among means for disease incidence and whitefly surveys on the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). Wild Tomato (Solanum pimpinellifollium) and two hybrids, Wosowoso x Wild Tomato and Cherry Red x Wild Tomato exhibited signs of resistance in the field and did not show any symptoms of TYLCV disease symptoms. All the commercial varieties were highly susceptible and showed severe symptoms. Evaluation of fruit yield in the field revealed that the commercial variety Tomato Advanta had the heaviest fruit weight (42 g/ fruit) whilst Wosowoso had the highest total fruit yield (5.74 t/ha) in the wet season. Wild Tomato and the hybrids produced higher number of fruits compared to the commercial varieties. There were highly significant differences in the means of number of fruits, fruit weight (g) and total fruit yield (t/ha) among the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines in both the wet and dry seasons

  20. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  1. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids into edible crops via land applied biosolids: Field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in biosolids destined for use in agriculture has raised concerns about their potential to enter the terrestrial food chain via bioaccumulation in edible plants. Uptake of PFAAs by greenhouse lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) and tomato (Lycope...

  2. Effect on Quality Characteristics of Tomatoes Grown Under Well-Watered and Drought Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Warinporn; Savage, Geoffrey

    2017-07-25

    Tomatoes are one of the most nutritionally and economically important crops in New Zealand and around the world. Tomatoes require large amounts of water to grow well and are adversely affected by drought stress. However, few studies have evaluated the physicochemical characteristics of commercial tomatoes grown under water stress conditions. Four tomato cultivars (Incas, Marmande, Scoresby Dwarf, and Window Box Red) were grown in a greenhouse under well-watered and drought stress conditions and the tomatoes were harvested when ripe. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant contents of the fruits were compared. There were significant differences between cultivars in quality characteristics-such as dry matter, total soluble solids, and pH parameters-but there were no differences in the quality characteristics between the two treatments of the fruits ( p > 0.05); however, there were significant differences ( p < 0.05) in the antioxidant compositions (lycopene, total phenolics, and flavonoids) and antioxidant activities (DPPH and ABTS) of the fruits of both cultivars and treatments. Overall, these results indicated that tomatoes increased their bioactive compounds without changing any quality characteristics when exposed to water stress conditions.

  3. The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinggui Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis. This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detached leaves and fruits. In greenhouse experiments, both the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increased concentrations of total chlorophyll. The incidence of tomato gray mold decreased by 46.35%; this was associated with the increase of proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA and the changes in defense-related enzymes on tomato leaves when the strain was sprayed on the tomato leaves 24 h prior to inoculation with pathogens. This study showed that the strain S. pratensis LMM15 could be a potential agent for controlling tomato gray mold.

  4. High speed intelligent classifier of tomatoes by colour, size and weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cement, J.; Novas, N.; Gazquez, J. A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.

    2012-11-01

    At present most horticultural products are classified and marketed according to quality standards, which provide a common language for growers, packers, buyers and consumers. The standardisation of both product and packaging enables greater speed and efficiency in management and marketing. Of all the vegetables grown in greenhouses, tomatoes are predominant in both surface area and tons produced. This paper will present the development and evaluation of a low investment classification system of tomatoes with these objectives: to put it at the service of producing farms and to classify for trading standards. An intelligent classifier of tomatoes has been developed by weight, diameter and colour. This system has optimised the necessary algorithms for data processing in the case of tomatoes, so that productivity is greatly increased, with the use of less expensive and lower performance electronics. The prototype is able to achieve very high speed classification, 12.5 ratings per second, using accessible and low cost commercial equipment for this. It decreases fourfold the manual sorting time and is not sensitive to the variety of tomato classified. This system facilitates the processes of standardisation and quality control, increases the competitiveness of tomato farms and impacts positively on profitability. The automatic classification system described in this work represents a contribution from the economic point of view, as it is profitable for a farm in the short term (less than six months), while the existing systems, can only be used in large trading centers. (Author) 36 refs.

  5. The Biocontrol Efficacy of Streptomyces pratensis LMM15 on Botrytis cinerea in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qinggui; Zhang, Jing; Gan, Liang; Ma, Qing; Zong, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    LMM15, an actinomycete with broad spectrum antifungal activity, was isolated from a diseased tomato leaf using the baiting technique. A phylogenetic tree analysis based on similarity percentage of 16S rDNA sequences showed that the bacterium was 97.0% affiliated with the species Streptomyces pratensis . This strain was therefore coded as S. pratensis LMM15. The ferment filtrate of LMM15 had ability to inhibit mycelia growth of Botrytis cinerea and reduce lesion expansion of gray mold on detached leaves and fruits. In greenhouse experiments, both the fresh and dry weights of tomato seedlings were significantly increased with the increased concentrations of total chlorophyll. The incidence of tomato gray mold decreased by 46.35%; this was associated with the increase of proline content and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the changes in defense-related enzymes on tomato leaves when the strain was sprayed on the tomato leaves 24 h prior to inoculation with pathogens. This study showed that the strain S. pratensis LMM15 could be a potential agent for controlling tomato gray mold.

  6. Phosphorus use efficiency of tomato as influenced by phosphorus and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi inoculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhinakaran, R.; Savithri, P.

    1997-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.var. CO3) grown in red non-calcareous soil (Paralythic Ustochrept) to study the effect of different P treatments involving single superphosphate (SSP) and Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) added at different levels, viz. 100 and 75 kg P 2 O 5 /ha along with and without vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi inoculation. The results revealed that the P application as superphosphate at 100 kg P 2 O 5 /ha significantly increased the yield of tomato but the application of VAM fungi did not have any pronounced effect on tomato yield. The 32 P studies confirmed the increased uptake of P by the plants at higher level of P application. P content and its uptake by tomato fruit increased with the increasing levels of P application and VAM inoculation. The VAM fungi inoculation was also helpful in increasing the fertilizer use efficiency and also per cent P derived from fertilizer. (author)

  7. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  8. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp. for biocontrol of tomato sudden caused by Pythium aphanidermatum following flooding in tropical hot season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H T T; Black, L L; Sikora, R A

    2003-01-01

    Tomato sudden death is a major problem in tomato production in tropical lowland areas. The plant wilts and dies following artificial or natural flooding for 48-72 hrs in the summer season. Occurrence of this disease is related to aggressiveness of Pythium aphanidermatum on tomato at high soil temperature (>30 degrees C). Several methods such as using biological control agents, fungicides and other cultural practices were applied in attempts to control tomato sudden death. Three Trichoderma harzianum and two Trichoderma virens isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of the disease in the greenhouse and in the field T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were separately used to treat the seed, potting medium and also incorporated into the soil before transplanting. Field soil was naturally infested with P. aphanidermatum, while greenhouse soil was inoculated with the pathogen 10 days after transplanting. All treatments were flooded for 48 hrs at 32 degrees C soil temperature. Results from this study show that most tested T. harzianum and T. virens isolates have little promise for control of tomato sudden death following flooding. The percentage of tomato plants that wilted after growing in soil treated with either T. harzianum or T. virens and P. aphanidermatum was not significantly different when compared to the soil treated with P. aphanidermatum alone. No wilted plants were observed in the control (non treated soil).

  9. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidler Conrad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the next 10 to 20 years humankind will return to the Moon and/or travel to Mars. It is likely that astronauts will eventually build permanent settlements there, as a base for long-term crew tended research tasks. It is obvious that the crew of such settlements will need food to survive. With current mission architectures the provision of food for longduration missions away from Earth requires a significant number of resupply flights. Furthermore, it would be infeasible to provide the crew with continuous access to fresh produce, specifically crops with high water content such as tomatoes and peppers, on account of their limited shelf life. A greenhouse as an integrated part of a planetary surface base would be one solution to solve this challenge for long-duration missions. Astronauts could grow their own fresh fruit and vegetables in-situ to be more independent from supply from Earth. This paper presents the results of the design project for such a greenhouse, which was carried out by DLR and its partners within the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program. The consortium performed an extensive system analysis followed by a definition of system and subsystem requirements for greenhouse modules. Over 270 requirements were defined in this process. Afterwards the consortium performed an in-depth analysis of illumination strategies, potential growth accommodations and shapes for the external structure. Five different options for the outer shape were investigated, each of them with a set of possible internal configurations. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the different concept options were evaluated and ranked against each other. The design option with the highest ranking was an inflatable outer structure with a rigid inner core, in which the subsystems are mounted. The inflatable shell is wrapped around the core during launch and transit to the lunar surface. The paper provides an overview of the

  10. Short review of tomato radiostimulation experiments in the Eastern European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.; Pasztor, M.

    1975-01-01

    It may be concluded that radiostimulation of tomatoes between 750 and 1,500 rads was reproducibly successful both in open-field and under-glass cultivation. The effect manifests itself first of all in earliness, but the yield may also be increased in the course of several years. Regarding changes in the direction of improved quality, further studies are required. The tomato appears to be an excellent test plant for the exact manifestation of radiostimulation effects under field conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. The Effect of Potassium Concentration in Nutrient Solution on Lycopene, Vitamin C and Qualitative Characteristics of Cherry Tomato in Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shabani Sangtarashani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K has a special place in improving the quality of agricultural products. To evaluate the effect of K concentration in nutrient solution on lycopene content, vitamin C and qualitative characteristics of cherry tomato in NaCl salinity conditions, an experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications at university of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran, in 2010. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of K (0.2, 2, 7 and 14 mM in nutrient solution with 60 mM NaCl concentration. A nutrient solution treatment without salinity was considered as control. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse, in a hydroponic system. The results indicated that increasing of K concentration increased lycopene content in fruit. Lycopene content in control treatment showed significant difference (P<0.01 in comparison with salinity treatments. With increasing the K concentration (except at 14 mM concentration, vitamin C content was increased, but indicated no statistically significant difference. Vitamin C content in saline conditions was more than control treatment, but showed no significant difference. Adding potassium concentration in nutrient solution improved yield and enhanced quality parameters such as percentage of dry matter, soluble solids and electrical conductivity of fruit extract. Since in saline conditions, the qualitative characteristics of tomato at 7 mM concentration were in the best situation, therefore using this concentration is recommended.

  12. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  13. Evaluation of diel patterns of relative changes in cell turgor of tomato plants using leaf patch clamp pressure probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.M.; Driever, S.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Gelder, de A.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Relative changes in cell turgor of leaves of well-watered tomato plants were evaluated using the leaf patch clamp pressure probe (LPCP) under dynamic greenhouse climate conditions. Leaf patch clamp pressure changes, a measure for relative changes in cell turgor, were monitored at three different

  14. NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 enhances drought tolerance in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.

