WorldWideScience

Sample records for greenhouse gas-induced climate

  1. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  2. Detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the US Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Research Program are to improve assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and to define and reduce uncertainties through selected research. This project will address: The regional and seasonal details of the expected climatic changes; how rapidly will these changes occur; how and when will the climatic effects of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases be first detected; and the relationships between greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and changes caused by other external and internal factors. The present project addresses all of these questions. Many of the diverse facets of greenhouse-gas-related climate research can be grouped under three interlinked subject areas: modeling, first detection and supporting data. This project will include the analysis of climate forcing factors, the development and refinement of transient response climate models, and the use of instrumental data in validating General Circulation Models (GCMs)

  3. Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, M. E.

    2001-07-15

    During the 5 years of NSF grant ATM 95-22681 (Research on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climate Change, $1,605,000, 9/15/1995 to 8/31/2000) we have performed work which we are described in this report under three topics: (1) Development and Application of Atmosphere, Ocean, Photochemical-Transport, and Coupled Models; (2) Analysis Methods and Estimation; and (3) Climate-Change Scenarios, Impacts and Policy.

  4. Greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change: A critical appraisal of simulations and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the culmination of a Workshop on Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change: A Critical Appraisal of Simulations and Observations which was held at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, during 8--12 May 1989. The objectives of the Workshop were to: (1) present and evaluate the current status of climate model simulations of greenhouse-gas-induced changes of both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium (transient) climates; (2) present and assess the current status of the observations of global and regional climates from the beginning of the industrial revolution to the present, circa 1850 to 1989; (3) present reconstructions of climatic change during the last millennium to determine the ''natural variability'' of climate on the intra-century time scale; (4) critically evaluate whether or not the climate has changes from circa 1850 to 1989; and (5) compare the observations with the model simulations to ascertain whether a greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change has occurred and, if not, to estimate when in the future such a climatic change will likely become detectable against the background of the ''natural variability.''

  5. Multivariate statistical assessments of greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change and comparison with results from general circulation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Based on univariate correction and coherence analyses, including techniques moving in time, and taking account of the physical basis of the relationships, a simple multivariate concept is presented which correlates observational climatic time series simultaneously with solar, volcanic, ENSO (El Nino/Souther Oscillation) and anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcing. The climatic elements considered are air temperature (near the ground and stratosphere), sea surface temperature, sea level and precipitation, and cover at least the period 1881-1980 (stratospheric temperature only since 1960). The climate signal assessments which may be hypothetically attributed to the observed CO 2 or equivalent CO 2 (implying additional greenhouse gases) increase are compared with those resulting from GCM experiments. In case of the Northern hemisphere air temperature these comparisons are performed not only in respect to hemispheric and global means, but also in respect to the regional and seasonal patterns. Autocorrelations and phase shifts of the climate response to natural and anthropogenic forcing complicate the statistical assessments

  6. Greenhouse Gas Induced Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of the Amazon Basin in Coupled Climate-Vegetation Regional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Justino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work suggests that changes in seasonality could lead to a 70% reduction in the extent of the Amazon rainforest. The primary cause of the dieback of the rainforest is a lengthening of the dry season due to a weakening of the large-scale tropical circulation. Here we examine these changes in the seasonal cycle. Under present day conditions the Amazon climate is characterized by a zonal separation of the dominance of the annual and semi-annual seasonal cycles. This behavior is strongly modified under greenhouse warming conditions, with the annual cycle becoming dominant throughout the Amazon basin, increasing differences between the dry and wet seasons. In particular, there are substantial changes in the annual cycle of temperature due to the increase in the temperature of the warmest month, but the lengthening of the dry season is believed to be particularly important for vegetation-climate feedbacks. Harmonic analysis performed to regional climate model simulations yields results that differ from the global climate model that it is forced from, with the regional model being more sensitive to changes in the seasonal cycle.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Induced Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of the Amazon Basin in Coupled Climate-Vegetation Regional Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Justino; Frode Stordal; Edward K. Vizy; Kerry H. Cook; Marcos P. S. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests that changes in seasonality could lead to a 70% reduction in the extent of the Amazon rainforest. The primary cause of the dieback of the rainforest is a lengthening of the dry season due to a weakening of the large-scale tropical circulation. Here we examine these changes in the seasonal cycle. Under present day conditions the Amazon climate is characterized by a zonal separation of the dominance of the annual and semi-annual seasonal cycles. This behavior is strongly ...

  8. Comparing and contrasting Holocene and Eemian warm periods with greenhouse-gas-induced warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.; Kutzbach, J.

    1990-01-01

    Periods of the past that are estimated to have been warmer than present are of great potential interest for comparison with simulations of future climates associated with greenhouse-gas-induced warming. Certain features of the climates of the mid-Holocene and Eemian periods, both interglacial maxima, are described. The simulated climatic responses to both types of forcing, in terms of land/ocean and latitudinal averages, are also compared. The zonal average and annual (or seasonal) average radiation fluxes associated with the different-from-present orbital conditions that existed for those interglacials are compared to the radiation flux associated with CO 2 -induced warming. There are some similarities but also significant differences in the two types of radiation flux perturbations, and there are both similarities and differences in the simulated climatic responses

  9. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  10. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  11. Smarter greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Houter, G.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse operators strive to be as economic as possible with energy. However, investing in fancy energy-saving equipment is often not cost-effective for smaller operations and in climate zones with mild winters. It is possible, though, for many growers to save energy without buying special

  12. Localized climate control in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P.S.; Sijs, J.; Fransman, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for controlling the indoor climate in greenhouses are based on a few sensors and actuators in combination with an assumption that climate variables, such as temperature, are uniform throughout the greenhouse. While this is already an improper assumption for conventional greenhouses, it

  13. Greenhouse effect and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Model calculations with different marginal conditions and different physical processes do, on the basis of realistic assumptions, result in a temperature rise of 3 ± 1.5degC at doubling carbon dioxide concentrations. Temperatures are increasing even more due to the presence of trace gases contributing to the greenhouse effect. They are assumed to be having a share of 100% in the carbon dioxide effect (additive) in 30-40 years from now. According to the model calculations the CO 2 increase from about 280 ppm around 1850 to 345 ppm (1985) is equal to a globally averaged temperature rise of 0.5-0.7degC. As the data obtained before 1900 were incomplete and little representative climatic analyses cannot be considered to have been effective but after that time. However, considering the additional influence of other climatic effects such as vulcanism the temperature rise satisfactorily corresponds to the values obtained since 1900. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO 2 emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO 2 emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard

  15. Chaos, spontaneous climatic variations and detection of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    The author illustrates some of the general properties of chaotic dissipative dynamical systems with a simple model. One frequently observed property is the existence of extended intervals, longer than any built-in time scale, during which the system exhibits one type of behavior, followed by extended intervals when another type predominates. In models designed to simulate a climate system with no external variability, he finds that an interval may persist for decades. He notes the consequent difficult in attributing particular real climatic changes to causes that are not purely internal. He concludes that he cannot say at present, on the basis of observations alone, that a greenhouse-gas-induced global warming has already set in, nor can he say that it has not already set in

  16. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  17. Greenhouse effect and climate; Effet de serre et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poitou, J

    2008-04-15

    In the framework of the climatic change, the author aims to explain the phenomena of greenhouse effect. He details the historical aspects of the scientific knowledge in the domain, the gases produced, some characteristic of the greenhouse effect, the other actors which contribute to the climate, the climate simulation, the different factors of climate change since 1750 and the signs of the global heating. (A.L.B.)

  18. Will greenhouse gas-induced warming over the next 50 years lead to higher frequency and greater intensity of hurricanes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, L.; Botzet, M.; Esch, M.

    1994-01-01

    The use of a high resolution atmospheric model at T106 resolution, for studying the influence on greenhouse warming on tropical storm climatology, is investigated. The same method for identifying the storms has been used as in a previous study by Bengtsson et al (1994). The sea surface temperature anomalies have been taken from a previous climate change experiment, obtained with a low resolution ocean-atmosphere coupled model. The global distribution of the storms agree in their geographical position and seasonal variability with that of the present climate, but the number of storms is significantly reduced, particularly at the Southern hemisphere. The main reason to this is related to increased tropospheric stability, associated with increased warming at the upper troposphere and changes in the large scale circulation such as a weaker Hadley circulation and stronger upper air westerlies. The surface winds in the tropics are generally weaker and evaporation is also somewhat reduced, in spite of higher sea surface temperatures. (orig.)

  19. Climatic change and impacts: a general introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantechi, R.; Almeida-Teixeira, M.E.; Maracchi, G.

    1991-01-01

    These proceedings are divided into six parts containing 29 technical papers. 1. An Overview of the Climatic System, 2. Past climate Changes, 3. Climate Processes and Climate Modelling, 4. Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change, 5. Climatic Impacts, 6. STUDENTS' PAPERS

  20. Automatically Maintain Climatic Conditions inside Agricultural Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jasim Ramadhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel system is designed to remote monitor / automatic control of the temperature, humidity and soil moisture of the agricultural greenhouses. In the proposed system, the author used the mentioned sensors for monitoring the climatic conditions of the agricultural greenhouses; and the system makes a controlling process to fix the required parameters for plant growth by running / stopping the fan, air exchanger and irrigation devices when any changes happened in these parameters. The presented system is based on XBee protocol in the implemented wireless sensor star topology network (WSN to monitor the agricultural greenhouses in real time, and used the GSM and Internet technologies to monitor the agricultural greenhouses from anywhere.

  1. Global comparison of three greenhouse climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van C.H.M.; Takakura, T.; Bot, G.P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three dynamic simulation models for calculating the greenhouse climate and its energy requirements for both heating and cooling were compared by making detailed computations for each of seven sets of data. The data sets ranged from a cold winter day, requiring heating, to a hot summer day, requiring

  2. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes co-operate in the greenhouse. So the dependency of the greenhouse climate on the outside weather, the physical properties of the greenhouse construction and the way ventilation and heating is perform...

  3. The greenhouse effect and climate warming up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leygonie, R.

    1992-01-01

    The present article is a follow-up to a previous article, under the same title, which describes the scientific bases of the greenhouse effect and the prospect, based on climatic global models, of a potential climate warming up. The conclusions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, August 1990) were summarized, predicting a mean global temperature increase between 2.4 and 5.1 deg C in 2070, among other changes. The recent IPCC work confirms 1990 conclusions but states that the decline of ozone in the lower stratosphere could neutralize the radiative forcing of chlorofluorocarbons. At least ten more years of investigation are needed to ascertain an increase of the greenhouse effect. Information is given on recent events which may be connected with the global climate problem, in particular the spectacular eruption of the Pinatubo volcano, in mid 1991, cause of a probable cooling of the atmosphere and a potential decrease of radiative forcing due to anthropogenic dioxide emissions. The most important recent events in the political field is a directive proposal by the European Commission aimed at a taxation of both energy in general and of carbon dioxide emissions by fossil fuels. Another event is the United Nations Convention on climate change, signed by 155 countries at the Rio de Janeiro Conference on Environment and Development, which pledges signatories to decrease their greenhouse gas - emissions but no figures are given on percentages and calendar of reduction. At last, a short chapter is devoted to the French ECLAT programme on climate change which consists both in participating in world programmes and in performing original investigations by French Scientists

  4. Identification and Resolution of Feature Interactions in Greenhouse Climate Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen

    The slow adoption pace of new control strategies for sustainable greenhouse climate control by industrial growers, is mainly due to the complexity of identifying and resolving potentially conflicting climate control requirements. When separate climate control strategies are composed they become...... in greenhouses. Experiments show that solutions are found for compatible control strategies and that conflicts are identified and explained for incompatible control strategies....

  5. The greenhouse theory and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, W.

    1994-01-01

    Background information is presented on the theory of the greenhouse effect and its implications for the environment and for government policies. The relationship between climate and atmospheric CO 2 , the major greenhouse gas, is explained. Sources of CO 2 , notably fossil fuel combustion, and sinks (vegetation and oceans) are described. Evidence is presented for an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Irrefutable data indicate an increase in atmospheric CO 2 over 1850-1980 from ca 290 ppM to 345 ppM; other evidence indicates a doubling of atmospheric methane since the eighteenth century. More recent increases have been noted for atmospheric N 2 O and chlorofluorocarbons. The implications of increased atmospheric levels of CO 2 are discussed, and new scientific evidence from Greenland ice-core data is presented which seems to indicate that higher CO 2 concentrations are a result of global warming rather than the cause. Canadian parliamentary action in response to the global warming phenomenon is outlined. A chronology of international efforts in response to global warming is appended. 11 refs

  6. Climate variations and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, P.J.; Knappenberger, P.C.; Gay, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    A number of recent publications have established the scientific paradigm that anthropogenerated sulfate aerosols are a sufficient explanation for the lack of observed greenhouse warming that has been predicted by transient general circulation climate models. This paper tests that hypothesis by examining the observed and modeled behavior of eigenvectors of the observed temperature field at three levels: hemispheric, polar, and over the regions where sulfate aerosol is most concentrated. Without sulfates in the transient model, there is no significant difference in explanatory power between the three test regions. In all three cases, the model creates much more spurious climatic change than it is able to capture. Most damaging to the sulfate hypothesis is that the GCM most accurately represents the behavior of the first eigenvector in summer in the high sulfate regions. This is where the difference between the model and observed temperatures is supposed to be greatest. Thus while the addition of sulfate aerosol to a transient general circulation model may improve its performance over some regions, this effect is insufficient to explain the overall lack of observed warming. This failure of the aerosol hypothesis is particularly evident in polar regions that are relatively aerosol-free, but also devoid of any significant warming

  7. Greenhouse effect and climatic consequences: a scientific evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and its causes and mechanisms are first recalled; anthropogenic contribution (CO2, CFC, ...) is evaluated and related to the biosphere temperature variation, without neglecting natural climatic variations. Based on climate models and energy scenarios, anthropogenic contribution effects on climatic variation, sea-level rise, etc. are evaluated and compared. Recommendations for improving precision of climate models are proposed [fr

  8. Multivariate methods for the detection of greenhouse-gas-induced climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Jones, P.D.; Schlesinger, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This investigation considers whether observed changes in surface air temperature are consistent with GCM equilibrium response predictions for a doubling of atmospheric CO 2 . The model considered is a version of the Oregon State University (OSU) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). The study consists of three stages. In the first stage the authors examine the spatial structure of changes in the annual mean and annual cycle for surface air temperature, mean sea-level pressure (SLP) and precipitation rate. Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios or equivalent test statistics are then computed (using the 1 x CO 2 and 2 x CO 2 data) in order to identify variables most useful for detection purposes. Changes in both means and variances are considered as possible detection parameters. The highest S/N ratios are obtained for annual-mean and winter surface air temperature, and the lowest S/N ratios are obtained for SLP. There are significant increases in the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, and significant decreases in the temporal and spatial variability of surface air temperature

  9. A validated physical model of greenhouse climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the greenhouse model the momentaneous environmental crop growth factors are calculated as output, together with the physical behaviour of the crop. The boundary conditions for this model are the outside weather conditions; other inputs are the physical characteristics of the crop, of the greenhouse and of the control system. The greenhouse model is based on the energy, water vapour and CO 2 balances of the crop-greenhouse system. While the emphasis is on the dynamic behaviour of the greenhouse for implementation in continuous optimization, the state variables temperature, water vapour pressure and carbondioxide concentration in the relevant greenhouse parts crop, air, soil and cover are calculated from the balances over these parts. To do this in a proper way, the physical exchange processes between the system parts have to be quantified first. Therefore the greenhouse model is constructed from submodels describing these processes: a. Radiation transmission model for the modification of the outside to the inside global radiation. b. Ventilation model to describe the ventilation exchange between greenhouse and outside air. c. The description of the exchange of energy and mass between the crop and the greenhouse air. d. Calculation of the thermal radiation exchange between the various greenhouse parts. e. Quantification of the convective exchange processes between the greenhouse air and respectively the cover, the heating pipes and the soil surface and between the cover and the outside air. f. Determination of the heat conduction in the soil. The various submodels are validated first and then the complete greenhouse model is verified

  10. Climate and greenhouse effect gas: glaciated archives data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorius, C.

    1991-01-01

    Ice caps in Antarctica or Greenland have recorded the anthropogenic effect on atmospheric composition and especially on greenhouse effect gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. 2000 meter depth drilling samples allowed to study the climates for 150 000 years ago; hot and cold climates are ruled by periodic movement of the Earth around the sun and by more or less elevated concentration of greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere. Prospects for to morrow climates and anthropogenic contribution are then possible [fr

  11. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes

  12. USDA Northeast climate hub greenhouse gas mitigation workshop technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April 2015, USDA Secretary Vilsack announced the Greenhouse Gas Building Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture and Forestry in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase carbon sequestration, and expand renewable energy production in the agricultural and forestry sectors. This initiati...

  13. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration

  14. Transpiration of greenhouse crops : an aid to climate management

    OpenAIRE

    Stanghellini, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this book some physical aspects of greenhouse climate are analyzed to show the direct interrelation between microclimate and crop transpiration. The energy balance of a greenhouse crop is shown to provide a sound physical framework to quantify the impact of microclimate on transpiration and to identify the constraints set on climate management by the termodynamic behaviour of the canopy. Before the relationship among microclimate, canopy temperature and transpiration is rendered i...

  15. Simple greenhouse climate model as a design tool for greenhouses in tropical lowland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impron, I.; Hemming-Hoffmann, S.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Six prototypes plastic greenhouses were built in the tropical lowlands of Indonesia. The geometrical dimensions were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) by taking local climate parameters as static reference boundary conditions. It is necessary to evaluate the climate dynamics inside

  16. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    their radiative properties are similar to the glass used in a green- house. Greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere absorb 90% of the radiation emitted .... and wind speed and direction in each box is calculated using the physical laws gov-.

  17. The greenhouse effect: will we change the climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Treut, H.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents the great climate factors, the changes resulting from the greenhouse effect and the corresponding human factors part, the atmosphere chemical composition and the biological and geo-political risks bound to the climatic changes. (A.L.B.)

  18. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  19. A validated physical model of greenhouse climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the greenhouse model the momentaneous environmental crop growth factors are calculated as output, together with the physical behaviour of the crop. The boundary conditions for this model are the outside weather conditions; other inputs are the physical characteristics of the crop, of the

  20. Greenhouse statistics - a different look at climate research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.; Vos, A. de

    1993-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is a hot topic. There are still major uncertainties about the effects on the climate of the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Politicians and socioeconomic scientists thus sometimes have the feeling that they are building on quicksand, and this hampers the advancement of an adequate policy. It is therefore necessary to map out the uncertainties, and to reduce them. A method is presented for doing this. 5 refs., 5 figs

  1. Global climate: Methane contribution to greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, P.

    1992-01-01

    The global atmospheric concentration of methane greatly contributes to the severity of the greenhouse effect. It has been estimated that this concentration, due mainly to human activities, is growing at the rate of roughly 1.1% per year. Environmental scientists suggest that a reduction, even as small as 10%, in global methane emissions would be enough to curtail the hypothetical global warning scenarios forecasted for the up-coming century. Through the recovery of methane from municipal and farm wastes, as well as, through the control of methane leaks and dispersions in coal mining and petrochemical processes, substantial progress towards the abatement of greenhouse gas effects could be achieved without having to resort to economically detrimental limitations on the use of fossil fuels

  2. MEMS climate sensor for crops in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Karen; Jensen, Kim Degn; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and fabricated a multi-sensor chip for greenhouse applications and demonstrated the functionality under controlled conditions. The sensor consists of a humidity sensor, temperature sensor and three photodiodes sensitive to blue, red and white light, respectively. The humidity...... sensor responds linearly with humidity with a full scale change of 5.6 pF. The best performing design measures a relative change of 48%. The temperature sensor responds linearly with temperature with a temperature coefficient of resistance of 3.95 x 10(-3) K-1 and a sensitivity of 26.5 Omega degrees C-1...... and humidity sensors have further been tested on plants in a greenhouse, demonstrating that individual plant behavior can be monitored....

  3. MEMS climate sensor for crops in greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkelund, K; Jensen, Kim Degn; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Nagstrup, Johan; Lei, Anders; Petersen, Søren Dahl; Thomsen, Erik V; Andreassen, Andrea U

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and fabricated a multi-sensor chip for greenhouse applications and demonstrated the functionality under controlled conditions. The sensor consists of a humidity sensor, temperature sensor and three photodiodes sensitive to blue, red and white light, respectively. The humidity sensor responds linearly with humidity with a full scale change of 5.6 pF. The best performing design measures a relative change of 48%. The temperature sensor responds linearly with temperature with a temperature coefficient of resistance of 3.95 × 10 −3 K −1 and a sensitivity of 26.5 Ω °C −1 . The three photodiodes have been characterized and show an almost ideal diode behavior with an ideality factor of 1.27 and a series resistance of 14.9 Ω. The diodes are sensitive to blue, red and white light with the measured quantum efficiencies of 69%, 81% and 68%, respectively. The temperature and humidity sensors have further been tested on plants in a greenhouse, demonstrating that individual plant behavior can be monitored.

  4. Climate variations and the enhanced greenhouse effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlen, W. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography

    1998-06-01

    Changes in the size of glaciers, in the altitude of the alpine tree-limit, and variation in the width of tree-rings during the Holocene clearly indicate that the average Scandinavian summer temperature has fluctuated. During warm periods it has been about 2 deg C warmer than at present; during cold periods it has been almost as cold as it was during the coldest decades of the previous centuries. Superimposed on these long-term variations, which have lasted from 100 to 200 years, are short fluctuations in temperature. The Scandinavian chronology, which is based on glacier and alpine tree-limit fluctuations as well as on dendrochronology, is well correlated with the changes in climate, which studies of ice cores from central Greenland have revealed. It is therefore believed that the Scandinavian climate chronology depicts conditions typical of a large area. The Scandinavian record is compared with data concerning solar irradiation variations estimated as {sup 14}C anomalies obtained from tree-rings. A correlation between major changes in climate and variations in solar irradiation points to a solar forcing of the climate. This means that there is no evidence of a human influence on climate so far Special issue. Research for mountain area development: Europe. 64 refs, 3 figs

  5. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of

  6. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X; Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear

  7. Trees against the greenhouse effect. Reforestation for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Climate experts have voiced their warnings: If we continue to accumulate greenhouse gases in the Earth atmosphere, it must be expected that the global average temperature will increase by 1.5 degrees centigrade to 4.5 degrees centigrade, and significant climte changes will occur. (orig.) [de

  8. Decision support for dynamic greenhouse climate control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Körner, O.; Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    Earlier, different dynamic greenhouse climate regimes were designed with various aims as energy saving, biocide reduction or reduction of chemical growth retardants that are used for quality improvement. The aim of this research was to create a decision support tool in order to decide at which week

  9. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  10. Greenhouse effect and its climatic consequences: scientific evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The greenhouse effect plays a major role in climate evolution and the increase observed at present in the concentration of the main gases causing the greenhouse effect (carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane) stems very definitely from human activities. The global warming potential by the various greenhouse effect gases is calculated through restrictive hypotheses. An essential element in the importance given to the growth of the greenhouse effect phenomena was the regular rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The overall carbon cycle balance still needs to be worked out. The aerosols caused by sulfurous releases have grown. The decrease in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere brings on a slight cooling of the surface of the Earth. The local increase of tropospheric ozone brings on a slight local warming with a comparable order of magnitude. Despite all the progress that has been achieved in modelling the phenomena, we cannot affirm today that these predictions are accurate. Recent work involving analyses of the polar ice-caps along with other indications of past climates have given a better understanding of the North Atlantic climate over the past 200,000 years. 119 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  11. The greenhouse effect and natural fluctuations of the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    There is a straight line connecting the first estimate in 1896 of worldwide climate changes due to the increasing use of fossil sources of energy with the Climate Convention of the United Nations at the 1992 Environmental Summit. Extensive model calculations exist of the 'greenhouse effect', in which the lower atmosphere is heated by manmade emissions of trace gases affecting the climate. However, the anticipated changes are not restricted to the temperature of the air; they affect the climate as a whole worldwide. As a consequence, the German Federal Government, in addition to its ban on CFCs, plans to reduce manmade carbon dioxide emissions by 25 or 30% by 2005. Natural fluctuations of the climate compete with the greenhouse effect: Volcanic and solar effects, but also random variations within the complicated interactions in the climatic system (atmosphere - oceans - ice regions - biosphere - land surface). Mathematical and statistical analyses of the superposition of such climatic mechanisms, which are based on data from observations, result in a risk analysis at a high level of probability. (orig.) [de

  12. The climate controversy demands substantive discussion. 'Climatic change sceptics' opposite 'greenhouse effect believers'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.