    2017-06-22

    Water deficit (drought stress) massively restricts plant growth and the yield of crops; reducing the deleterious effects of drought is therefore of high agricultural relevance. Drought triggers diverse cellular processes including the inhibition of photosynthesis, the accumulation of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species, and gene expression reprogramming, besides others. Transcription factors (TF) are central regulators of transcriptional reprogramming and expression of many TF genes is affected by drought, including members of the NAC family. Here, we identify the NAC factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a regulator of drought tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of tomato JUB1 (SlJUB1) is enhanced by various abiotic stresses, including drought. Inhibiting SlJUB1 by virus-induced gene silencing drastically lowers drought tolerance concomitant with an increase in ion leakage, an elevation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels, and a decrease of the expression of various drought-responsive genes. In contrast, overexpression of AtJUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana increases drought tolerance in tomato, alongside with a higher relative leaf water content during drought and reduced H2 O2 levels. AtJUB1 was previously shown to stimulate expression of DREB2A, a TF involved in drought responses, and of the DELLA genes GAI and RGL1. We show here that SlJUB1 similarly controls the expression of the tomato orthologs SlDREB1, SlDREB2, and SlDELLA. Furthermore, AtJUB1 directly binds to the promoters of SlDREB1, SlDREB2 and SlDELLA in tomato. Our study highlights JUB1 as a transcriptional regulator of drought tolerance and suggests considerable conservation of the abiotic stress-related gene regulatory networks controlled by this NAC factor between Arabidopsis and tomato. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  16. Alcobaça allele and genotypic backgrounds affect yield and fruit shelf life of tomato hybrids O alelo alcobaça e o background genotípico afetam a produtividade e a conservação de híbridos de tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Túlio José Mendes Dias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest shelf life of tomato fruit may be increased by deploying mutant alleles which affect the natural ripening process and/or by a favorable genotypic background. Among the several ripening mutant genes, alcobaça (alc has proved to be highly efficient in increasing shelf life of commercial tomato fruits, especially in heterozygosis, a state at which no limiting deleterious effects upon fruit color occur. The effects of heterozygosity in the alcobaça locus (alc+/alc on yield and fruit quality traits of tomato hybrids with three genotypic backgrounds. We evaluated three pairs of hybrids obtained from crosses between the near-isogenic pollen source lines Flora-Dade (alc+/alc+ and TOM-559 (alc/alc, and three maternal lines (Stevens, NC-8276 and Piedmont. The six treatments were factorial combinations of two different status in the alc locus (alc+/alc and alc+/alc+ versus three different genotypic backgrounds (maternal lines. Fruits were harvested at the breaker stage of maturation and stored in shelves at 21ºC for 14 days. Yield and fruit quality traits were then evaluated. Regardless of the background, the alc allele in heterozygosis (alc+/alc did not interfere with the total yield, commercial yield, average mass per fruit, average mass per commercial fruit, fruit shape, or with fruit peduncular scar diameter. The alc+/alc genotype reduced the rate of firmness loss and delayed evolution of the red color of the fruit, thus contributing to an increase of the post-harvest shelf life for all three genotypic backgrounds.A vida de prateleira dos frutos de tomate pode ser extendida, seja empregando-se alelos mutantes que afetam o processo natural de amadurecimento, seja por meio de background genotípico favorável. O alelo alcobaça (alc em heterozigose tem-se mostrado bastante eficiente no sentido de prolongar o período de conservação dos frutos em pós-colheita, sem que ocorra prejuízo na coloração. Avaliaram-se os efeitos do alelo

  17. Investigation of thysanoptera populations in Hungarian greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orosz Szilvia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed on sweet pepper and on weeds in their surroundings from 2005 to 2007 in the Jászság region, on different vegetables and ornamentals from 2015 to 2016 throughout Hungary, and on some indoor ornamental plants in Budapest and Kecskemét in 2017. These studies were carried out in greenhouses. The main objectives of this work was to clarify the consistency of Thysanoptera populations in these greenhouses and, secondly, as part of the official monitoring of Thrips palmi Karny and Thrips setosus Moulton, the study also focused on the first appearance of these pests in Hungary. An important additional aim was to determine which reservoirs were significant in the risk of Thysanoptera species transmitting tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. Regarding the surveys conducted, the most frequent Thysanoptera species present in large numbers during the investigation period in every greenhouse was Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. Also, a significant amount of Echinothrips americanus Morgan was found on ornamentals in southern Hungary, whereas on indoor ornamental plants only Hercinothrips femoralis O. M. Reuter was found.

  18. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  19. Chemical products induce resistance to Xanthomonas perforans in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Terumi Itako

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a very important disease, especially in the hot and humid periods of the year. The chemical control of the disease has not been very effective for a number of reasons. This study aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of leaf-spraying chemicals (acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM (0.025 g.L−1, fluazinam (0.25 g.L−1, pyraclostrobin (0.08 g.L−1, pyraclostrobin + methiran (0.02 g.L−1 + 2.2 g.L−1, copper oxychloride (1.50 g.L−1, mancozeb + copper oxychloride (0.88 g.L−1 + 0.60 g.L−1, and oxytetracycline (0.40 g.L−1 on control of bacterial spot. Tomatoes Santa Clara and Gisele cultivars were pulverized 3 days before inoculation with Xanthomonas perforans. The production of enzymes associated with resistance induction (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease was quantified from leaf samples collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after chemical spraying and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after bacterial inoculation. All products tested controlled bacterial spot, but only ASM, pyraclostrobin, and pyraclostrobin + metiram increased the production of peroxidase in the leaves of the two tomato cultivars, and increased the production of polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase in the Santa Clara cultivar.

  20. Obtaining of Grafted Planting Material at Some Romanian Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Doltu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tomatoes have highest share in Romanian crops from protected spaces (greenhouses, solariums. The grafting is an agronomical technique that induces or improves some qualities of the tomato cultivars (resistance to soil diseases and pests, resistance to abiotic factors, quantity and quality of fruit production. The research was aimed the establishing of the technological stages for producing of scion and rootstock seedlings from L. esculentum species, to obtain compatible phenotype when is grafted. The observations of this research were conducted on Department of Horticultural Cultures in Protected Spaces from Horting Institute Bucharest. The experience was carry out on a cultivar collection consisting from L. esculentum plants: scions (‘Siriana’–F1 hybrid and ‘Buzău 1600’– variety, creations from the germplasm bank of Research and Development Station for Vegetable Growing Buzău Romania (VDRS Buzău and rootstock (‘Groundforce’–F1 hybrid. The plant diameters were correlated for a grafting by the annexation method, cutting at 45 degrees. The grafting was performed successfully. The technological steps have achieved phenotypic compatibility of the symbiotes when was the grafting by annexation. The technology for producing of scion and rootstock seedlings at these Romanian tomatoes (‘Siriana’ and ‘Buzău’ 1600 was established for the crops in protected spaces in south area of Romania.

  1. Chemical products induce resistance to Xanthomonas perforans in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itako, Adriana Terumi; Tolentino Júnior, João Batista; Silva Júnior, Tadeu Antônio Fernandes da; Soman, José Marcelo; Maringoni, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a very important disease, especially in the hot and humid periods of the year. The chemical control of the disease has not been very effective for a number of reasons. This study aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the efficacy of leaf-spraying chemicals (acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) (0.025 g.L(-1)), fluazinam (0.25 g.L(-1)), pyraclostrobin (0.08 g.L(-1)), pyraclostrobin + methiran (0.02 g.L(-1) + 2.2 g.L(-1)), copper oxychloride (1.50 g.L(-1)), mancozeb + copper oxychloride (0.88 g.L(-1) + 0.60 g.L(-1)), and oxytetracycline (0.40 g.L(-1))) on control of bacterial spot. Tomatoes Santa Clara and Gisele cultivars were pulverized 3 days before inoculation with Xanthomonas perforans. The production of enzymes associated with resistance induction (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease) was quantified from leaf samples collected 24 hours before and 24 hours after chemical spraying and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after bacterial inoculation. All products tested controlled bacterial spot, but only ASM, pyraclostrobin, and pyraclostrobin + metiram increased the production of peroxidase in the leaves of the two tomato cultivars, and increased the production of polyphenol oxidase and β-1,3-glucanase in the Santa Clara cultivar.

  2. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  3. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  4. Greenhouse intelligent control system based on microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congwei

    2018-04-01

    As one of the hallmarks of agricultural modernization, intelligent greenhouse has the advantages of high yield, excellent quality, no pollution and continuous planting. Taking AT89S52 microcontroller as the main controller, the greenhouse intelligent control system uses soil moisture sensor, temperature and humidity sensors, light intensity sensor and CO2 concentration sensor to collect measurements and display them on the 12864 LCD screen real-time. Meantime, climate parameter values can be manually set online. The collected measured values are compared with the set standard values, and then the lighting, ventilation fans, warming lamps, water pumps and other facilities automatically start to adjust the climate such as light intensity, CO2 concentration, temperature, air humidity and soil moisture of the greenhouse parameter. So, the state of the environment in the greenhouse Stabilizes and the crop grows in a suitable environment.

  5. Identification of Races 0 and 2 of Cladosporium fulvum (syn Passalora fulva) on Tomato in the Cinturón Hortícola de La Plata, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rollán, María Cristina; Protto, Victoria; Medina, Rocío; López, Silvina Marianela Yanil; Vera Bahima, José; Ronco, Blanca Lía; Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno; Balatti, Pedro Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Surveys aimed at evaluating the incidence and severity of a new disease that developed in greenhouses cultivated with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were performed during 2009 and 2010 in greenhouses of the cultivars Elpida (Enza Zaden) and Colibrí (Clause) in an area of tomato production known as the Cinturón Hortícola de La Plata (the “horticultural belt of La Plata”). The disease had a 100% prevalence and 90% incidence within the ten 250 m greenhouses that were monitored in 2009, 2010, a...

  6. Effects of different types and rates of organic manures on Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. control in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Orooji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different types and rates of animal manure and spent mushroom compost on controlling Egyptian broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca Perss. in tomato (Mill. Lycopersicon esculentum, two studies were conducted on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research green house, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and Nemooneh field of Astane Ghods Razavi during two years of 2009 and 2010. Greenhouse study treatments were consist of poultry, cow, sheep manure and spent mushroom compost, which each one applied at four rates (10, 20, 30 and 40 t.ha-1. Field experiment treatments were included of poultry, cow and sheep manure that each one applied at two rates (20 and 40 t.ha-1. Result of the greenhouse study indicated that poultry manure significantly reduced orobanch infestation and increase tomato dry weight compared to control. But in the field experiment, the maximum fruit yield (68 t.ha-1 with the minimum orobanch dry weight were obtained with sheep manure. The effect of cow manure was similar to poultry manure in all measured traits. In the field study, rates of manure application had no significant effect on orobanch fresh and dry weights. The findings indicated that all treatments of animal manure reduced orobanch infestation. But the mechanism of orobanch growth suppression due to animal manures application is unknown. It seems fermentation of different organic matters can produced heat and the resulting toxic compounds such as certain organic acids, ammonia and ammonium salts that may reduce orobanch growth at proper concentrations.

  7. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of season on yield, viscosity and colour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates the effect of production season on pulp yield, apparent viscosity and colour of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma VF), watermelon (Vitrullus vulgaris var. Babyblack) and pineapple (Ananascomosus var. Smooth cayennes) pulps. Tomato, watermelon and pineapple pulps from two harvesting ...