    2006-01-01

    With the aim to inform policymakers an overview is given of the arguments that are used by climatic change sceptics and greenhouse effect believers, and on which arguments do they agree or disagree [nl

  13. Greenhouse statistics: A different look at climate research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Vos, A.F. de

    1994-01-01

    The debate on the enhanced greenhouse effect continues, confusing the climate change impact analysis and the decision makers. This article attempts to quantify the uncertainties surrounding the temperature's response to increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, and attempts to weigh the hypothesis that the observed warming is due to the long-term natural variability against the hypothesis that it is due to human influence. Information from the distant past on the size of natural variability plays a key role in this. On the basis of this information, the authors conclude that the hypothesis that the observed temperature rise is not related to the enhanced greenhouse effect is rejected at the 1% significance level

  14. Greenhouse gas and livestock emissions and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of livestock sector on climate change. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock are described and the contribution of livestock sector to the global GHG emissions is presented on the basis of the latest results...... obtained from the scientific research. The most recent mitigation strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock sector are also discussed. The paper aims to provide a general overview of an emergent environmental issue such as the impact of livestock sector on climate change. While...... the paper is easy to understand for non-expert readers, it may also be a relevant reference point for academic researchers and for policy makers aimed at achieving the sustainability of livestock/food sector....

  15. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackhurst, Michael; Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T; Sharrard, Aurora L; Azevedo, Ines Lima

    2011-01-01

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  16. Preparing US community greenhouse gas inventories for climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackhurst, Michael [Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1752, Austin, TX 78712-0276 (United States); Scott Matthews, H; Hendrickson, Chris T [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Sharrard, Aurora L [Green Building Alliance, 333 East Carson Street, Suite 331, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States); Azevedo, Ines Lima, E-mail: mblackhurst@gmail.com, E-mail: hsm@cmu.edu, E-mail: auroras@gbapgh.org, E-mail: cth@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: iazevedo@cmu.edu [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 119 Porter Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    This study illustrates how alternative and supplemental community-level greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory techniques could improve climate action planning. Eighteen US community GHG inventories are reviewed for current practice. Inventory techniques could be improved by disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty and variability, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions reductions. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. While GHG inventorying and climate action planning are nascent fields, these techniques can improve CAP design, help communities set more meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialetto, G.; Venanzi, M.; Gaudioso, D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  18. Socio-economic aspects of the greenhouse effect. Climate fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Van der burg, T.; Jansen, H.M.A.; Verbruggen, H.

    1995-01-01

    The title project studies the impact of international capital transfers on the efficiency and efficacy of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The absolute costs of emission abatement is substantially lower in less developed countries. The associated reduction of the damage due to conventional air pollution is higher in the richer countries in both absolute and relative terms. The costs of climatic change are relatively higher (but absolute lower) in the developing countries. Prime impacts are on agriculture (in the developing world) and human health (highly valued in the developed world). Costs of emission reduction and climatic change are joined in a nine region, quasi-Ramsey, integrated climate-economy model, called FUND (Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution). The first calculations with this model show that the (hardly known) dynamics of climate change and the great uncertainties play a critical role, that free riding behaviour need not be as prominent a problem as is generally believed, and that international capital transfers do not seem to substantially influence the optimal emission control, as the regions most interested in climate change do not have much capital to transfer. Negotiated emission caps are likely to alter this conclusion. 3 figs., 1 tab., 16 refs

  19. Methodological advances: using greenhouses to simulate climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, F; Pascual, I; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Aguirreolea, J; Irigoyen, J J; Goicoechea, N; Antolín, M C; Oyarzun, M; Urdiain, A

    2014-09-01

    Human activities are increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. Related to this global warming, periods of low water availability are also expected to increase. Thus, CO2 concentration, temperature and water availability are three of the main factors related to climate change that potentially may influence crops and ecosystems. In this report, we describe the use of growth chamber - greenhouses (GCG) and temperature gradient greenhouses (TGG) to simulate climate change scenarios and to investigate possible plant responses. In the GCG, CO2 concentration, temperature and water availability are set to act simultaneously, enabling comparison of a current situation with a future one. Other characteristics of the GCG are a relative large space of work, fine control of the relative humidity, plant fertirrigation and the possibility of light supplementation, within the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) region and/or with ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light. In the TGG, the three above-mentioned factors can act independently or in interaction, enabling more mechanistic studies aimed to elucidate the limiting factor(s) responsible for a given plant response. Examples of experiments, including some aimed to study photosynthetic acclimation, a phenomenon that leads to decreased photosynthetic capacity under long-term exposures to elevated CO2, using GCG and TGG are reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Golden Age or Greenhouse Gas Dark Age Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on the IPCC Assessments, this paper assesses legacy from total committed global warming over centuries, correlated with comprehensive projected impacts. Socio-economic inertia, climate system inertia, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, amplifying feedback emissions, and unmasking of cooling aerosols are determinants. Stabilization of global temperature (and ocean acidification for CO2) requires emissions of "long lived greenhouse gases" to be "about zero," including feedbacks. "The feedback … is positive" this century; many large feedback sources tend to be self- and inter-reinforcing. Only timely total conversion of all fossil fuel power to clean, virtually zero-carbon renewable power can achieve virtual zero carbon emissions. This results in multiple, increasing benefits for the entire world population of today's and all future generations, as laid out here. Conversions of methane- and nitrous oxide-emitting sources have large benefits. Without timely conversion to virtual zero emissions, the global climate and ocean disruptions are predicted to become progressively more severe and practically irreversible. "Continued emission of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of severe, pervasive and irreversible impacts for people and ecosystems." Crop yields in all main food-producing regions are projected to decline progressively with rising temperature (as proxy to multiple adverse effects) (AR5). Ocean heating, acidification, and de-oxygenation are projected to increase under all scenarios, as is species extinction. The legacy for humanity depends on reducing long-lived global emissions fast enough to virtual zero. Today's surface warming with unprecedented and accelerating atmospheric GHG concentrations requires an immediate response. The only IPCC scenario to possibly meet this and not exceed 2ºC by and after 2100 is the best-case RCP2.6, which requires CO2 eq. emissions to peak right away and decline at the latest by 2020.

  1. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Robert A.; Unninayar, Sushel

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record.

  2. The detection of climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, R.A.; Unninayar, S.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is accepted as an undisputed fact from both theoretical and observational considerations. In Earth's atmosphere, the primary greenhouse gas is water vapor. The specific concern today is that increasing concentrations of anthropogenically introduced greenhouse gases will, sooner or later, irreversibly alter the climate of Earth. Detecting climate change has been complicated by uncertainties in historical observations and measurements. Thus, the primary concern for the GEDEX project is how can climate change and enhanced greenhouse effects be unambiguously detected and quantified. Specifically examined are the areas of: Earth surface temperature; the free atmosphere (850 millibars and above); space-based measurements; measurement uncertainties; and modeling the observed temperature record

  3. Climate Change and the Greenhouse Effect - Nature and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevizos, Anastasios; Zygouras, Grigorios

    2014-05-01

    In this project twenty A grade students of Lyceum (age 16) were involved (2011-12) and had been learning to give answers to questions about greenhouse gases, their origin and the processes forming them with regard to human activity on our planet and our dependence on fossil fuels. They had considered whether and how this dependence affects global warming, how this dependence can be reduced by changing attitudes and using renewable energy sources and further more they had put questions and doubts about anthropogenic global warming existence. The student dialogues during a '' TV series debate '' concerning the views, questions and answers of three groups, the ''IPCCs'', the ''CLIMATE SCEPTICS'' and the '' REALISTS'' are exposed on a poster.

  4. Climate change due to greenhouse effects in China as simulated by a regional climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, X.J.; Zhao, Z.C.; Ding, Y.H.; Huang, R.H.; Giorgi, F. [National Climate Centre, Beijing (China)

    2001-07-01

    Impacts of greenhouse effects (2 x CO{sub 2}) upon climate change over China as simulated by a regional climate model over China (RegCM / China) have been investigated. The model was based on RegCM2 and was nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM model). Results of the control run (1 x CO{sub 2}) indicated that simulations of surface air temperature and precipitation in China by RegCM are much better than that by the global coupled model because of a higher resolution. Results of sensitive experiment by RegCM with 2 x CO{sub 2} showed that the surface air temperature over China might increase remarkably due to greenhouse effect, especially in winter season and in North China. Precipitation might also increase in most parts of China due to the CO{sub 2} doubling.

  5. Greenhouse effect gases and climatic change: quantification and tools to fight against the emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizec, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    The greenhouse effect gases are considered responsible of the climatic change. Their consequences are numerous: increase of the sea level, displacement of the climatic areas, modification of the forests ecosystems, rarefaction of water, progressively decrease of glaciers... This fast modification of the climate would lead to the increase of natural hazards as hurricanes, storms, hails and so on. It is then a necessity to reduce as fast as possible the greenhouse effect gases. The author describes in a first part the methods of the greenhouse effect gases quantification and in the second part the tools to fight these gases, regulations, standards, economic tools, national tools and the projects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  7. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  8. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  9. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  11. Low Simulated Radiation Limit for Runaway Greenhouse Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Robinson, Tyler D.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Crisp, David

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial planet atmospheres must be in long-term radiation balance, with solar radiation absorbed matched by thermal radiation emitted. For hot moist atmospheres, however, there is an upper limit on the thermal emission which is decoupled from the surface temperature. If net absorbed solar radiation exceeds this limit the planet will heat uncontrollably, the so-called \\runaway greenhouse". Here we show that a runaway greenhouse induced steam atmosphere may be a stable state for a planet with the same amount of incident solar radiation as Earth has today, contrary to previous results. We have calculated the clear-sky radiation limits at line-by-line spectral resolution for the first time. The thermal radiation limit is lower than previously reported (282 W/sq m rather than 310W/sq m) and much more solar radiation would be absorbed (294W/sq m rather than 222W/sq m). Avoiding a runaway greenhouse under the present solar constant requires that the atmosphere is subsaturated with water, and that cloud albedo forcing exceeds cloud greenhouse forcing. Greenhouse warming could in theory trigger a runaway greenhouse but palaeoclimate comparisons suggest that foreseeable increases in greenhouse gases will be insufficient to do this.

  12. The climatic warming up (the greenhouse effect); Le rechauffement climatique (l'effet de serre)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancovici, J.M.; Jouzel, J. [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lorius, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Grenoble (France)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    Facing the environmental and biological impacts of the climatic warming up, scientists and economists organized a debate on the subject. After a theoretical presentation of the greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases, the climatic changes are discussed and simulation of the effects are presented. The today effects and tomorrow impacts on the agriculture and the public health are also presented. A synthesis is proposed to discuss the contribution of the energy policy and of the technological progress in measures of greenhouse effect control. (A.L.B.)

  13. The climatic warming up (the greenhouse effect); Le rechauffement climatique (l'effet de serre)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jancovici, J M; Jouzel, J [CEA Saclay, Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lorius, C [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, 38 - Grenoble (France); and others

    2000-05-01

    Facing the environmental and biological impacts of the climatic warming up, scientists and economists organized a debate on the subject. After a theoretical presentation of the greenhouse effect and the greenhouse gases, the climatic changes are discussed and simulation of the effects are presented. The today effects and tomorrow impacts on the agriculture and the public health are also presented. A synthesis is proposed to discuss the contribution of the energy policy and of the technological progress in measures of greenhouse effect control. (A.L.B.)

  14. The runaway greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Watson, Andrew J

    2012-09-13

    The ultimate climate emergency is a 'runaway greenhouse': a hot and water-vapour-rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only after the surface reaches approximately 1400 K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that the Earth will in around 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases. But could we bring on such a catastrophe prematurely, by our current climate-altering activities? Here, we review what is known about the runaway greenhouse to answer this question, describing the various limits on outgoing radiation and how climate will evolve between these. The good news is that almost all lines of evidence lead us to believe that is unlikely to be possible, even in principle, to trigger full a runaway greenhouse by addition of non-condensible greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. However, our understanding of the dynamics, thermodynamics, radiative transfer and cloud physics of hot and steamy atmospheres is weak. We cannot therefore completely rule out the possibility that human actions might cause a transition, if not to full runaway, then at least to a much warmer climate state than the present one. High climate sensitivity might provide a warning. If we, or more likely our remote descendants, are threatened with a runaway greenhouse, then geoengineering to reflect sunlight might be life's only hope. Injecting reflective aerosols into the stratosphere would be too short-lived, and even sunshades in space might require excessive maintenance. In the distant future, modifying Earth's orbit might provide a sustainable solution. The runaway greenhouse also remains relevant in planetary sciences and astrobiology: as extrasolar planets smaller and nearer to their stars are detected, some will be in

  15. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  16. The greenhouse effect: will we change the climate?; L'effet de serre: allons-nous changer le climat?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Treut, H

    2004-07-01

    This book presents the great climate factors, the changes resulting from the greenhouse effect and the corresponding human factors part, the atmosphere chemical composition and the biological and geo-political risks bound to the climatic changes. (A.L.B.)

  17. Incorporating climate into belowground carbon estimates in the national greenhouse gas inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato

    2015-01-01

    Refined estimation of carbon (C) stocks within forest ecosystems is a critical component of efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of projected climate change through forest C management. Recent evidence has pointed to the importance of climate as a driver of belowground C stocks. This study describes an approach for adjusting allometric...

  18. Multiple greenhouse-gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocker, B.D.; Roth, R.; Joos, F.; Spahni, R.; Steinacher, M.; Zaehle, S.; Bouwman, L.; Xu, R.; Prentice, I.C.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, CH4 and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere that are sensitive to climate and CO2. This leads to feedbacks between climate and land and has contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric

  19. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  20. Persistence of climate changes due to a range of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S; Sanford, Todd J; Murphy, Daniel M; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Knutti, Reto; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2010-10-26

    Emissions of a broad range of greenhouse gases of varying lifetimes contribute to global climate change. Carbon dioxide displays exceptional persistence that renders its warming nearly irreversible for more than 1,000 y. Here we show that the warming due to non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, although not irreversible, persists notably longer than the anthropogenic changes in the greenhouse gas concentrations themselves. We explore why the persistence of warming depends not just on the decay of a given greenhouse gas concentration but also on climate system behavior, particularly the timescales of heat transfer linked to the ocean. For carbon dioxide and methane, nonlinear optical absorption effects also play a smaller but significant role in prolonging the warming. In effect, dampening factors that slow temperature increase during periods of increasing concentration also slow the loss of energy from the Earth's climate system if radiative forcing is reduced. Approaches to climate change mitigation options through reduction of greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions therefore should not be expected to decrease climate change impacts as rapidly as the gas or aerosol lifetime, even for short-lived species; such actions can have their greatest effect if undertaken soon enough to avoid transfer of heat to the deep ocean.

  1. Calculation of NIR effect on greenhouse climate in various conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Hemming, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Northern regions of Europe glass is mainly used as greenhouse covering material whereas in Southern regions plastic films are commonly used. The develop-ment of covering material optical properties focuses on high light transmission, reduction of heating energy losses (higher latitudes) and

  2. The increased atmospheric greenhouse effect and regional climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenaas, S. [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. The main information for predicting future climate changes comes from integrating coupled climate models of the atmosphere, ocean and cryosphere. Regional climate change may be studied from the global integrations, however, resolution is coarse because of insufficient computer power. Attempts are being made to get more regional details out of the global integrations by ``downscaling`` the latter. This can be done in two ways. Firstly, limited area models with high resolution are applied, driven by the global results as boundary values. Secondly, statistical relationships have been found between observed meteorological parameters, like temperature and precipitation, and analyzed large scale gridded fields. The derived relations are then used on similar data from climate runs to give local interpretations. A review is given of literature on recent observations of climate variations and on predicted regional climate change. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pawlowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results.

  4. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Andrzej; Guzman, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Francisco; Berenguel, Manuel; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results. PMID:22389597

  5. An Agent-based Extensible Climate Control System for Sustainable Greenhouse Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Klein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The slow adoption pace of new control strategies for sustainable greenhouse climate control by industrial growers is mainly due to the complexity of identifying and resolving potentially conflicting climate control requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-agent-based climate control system....... Negotiation is done using a novel multi-issue negotiation protocol that uses a generic algorithm to find an optimized solution within the search space. The Multi-Agent control system has been empirically evaluated in an ornamental floriculture research facility in Denmark. The evaluation showed...... that it is realistic to implement the climate control requirements as individual agents, thereby opening greenhouse climate control systems for integration of independently produced control strategies....

  6. Computer control of the greenhouse climate - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasson, I; Stroem, K

    1983-01-01

    A typical greenhouse has, compared to other kinds of buildings, a rather low thermal mass, rather bad insulation and it acts as a solar collector during a hot day. The dynamical behaviour of the greenhouse, when it is heated, is influenced by that kind of heating system which is in use, i.e. hot air heating compared to water pipe heating. In the water pipe system a lot of heat is stored in the pipes. The ventilation rate is strongly dependent on the wind speed and the direction of the wind. This causes problems with regard to the control of the ventilation windows. The introduction of computers for controlling the greenhouse environment raises possibilities of a totally new development in this field. In the computer several functions, earlier separated, can be integrated, i.e. heating, ventilation, water, CO/sub 2/-enrichment, shading, light a.s.o. More complicated control algorithms can be used as the software is easy to modify. The capability of the computer to process information makes it possible, at least to some degree, to optimize the crop yield depending on how much resources that are consumed, i.e. energy. Intense research all over the world opens new areas, due to new sensor constructions. An interesting field is the hydropond growing of plants.

  7. The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

  8. Short-term climatic fluctuations and the interpretation of recent observations in terms of greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.C.; Royer, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    Simulations of future climate made with coupled general circulation models of the atmosphere and ocean predict that the increase of the concentration of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere by man's activities will have a large influence on the climate of the next century. The identification of the climatic impact produced by the rapid increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the last decades is made difficult by strong inter-annual climate variability, and requires the application of statistical techniques combining several climatic indicators (method of climatic 'fingerprints') so as to improve the detection of a possible anthropogenic perturbation. In this paper we review the evolution through the last decades of several climate indicators showing global warming, its geographical distribution, sea level, the hydrological cycle and the response of vegetation, and we compare them to the model results predicted in climate scenarios. The coherence between model results and observed climatic trends shows that the additional greenhouse effect is starting to become detectable in recent climatic data. (authors)

  9. Effect on energy use and greenhouse micro climate through fan motor control by variable frequency drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitel, Meir; Zhao Yun; Barak, Moti; Bar-lev, Eli; Shmuel, David

    2004-01-01

    A comparison was conducted between ON-OFF and variable frequency drive (VFD) systems to control greenhouse ventilation fans. The study aimed to determine the effect of each system on the energy consumption and resulting greenhouse micro climate. The experiments were conducted in a commercial size greenhouse in which pepper was grown. To check the performance of the fan that was controlled by a VFD system, it was installed in a test facility and operated under several rotation speeds. At each speed of rotation, the static pressure on the fan was changed and parameters, such as electricity consumption and air flow rate, were measured. Reducing the fan speed with the VFD system resulted in reductions in the air flow rate through the greenhouse and energy consumption, the latter being much more significant. The study showed that VFD control can reduce electricity consumption compared with ON-OFF operation by an amount that depends on the weather. In the present study, the average energy consumption with the VFD control system over a period of one month, was about 0.64 of that with an ON-OFF system. The average greenhouse daily air temperatures and humidity ratios obtained with each control system between 0700 and 1800 were nearly equal during that month. The results obtained in the greenhouse further show that the VFD system has a greater potential than the ON-OFF to reduce the range of amplitude variations in the air temperature and humidity ratio within the greenhouse

  10. Effect of greenhouse micro-climate on the selected summer vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.P.; Lal, T.; Gupta, Y.P.; Hans, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The study deals with creating suitable environment for the germination and subsequent growth of plants in the greenhouse of size 7 m x 3 m x 2 m for raising early summer vegetable nursery. It was observed that the average air temperature inside the greenhouse was 10–12°C higher than the ambient air temperature. Inside average soil temperature was also 5–7°C higher than the corresponding temperature outside the greenhouse. Greenhouse night micro-climate was modified by covering its roof with a polyester sheet to cut down the effect of night sky radiation thereby raising the inside minimum temperature. The effect of elevated temperature was monitored on the germination and subsequent growth of “muskmelon” seedlings up to two true leaf stage. It was observed that the germination of seeds, sown inside the greenhouse occurred one week earlier as compared to the seeds sown in the open field. The rate of growth of the seedlings inside the greenhouse took only three weeks to attain two-leaf stage, whereas seedlings sown in the open field took five weeks to reach up to two-leaf stage. Thus, there was a clear saving of 15 days in raising the nursery under the greenhouse. (author)

  11. The enhanced greenhouse signal versus natural variations in observed climate time series: a statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwiese, C D [J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1996-12-31

    It is a well-known fact that human activities lead to an atmospheric concentration increase of some IR-active trace gases (greenhouse gases GHG) and that this influence enhances the `greenhouse effect`. However, there are major quantitative and regional uncertainties in the related climate model projections and the observational data reflect the whole complex of both anthropogenic and natural forcing of the climate system. This contribution aims at the separation of the anthropogenic enhanced greenhouse signal in observed global surface air temperature data versus other forcing using statistical methods such as multiple (multiforced) regressions and neural networks. The competitive natural forcing considered are volcanic and solar activity, in addition the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) mechanism. This analysis will be extended also to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and anthropogenic sulfate formation in the troposphere

  12. The enhanced greenhouse signal versus natural variations in observed climate time series: a statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwiese, C.D. [J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    It is a well-known fact that human activities lead to an atmospheric concentration increase of some IR-active trace gases (greenhouse gases GHG) and that this influence enhances the `greenhouse effect`. However, there are major quantitative and regional uncertainties in the related climate model projections and the observational data reflect the whole complex of both anthropogenic and natural forcing of the climate system. This contribution aims at the separation of the anthropogenic enhanced greenhouse signal in observed global surface air temperature data versus other forcing using statistical methods such as multiple (multiforced) regressions and neural networks. The competitive natural forcing considered are volcanic and solar activity, in addition the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) mechanism. This analysis will be extended also to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and anthropogenic sulfate formation in the troposphere

  13. Advances and bottlenecks in modelling the greenhouse climate: summary of a group discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, I.; Bakker, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This report is a summary of a group discussion at the symposium 'Models in protected cultivation' held in Wageningen, August 1997. The discussion focused on the reasons for the relatively limited acceptance and application of greenhouse climate models, especially in commercial practice. The

  14. Non-Kyoto radiative forcing in long-run greenhouse gas emissions and climate change scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.K.; Kriegler, E.; Bibas, R.; Calvin, K.; Popp, A.; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Weyant, J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate policies must consider radiative forcing from Kyoto greenhouse gases, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone that result from air pollutants. Non-Kyoto forcing constituents contribute negative, as well as positive forcing, and overall increases in

  15. A survey of computer-based approaches for greenhouse climate management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotman, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study recapitulates research efforts that have addressed the restricted problem of greenhouse climate management. This problem is first analyzed by looking at the current working method of the grower and the characteristics of this management task. The different attempts to automate parts of

  16. Greenhouse technology for sustainable production in mild winter climate areas: Trends and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero, J.I.; Stanghellini, C.; Castilla, N.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse production in the near future will need to reduce significantly its environmental impact. For this purpose, elements such as the structure, glazing materials, climate equipments and controls have to be developed and wisely managed to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, achieve maximum

  17. Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

    1994-01-01

    A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

  18. 6.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Austria, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have increased by about 10 % between 1990 and 2001. This means that already in 2001 the emissions reached the level projected with current measures for 2010. Thus Austria is far from complying with the 13 % reduction required under the Kyoto Protocol, meaning that GHG emissions will have to be reduce annually by 1.4 million tons of CO 2 -equivalents to fulfill its protocol obligation. It is shown that 2001 GHG emissions had increased by 9.6 % since the base year 1990, the main reason for this increase is the growing use of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in CO 2 emissions. The highest growth rates can be observed in the transport sector by almost half (+ 49 %). Basically, greenhouse gas emission trends depend on a number of factors, about two thirds of them are caused by energy production, so the most important parameters affecting GHG are the trends of energy consumption, the energy mix and the following factors: population growth, economic growth, outdoor temperature and the resulting heating requirements, improvement of energy efficiency, the proportion of renewable energy sources such as electricity generation in hydroelectric power stations (which influences the need for supplementary power production in thermal power plants), the mix of fossil fuels, for example in caloric power plants (natural gas combustion produces about 40 % less CO 2 per energy unit than coal combustion), the structure and price effects of energy market liberalization, which influence the use of various fuels in electricity production and the import of electricity, world market prices for energy, structural changes in the economy and in the behavior of consumers. Changes in important driving forces and in GHG emissions, sector emissions trends and Austrian, European and global emissions projections are provided. (nevyjel)

  19. Greenhouse design for vegetable production in subtropical climate in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Speetjens, S.L.; Wang, D.; Tsay, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan open field vegetable production is threatened by subtropical climatic disasters, such as high wind speeds and heavy rainfall, which can cause the destruction of whole crops. Next to that vegetable production is threatened by pests and diseases resulting a high need for pesticides.