  9. Hortisol - Including energetic considerations into greenhouse cultivation; Hortisol - Integration des processus energetiques dans les cultures sous abris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonvin, M.; Morand, G.; Reist, A.

    2005-07-01

    The goal of the project is to optimize the utilization of the energetic and financial resources required for the commercial production of biomass in greenhouses though the development of a suitable computer simulation program. In a first step, the existing literature on the subject has been collected and reviewed with special emphasis on the culture of tomatoes. The main influencing parameters are: the temperature within the greenhouse and its time variations, the magnitude and the dynamics of thermal energy flows, the concentration of carbon dioxide, the lighting (natural and artificial), and the relative humidity. Considering all factors, a mathematical model has been worked out that quantifies all energy transfers through the outer surface of the greenhouse. A first version of a computer simulation program for the planning and operation of a greenhouse cultivating tomatoes has been developed. It shall be validated and refined in the forthcoming year (2006)

  10. Effects of Fertilization on Tomato Growth and Soil Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhen; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-qing

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on soil enzyme activity, tomato plant growth and tomato yield and quality, a field experiment on tomato cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Three fertilizer treatments, chemical fertilizer (CF) (N, 260 g/kg; P, 25.71g/kg; K, 83.00g/kg), rapeseed cake manure (CM) (N, 37.4 g/kg; P, 9.0 g/kg; K, 8.46 g/kg), crop-leaf fermenting manure (FM) (N, 23.67 g/kg; P, 6.39 g/kg; K 44.32 g/kg), and a control without using any fertilizers (CK), were designed. The total amounts of fertilizer application to each plot for the CF, CM, FM and CK were 0.6 kg, 1.35 kg, 3.75 kg and 0 kg, respectively, 50% of which were applied as base fertilizer, and another 50% were applied after the first fruit picking as top dressing. Each experimental plot was 9 m2 (1 m × 9 m) in area. Each treatment was replicated for three times. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire period of tomato growth to prevent their disturbance to soil microbial activities. Soil enzyme activities at each plot were constantly tested during the growing period; the tomato fruit quality was also constantly analyzed and the tomato yield was calculated after the final harvesting. The results were as follows: (1) Urease activity in the soils treated with the CF, CM and FM increased quickly after applying base fertilizer. That with the CF reached the highest level. Sucrase activity was inhibited by the CF and CM to some extent, which was 32.4% and 11.2% lower than that with the CK, respectively; while that with the FM was 15.7% higher than that with the CK. Likewise, catalase activity with the CF increased by 12.3% - 28.6%; that with the CM increased by 87.8% - 95.1%; that with the FM increased by 86.4% - 93.0%. Phosphatase activity with the CF increased rapidly and reached a maximum 44 days after base fertilizer application, and then declined quickly. In comparison, that with the CM and FM increased slowly and reached a maximum

  11. Greening the greenhouse grower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed...... to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse...

  12. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  13. Heat tolerance in Field Grown Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under Semi Arid Conditions of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Y O; Oppong Danso, E; Ofori, K

    2013-01-01

    One major reason for extremely low production of tomato in Ghana is that the length of the growing season last only for a few months due to the high temperature influx during the remaining months. The temperatures recorded during these months are above the optimum for tomato flowering and fruiting...... and this consequently affects yield. To solve this problem a number management practices may be undertaken such has growing heat tolerant tomato varieties or providing shade to mitigate the devastating effect of high temperatures. Therefore the present study was conducted outside the normal growing season from June...... to October, which has a mean temperature of 23°C. Heat tolerant tomato cultivars were grown from April to July with a mean temperature of 25°C to evaluate their performance under these conditions and to assess the effect of shading on the production of one of the genotypes. Fruiting percentage...

  14. Responses of grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersiocon L. to abiotic stresses in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Al-Harbi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Quantity and quality of irrigation water are considered the most imperative limiting factors for plant production in arid environment. Adoptions of strategies can minimize crop water consumption while nonexistent yield reduction is considered challenge for scholars especially in arid environment. Grafting is regarded as a promising tool to avoid or reduce yield loss caused by abiotic stresses. Tomato (Solanum lycopersium Mill., commercial cultivar Faridah was grafted on Unifort rootstock and grown under regulated deficit irrigation (RDI (100%, 80% and 60% ETc, using two types of irrigation water, fresh (EC = 0.86 dS/m and brackish (EC = 3.52 dS/m. The effects of grafting and RDI on water use efficiency, vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality were investigated. Plant vegetative growth was reduced under water and salinity stresses. Grafting the plant significantly improves the vegetative growth under both conditions. The results showed that crop yield, Ca+2 and K+ were considerably increased in grafted tomato compared to non-grafted plants under water and salinity stresses. Grafted tomato plants accumulated less Na+ and Cl−, especially under high levels of salinity compared to non-grafted plants. Grafting tomato plants showed a slight decrease on the fruit quality traits such as vitamin C, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solids (TSS. This study confirmed that grafted tomato plants can mitigate undesirable impact of salt stress on growth and fruit quality.

  15. Concentração foliar de nutrientes e produtividade de tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes substratos e doses de ácidos húmicos Leaf nutrient content and yield of tomato grown in different substrates and doses of humic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o estado nutricional e a produtividade do tomateiro, híbrido Vênus, cultivado em substratos, com aplicação de ácidos húmicos (AH e fertirrigação. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de AH (0, 20, 40 e 80 L ha-1 e quatro substratos: S1 (fibra de coco (FC, S2 (FC + casca de café carbonizada (CC na proporção 1:3, S3 (FC + CC na proporção 2:3 e S4 (CC. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x4. As mudas foram transplantadas com 35 dias para sacolas plásticas com capacidade de 7,0 L. Os AH foram aplicados quatro vezes em um intervalo de oito dias, sendo a primeira aplicação oito dias após o transplantio. Não houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos nos teores de N, K e S nas folhas e na produção de frutos não comerciais. No entanto, houve efeito significativo dos substratos nos teores de P, Ca, Mg e sobre a produção de frutos total e comercial. Doses crescentes de AH induziram redução de forma linear dos teores de B e Cu (em S1; porém, induziram aumento dos teores de Zn. Em doses de 31 a 49 L ha-1 de AH, ocorreu o máximo teor foliar de Fe, Cu e o mínimo de Mn. As maiores produtividades comerciais foram obtidas com a fibra de coco (S1 com média de 5,6 kg planta-1, apresentando incremento médio de produtividade de 22,9%, 38,7% e 49,7% em relação a S2, S3 e S4, respectivamente.We evaluated the nutritional status and yield of tomato hybrid "Vênus", grown on substrates, with application of humic acids (AH and fertigation. Four doses of AH (0, 20, 40 and 80 L-1 ha and four substrates: S1 (coconut fiber (CF, S2 (FC + carbonized coffee husk (CC in the ratio 1:3, S3 (CF + CC - in the ratio 2:3 and S4 (CC were evaluated following the randomized blocks design in factorial 4x4 scheme with four replications. The 35-day old seedlings were transplanted into plastic bags of 7 L. The humic acids were applied four times in eight

  16. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plastic cover material used was mostly PE (79%) with inclusion of UV+IR. Heating of the greenhouses was only for frost protection purpose which adversely affected crop yields and quality. Only 2% of the greenhouses present in the area was constructed based on projects of engineering designs; the remaining were ...

  17. DOLGONOSIK IS A NEW ORIGINAL ORANGE TOMATO VARIETY FOR THE OPEN GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of a new determinant tomato variety for open field and greenhouse film with the original small dense fruit, keeping quite well its marketable qualities within 15-20 days after harvest in milk maturity phase is given. The fruits are rounded with sharp elongated spout. Fruits are good for fresh consumption, canning and pickling. Recommended for baby food and food for people with problems of the digestive system.

  18. Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Hans-Börje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

    1985-01-01

    The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

  19. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  20. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  1. Effects of Intercropping with Potato Onion on the Growth of Tomato and Rhizosphere Alkaline Phosphatase Genes Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Fengzhi; Zhou, Xingang; Fu, Xuepeng; Tao, Yue; Xu, Weihui; Pan, Kai; Liu, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In China, excessive fertilization has resulted in phosphorus (P) accumulation in most greenhouse soils. Intercropping can improve the efficiency of nutrient utilization in crop production. In this study, pot experiments were performed to investigate the effects of intercropping with potato onion (Allium cepa L. var. aggregatum G. Don) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings growth and P uptake, the diversity of rhizosphere phosphobacteria and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes in phosphorus-rich soil. The experiment included three treatments, namely tomato monoculture (TM), potato onion monoculture (OM), and tomato/potato onion intercropping (TI-tomato intercropping and OI-potato onion intercropping). The growth and P uptake of tomato and potato onion seedlings were evaluated. The dilution plating method was used to determine the population of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (PMB). The genomic DNAs of PSB and PMB in the rhizosphere of tomato and potato onions were extracted and purified, and then, with the primer set of 338f /518r, the PCR amplification of partial bacterial 16S rDNA sequence was performed and sequenced to determine the diversities of PSB and PMB. After extracting the total genomic DNAs from the rhizosphere, the copy numbers and diversities of ALP genes were investigated using real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, respectively. Intercropping with potato onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato seedlings, but inhibited those of potato onion. After 37 days of transplanting, compared to the rhizosphere of TM, the soil pH increased, while the electrolytic conductivity and Olsen P content decreased (p onion promoted the growth and P uptake of tomato in phosphorus-rich soil and affected the community structure and function of phosphobacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Intercropping with potato onion also improved soil quality by lowering levels of soil acidification and salinization.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...

  3. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Systemically Induced upon Wounding in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, José Manuel; Raíces, Marcela; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (LeCDPK1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was isolated by screening a cDNA library from tomato cell cultures exposed to Cladosporium fulvum elicitor preparations. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family. LeCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence and presents a possible palmitoylation site. The in vitro translated protein conserves the biochemical properties of a member of the CDPK family. In addition, CDPK activity was detected in soluble and particulate extracts of tomato leaves. Basal levels of LeCDPK1 mRNA were detected by northern-blot analysis in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of tomato plants. The expression of LeCDPK1 was rapidly and transiently enhanced in detached tomato leaves treated with pathogen elicitors and H2O2. Moreover, when tomato greenhouse plants were subjected to mechanical wounding, a transient increase of LeCDPK1 steady-state mRNA levels was detected locally at the site of the injury and systemically in distant non-wounded leaves. The increase observed in LeCDPK1 mRNA upon wounding correlates with an increase in the amount and in the activity of a soluble CDPK detected in extracts of tomato leaves, suggesting that this kinase is part of physiological plant defense mechanisms against biotic or abiotic attacks. PMID:11788771

  4. Gamma-irradiation of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of gamma-ray on tomatoes picked in a pink-red ripening stage, good for consumption, is studied. For that purpose tomatoes of ''Pioneer 2'' variety packed in perforated 500 g plastic bags were irradiated on a gamma device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min with doses 200 or 300 krad. Samples were stored after irradiation at room temperature (20 - 22sup(o)C). Microbiological studies demonstrated that 44 resp. 99.96 per cent of the initial number of microorganisms was destroyed after irradiation with 200 resp. 300 krad. The time required for the number of microorganisms to be restored was accordingly increased. Irradiation delayed tomato ripening by 4 to 6 days, demonstrable by the reduced content of the basic staining substances - carotene and licopine. Immediately after irradiation the ascorbic acid content was reduced by an average of 13 per cent. After 18 days the amount of ascorbic acid in irradiated tomatoes was increased to a higher than the starting level, this is attributed to reductone formation during irradiation. The elevated total sugar content shown to be invert sugar was due to further tomato ripening. (Ch.K.)