  20. Experimental performance of evaporative cooling pad systems in greenhouses in humid subtropical climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Li, Y.; Wang, R.Z.; Liu, W.; Zhou, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental performance of evaporative cooling in humid climate is investigated. • 5 working modes are studied in the greenhouse. • Vertical and horizontal temperature and relative humidity variations are analysed. • Indoor temperature can be kept in required level by proper working modes. - Abstract: To solve the overheating problem caused by the solar radiation and to keep the indoor temperature and humidity at a proper level for plants or crops, cooling technologies play vital role in greenhouse industry, and among which evaporative cooling is one of the most commonly-used methods. However, the main challenge of the evaporative cooling is its suitability to local climatic and agronomic condition. In this study, the performance of evaporative cooling pads was investigated experimentally in a 2304-m 2 glass multi-span greenhouse in Shanghai in the southeast of China. Temperature and humidity distributions were measured and reported for different working modes, including the use of evaporative cooling alone and the use of evaporative cooling with shading or ventilation. These experiments were conducted in humid subtropical climates where were considered unfavourable for evaporative cooling pad systems. Quantified analyses from the energy perspective are also made based on the experimental results and the evaporative cooling fan–pad system is demonstrated to be an effective option for greenhouse cooling even in the humid climate. Suggestions and possible solutions for further improving the performance of the system are proposed. The results of this work will be useful for the optimisation of the energy management of greenhouses in humid climates and for the validation of the mathematical model in future work

  1. Assessment of urgent impacts of greenhouse gas emissions—the climate tipping potential (CTP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Nielsen, Per H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on climate change receives much focus today. This impact is however often considered only in terms of global warming potential (GWP), which does not take into account the need for staying below climatic target levels, in order to avoid...... passing critical climate tipping points. Some suggestions to include a target level in climate change impact assessment have been made, but with the consequence of disregarding impacts beyond that target level. The aim of this paper is to introduce the climate tipping impact category, which represents...... as on the chosen climatic target level and background scenario for atmospheric GHG concentration development. In order to enable direct application in life cycle assessment (LCA), CTP characterisation factors are presented for the three main anthropogenic GHGs, CO2, CH4 and N2O.The CTP metric distinguishes...

  2. Recent climatic change, greenhouse gas emissions and future climate: The implications for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Govinda; Kelly, P. M.; Hulme, M.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss past climatic trends over India, greenhouse gas emissions due to energy consumption, forest and land-use changes, climate change scenarios for the year 2050, potential consequences for agriculture and cyclone activity and the possibility that India might limit the increasing trend in its emissions. India's mean surface air temperature has increased significantly by about 0.4°C over the past ccntury. Neither monsoon nor annual rainfall shows any significant trend. On average, there has been a rise in sea levels around India over recent decades, though considerable uncertainties exist in the accuracy and interpretation of the available data. Carbon emissions from the energy sector amount to 71 MT a year, equivalent to all other sectors combined. From land-use data, a marginal net sequestration of 5.25 million tonnes of carbon occurred during 1986. Following the IPCC guidelines, methane emissions from rice and livestock are estimated at 17.4 and 12.8 Tg/year, respectively. According to recent climate model projections, India may experience a further rise in temperature of 1 °C by the year 2050, about four times the rate of warming experienced over the past 100 years. A modest increase in precipitation amounts might occur. Cereals production is estimated to decrease and the nutrition security of the population-rich but land-hungry region of India might be hampered. An increase in local tropical cyclone activity may occur over thc next century, posing added problems as large areas in the coastal regions have a dense population. About 70% of the electricity generation in India is from coal-based power stations. Altering this dependence significantly to reduce emissions would imply a substantial change in the present energy policy of India. There is great potential for improving energy efficiency and conservation. The adoption of cleaner coal-technologies should be considered, as must the development of renewable, non-conventional energy

  3. International negotiations about the greenhouse effect and climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemillier, P.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro 160 countries made the commitment to monitor emissions of gases causing the greenhouse effect; and developed countries pledged to provide technical and financial assistance to the others and to reduce by 2000 their own emissions to the level reached in 1990. In 1995, the follow-up conference decided to go farther: developed countries were to commit themselves to quantified objectives whereas developing ones were not subject to new restrictions. In December 1997, this 'global warming treaty' is to be signed in Kyoto. What will it provide for? Given the difficulties of reducing CO 2 emissions and the efforts already made, given foreseeable population growth in developing lands and the upsurge in their economies, we can imagine how much is being required of developed lands. Although all parties declare they are willing to work together and apply the precaution principle, they feel concerned lest measures impede their growth and their industry's competitiveness. Given diverging viewpoints between developing countries, the United states, the European Union, Japan, and petroleum- and gas-exporting lands, it is hard to predict what provisions this treaty will contain. Whatever they may be, Kyoto is but a phase in a long process. (author)

  4. Review. Advantages and disadvantages of control theories applied in greenhouse climate control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte-Galvan, C.; Torres-Pacheco, I.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R. G.; Romero-Troncoso, R. J.; Contreras-Medina, L. M.; Rios-Alcaraz, M. A.; Millan-Almaraz, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    Today agriculture is changing in response to the requirements of modern society, where ensuring food supply through practices such as water conservation, reduction of agrochemicals and the required planted surface, which guarantees high quality crops are in demand. Greenhouses have proven to be a reliable solution to achieve these goals; however, a greenhouse as a means for protected agriculture has the potential to lead to serious problems. The most of these are related to the inside greenhouse climate conditions where controlling the temperature and relative humidity (RH) are the main objectives of engineering. Achieving appropriate climate conditions to ensure high yield and quality crops reducing energy consumption have been the objective of investigations for some time. Different schemes in control theories have been applied in this field to solve the aforementioned problems. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a review of different control techniques applied in protected agriculture to manage greenhouse climate conditions, presenting advantages and disadvantages of developed control platforms in order to suggest a design methodology according to results obtained from different investigations. (Author) 64 refs.

  5. Northern Hemisphere Winter Climate Response to Greenhouse Gas, Ozone, Solar and Volcanic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Miller, Ron L.; Rind, David; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate/middle atmosphere model has been used to study the impacts of increasing greenhouse gases, polar ozone depletion, volcanic eruptions, and solar cycle variability. We focus on the projection of the induced responses onto Northern Hemisphere winter surface climate. Changes in the model's surface climate take place largely through enhancement of existing variability patterns, with greenhouse gases, polar ozone depletion and volcanic eruptions primarily affecting the Arctic Oscillation (AO) pattern. Perturbations descend from the stratosphere to the surface in the model by altering the propagation of planetary waves coming up from the surface, in accord with observational evidence. Models lacking realistic stratospheric dynamics fail to capture these wave flux changes. The results support the conclusion that the stratosphere plays a crucial role in recent AO trends. We show that in our climate model, while ozone depletion has a significant effect, greenhouse gas forcing is the only one capable of causing the large, sustained increase in the AO observed over recent decades. This suggests that the AO trend, and a concurrent strengthening of the stratospheric vortex over the Arctic, are very likely anthropogenic in origin.

  6. An Investigation of Secondary Students' Mental Models of Climate Change and the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Begoña; Sesto, Vanessa; García-Rodeja, Isabel

    2018-03-01

    There are several studies dealing with students' conceptions on climate change, but most of them refer to understanding before instruction. In contrast, this study investigates students' conceptions and describes the levels of sophistication of their mental models on climate change and the greenhouse effect. The participants were 40 secondary students (grade 7) in Spain. As a method of data collection, a questionnaire was designed with open-ended questions focusing on the mechanism, causes, and actions that could be useful in reducing climate change. Students completed the same questionnaire before and after instruction. The students' conceptions and mental models were identified by an inductive and iterative analysis of the participants' explanations. With regard to the students' conceptions, the results show that they usually link climate change to an increase in temperature, and they tend to mention, even after instruction, generic actions to mitigate climate change, such as not polluting. With regard to the students' mental models, the results show an evolution of models with little consistency and coherence, such as the models on level 1, towards higher levels of sophistication. The paper concludes with educational implications proposed for solving learning difficulties regarding the greenhouse effect and climate change.

  7. Computer Controlled Portable Greenhouse Climate Control System for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsenko, Anthony; Myer, Steve; Petties, Albert; Hustek, Ryan; Thompson, Mark

    2010-04-01

    This paper discusses a student project at Kettering University focusing on the design and construction of an energy efficient greenhouse climate control system. In order to maintain acceptable temperatures and stabilize temperature fluctuations in a portable plastic greenhouse economically, a computer controlled climate control system was developed to capture and store thermal energy incident on the structure during daylight periods and release the stored thermal energy during dark periods. The thermal storage mass for the greenhouse system consisted of a water filled base unit. The heat exchanger consisted of a system of PVC tubing. The control system used a programmable LabView computer interface to meet functional specifications that minimized temperature fluctuations and recorded data during operation. The greenhouse was a portable sized unit with a 5' x 5' footprint. Control input sensors were temperature, water level, and humidity sensors and output control devices were fan actuating relays and water fill solenoid valves. A Graphical User Interface was developed to monitor the system, set control parameters, and to provide programmable data recording times and intervals.

  8. Water deficit effects on maize yields modeled under current and greenhouse climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.; Sinclair, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The availability of water imposes one of the major limits on rainfed maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. This analysis was undertaken in an attempt to quantify the effects of limited water on maize growth and yield by extending a simple, mechanistic model in which temperature regulates crop development and intercepted solar radiation is used to calculate crop biomass accumulation. A soil water budget was incorporated into the model by accounting for inputs from rainfall and irrigation, and water use by soil evaporation and crop transpiration. The response functions of leaf area development and crop gas exchange to the soil water budget were developed from experimental studies. The model was used to interpret a range of field experiments using observed daily values of temperature, solar radiation, and rainfall or irrigation, where water deficits of varying durations developed at different stages of growth. The relative simplicity of the model and its robustness in simulating maize yields under a range of water-availability conditions allows the model to be readily used for studies of crop performance under alternate conditions. One such study, presented here, was a yield assessment for rainfed maize under possible greenhouse climates where temperature and atmospheric CO 2 concentration were increased. An increase in temperature combined with decreased rainfall lowered grain yield, although the increase in crop water use efficiency associated with elevated CO 2 concentration ameliorated the response to the greenhouse climate. Grain yields for the greenhouse climates as compared to current conditions increased, or decreased only slightly, except when the greenhouse climate was assumed to result in severly decreased rainfall

  9. Modeling of the climate system and of its response to a greenhouse effect increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.

    2005-01-01

    The anthropic disturbance of the Earth's greenhouse effect is already visible and will enhance in the coming years or decades. In front of the rapidity and importance of the global warming effect, the socio-economical management of this change will rise problems and must be studied by the scientific community. At the modeling level, finding a direct strategy for the validation of climate models is not easy: many uncertainties exist because energy transformations take place at a low level and several processes take place at the same time. The variability observed at the seasonal, inter-annual or paleo- scales allows to validate the models at the process level but not the evolution of the whole system. The management of these uncertainties is an integral part of the global warming problem. Thus, several scenarios can be proposed and their risk of occurrence must be estimated. This paper presents first the greenhouse effect, the climatic changes during geologic times, the anthropic disturbance of the greenhouse effect, the modeling of climate and the forecasting of its evolution. (J.S.)

  10. Climate change due to the greenhouse effect and its implications for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, M.; Wigley, T.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, Z.; Wang, F.; Ding, Y.; Leemans, R.; Markham, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the greenhouse effect, past climate changes, and forecasts. The implications for China, and for policies are discussed. Over China, warming has been greater (nearly 1.0[degree]C since the last century) than over the rest of the planet. It is also more pronounced in winter. Climatic change would have a substantial impact on natural vegetation in China. By 2050, large changes in cropping systems would occur. Sea level rise is likely to affect some densely populated areas. 14 refs., 24 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Greenhouse policy without regrets. A free market approach to the uncertain risks of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.

    2000-07-01

    Due to uncertainty about climate change, and human contributions thereto, many policymakers call for 'precautionary' measures to reduce the risk of global warming. Such policies are characterized as 'insurance'. Such insurance against the risks of climate change can be achieved by either lessening the likelihood of change by reducing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases through a combination of emission controls and carbon sequestration strategies, or by enacting mitigation measures to reduce the possible economic and ecological impact of a potential climate change. No insurance policy is worthwhile if the cost of the premiums exceeds the protection purchased. For greenhouse insurance to be worthwhile, it must either reduce the risks of anthropogenic climate change or reduce the costs of emission reductions designed to achieve the same goal, without imposing off-setting risks, such as those which would result from policies that slow economic growth and technological advance. Currently proposed precautionary measures, such as the Kyoto Protocol, call for government interventions to control greenhouse-gas emissions and suppress the use of carbon-based fuels. Such policies would impose substantial costs and yet do little, if anything, to reduce the risks of climate change. Such policies cannot be characterized as cost-effective greenhouse 'insurance'. Rather than adopt costly regulatory measures that serve to suppress energy use and economic growth, policy makers should seek to eliminate government interventions in the marketplace that obstruct emission reductions and discourage the adoption of lower emission technologies. Such an approach is a 'no regrets' strategy, as these policy recommendations will provide economic and environmental benefits by fostering innovation and economic efficiency whether or not climate change is a serious threat. While fear of global warming may prompt the enactment of these reforms, they merit implementation even if we have

  12. Moving Towards the Use of New Micro Technology (MEMS) in Greenhouse Climate Related Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, A.U.; Hyldgaard, Anders; Petersen, Søren D.

    2006-01-01

    Climatic control of plant growth based on almost static set points in the greenhouse industry is slowly but surely about to be replaced by more advanced control based on models describing biological processes in the plants. The use of various sensors in relation to the climate control system...... is also developing towards new techniques and technologies. A prototype Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) dual temperature and light sensor has been compared in experiments with conventional sensors to analyse the reliability, repeatability and usability of both the MEMS dual sensor and the resulting...

  13. On multi-fingerprint detection and attribution of greenhouse gas- and aerosol forced climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegerl, G C [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Hasselmann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Cubasch, U [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Mitchell, J F.B. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Bracknell (United Kingdom). Meteorological Office; Roeckner, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Voss, R [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Waszkewitz, J [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    A multi-fingerprint analysis is applied to the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change. While a single fingerprint, as applied in a previous paper by Hegerl et al. (1996), is optimal for detecting a significant climate change, the simultaneous use of several fingerprints allows one to investigate additionally the consistency between observations and model predicted climate change signals for competing candidate forcing mechanisms. Thus the multi-fingerprint method is a particularly useful technique for attributing an observed climate change to a proposed cause. Different model-predicted climate change signals are derived from three global warming simulations for the period 1880 to 2049. In one simulation, the forcing was by greenhouse gases only, while in the remaining two simulations the influence of aerosols was also included. The two dominant climate change signals derived from these simulations are optimized statistically by weighting the model-predicted climate change pattern towards low-noise directions. These optimized fingerprints are then applied to observed near surface temperature trends. The space-time structure of natural climate variability (needed to determine the signal-to-noise ratio) is estimated from several multi-century control simulations with different CGCMs and from instrumental data over the last 134 years. (orig.)

  14. A solar cooling system for greenhouse food production in hot climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P.A. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    This study is motivated by the difficulty of cultivating crops in very hot countries and by the tendency for some such countries to become dependent on imported food. Liquid desiccation with solar regeneration is considered as maintained at or above room temperature, and this was confirgreenhouses. Previous studies demonstrated the technical feasibility of the desiccation-evaporation process, but mainly in the context of human dwellings. In the proposed cycle, the air is dried prior to entering the evaporative cooler. This lowers the wet-bulb temperature of the air. The cooling is assisted by using the regenerator to partially shade the greenhouse. The heat of desiccation is transferred and rejected at the outlet of the greenhouse. The cycle is analysed and results given for the climate of the The Gulf, based on weather data from Abu Dhabi. Taking examples of a temperate crop (lettuce), a tropical crop (tomato) and a tropical crop resistant to high temperatures (cucumber) we estimate the extension in growing seasons relative to (i) a greenhouse with simple fan ventilation (ii) a greenhouse with conventional evaporative cooling. Compared to option (ii), the proposed system lowers summers maximum temperatures by 5{sup o}C. This will extend the optimum season for lettuce cultivation from 3 to 6 months of the year and, for tomato and cucumber, from 7 months to the whole year. (author)

  15. Multiple greenhouse-gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin D.; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Steinacher, Marco; Zaehle, Soenke; Bouwman, Lex; Xu-Ri; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, CH4 and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere that are sensitive to climate and CO2. This leads to feedbacks between climate and land and has contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric GHG concentrations since pre-industrial times. Here, we apply a process-based model to reproduce the historical atmospheric N2O and CH4 budgets within their uncertainties and apply future scenarios for climate, land-use change and reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to investigate future GHG emissions and their feedbacks with climate in a consistent and comprehensive framework. Results suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario, terrestrial N2O and CH4 emissions increase by 80 and 45%, respectively, and the land becomes a net source of C by AD 2100. N2O and CH4 feedbacks imply an additional warming of 0.4-0.5°C by AD 2300; on top of 0.8-1.0°C caused by terrestrial carbon cycle and Albedo feedbacks. The land biosphere represents an increasingly positive feedback to anthropogenic climate change and amplifies equilibrium climate sensitivity by 22-27%. Strong mitigation limits the increase of terrestrial GHG emissions and prevents the land biosphere from acting as an increasingly strong amplifier to anthropogenic climate change.

  16. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  17. Prospects for greenhouse gas controls and a climate-friendly energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    An update on the activities in the United States regarding climate change and energy policy was presented. The author noted that despite the de-linking of gross domestic product (GDP) growth and energy use, emissions in the United States are currently 14.5 per cent higher than they were in 1990. The impact that the statement by the Bush administration regarding policy on climate change was also reviewed. It was suggested that greenhouse gas emissions in the United States will continue to increased over the next decade, even with the new strategy on climate change. The rate of increase will be only slightly lower than that predicted under a business-as-usual scenario. The author approved support for baseline protection for firms that have already reduced their emissions, but expressed concern that mandatory tracking and reporting systems are not required under the new strategy. 7 figs

  18. Corporate actions for the climate - Greenhouse gas reduction practices at EpE member companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalendar, Pierre-Andre de

    2012-11-01

    Corporate awareness of the reality of climate change and the impact of human activity on global warming goes back some twenty years. It was at this time that EpE members decided to take voluntary action towards lowering greenhouse gas emissions. EpE member companies started out by measuring their emissions (see EpE publication entitled 'Measuring and Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions'), then worked to identify initiatives easiest to implement and those that would have the best reduction potential. This booklet is prepared to contribute to other businesses improving their knowledge and understanding of the best practices identified and implemented by EpE members, in order to speed up the reduction of global emissions, without hampering their competitiveness. The practices showcased here have intentionally been detailed so that they can be easier to adopt. (authors)

  19. Time-dependent climate sensitivity and the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeebe, Richard E

    2013-08-20

    Climate sensitivity measures the response of Earth's surface temperature to changes in forcing. The response depends on various climate processes that feed back on the initial forcing on different timescales. Understanding climate sensitivity is fundamental to reconstructing Earth's climatic history as well as predicting future climate change. On timescales shorter than centuries, only fast climate feedbacks including water vapor, lapse rate, clouds, and snow/sea ice albedo are usually considered. However, on timescales longer than millennia, the generally higher Earth system sensitivity becomes relevant, including changes in ice sheets, vegetation, ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling, etc. Here, I introduce the time-dependent climate sensitivity, which unifies fast-feedback and Earth system sensitivity. I show that warming projections, which include a time-dependent climate sensitivity, exhibit an enhanced feedback between surface warming and ocean CO2 solubility, which in turn leads to higher atmospheric CO2 levels and further warming. Compared with earlier studies, my results predict a much longer lifetime of human-induced future warming (23,000-165,000 y), which increases the likelihood of large ice sheet melting and major sea level rise. The main point regarding the legacy of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is that, even if the fast-feedback sensitivity is no more than 3 K per CO2 doubling, there will likely be additional long-term warming from slow climate feedbacks. Time-dependent climate sensitivity also helps explaining intense and prolonged warming in response to massive carbon release as documented for past events such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

  20. An alternative to the global warming potential for comparing climate impacts of emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Stuber, Nicola

    2003-01-01

    The global warming potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climate impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GQP has been subject at many criticism because of its formulation but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of this design and application and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here a new metric which we call the Global Temperature Change Potential (GTP) is proposed which is based on a simple analytical climate model that represents the temperature change as a given time due to either a pulse emission of a gas or a sustained emission change relative to a similar emission change of carbon dioxide. The GTP for a pulse emission illustrates that the GWP does not represent well the relative temperature response; however, the GWP is shown to be very close to the GTP for a sustained emission change for time horizons of 100 years or more. The new metric retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions. The GTP for a sustained emission appears to be robust to a number of uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP. (Author)

  1. Air pollution policy in Europe: Quantifying the interaction with greenhouse gases and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollen, Johannes; Brink, Corjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the computable general equilibrium model WorldScan to analyse interactions between EU's air pollution and climate change policies. Covering the entire world and seven EU countries, WorldScan simulates economic growth in a neo-classical recursive dynamic framework, including emissions and abatement of greenhouse gases (CO 2 , N 2 O and CH 4 ) and air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x , NH 3 and PM 2.5 ). Abatement includes the possibility of using end-of-pipe control options that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. This paper analyses several variants of EU's air pollution policies for the year 2020. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than two thirds, thus also at least one third of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease, which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, and may even drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy. - Highlights: • This paper models bottom-up emission control in top-down CGE model. • We analyse interactions between air pollution and climate policies in Europe. • Structural changes induced by stringent air policies may make EU-ETS market obsolete

  2. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion, and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-05-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds." I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars-sized to 10 Earth-mass. The states are as follows: globally ice covered (Ts ⪅ 245 K), cold and damp (270 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 290 K), hot and moist (350 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 550 K), and very hot and dry (Tsx2A86;900 K). No stable climate exists for 290 ⪅ T s ⪅ 350 K or 550 ⪅ Ts ⪅ 900 K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describes the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong nonlinearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surface, so more thermal radiation is emitted and more sunlight absorbed (the former dominates). The atmospheres of small planets expand more due to weaker gravity; the effective runaway greenhouse threshold is about 35 W m(-2) higher for Mars, 10 W m(-2) higher for Earth or Venus, but only a few W m(-2) higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet. There is an underlying (expansion-neglected) trend of increasing runaway greenhouse threshold with planetary size (40 W m(-2) higher for a 10 Earth-mass planet than for Mars). Summing these opposing trends means that Venus-sized (or slightly smaller) planets are most susceptible to a runaway greenhouse. The habitable zone for pure water atmospheres is very narrow, with an insolation range of 0.07 times the solar constant. A wider habitable zone requires background gas and greenhouse gas: N2 and CO2 on Earth, which are biologically controlled. Thus, habitability depends on inhabitance.

  3. A Cloud Greenhouse Effect on Mars: Significant Climate Change in the Recent Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Kahre, Melinda A.; Schaeffer, James R.; Montmessin, Frank; Phillips, R J.

    2012-01-01

    The large variations in Mars orbit parameters are known to be significant drivers of climate change on the Red planet. The recent discovery of buried CO2 ice at the South Pole adds another dimension to climate change studies. In this paper we present results from the Ames GCM that show within the past million years it is possible that clouds from a greatly intensified Martian hydrological cycle may have produced a greenhouse effect strong enough to raise global mean surface temperatures by several tens of degrees Kelvin. It is made possible by the ability of the Martian atmosphere to transport water to high altitudes where cold clouds form, reduce the outgoing longwave radiation, and drive up surface temperatures to maintain global energy balance.

  4. Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillman, Karl; Damgaard, Anders; Eriksson, Ola

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review......, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems....... The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised....