  5. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  6. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  7. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  8. Grappling with greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature suitable for life. Some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unprecedented rate because of human activity. These increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an overall warming of the Earth's surface. Global warming resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to be obscured by normal climatic fluctuations for another ten years or more. The extent of human-caused climate change will depend largely on future concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In turn, the composition of the atmosphere depends on the release of greenhouse gases. Releases are hard to predict, because they require an understanding of future human activity. The composition of the atmosphere also depends on the processes which remove greenhouse gases from it. This booklet is summarizing the latest research results in the form of climate change scenarios. The present scenarios of change are based on climate models, together with an understanding of how present-day climate, with its inherent natural variability, affects human activities. These scenarios present a coherent range of future possibilities for climate; they are not predictions but they serve as a useful starting point. It is estimated that human-caused climate change will affect all aspects of life in Australia, including our cities, agriculture, pests and diseases, fisheries and natural ecosystems. 15 figs., ills

  9. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  10. Towards the semiclosed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    What can we do right now to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in the greenhouse sector? What technologies should we concentrate on in the future? Researchers, consultants and technology enterprises working with the greenhouse sector have tried to answer these questions in collaboration with the

  11. Physical control possibilities of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in protected crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapisarda, C.; Cascone, G.; Tropea Garzia, G.; Mazzarella, R.; Colombo, A.; Serges, T.

    2005-01-01

    Among alternatives to chemical control for reducing virus epidemics in protected tomato crops, physical management of vectors populations through the application of insect-proof screens to greenhouse openings has been investigated since many years and satisfactory results have been obtained so far, especially regarding the incidence of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), which is the vector of Tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). Nevertheless, although effective from the phytosanitary point of view, these insect-proof screens negatively affect the climate inside the greenhouse, by reducing ventilation, increasing air temperature, etc.. Recently, a low incidence of whitefly infestations on crops has been observed inside greenhouses which have been covered with photoselective plastic films absorbing the ultra-violet component (200-380 nm) of solar radiation. The present study, carried out in Sicily by means of three trials during three consecutive years, allowed to evaluate the ability of two different UV-absorbing plastic films to reduce B. tabaci infestations, in comparison to UV-unabsorbing plastic films and insect-proof screens commonly used to cover and protect tomato greenhouses. The results show the good efficiency of both the tested UV-absorbing films to reduce the witefly presence on tomato crops and the consequent TYLCD spreading. Furthermore, it may be observed that UV-absorbing films do not determine sensible variations of greenhouse climate conditions, compared to greenhouses covered with conventional films. These data not only confirm the physical validity of the UV-absorbing films, but also show that they may fit properly within strategies of integrated control of pests and viruses in protected cultivations [it

  12. The effects of the regulated deficit irrigation on yield and some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... human diet and environment, its production requires a significant amount of water due to its relatively shallow root system. Thus, the amount of ... should be applied. Drip irrigation, reduces deep percolation and evaporation ..... processing tomato yield, water table depth, soil salinity and profitability. Agric.

  13. Addition of ash in drained peatland forests in southern Sweden - Forest yield and fluxes of greenhouse gases; Tillfoersel av aska i skog paa dikad torvmark i soedra Sverige - Skogsproduktion och emission av vaexthusgaser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem Ulf (Skogforsk, Uppsala (Sweden)); Bjoerk, Robert G; Klemedtsson, Leif (Goeteborgs universitet (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate effects of wood-ash application (3.3 and 6.6 tonnes d.w. self-harden crushed wood ash ha-1) in forests on drained peatlands in southern Sweden. Tree growth (three sites) and fluxes of greenhouse gases (one site) were measured in field experiments. In the two experiments (Anderstorp and Bredaryd) in Scots pine stands (Pinus sylvestris L.) on oligotrophic mires, tree growth increased significantly during the seven-eight year long effect periods after ash application. In an earlier study in Anderstorp, the annual emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from the peat were shown to be unaffected by the ash application. In Skogaryd, a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) on a minerotrophic mire, the growth was indicated to increase during the five-year effect period. In the same experiment, the previously found reduction in emissions of both CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O during the first two years after ash application were no longer significant, although the emissions where lower, for N{sub 2}O only in the high dose ash treatment. CH{sub 4} was unaffected during the whole observed period. During the first five years, application of 3-6 tonnes d.w. crushed wood ash ha-1 in the two studied forests on drained peatlands did not render in an increased Global Warming Potential (GWP), but rather a reduction

  14. A demonstration greenhouse for Malaysian Horticulture : trip report October 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elings, A.; Stijger, I.

    2010-01-01

    This report results from the project “Tropical Horticulture in Malaysia”. Modernization of the greenhouse horticulture sector in Malaysiar is required in order to realize better quality of the product, higher yields and less production costs.

  15. Generation by Generation Correlation and Path Analysis for Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six advanced generations (F7 - F12) of tomato hybrids were evaluated in the Department of Crop Science Research Farm, University of Nigeria, Nsukka from 2004 to 2008 to estimate the magnitude of character association of yield and yield related attributes in each filial generation. Traits under focus were days to flowering, ...

  16. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade do tomateiro cultivado em substrato com três concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva Growth, development and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate under three nitrogen concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2004-10-01

    e T3, com produtividade máxima estimada de 7,8kg m-2 na dose de 9,3mmolN L-1. Concluiu-se que a concentração de N na solução nutritiva afetou o crescimento e a produtividade da cultura do tomateiro em substrato, porém não foi observada resposta similar nos dois ciclos de cultivo.The effect of three N concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate was determined in autumn and spring growing periods. Two experiments were conducted inside a polyethylene tunnel, at Departamento de Fitotecnia - UFSM, using the hybrid Monte Carlo. Sowing was made on February 8 and on July 5, 2002, and planting inside the tunnel 36 and 40 days later, in autumn and spring, respectively. Plants were grown in plastic bags filled with 5.5dm³ of commercial substrate (Plantmax®, with one plant per bag and a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Nutrients were supplied to plants by a complete nutrient solution, with the following composition, in mmol L-1: 5.5 of KNO3; 1.3 of KH2PO4; 2.75 of Ca(NO32; 0.75 of MgSO4, with iron chelate and micronutrients. The treatment T2 was the nutrient solution described above, with 11.0mmolN L-1. For treatment T1, the N concentration of the nutrient solution was reduced to 5.5mmolN L-1, whereas for T3 it was increased to 15.16mmolN L-1. A randomised experimental design was used, with four replications and 15 plants per plot. Plants were harvested at 33, 48, 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83 days after planting (DAP in autumn, and at 55, 62, 69, 78, 85 and 92 DAP in spring, to measure plant growth and development. Crop yield was determined by fresh weight of fruits. The number of leaves was lower on T3 plants in autumn and spring, whereas the number of fruits was higher on T1 plants in spring. The dynamics of fruit dry mass accumulation did not show significant differences among treatments in autumn. In spring, the lowest value of this variable was recorded on T3 plants. Mean values of fresh fruit weight reached 5.4; 5

  17. Assessing European egg parasitoids as a mean of controlling the invasive South American tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Chailleux

    Full Text Available The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents.

  18. Effect of organic amendments and compost extracts on tomato production and storability in ecological production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorbani reza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in Shiravan, Iran, during 2005 in order to investigate the effects of organic amendments, synthetic fertilizers and compost extracts on crop health, productivity and storability of commonly used tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. Treatments included different fertilizers of cattle, sheep and poultry manures, house-hold compost and chemical fertilizers, and five aqueous extracts from cattle manure, poultry manures, green-waste and house-hold composts and water as control. The effect of fertilizer type on tomato yield and marketable yield was significant (P

  19. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  20. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil; Negrã o, Só nia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Bougouffa, Salim; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  1. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  2. Search for microorganisms which can disrupt communication between plant pathogenic bacteria causing hairy roots disease in greenhouse vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streminska, M.A.; Stijger, I.

    2016-01-01

    Hairy roots disease is an important problem in cultivation of greenhouse vegetables (tomato, aubergine and cucumber). Infection is caused by rhizogenic bacteria from Agrobacterium/Rhizobium group. It has been shown that infection process is regulated by environmental factors and quorum sensing

  3. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  4. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect on earth can be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and climate system response within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained are determined. Quantitative examples illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by human activities, in particular if CO2 atmospheric concentration would double in the future. Recent satellite measurements of the greenhouse effect are given. The net cooling effect of clouds and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms are also discussed

  5. Through the greenhouse window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is being promoted as the only answer to the greenhouse effect. However, power station emissions (from fossil-fuel powered stations) account for only a fraction of the total carbon dioxide emissions. And carbon dioxide accounts for only about a half of the global warming effect -the other gases which create the greenhouse effect must also be limited. Nuclear energy is neither a practical nor economic alternative. Energy efficiency and conservation is a far better answer to the greenhouse effect. (U.K.)

  6. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  7. Effect of Pesticide Application Rate on Yield of Vegetables and Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    In tomatoes, lower rates of lindane increased yields whereas the higher ... some countries because it has been found to cause seizures and damage to the nervous system, ... soil microbial activity, and (ii) to determine whether lindane has any ...

  8. Colonization of Tomato Root by Antagonistic Bacterial Strains to Fusarium Wilt of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Wibowo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol is an important disease in tomato which cause a significant loss of yield in major growing regions of the world. This study examined the ability of bacterial strains antagonistic to F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (H5, H22, H63, H71, Burkholderia cepacia strain 65 and 526 to colonize tomato seedlings and the effect of plant growth. The effect of bacterial population size and air temperature on the bacterial colonization and their spread along the root systems was also assessed.The results of this study showed that the bacterial population at 28°/23° C day/night temperature 14 days after planting was significantly greater than 23°/18° C for 4 of 6 strains tested. Although there was no significant effect of temperature on bacterial population observed in this study, the ability of the baacterial strains to colonize the rhizosphere was significantly different. Three strains (H5, B. cepacia strain 65 and 526 survived well in the rhizosphere and at 4 weeks after planting rhizosphere populations per gram fresh root were not significantly different from those recovered 2 weeks after planting. The largest population of the bacterial inoculants developed in the basal region of the roots and this differed between strains by log10 2.7 cfu/cm root. The bacterial populations in other parts of the root were also strain dependent. Strain H71, for example, was able to colonize the root segments at a high population level. However strain H63 was recovered only in small number in all root segments.