  5. Climate change impacts and greenhouse gas mitigation effects on U.S. hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlert, Brent; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Swanson, Richard; McCluskey, Alyssa; Neumann, James E.; McFarland, James; Martinich, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze contiguous U.S. hydropower generation under various emissions scenarios. • Employ systems model that allocates water to competing uses in 2119 river basins. • Average U.S. generation increases under climate change, but falls under low flows. • Mitigation benefits are $2-$4 billion/year due to high values of carbon-free energy. - Abstract: Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues and consumer expenditures. We analyze the physical and economic effects of changes in hydropower generation for the contiguous U.S. in futures with and without global-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, and across patterns from 18 General Circulation Models. Using a monthly water resources systems model of 2119 river basins that routes simulated river runoff through reservoirs, and allocates water to potentially conflicting and climate dependent demands, we provide a first-order estimate of the impacts of various projected emissions outcomes on hydropower generation, and monetize these impacts using outputs from an electric sector planning model for over 500 of the largest U.S. hydropower facilities. We find that, due to generally increasing river runoff under higher emissions scenarios in the Pacific Northwest, climate change tends to increase overall hydropower generation in the contiguous U.S. During low flow months, generation tends to fall with increasing emissions, potentially threatening the estimated low flow, firm energy from hydropower. Although global GHG mitigation slows the growth in hydropower generation, the higher value placed on carbon-free hydropower leads to annual economic benefits ranging from $1.8 billion to $4.3 billion. The present value of these benefits to the U.S. from global greenhouse gas

  6. Air Pollution Policy in Europe. Quantifying the Interaction with Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, J. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Den Haag (Netherlands); Brink, C. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    In this study the Computable General Equilibrium Model called WorldScan is used to analyse interactions between European air pollution policies and policies aimed at addressing climate change. WorldScan incorporates the emissions of both greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) and air pollutants (SO2, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5). WorldScan has been extended with equations that enable the simulation of end-of-pipe measures that remove pollutants without affecting the emission-producing activity itself. Air pollution policy will depend on end-of-pipe controls for not more than 50%, thus also at least 50% of the required emission reduction will come from changes in the use of energy through efficiency improvements, fuel switching and other structural changes in the economy. Greenhouse gas emissions thereby decrease which renders climate change policies less costly. Our results show that carbon prices will fall, but not more than 33%, although they could drop to zero when the EU agrees on a more stringent air pollution policy.

  7. Multiple greenhouse gas feedbacks from the land biosphere under future climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Roth, Raphael; Joos, Fortunat; Spahni, Renato; Steinacher, Marco; Zaehle, Soenke; Bouwman, Lex; Xu-Ri, Xu-Ri; Prentice, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of the three important greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4, and N2O are mediated by processes in the terrestrial biosphere. The sensitivity of terrestrial GHG emissions to climate and CO2 contributed to the sharp rise in atmospheric GHG concentrations since preindustrial times and leads to multiple feedbacks between the terrestrial biosphere and the climate system. The strength of these feedbacks is determined by (i) the sensitivity of terrestrial GHG emissions to climate and CO2 and (ii) the greenhouse warming potential of the respective gas. Here, we quantify feedbacks from CO2, CH4, N2O, and land surface albedo in a consistent and comprehensive framework based on a large set of simulations conducted with an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. The modeled sensitivities of CH4 and N2O emissions are tested, demonstrating that independent data for non-land (anthropogenic, oceanic, etc.) GHG emissions, combined with simulated emissions from natural and agricultural land reproduces historical atmospheric budgets within their uncertainties. 21st-century scenarios for climate, land use change and reactive nitrogen inputs (Nr) are applied to investigate future GHG emissions. Results suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario, terrestrial N2O emissions increase from 9.0 by today to 9.8-11.1 (RCP 2.6) and 14.2-17.0 TgN2O-N/yr by 2100 (RCP 8.5). Without anthropogenic Nr inputs, the amplification is reduced by 24-32%. Soil CH4 emissions increase from 221 at present to 228-245 in RCP 2.6 and to 303-343 TgCH4/yr in RCP 8.5, and the land becomes a net source of C by 2100 AD. Feedbacks from land imply an additional warming of 1.3-1.5°C by 2300 in RCP 8.5, 0.4-0.5°C of which are due to N2O and CH4. The combined effect of multiple GHGs and albedo represents an increasingly positive total feedback to anthropogenic climate change with positive individual feedbacks from CH4, N2O, and albedo outweighing the diminishing negative feedback from CO2

  8. US major crops’ uncertain climate change risks and greenhouse gas mitigation benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, Ian Sue; Monier, Erwan; Stern, Ari; Mundra, Anupriya

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the costs of climate change to US agriculture, and associated potential benefits of abating greenhouse gas emissions. Five major crops’ yield responses to climatic variation are modeled empirically, and the results combined with climate projections for a no-policy, high-warming future, as well as moderate and stringent mitigation scenarios. Unabated warming reduces yields of wheat and soybeans by 2050, and cotton by 2100, but moderate warming increases yields of all crops except wheat. Yield changes are monetized using the results of economic simulations within an integrated climate-economy modeling framework. Uncontrolled warming’s economic effects on major crops are slightly positive—annual benefits <$4 B. These are amplified by emission reductions, but subject to diminishing returns—by 2100 reaching $17 B under moderate mitigation, but only $7 B with stringent mitigation. Costs and benefits are sensitive to irreducible uncertainty about the fertilization effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide, without which unabated warming incurs net costs of up to $18 B, generating benefits to moderate (stringent) mitigation as large as $26 B ($20 B). (letter)

  9. Alternatives to the Global Warming Potential for Comparing Climate Impacts of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Hailemariam, K.; Stuber, N.

    2005-01-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) is used within the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a metric for weighting the climatic impact of emissions of different greenhouse gases. The GWP has been subjected to many criticisms because of its formulation, but nevertheless it has retained some favour because of the simplicity of its design and application, and its transparency compared to proposed alternatives. Here, two new metrics are proposed, which are based on a simple analytical climate model. The first metric is called the Global Temperature Change Potential and represents the temperature change at a given time due to a pulse emission of a gas (GTPP); the second is similar but represents the effect of a sustained emission change (hence GTPS). Both GTPP and GTPS are presented as relative to the temperature change due to a similar emission change of a reference gas, here taken to be carbon dioxide. Both metrics are compared against an upwelling-diffusion energy balance model that resolves land and ocean and the hemispheres. The GTPP does not perform well, compared to the energy balance model, except for long-lived gases. By contrast, the GTPS is shown to perform well relative to the energy balance model, for gases with a wide variety of lifetimes. It is also shown that for time horizons in excess of about 100 years, the GTPS and GWP produce very similar results, indicating an alternative interpretation for the GWP. The GTPS retains the advantage of the GWP in terms of transparency, and the relatively small number of input parameters required for calculation. However, it has an enhanced relevance, as it is further down the cause-effect chain of the impacts of greenhouse gases emissions and has an unambiguous interpretation. It appears to be robust to key uncertainties and simplifications in its derivation and may be an attractive alternative to the GWP

  10. Filtering natural light at the greenhouse covering - better greenhouse climate and higher production by filtering out NIR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Braak, van der N.; Dueck, T.A.; Marissen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Wageningen UR investigated the potentials of several NIR-filtering methods to be applied in Dutch horticulture. NIR-filtering can be done by the greenhouse covering or by internal or external moveable screens. The objective of this investigation was to quantify the effect of different NIR-filtering

  11. Relevance of emissions timing in biofuel greenhouse gases and climate impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwietzke, Stefan; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2011-10-01

    Employing life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a key performance metric in energy and environmental policy may underestimate actual climate change impacts. Emissions released early in the life cycle cause greater cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) over the next decades than later emissions. Some indicate that ignoring emissions timing in traditional biofuel GHG accounting overestimates the effectiveness of policies supporting corn ethanol by 10-90% due to early land use change (LUC) induced GHGs. We use an IPCC climate model to (1) estimate absolute CRF from U.S. corn ethanol and (2) quantify an emissions timing factor (ETF), which is masked in the traditional GHG accounting. In contrast to earlier analyses, ETF is only 2% (5%) over 100 (50) years of impacts. Emissions uncertainty itself (LUC, fuel production period) is 1-2 orders of magnitude higher, which dwarfs the timing effect. From a GHG accounting perspective, emissions timing adds little to our understanding of the climate impacts of biofuels. However, policy makers should recognize that ETF could significantly decrease corn ethanol's probability of meeting the 20% GHG reduction target in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The added uncertainty of potentially employing more complex emissions metrics is yet to be quantified.

  12. Comparison of the observed and calculated clear sky greenhouse effect - Implications for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehl, J. T.; Briegleb, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    The clear sky greenhouse effect is defined in terms of the outgoing longwave clear sky flux at the top of the atmosphere. Recently, interest in the magnitude of the clear sky greenhouse effect has increased due to the archiving of the clear sky flux quantity through the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The present study investigates to what degree of accuracy this flux can be analyzed by using independent atmospheric and surface data in conjunction with a detailed longwave radiation model. The conclusion from this comparison is that for most regions over oceans the analyzed fluxes agree to within the accuracy of the ERBE-retrieved fluxes (+/- 5 W/sq m). However, in regions where deep convective activity occurs, the ERBE fluxes are significantly higher (10-15 W/sq m) than the calculated fluxes. This bias can arise from either cloud contamination problems or variability in water vapor amount. It is argued that the use of analyzed fluxes may provide a more consistent clear sky flux data set for general circulation modeling validation. Climate implications from the analyzed fluxes are explored. Finally, results for obtaining longwave surface fluxes over the oceans are presented.

  13. Greenhouse gas balances in low-productive drained boreal peatlands - is climate-friendly management possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Heikkinen, Tiina; Penttilä, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Five million hectares of peatland has been drained for forestry in Finland. About 20% of that, i.e. one million hectares, has been estimated to be so low-productive that the profitability of keeping them in forestry is questionable. At the same time, drainage has introduced changes in the ecosystem functions of these peatlands, including fluxes of greenhouse gases. Options to manage such peatlands include for example 1) no measures, i.e. leaving the drained peatlands as they are 2) increasing intensity by e.g. repetitive fertilisations and 3) restoration back to functional peatlands. Here we estimate the greenhouse gas impacts of these three management options. We collected GHG and organic carbon flux data from 50 low-productive peatlands under these management options over two years 2014-2015. Gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured with closed chambers. Litter production rates of different plants above and below ground were estimated using litter traps (trees), biomass sampling (roots), through-grow nets (mosses), allometric biomass models (other vasculars) and published turnover rates (roots, other vasculars). Characteristics for estimating tree stand biomass increment were measured at each site from circular sample plots. In this presentation we will estimate the GHG impacts for the different management options, and aim to find the most climate-friendly options for the management of low-productive peatlands in the short and long term. This work was funded by Life+ LIFE12/ENV/FI/150.

  14. A Cancun stake: to revitalize climate cooperation while improving transparency about national greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    After having recalled the instruments which are available for the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) to ensure an as much as transparent as possible information transmission between states about greenhouse gas emissions, this article questions the way the Copenhagen agreement can be implemented while considering the discussions which took place. It draws lessons from other previous examples of international cooperation: WTO agreements, the Clean Development Mechanism. Three propositions are made in the perspective of the Cancun conference: to create a reliable world inventory of emissions, to organize cooperation with countries wishing to define statistics for their emission monitoring, and to reinforce transparency and control of measures (with the MRV criteria) which are subsidized by the international community

  15. Misperceived climate friendliness of organic food and consumer willingness to pay for actual greenhouse gas emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming practices are generally associated with lower environmental impacts than conventional farming but this does not generally hold true in a climate context. A recent meta-analysis shows that organic milk production often has higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kilo milk produce...... in consumers’ preferences. Hence, if reduced GHG emissions are to be pursued by increased consumption of climate friendlier food then marketing efforts and information strategies need to be targeted specifically to different segments of the population....

  16. Countries’ contributions to climate change: effect of accounting for all greenhouse gases, recent trends, basic needs and technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, M.J.; Olivier, J.J.; Hoehne, N.E.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of recent discussions at the UN climate negotiations we compared several ways of calculating historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assessed the effect of these different approaches on countries’ relative contributions to cumulative global emissions. Elements not covered

  17. Performance of extended and unscented Kalman filters for state and parameter estimation of a greenhouse climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Cruz, I.L.; Beveren, Van P.J.M.; Mourik, Van S.; Henten, Van E.J.

    2017-01-01

    In dynamic modeling of the greenhouse climate, prediction errors are a significant issue due to uncertainties in initial state values, input variables, model parameters and model structure, all propagating in time in a nonlinear way. We investigated a data assimilation approach using two non-linear

  18. Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change: Global and regional perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Feng, Y.

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. About 30 years ago, it was recognized that the increase in tropospheric ozone from air pollution (NO x, CO and others) is an important greenhouse forcing term. In addition, the recognition of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on stratospheric ozone and its climate effects linked chemistry and climate strongly. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins due to fast long-range transport, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e., aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols may nucleate more cloud droplets, which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. The dimming has a surface cooling effect and decreases evaporation of moisture from the surface, thus slows down the hydrological cycle. On the other hand, absorption of solar radiation by black carbon and some organics increase atmospheric heating and tend to amplify greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. ABCs are concentrated in regional and mega-city hot spots. Long-range transport from these hot spots causes widespread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by widespread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. In S. Asia and N. Africa, the large north-south gradient in the ABC

  19. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  20. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillefosse, A.