  9. Water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato in northern guinea savanna zone, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Alhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato with the support of FAO-CROPWAT simulation model was carried out for Yola, Nigeria with the aim of planning irrigation schedules for tomato and develop recommendations for improve irrigation practices. The climatic data for 2012/2013 and soil properties of the study area were input into the program. Tomato crop properties were updated by the FAO data and three irrigation intervals were tested (7 and 10 days irrigation intervals and irrigation schedule of 10 days interval during initial and development stage and 6 days interval at mid and late season stages of tomato crop. The simulated results analysis for tomato according to the irrigation schedule showed that highest yield reduction of 16.2% was recorded with 10 days irrigation interval treatment and the least of 0.4% with irrigation interval of 10 days at first two growth stages and 6 days at last two stages. FAO-CROPWAT 8.0 can be used in planning proper irrigation schedule for tomato in Yola, Nigeria.

  10. Effect of CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Tomato Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Juan; ZHOU Jian-Min; DUAN Zeng-Qiang; DU Chang-Wen; WANG Huo-Yan

    2007-01-01

    Exposing tomato seedlings to elevated CO2 concentrations may have potentially profound impacts on the tomato yield and quality. A growth chamber experiment was designed to estimate how different nutrient concentrations influenced the effect of elevated CO2 on the growth and nutrient uptake of tomato seedlings. Tomato (Hezuo 906) was grown in pots placed in controlled growth chambers and was subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 (360 or 720 μL L-1), and four nutrient solutions of different strengths (1/2-, 1/4-, 1/8-, and 1/16-strength Japan Yamazaki nutrient solutions) in a completely randomized design. The results indicated that some agricultural characteristics of the tomato seedlings such as the plant height, stem thickness, total dry and fresh weights of the leaves, stems and roots, the G value (G value = total plant dry weight/seedling age),and the seedling vigor index (seedling vigor index = stem thickness/(plant height × total plant dry weight) increased with the elevated CO2, and the increases were strongly dependent on the nutrient solution concentrations, being greater with higher nutrient solution concentrations. The elevated CO2 did not alter the ratio of root to shoot. The total N, P, K, and C absorbed from all the solutions except P in the 1/8- and 1/16-strength nutrient solutions increased in the elevated CO2 treatment. These results demonstrate that the nutrient demands of the tomato seedlings increased at elevated CO2 concentrations.

  11. CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST TOMATO ROT BY SPORE SUSPENSION AND ANTIFUNGAL METABOLITES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rot of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum fruits caused by several fungal pathogens is a detrimental disease leading to substantial yield loses worldwide. Alternaria isolates were the most common fungal species isolated from healthy or rotten fruits. Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension and culture filtrate were tested for their antagonistic activity on controlling tomato fruit rot. T. harzianum isolates suppressed or interfered with the growth of different postharvest tomato fungal pathogens albeit at different degrees. Their culture filtrate inhibited pathogen spore germination possibly due to the released extracellular diffusible metabolite(s. Besides, aberrant morphology of conidia was observed with deformation of hyphal tips. Furthermore, the resulting mycelia appeared desiccated with coagulated protoplasm leading to complete collapse of protoplasm in presence of T. harzianum culture filtrate. Application of T. harzianum spores to tomato fruits decreased disease severity significantly with the most profound effect at higher spore concentrations (108 cells per ml. Similarly, culture filtrate of T. harzianum prevented pathogen spore germination on the surface of tomato fruits leading to decreased incidence of rot symptoms at high culture filtrate concentrations. This work provides strong evidence that T. harzianum is a competent antagonist and its spore suspension and culture filtrate can be used efficiently to control postharvest tomato rot.

  12. Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdones, Ángela; Tur, Núria; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer-EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the 'Fruit' stage the pre-harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer-EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non-treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. The application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Determination of pesticide residues in tomato using dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Graziela C. R. Moura; Freguglia, Rosana M. O; Furlani, Regina P. Z; Torres, Nádia H; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2011-01-01

    Tomato crop is frequently damaged by diseases, pests and abiotic stresses, resulting in lower yielding and loss of fruit quality. The intensive use of pesticides in tomatoes without observation of good agriculture practices and regulations has caused great concern with a probable final product contamination. The QuEChERS method of sample preparation was used for the determination of six pesticides (buprofezin, carbofuran, endosulfan-α, endosulfan-β, endosulfan sulfate and monocrotop...

  14. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  15. Effect of Rimsulfuron, Imazapic and Imazamox Herbicides on Broomrape (Orobanche aegyptiaca in Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kazerooni Monfared

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments, in Petri dish and greenhouse, were carried out to investigate the efficiency of three herbicides (rimsulfuron, imazapic and imazamox in controling broomrape. In Petri dish study, herbicides were applied at 0.05, 0.25, 1.25, 6.25 and 31.25 micro-mole doses to broomrape seeds at germination stage without a host plant and adding GR24 as stimulator. In the greenhouse experiments, the efficiency of these herbicides to control broomrape in two varieties of tomato (Viva and Hyb.Petopride II was investigated. Treatments were four doses of rimsulfuron (25, 50, 75 and 100 g ai/ha, imazapic (5, 10, 15 and 20 g ai/ha and imazamox (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g ai/ha at one, two and three applications. Results of Petri-dish experiments showed that rimsulfuron and imazapic significantly reduced radicle elongation of seedlings as compared to the control, while, imazamox did not have any effect on broomrape seed. Each dose was applied for one, two and three times with in 15, 29 and 43 days after within transplanting tomato seedlings. Results of pot experiments indicated that the responses of two tomato varieties herbicides were different. Viva was responsive to herbicidal effect and produced higher biomass than Hyb.Petopride II. Rimsulfuron was a suitable herbicide in tomato to control broomrape. Rimsulfuron at doses of 25, 50 and 75 g ai/ha (three times of application were the best doses, specially in viva were the best treatments for broomrape control and producing tomato biomass. Imazapic also, at 5 g ai/ha (two times of application and 10 g ai/ha (single application was an effective treatments in variety of viva. Imazamox treatments did not appear to be suitable herbicides in this study.

  16. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  17. Solar greenhouse aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toever, W V

    1979-01-01

    Rainbow and Speckled Trout have been successfully hatched and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The system is integrated into the Ark greenhouse providing thermal mass for temperature regulation and supplying nutrient-rich water for plants. The system incorporates bacterial, algal and hydroponic water filtration. Various vegetable crops have been raised in the hydroponic troughs. A scaled-down system suitable for domestic solar greenhouse application is also under development.

  18. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  19. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  20. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  1. Experience in the use of wind energy for greenhouse heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Flaherty, T; Kocsis, K; Petersen, H [eds.

    1987-05-01

    Study of the appliction of wind energy for greenhouse heating began at Kinsealy Research Centre in 1980 with the installation of a multi-blade 6m diamter wind turbine. This produced electricity which was used to provide root zone warming for a glasshouse tomato crop. The application worked well and the wind turbine is still in operation, although it has been out of service for substantial periods and has required major refurbishment. In July 1985 a new wind turbine was commissioned as an EEC Wind Energy Demonstration Project. This is an 11m diameter grid-connected unit, and the project involves using its output to power a heat pump which in turn supplies heat to a greenhouse. The system is operating well and initial performance results have been obtained during the 1985-'86 heating season. The paper summarises the experience to data with both of these projects.

  2. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  3. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of four phosphate-mobilizing bacteria applied with an animal bone charcoal formulation in controlling Pythium aphanidermatum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis lycopersici in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Clematis, F.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Someus, E.

    2013-01-01

    Four taxonomically different bacteria, with the ability to mobilize phosphate (P) and to colonize animal bone charcoal (ABC), were tested for their capacity to control plant pathogens. Tests were performed in the greenhouse with young tomato plants in (potting) soil and in rockwool. Plants were

  5. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaming Zhai

    Full Text Available To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt, quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1, 320 mm (W2 and 360 mm (W3, and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F, 3.0 dS/m (S1 and 5.0 dS/m (S2. Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym. After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual, and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  6. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  7. Development of synchronized, autonomous, and self-regulated oscillations in transpiration rate of a whole tomato plant under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Rony; Da-Costa, Noam; Raviv, Michael; Moshelion, Menachem

    2010-07-01

    Plants respond to many environmental changes by rapidly adjusting their hydraulic conductivity and transpiration rate, thereby optimizing water-use efficiency and preventing damage due to low water potential. A multiple-load-cell apparatus, time-series analysis of the measured data, and residual low-pass filtering methods were used to monitor continuously and analyse transpiration of potted tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse during well-irrigated and drought periods. A time derivative of the filtered residual time series yielded oscillatory behaviour of the whole plant's transpiration (WPT) rate. A subsequent cross-correlation analysis between the WPT oscillatory pattern and wet-wick evaporation rates (vertical cotton fabric, 0.14 m(2) partly submerged in water in a container placed on an adjacent load cell) revealed that autonomous oscillations in WPT rate develop under a continuous increase in water stress, whereas these oscillations correspond with the fluctuations in evaporation rate when water is fully available. The relative amplitude of these autonomous oscillations increased with water stress as transpiration rate decreased. These results support the recent finding that an increase in xylem tension triggers hydraulic signals that spread instantaneously via the plant vascular system and control leaf conductance. The regulatory role of synchronized oscillations in WPT rate in eliminating critical xylem tension points and preventing embolism is discussed.

  8. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  9. Tomato Productivity and Quality in Aquaponics: Comparison of Three Hydroponic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zala Schmautz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics (AP is a food production system that combines hydroponic (HP crop production with recirculating aquaculture. Different types of hydroponic systems have been used for growing crops in aquaponics. However, very few studies have compared their suitability and efficiency in an aquaponic context. The study presented here compares tomato yield, morphological (external and biochemical (internal fruit quality, and overall tomato plant vitality from three different HP systems (nutrient film technique, drip irrigation system, and floating raft culture and examines the distribution of nutrients in different parts of the tomato plant. Three replicate AP systems were set up, each incorporating the three different HP systems coupled with a separate recirculating aquaculture unit growing Nile tilapia. The results showed that the choice of the cultivation system had little influence on most of the above-mentioned properties. Tomato fruit mineral content was found to be in similar range for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn as reported in the literature. Yield and fruit quality were similar in all three systems. However, the drip irrigation system did perform slightly better. The slightly higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of the fruits grown in AP in comparison to commercially produced and supermarket derived tomatoes might indicate a potential for producing fruits with higher health value for humans.

  10. Water Footprint of Industrial Tomato Cultivations in the Pinios River Basin: Soil Properties Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftherios Evangelou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial tomatoes are cultivated in about 4000 ha of the Pinios river basin (central Greece, providing significant income to the farmers. In this study, the water footprint (WF of industrial tomatoes between planting and harvest was estimated in 24 different farms for three consecutive years. The selected farms were representative of the main agro-climatic zones and soil textural classes within the river basin. Green, blue and grey WF calculations were based on datasets of the experimental plots for each farm, including irrigation water volume, meteorological, soil, and crop yield data. The results showed that the WF of tomatoes ranged from 37 to 131 m3 water/ton tomatoes with an average of 61 m3/ton. The WF variation depended mainly on crop yield, local agro-climatic and soil conditions. The green, blue, and grey WF components averaged 13, 27 and 21 m3/ton, respectively. The results reveal the importance of WF in understanding how tomato production relates to the sustainable use of freshwater and pollution at local level.

  11. Use of ultraviolet-disinfected nutrient solutions in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acher, A.; Heuer, B.; Rubinskaya, E.; Fischer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental concerns and economics require the recycling of plant nutrient solutions (PNS) used in soilless cultures in greenhouses. To avoid possible outbreaks of plant diseases, disinfection of the recycled PNS might be necessary. This paper describes a case study on the stability of Fe 3+ -chelates, present in PNS and exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UV 254 nm) for disinfection, and the effect on plant growth. Three Fe-chelates, each containing 2 mg Fe 3+ l -1 , in PNS were: i, Fe-EDDHA (Fe-ethylene-diamine-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid); ii, Fe-Na-EDTA (Fe-ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid); and iii, Fe-DTPA (Fe-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid). Seedlings of sorghum, corn and tomatoes were grown hydroponically for four weeks in continuously aerated PNS, which had been exposed previously for 0, 2.5 and 130 s to a UV radiation fluence of 80 mW s -1 cm -2 . The accumulation of plant fresh weight (APFW) differed from non-treated controls, depending on chelating agent and on exposure time to UV. The greatest APFW was observed in sorghum (128, 178 and 98%) at 2.5 s UV-exposure for PNS containing i, ii and iii, respectively. For corn and tomato, the respective results were: 108, 139 and 96%, and 129, 91 and 89% for tomatoes, respectively. The stability of i, ii and iii upon exposure to UV radiation is discussed. (author)

  12. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  13. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  14. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  15. Energetic use of the tomato plant waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, Jose M.; Martinez, Gloria [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica. UEX. Avda de Elvas s/n. 06071 Badajoz, Tf. 34 924 289672 (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. UEX. Avda de Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    A study of the conventional pyrolysis of the tomato plant waste has been carried out. The objective of this work was to characterize the solid, liquid and gaseous phases obtained in the process for their possible utilization in energy generation. Also, a study of the influence of operation variables has been performed, determining the optimal conditions in which the process can be accomplished. The operation variables studied were temperature (400-800 C), the initial sample mass (2.5-10 g of tomato plant waste) and the particle size (0.63-2.00 mm). Under the conditions studied here, an increase in reaction temperature leads to a decrease in solid and liquid yields and to an increase in gas phase yield. However the variation in the initial sample mass and the particle size does not seem to exert a defined influence in the yield of the different phases. The higher heating value (HHV) of solids and liquids was determined; also the immediate analysis of the solid phase was carried out. The gas phase, mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and traces of ethane and ethylene, was analyzed chromatographically. The solid phase is constituted for a charcoal with an average higher heating value of 26 MJ kg{sup -} {sup 1}, the liquid phase presents a HHV of 7.8 MJ kg{sup -} {sup 1} at 400 C, this value diminishes when the temperature is increased, and the gas phase has an HHV between 0.5 and 8.0 MJ (kg of raw material){sup -} {sup 1}. According to their characteristics and energy contents, the solid phase can be used as fuel or precursor for the manufacture of activated carbons. The liquid phase could be used as liquid fuel or as organic-compounds source. The gas phase could be used to heat the pyrolysis reactor or to generate heat and electricity in a gas-turbine/vapour-turbine combined cycle. Finally, as previous step to the design of the industrials equipments, a kinetic study of the process, based in the generation of the principal gases, has been carried

  16. Azadirachtin powder for control of root-knot nematodes in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS Daniel K. Inouye U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720. Root-knot nematodes cause root galling and yield reductions in many vegetable crops, including tomato. Three organic treatments to improve root growth and reduce nematode infestation were eval...

  17. Genetic difference in macro-element mineral concentrations among 52 historically important tomato varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as color, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness, and acidity. Sodium is n...

  18. Towards a 3D structural tomato model for calculating light interception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarlikioti, V.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    A number of physiological tomato models have been proposed the last decades, their main challenge being the correct simulation of fruit yield. For this, an accurate simulation of light interception, and thus photosynthesis, is of primary importance. Light interception is highly dependent of the

  19. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  20. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Botrytis cinerea isolates from tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanovska Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty-three isolates of Botrytis cinerea were collected from 7 different areas in the Republic of Macedonia, where tomato is mostly grown in greenhouses and high tunnels. Based on the mycelial formation, intensity of sporulation and sclerotial production, 9 different phenotypes were detected: 4 mycelial and 5 sclerotial. One sclerotial morphological type has not been previously reported. The presence or absence of two transposable elements, boty and flipper, was detected by PCR. Out of 123 isolates, 20 had two transposable elements, boty and flipper (transposa genotype, 48 had neither of these elements (vacuma genotype and 55 had only the flipper element (flipper genotype. Isolates that contain only boty element were not detected. No relationship between the phenotypes, origin of isolates and the presence/absence of transposable elements, boty and flipper, was found.

  1. Antibacterial activity of essential oils on Xanthomonas vesicatoria and control of bacterial spot in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvaine Ciavareli Lucas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of plant essential oils (EOs on the growth of Xanthomonas vesicatoria, on bacterial morphology and ultrastructure, and on the severity of tomato bacterial spot. EOs from citronella, clove, cinnamon, lemongrass, eucalyptus, thyme, and tea tree were evaluated in vitro at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100% in 1.0% powdered milk. The effect of EOs, at 0.1%, on the severity of tomato bacterial spot was evaluated in tomato seedlings under greenhouse conditions. The effects of citronella, lemongrass, clove, and tea tree EOs, at 0.1%, on X. vesicatoria cells were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. All EOs showed direct toxic effect on the bacteria at a 10%-concentration in vitro. Under greenhouse conditions, the EOs of clove, citronella, tea tree, and lemongrass reduced disease severity. EOs of clove and tea tree, and streptomycin sulfate promoted loss of electron-dense material and alterations in the cytoplasm, whereas EO of tea tree promoted cytoplasm vacuolation, and those of citronella, lemongrass, clove, and tea tree caused damage to the bacterial cell wall. The EOs at a concentration of 0.1% reduce the severity of the disease.

  2. [Controlling effect of antagonist bioorganic fertilizer on tomato root-knot nematode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhen; Chen, Fang; Xiao, Tong-jian; Wang, Xiao-hui; Ran, Wei; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2011-04-01

    Indoor in vitro culture experiment and greenhouse pot experiment were conducted to evaluate the capabilities of three bacterial strains XZ-173 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens), SL-25 (B. gibsonii), and KS-62 (Paenibacillus polymyxa) that can hydrolyze collagen protein in controlling tomato root-knot nematode. In the in vitro culture experiment, suspensions of XZ-173, SL-25, and KS-62 induced a mortality rate of 75.9%, 66.7%, and 50.0% to the second-stage junior nematode within 24 h, and decreased the egg hatching rate to 17.8%, 28.9% and 37.6% after 7-day incubation, respectively, in contrast to the 17.4% mortality rate and 53.6% egg hatching rate in the control (sterilized water). In the greenhouse pot experiment, the bioorganic fertilizer mixed with equal parts of fermented XZ-173, SL-25, and KS-62 gained the best result, with the root-knot nematode population in rhizosphere soil decreased by 84.0% as compared with the control. The bioorganic fertilizer also decreased the numbers of galls and eggs on tomato roots significantly, and increased the underground and aboveground biomass of tomato. Therefore, antagonist bioorganic fertilizer has promising potential in controlling root-knot nematode.

  3. A research related with tomato, carotenoids and factors effecting them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan SÖNMEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid increase of human population, the requirement for foodstuff also increases and new species with high yield are tried to be regenerated in order to fulfill this increasing demand. Apart from the regeneration studies aiming to increase efficiency, increase in demand of healthy, natural nutrition, additive free and higher quality products increase the regeneration studies in this field. Environmental pollution, urban living conditions and high amount of prepared foodstuffs, increased the interest of people towards natural and nutritive foodstuff in recent years. Today, fruits and vegetables are consumed not only for nutrition purpose but also in order to prevent from diseases and considering their therapeutic properties. Therefore fruits and vegetables are preferred due to their content. Functional foodstuff term entered our life as a result of these developments. Almost all of vegetables have protective and therapeutic effects on human health due to the materials in their content. Tomato is one of them. It is widely consumed as fresh in our country just like in other parts of the world as well as in sauce, ketchup and tomato paste forms. Finding high quality tomato in every season has become a normal standard for Turkey.

  4. Inferring the gene network underlying the branching of tomato inflorescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astola

    Full Text Available The architecture of tomato inflorescence strongly affects flower production and subsequent crop yield. To understand the genetic activities involved, insight into the underlying network of genes that initiate and control the sympodial growth in the tomato is essential. In this paper, we show how the structure of this network can be derived from available data of the expressions of the involved genes. Our approach starts from employing biological expert knowledge to select the most probable gene candidates behind branching behavior. To find how these genes interact, we develop a stepwise procedure for computational inference of the network structure. Our data consists of expression levels from primary shoot meristems, measured at different developmental stages on three different genotypes of tomato. With the network inferred by our algorithm, we can explain the dynamics corresponding to all three genotypes simultaneously, despite their apparent dissimilarities. We also correctly predict the chronological order of expression peaks for the main hubs in the network. Based on the inferred network, using optimal experimental design criteria, we are able to suggest an informative set of experiments for further investigation of the mechanisms underlying branching behavior.

  5. New opportunities for developing tomato varieties with enhanced carotenoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Leiva-Brondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The development of varieties with a high content of antioxidant compounds, such as carotenoids, has become a major focus in the marketing of tomato. Several mutants have been used in the development of high pigment varieties, but the significant influence of the environment on carotenoid content and the presence of negative side effects in vegetative growth and yield have limited the success of these variants. Consequently, the identification of alternative sources of variation in the quest for high carotenoid content is ongoing. In this study, 12 accessions of Solanum lycopersicum (including the former var cerasiforme and S. pimpinelifolium have been evaluated in three different environments: open field and glasshouse cultivation at two sites. Three accessions (BGV6195 of S. pimpinellifolium, LA1423 of the former var cerasiforme and LA3633 a possible hybrid between S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum showed outstanding and stable lycopene content, that doubled in all three environments the content of the positive control LA3538, with the high pigment-1 mutation (hp1. In addition, accession CATIE14812 would also be interesting as regards improvement of β-carotene content. These materials offer new opportunities in the development of tomato varieties with enriched and reliable carotenoid content and the close taxonomic relationship of these accessions with cultivated tomato will facilitate their use in breeding programs.

  6. Combining ability of tomato lines in saladette-type hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Carvalho Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the growing importance of the saladette fresh tomato market in Brazil, the objective of this paper was to assess the combining abilities of lines potentially useful as parents of hybridsin this class. The experiment consisted of28 genotypes, 18 hybrids from a partial diallel crossobtained from crossing two groups of tomato lines (Group I, with 9 parents, and Group II, with 2 parents, 8 F1 experimental hybrids, and 2 commercial checks. Traits evaluated were total yield, mean fruit mass, fruit shelf life, shape and percentsoluble solids. Additive genetic effects were generally more important than non-additive effects for all traits evaluated. The TOM-542 and TOM-734 lines, from group I, and the TOM-720 line, from group II, presented high general combining ability (GCA estimates for most of the traits of importance for saladette tomatoes, and were therefore considered suitable parents of hybrids of this class. Higher fruit shelf life of TOM-723 as a parental line compared with TOM-720 (Group II, was mainly attributed to the presence in the former of the norA allele, which controls longer fruit shelf life. F1 hybrids (TOM-542 x TOM-720, (TOM-580 x TOM-720, (TOM-734 x TOM-720, and (TOM-727 x TOM-720 showed good performance and fruit quality and thus constitute possible commercial varieties.

  7. Measurement and Modeling of Cucumber Evapotranspiration Under Greenhouse Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moazenzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In two last decades, greenhouse cultivation of different plants has developed among Iranian farmers, approximately 45 percent of national greenhouse cultures consisting of cucumber, tomato and pepper. As huge amounts of agricultural water in Iran are extracted from groundwater resources and a large number of Iranian plains are in critical conditions, and because irrigation is the major consumer of water (95 percent, it must be performed in a scientific manner. One approach to this is to obtain the knowledge of the consumptive use of major crops which is named evapotranspiration (ETc. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out in a north-south greenhouse belonging to Plant Protection Research Institute, located on northern Tehran, Iran, for estimating greenhouse cucumber evapotranspiration. Trickle irrigation method was used, and meteorological data such as temperature, humidity and solar radiation were measured daily. Physical and chemical measurements were conducted and electric conductivity (EC and pH values of 3.42 dsm-1 and 7.19, respectively, were recorded. Soil texture and bulk density were measured as to be sandy loam and 1.4 gr cm-3, respectively. In order to measure the actual evapotranspiration, cucumber seeds were also cultured in six similar microlysimeters and irrigation of each microlysimeter was based on FC moisture. If any drained water was available, it was measured. Finally, with measured meteorological characteristics in greenhouse which are suggested to have an effect on ET and were measurable, the best multiple linear regression and artificial neural network were established. The average data from three microlysimeters were used for calibration and that from three other microlysimeters were used for validation set. Results and Discussion: In the former case, when we used one multiple linear regression with measurable meteorological variables inside the greenhouse to predict cucumber ET for the entire

  8. Comparison of regeneration potentials in tissue cultures of primitive and cultivated tomato species (Lycopersicon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration capacities of two tomato cultivars: Potentat and Rutgers, and of three accessions of wild tomato species: Lycopersicon peruvianum PI 128650, L. peruvianum var. dentatum PI 128655 and L. glandulosum were studied using an universal medium suitable for regeneration of those plants from leaf pieces in tissue culture. Fragments of leaf blades were taken from plants raised in greenhouse conditions and placed on a modified MS medium containing 0.3 mg/l IAA and 3.0 mg/l BAP solidified with 1% agar. The explants were transferred every 4-5 weeks on fresh medium of the same composition. It was shown that all the three primitive tomato species revealed much higher multiplication coefficients than the two cultivars. Appropriate values were: 11 - for L. glandulosum, 8 - for L. peruvianum, 7 - for L. peruvianum var. dentatum, 4 - for L. esculentum cv. Potentat and 2 - cv. Rutgers. Completely regenerated plants were obtained from all the tested species, but organogenesis occurred almost two weeks earlier in wild tomatoes than in the culitivated varieties of L. esculentum.

  9. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Van Meulebroek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita. Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS m−1 was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant’s genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant’s salinity response (at the fruit level, whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  10. Induction of AGAMOUS gene expression plays a key role in ripening of tomato sepals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, B K; Jenkins, S M; Say, B

    1998-03-01

    In vitro culture of VFNT Cherry tomato sepals (calyx) at 16-21 degrees C results in developmental changes that are similar to those that occur in fruit tissue [10]. Sepals become swollen, red, and succulent, produce ethylene, and have increased levels of polygalacturonase RNA. They also produce many flavor volatiles characteristic of ripe tomato fruit and undergo similar changes in sugar content [11]. We examined the expression of the tomato AGAMOUS gene, TAG1, in ripening, in vitro sepal cultures and other tissues from the plant and found that TAG1 RNA accumulates to higher levels than expected from data from other plants. Contrary to reports on the absence of AGAMOUS in sepals, TAG1 RNA levels in green sepals from greenhouse-grown plants is detectable, its concentration increasing with in vitro ripening to levels that were even higher than in red, ripe fruit. Sepals of fruit on transgenic tomato plants that expressed TAG1 ectopically were induced by low temperature to ripen in vivo, producing lycopene and undergoing cell wall softening as is characteristic of pericarpic tissue. We therefore propose that the induction of elevated TAG1 gene expression plays a key role in developmental changes that result in sepal ripening.

  11. The nucleotide sequence of a Polish isolate of Tomato torrado virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budziszewska, Marta; Obrepalska-Steplowska, Aleksandra; Wieczorek, Przemysław; Pospieszny, Henryk

    2008-12-01

    A new virus was isolated from greenhouse tomato plants showing symptoms of leaf and apex necrosis in Wielkopolska province in Poland in 2003. The observed symptoms and the virus morphology resembled viruses previously reported in Spain called Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) and that in Mexico called Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV). The complete genome of a Polish isolate Wal'03 was determined using RT-PCR amplification using oligonucleotide primers developed against the ToTV sequences deposited in Genbank, followed by cloning, sequencing, and comparison with the sequence of the type isolate. Phylogenetic analyses, performed on the basis of fragments of polyproteins sequences, established the relationship of Polish isolate Wal'03 with Spanish ToTV and Mexican ToMarV, as well as with other viruses from Sequivirus, Sadwavirus, and Cheravirus genera, reported to be the most similar to the new tomato viruses. Wal'03 genome strands has the same organization and very high homology with the ToTV type isolate, showing only some nucleotide and deduced amino acid changes, in contrast to ToMarV, which was significantly different. The phylogenetic tree clustered aforementioned viruses to the same group, indicating that they have a common origin.

  12. Virtual Sensors for Designing Irrigation Controllers in Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Arahal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the greenhouse transpiration for control purposes is currently a difficult task. The absence of affordable sensors that provide continuous transpiration measurements motivates the use of estimators. In the case of tomato crops, the availability of estimators allows the design of automatic fertirrigation (irrigation + fertilization schemes in greenhouses, minimizing the dispensed water while fulfilling crop needs. This paper shows how system identification techniques can be applied to obtain nonlinear virtual sensors for estimating transpiration. The greenhouse used for this study is equipped with a microlysimeter, which allows one to continuously sample the transpiration values. While the microlysimeter is an advantageous piece of equipment for research, it is also expensive and requires maintenance. This paper presents the design and development of a virtual sensor to model the crop transpiration, hence avoiding the use of this kind of expensive sensor. The resulting virtual sensor is obtained by dynamical system identification techniques based on regressors taken from variables typically found in a greenhouse, such as global radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The virtual sensor is thus based on empirical data. In this paper, some effort has been made to eliminate some problems associated with grey-box models: advance phenomenon and overestimation. The results are tested with real data and compared with other approaches. Better results are obtained with the use of nonlinear Black-box virtual sensors. This sensor is based on global radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD measurements. Predictive results for the three models are developed for comparative purposes.

  13. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  14. Greenhouse effects on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Calculations that used Pioneer-Venus measurements of atmosphere composition, temperature profiles, and radiative heating predicted Venus' surface temperature ‘very precisely,’ says the Ames Research Center. The calculations predict not only Venus' surface temperature but agree with temperatures measured at various altitudes above the surface by the four Pioneer Venus atmosphere probe craft.Using Pioneer-Venus spacecraft data, a research team has virtually proved that the searing 482° C surface temperature of Venus is due to an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Until now the Venus greenhouse effect has been largely a theory.

  15. Harnessing greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, F.; Rivet, P.; Terrier, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the energy and greenhouse effect questions in a global way. It presents the different methods of fight against the increase of the greenhouse effect (energy saving, carbon sinks, cogeneration,..), describes the main alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (biomass, wind power, solar, nuclear,..), and shows that, even worrying, the future is not so dark as it seems to be and that technical solutions exist which will allow to answer the worldwide growing up energy needs and to slow down the climatic drift. (J.S.)

  16. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  17. Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot and Promotion of Growth of Tomato by Paenibacillus Strains Isolated from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, bacterial strains were isolated from soils from 30 locations of Samcheok, Gangwon province. Of the isolated strains, seven showed potential plant growth promoting and antagonistic activities. Based on cultural and morphological characterization, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these strains were identified as Paenibacillus species. All seven strains produced ammonia, cellulase, hydrocyanic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, protease, phosphatase, and siderophores. They also inhibited the mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in vitro. The seven Paenibacillus strains enhanced a range of growth parameters in tomato plants under greenhouse conditions, in comparison with non-inoculated control plants. Notably, treatment of tomato plants with one identified strain, P. polymyxa SC09-21, resulted in 80.0% suppression of fusarium crown and root rot under greenhouse conditions. The plant growth promoting and antifungal activity of P. polymyxa SC09-21 identified in this study highlight its potential suitability as a bioinoculant. PMID:25071385

  18. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Gaglianone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  19. Pollination deficit in open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., Solanaceae in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Scaramussa Deprá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of world’s crops benefit from biotic pollination, and bees are their main pollinators. Despite the fact that some of these insects have been broadly studied, understanding the interactions between plant crops and their pollinators with a local scale approach is necessary when aiming to apply proper protective and management measures to pollinators and their respective crops. In this context, we analyzed the pollination status of open-field tomato crops (Solanum lycopersicum L., regarding fruit-set, visitation rate and the quality of fruits. We recorded the formation of fruits through spontaneous self-pollination and open-pollination, and the occurrence of pollinators in 24 areas of open-field tomato crops. We performed experiments of apomixis, spontaneous self-pollination, manual cross pollination and supplemental cross pollination (simulating the pollinator behavior in a greenhouse. The fruit quality was evaluated according to circumference, weight, volume and number of seeds. Higher production of fruits after open-pollination compared to spontaneous self-pollination indicates the importance of pollinators to increment productivity of S. lycopersicum in the study area. The circumference and the number of seeds from tomatoes of the greenhouse plantation did not differ between spontaneous self-pollination and the manual cross pollination. In the open-field crops the number of seeds was higher for fruits resulting from open-pollination. Our results indicate that the importance of bees is mainly related to the increase in fruit production, thus incrementing the productivity of tomato crops.

  20. Valorization of Tomato Processing Waste for Lycopene Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Driouich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenching agents. It has been found to be of great medical importance with various anti cancer effects, cardiovascular diseases effective agent and with its ability to be an important carotenoid in preventive medicine. In Tunisia, we note a real consumption of tomato paste. With 28 production units for double and triple concentrated tomato, noting a significant production of waste (approximately 30000 Tonne/year consisting of skins pulp and seeds, which could be an important source of lycopene. Our study is concerned with three solid-phase extraction process: assisted by ultrasonic, by microwave and by homogenizer heating at moderate temperature. Their efficiency for the extraction of lycopene contained in the tomato waste was elaborated. The effect of the main process variables (including solvent polarity, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature and time on lycopene recovery have been investigated. The yield of the isolated lycopene was determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-DAD quantification methods. Lycopene-rich extract was obtained from the dried and milled tomatoes waste using ethanol as a food grade extraction solvent and employing microwave assisted extraction process. The optimum conditions were 30 min total extraction time at 50°C temperature and 1bar pressure. The degradation of extracted lycopene through air oxidation and day light effect were also tested. Lycopene is stable when mixed with olive oil as a natural antioxidant. Up to 80% of lycopene degradated when exposed for one month to day light at 25°C.

  1. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Bell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a two-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms and leaves, irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment.

  2. PINK TOMATO CETUS F1 – PROSPECTS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Barbaritskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink tomato due to their high taste quality is particularly important crop for consumers in Russia. Pink tomato seeds become more popular in the market every year. Breeders have accomplished to combine high fruit taste quality with good transportation abilities and fruit denseness. One of the latest breeding achievement is Cetus F1. A successful combination of good fruit taste with transportability and yield makes this variety a potential leader in Russian market. This is confirmed by growers' trials in various regions of South of Russia. 

  3. Investigations of radiation stimulation of tomatoes, onions and radishes in climatic chamber and field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimon, J.; Pal, I.

    1974-01-01

    The results of three years' experiments with presowing irradiation of tomato, radish, and onion seeds are reported. The main criteria used, were the following: plant height, change in flowering time, number of natured fruits per plant, total carbohydrate content in ripe fruits and of vitamin C level in natured fruits for tomatoes; tuber weight, weight of leaves, total weight, dry matter formation, and contents of carbohydrates and vitamin C for radish; and appearance of flower ''arrows'', yield, and dry matter content for onions. (E.T.)

  4. Characters of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation in glasshouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xiaobo; Gu Xiaojun; Chen Chunhong; Li Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth and yield of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation and materials carried by aero-craft 'Shenzhou' No.4 and its parent variety as control were studied in glasshouse. The results show that all varieties grew vigorously in glasshouse and the average fruit weight was about 221 g for tomato variety 641 and 648 and material HT10-3-2 and HT10-2. Accumulated yield for variety 648 was 2847.5 g, which was 9.9% higher than variety 641, indicating that they are suitable for glasshouse cultivation. Average fruit weight for pepper variety 616 was about 76 g, potential with accumulated yield of 440.9 g, indicating that it can be used for glasshouse cultivation. There was no significant difference between the Aero-craft carried materials and but the yield range change of among and its the carried materials 7.5%-8.0%

  5. Off-season cultivation of capsicums in a solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosal, M.K.; Tiwari, G.N. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2001-10-01

    The use of solar energy for growing capsicums in pots and in the ground has been studied both under a controlled environment in a solar greenhouse (IIT model) and in an open field during August 2000 to March 2001. Cooling arrangements (natural, forced convection, shading, evaporative cooling) and heating methods (ground air collector, movable insulation during the night) have been employed during the pre-winter and winter periods respectively to maintain the protected environment in the greenhouse. The effects of a north brick wall and the use of movable insulation during the night in the winter months to reduce heat loss from the greenhouse have been incorporated to study the efficacy of the greenhouse. The average height, weight and yield per plant of the greenhouse crop were higher than those of the open field. (author)

  6. Performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Khattak, A. M.; Ali, M.; Ullah, K.

    2015-01-01

    To study the performance of different tomato cultivars under organic and inorganic regimes an experiment was conducted at New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during the summer 2013-14. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications. Organic regimes (FYM, poultry manure and mushroom compost) and inorganic (NPK) regimes were allotted to main plot, while cultivars (Roma VF, Roma, Super Classic, Bambino and Rio Grande) were subjected to sub plots. Organic and Inorganic regimes significantly (P ≤ 0.01) influenced all the studied attributes of tomato cultivars. Among different cultivars, Roma gave maximum plant survival (93.8 percentage), number of leaves plant (84.1), number of flower inflorescence (5.4), number of fruits inflorescence (4.3), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (63.9 cm) fruit weight plant (9.1 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha). However, it was closely followed by cultivar Rio Grande for number of leaves plant (79.6), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0) and number of fruits plant (24.9). Cultivar Super Classic produced minimum number of leaves plant (67.7), flower inflorescence (4.8), fruit size (60.6 cm), fruit weight plant (8.6 kg) and total yield (21.7 t ha). Similarly, highest plant survival (90.0 percentage), number of flower inflorescence (5.1), number of fruits inflorescence (4.0), number of fruit plant (25.4), fruit size (62.4 ml), fruit weight plant (8.90 kg) and total yield (22.9 t ha) were recorded in plants provided with organic conditions Roma cultivar performed better than other cultivars under the agro climatic condition of Peshawar followed by cultivar Rio Grande. Therefore, organic tomato production, and these two cultivars are recommended to be grown in Peshawar area. (author)

  7. Smarter greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Houter, G.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse operators strive to be as economic as possible with energy. However, investing in fancy energy-saving equipment is often not cost-effective for smaller operations and in climate zones with mild winters. It is possible, though, for many growers to save energy without buying special

  8. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, Martin; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; van Kampen, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    We present a rapid and gentle drying method for the production of high-grade tomato powders from double concentrated tomato paste, comparing results with powders obtained by foam mat air drying and freeze dried powders. The principle of this method consists of drying tomato paste in foamed state at low temperatures in vacuum. The formulations were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C and vacuum of 200 mbar. Foam stability was affected by low serum viscosity and the presence of solid particles in tomato paste. Consequently, serum viscosity was increased by maltodextrin addition, yielding optimum stability at tomato paste:maltodextrin ratio of 2.4:1 (w/w) in dry matter. Material foamability was improved by addition of 0.5% (w/w, fresh weight) egg white. Because of solid particles in tomato paste, foam air filling had to be limited to critical air volume fraction of Φ = 0.7. The paste was first pre-foamed to Φ = 0.2 and subsequently expanded in vacuo. After drying to a moisture content of 5.6% to 7.5% wet base (w.b.), the materials obtained were in glassy state. Qualities of the resulting powders were compared with those produced by freeze and air drying. Total color changes were the least after vacuum drying, whereas air drying resulted in noticeable color changes. Vacuum foam drying at 50 °C led to insignificant carotenoid losses, being equivalent to the time-consuming freeze drying method. In contrast, air drying caused lycopene and β-carotene losses of 18% to 33% and 14% to 19% respectively. Thus, vacuum foam drying enables production of high-grade tomato powders being qualitatively similar to powders obtained by freeze drying. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Greenhouse cooling using a rainwater basin under the greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the technical and economical aspects of additional applications for a rainwater basin installed under a greenhouse. The installation for cooling the greenhouse can be placed under the greenhouse. Part of the installation consists of a short-term heat store

  10. Assessment of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants cultivated under a fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abdul Wahid; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2012-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) has developed a series of multifunctional bio organic fertilizers, namely, MULTIFUNCTIONAL BIOFERT PG and PA and MF-BIOPELLET, in an effort to reduce dependency on chemical fertilizer for crop production. These products contain indigenous microorganisms that have desired characteristics, which include plant growth promoting, phosphate solubilising, antagonistic towards bacterial wilt disease and enhancing N 2 -fixing activity. These products were formulated as liquid inoculants, and introduced into a fertigation system in an effort to reduce usage of chemical fertilizers. A greenhouse trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of multifunctional bio fertilizers on tomato plants grown under a fertigation system. Multifunctional bio fertilizer products were applied singly and in combination with different rates of NPK in the fertigation system. Fresh and dry weights of tomato plants were determined. Application of multifunctional bio fertilizer combined with 20 g NPK resulted in significantly higher fresh and dry weights as compared to other treatments. (author)

  11. Mulching for sustainable use of saline water to grow tomato in sultanate of oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahaibi, N.S.A.; Hussain, N.; Rawah, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato is grown in 991 hectares with production of 44477 tons in the sultanate of Oman. It is very important vegetable crop of Oman oat present being an integral part of daily diet of the people in various from like salad. Ketchup and kitchen cooking. Oman agriculture relies upon groundwater only, a major portion of which is saline that may concentrate further with the ever increasing pumping and probable seawater intrusions. Hence, the use of saline water is inevitable that can ultimately salinized the good productive soils. The production potential of these soils will gradually decrease and sustainability cannot be kept. This study was conducted to manage the saline water for avoiding bad effect on crop yields and soil health. A field experiment was conducted on tomato (Ginan variety) crop. Two mulching materials: organic matter (from date palm residues) and black plastic sheet, were tested in comparison to control (without any mulch). Two saline waters (EC=3 and 6 dSm/sup -1/) were used for irrigation. Uniform dose of fertilizers was applied. Four pickings of tomato were obtained and yield data were recorded EC moisture % age and temperature of soils were recorded after harvesting of crops. It was observed that data palm mulch proved as the most superior in terms of tomato fruit yield and control of increase in soil EC and temperature. It was followed by black plastic mulch. Both types of mulches indicated significant differences over control as well as among each other. (author)

  12. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each of... greater in length. (c) Blemishes, such as dark brown or black particles (specks)—not more than four exceed...; place a U.S. No. 12 screen (1.68 millimeters (0.066 inch) openings) over the sink drain; transfer the...

  13. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  14. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  15. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  16. Energy input for tomato production what economy says, and what is good for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshyar, Ehsan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Tarazkar, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The central Fars province is the main tomato producer region in Southwest Iran. This study was undertaken to evaluate the energy consumption patterns of tomato production, corresponding GHG emissions, and relationships between inputs and output by a Cobb–Douglass econometric model. The changes...... productivities (MPPs), however, indicated that tomato yield is most sensitive to machinery and chemicals energy inputs in the C1 and C2, respectively, which should be considered first to increase in order to achieve productivity enhancement. The result displayed that higher energy consumption according...... to the econometric models and MPPs may lead to much higher CO2 emissions compared to the current average emissions particularly when MPP is low. Hence, it is suggested that production types with the highest MPPs should be considered if change in energy inputs is desired. In addition, it is recommended that “green...

  17. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  18. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  19. Nuclear energy and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power plants against the greenhouse effects is evaluated, not only nuclear energy is unable to fight greenhouse effect increase but long life wastes endanger environment. 8 refs

  20. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...