    2008-01-01

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again

  1. California's greenhouse gas law, Assembly Bill 1493: Deficiencies, alternatives, and implications for regulatory climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    California's Air Resources Board has finalized regulations implementing Assembly Bill (AB) 1493, which requires 'maximum feasible and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles'. By 2030, when California's light-duty vehicle stock has been substantially replaced by regulation-compliant vehicles, total emissions from regulated vehicles are projected to be reduced by 27% relative to 'business-as-usual', but are nevertheless expected to be 8.7% higher than 2004 emissions. If an 8.7% increase truly represents the 'maximum feasible and cost-effective' emissions reduction from transportation vehicles, then global climate stabilization clearly will not be attained within limits of 'feasibility' and 'cost-effectiveness', and climate sustainability will only be achievable through severely draconian measures. On the other hand, if significantly greater emissions reduction would be feasible and cost-effective, then the AB 1493 regulations fail to satisfy the legislative policy mandate and the task is to find a regulatory mechanism that will. The thesis of this paper is that the regulations do not satisfy the mandate for several reasons, the most important being the conflicting policy objectives of the 'cost-constrained' legislative mandate and the 'quantity-constrained', standard-based regulatory instrument. An alternative policy instrument that would better fit legislative policy and environmental objectives would be a feebate-type system (although not necessarily a conventional vehicle feebate)

  2. Climate change science : high quality greenhouse gas emissions data are a cornerstone of programs to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    This testimony focuses on (1) the importance of quality data on emissions in the context of a program intended to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) key considerations in developing reliable data on greenhouse gas emissions. This testimony is ba...

  3. Cover crops mitigate direct greenhouse gases balance but reduce drainage under climate change scenarios in temperate climate with dry summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Constantin, Julie; Justes, Eric

    2018-02-14

    Cover crops provide ecosystem services such as storing atmospheric carbon in soils after incorporation of their residues. Cover crops also influence soil water balance, which can be an issue in temperate climates with dry summers as for example in southern France and Europe. As a consequence, it is necessary to understand cover crops' long-term influence on greenhouse gases (GHG) and water balances to assess their potential to mitigate climate change in arable cropping systems. We used the previously calibrated and validated soil-crop model STICS to simulate scenarios of cover crop introduction to assess their influence on rainfed and irrigated cropping systems and crop rotations distributed among five contrasted sites in southern France from 2007 to 2052. Our results showed that cover crops can improve mean direct GHG balance by 315 kg CO 2 e ha -1  year -1 in the long term compared to that of bare soil. This was due mainly to an increase in carbon storage in the soil despite a slight increase in N 2 O emissions which can be compensated by adapting fertilization. Cover crops also influence the water balance by reducing mean annual drainage by 20 mm/year but increasing mean annual evapotranspiration by 20 mm/year compared to those of bare soil. Using cover crops to improve the GHG balance may help to mitigate climate change by decreasing CO 2 e emitted in cropping systems which can represent a decrease from 4.5% to 9% of annual GHG emissions of the French agriculture and forestry sector. However, if not well managed, they also could create water management issues in watersheds with shallow groundwater. Relationships between cover crop biomass and its influence on several variables such as drainage, carbon sequestration, and GHG emissions could be used to extend our results to other conditions to assess the cover crops' influence in a wider range of areas. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Danish government's climate plan. Towards a society without greenhouse gases; Regeringens klimaplan. Pae vej mod et samfund uden drivhusgasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Danish government's goal is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions with 40% by the year 2020, compared to 1990 levels. A major step towards reaching that goal was accomplished in March 2012, with the political agreement on energy policy. The remaining reductions to achieve the goal will come primarily from the transportation, agriculture and construction sectors, and from waste management. In order to reach the government's goal, we must eliminate the equivalent of approximately four million tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions by 2020. Reaching the goal in 2020 also depends on factors such as the economy as we progress toward 2020, as well as on EU climate policy. The government will continue to work proactively to ensure that ambitious climate and energy policies are pursued by the EU. The EU policies will contribute significantly in order to achieve the national objectives. The government will engage in a dialogue with parliament, business society and civil society to discuss what kind of national policy initiatives to be decided on to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The government will introduce a climate change bill during the upcoming session of parliament. The purpose of this upcoming bill is to ensure progress and transparency in the climate policy development. The bill will include requirements for an annual climate policy progress report to show whether Denmark is on track to meet the goal of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2020. As part of its work on the climate policy plan, an inter-ministerial working group has developed a catalogue of about 80 possible climate policy initiatives to address climate change. These policy proposals, along with the proposed legislation, will be the government's main instruments in the coming years in order to continuously monitor and adjust its climate policy. (Author)

  5. Global climate change in the Earth's history: The cretaceous period was a period of greenhouse climate; Klimawandel in der Erdgeschichte: Kreidezeit war Treibhauswelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutterlose, J.; Immenhauser, A. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Geophysik, Sediment- und Isotopengeologie/Geobiologie

    2007-07-01

    The impending global warning is one of the biggest challenges to be faced by humanity. A look back into Earth's history may be useful for describing and understanding the future scenario. Paleooceanographers, paleontologists and sedimentologists analyze the climates throughout Earth history, in which there were several periods of 'greenhouse conditions'. (orig.)

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  8. Orbital Noise in the Earth System is a Common Cause of Climate and Greenhouse-Gas Fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. S.; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Wade, C., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The mismatch between fossil isotopic data and climate models known as the cool-tropic paradox implies that either the data are flawed or we understand very little about the climate models of greenhouse warming. Here we question the validity of the climate models on the scientific background of orbital noise in the Earth system. Our study shows that the insolation pulsation induced by orbital noise is the common cause of climate change and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane. In addition, we find that the intensity of the insolation pulses is dependent on the latitude of the Earth. Thus, orbital noise is the key to understanding the troubling paradox in climate models.

  9. National greenhouse-gas accounting for effective climate policy on international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kander, Astrid; Jiborn, Magnus; Moran, Daniel D.; Wiedmann, Thomas O.

    2015-05-01

    National greenhouse-gas accounting should reflect how countries’ policies and behaviours affect global emissions. Actions that contribute to reduced global emissions should be credited, and actions that increase them should be penalized. This is essential if accounting is to serve as accurate guidance for climate policy. Yet this principle is not satisfied by the two most common accounting methods. Production-based accounting used under the Kyoto Protocol does not account for carbon leakage--the phenomenon of countries reducing their domestic emissions by shifting carbon-intensive production abroad. Consumption-based accounting (also called carbon footprinting) does not credit countries for cleaning up their export industries, and it also punishes some types of trade that could contribute to more carbon efficient production worldwide. We propose an improvement to consumption-based carbon accounting that takes technology differences in export sectors into account and thereby tends to more correctly reflect how national policy changes affect total global emissions. We also present empirical results showing how this new measure redraws the global emissions map.

  10. Impact of evolving greenhouse gas forcing on the warming signal in regional climate model experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, S; López-Romero, J M; Turco, M; Jiménez-Guerrero, P; Vautard, R; Montávez, J P

    2018-04-03

    Variations in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) may not be included as external forcing when running regional climate models (RCMs); at least, this is a non-regulated, non-documented practice. Here we investigate the so far unexplored impact of considering the rising evolution of the CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O atmospheric concentrations on near-surface air temperature (TAS) trends, for both the recent past and the near future, as simulated by a state-of-the-art RCM over Europe. The results show that the TAS trends are significantly affected by 1-2 K century -1 , which under 1.5 °C global warming translates into a non-negligible impact of up to 1 K in the regional projections of TAS, similarly affecting projections for maximum and minimum temperatures. In some cases, these differences involve a doubling signal, laying further claim to careful reconsideration of the RCM setups with regard to the inclusion of GHG concentrations as an evolving external forcing which, for the sake of research reproducibility and reliability, should be clearly documented in the literature.

  11. Eocene greenhouse climate revealed by coupled clumped isotope-Mg/Ca thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Sagoo, Navjit; Renema, Willem; Cotton, Laura J; Müller, Wolfgang; Todd, Jonathan A; Saraswati, Pratul Kumar; Stassen, Peter; Ziegler, Martin; Pearson, Paul N; Valdes, Paul J; Affek, Hagit P

    2018-02-06

    Past greenhouse periods with elevated atmospheric CO 2 were characterized by globally warmer sea-surface temperatures (SST). However, the extent to which the high latitudes warmed to a greater degree than the tropics (polar amplification) remains poorly constrained, in particular because there are only a few temperature reconstructions from the tropics. Consequently, the relationship between increased CO 2 , the degree of tropical warming, and the resulting latitudinal SST gradient is not well known. Here, we present coupled clumped isotope (Δ 47 )-Mg/Ca measurements of foraminifera from a set of globally distributed sites in the tropics and midlatitudes. Δ 47 is insensitive to seawater chemistry and therefore provides a robust constraint on tropical SST. Crucially, coupling these data with Mg/Ca measurements allows the precise reconstruction of Mg/Ca sw throughout the Eocene, enabling the reinterpretation of all planktonic foraminifera Mg/Ca data. The combined dataset constrains the range in Eocene tropical SST to 30-36 °C (from sites in all basins). We compare these accurate tropical SST to deep-ocean temperatures, serving as a minimum constraint on high-latitude SST. This results in a robust conservative reconstruction of the early Eocene latitudinal gradient, which was reduced by at least 32 ± 10% compared with present day, demonstrating greater polar amplification than captured by most climate models.

  12. Climate change. The first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the present greenhouse gas inventory report follows the order established in the R evised 1996 IPCC Guidelines-Greenhouse Gas Inventory Workbook, volume 2 , which has identified six major economic sectors, as follows: Energy, industrial processes, solvent and other product use, agriculture, land use change and forestry and waste. These guidelines have considered the following greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, non methane volatile organic compounds, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride. It should be noted that the protocol developed for the United Nations framework convention on climate change in the conference of parties 3, held in Kyoto on December 10, 1997 has determined six greenhouse gases to be controlled: CH 4 , CO 2 , N 2 O, HF C, PFC, S F 6 . This report summaries pictures of all important results obtained by the National Inventory team:The emitted amount of each greenhouse in all sectors in Lebanon. Tables and charts have been developed to show the contributions of various sectors to total emissions of gases in Lebanon

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    A debate has - most notably as a result of the introduction of fixed caps within the framework of emissions trading - been raised about the need for using additional instruments of climate and energy policy. A common line of argument is that the targets set within the emissions trading scheme are going to be met with a high degree of certainty, and flexibility among the regulated stakeholders will lead to market-based discovery processes. Additional instruments would only generate additional costs and would therefore have to be rejected. However, closer analysis of these fundamental arguments shows that they are constructed on a very high level of abstraction and sometimes rely on strongly simplifying or idealising assumptions. Their theoretical assumptions are, at least in part, very questionable and do not correspond to conditions in the real world for climate and energy policy. At the same time the debate about policy instruments cannot be held autonomously of the specific context of the problem at hand. In this sense the very extensive (complete) and above all effective decarbonisation of the economies of industrialised countries in a comparatively short time frame is the key basic condition for the analysis, assessment and design of the climate policy mix. Essentially, the question is what the best instruments are for purging the whole economic system almost entirely of CO{sub 2} emissions within a period of only forty years. The introduction of emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases in an increasing number of OECD countries undoubtedly constitutes an important landmark of climate policy. They: - provide a high degree of certainty in terms of meeting targets; - create, on the basis of a standardised price signal, a clearing mechanism for the broad spectrum of emission reduction options close to the market, at least in the short to medium term; and - represent, by means of linking, an interesting option in terms of the globalisation of climate policy

  14. Design, implementation and evalution of a central unit for controlling climatic conditions in the greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Zarei; A. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    In greenhouse culture, in addition to increasing the quantity and quality of crop production in comparison with traditional methods, the agricultural inputs are saved, too. Recently, using new methods, designs and materials, and higher automation in greenhouses, better management has become possible for enhancing yield and improving the quality of greenhouse crops. The constructed and evaluated central controller unit (CCU) is a central controller system and computerized monitoring unit for g...

  15. Greenhouse gas observations from space: The GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, Michael; Noël, Stefan; Bergamaschi, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Notholt, Justus; Schneising, Oliver; Hasekamp, Otto; Reuter, Maximilian; Parker, Robert; Dils, Bart; Chevallier, Frederic; Zehner, Claus; Burrows, John

    2012-07-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are being further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  16. The GHG-CCI Project to Deliver the Essential Climate Variable Greenhouse Gases: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwitz, M.; Boesch, H.; Reuter, M.

    2012-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI), which will deliver various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to deliver global satellite-derived data sets of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) suitable to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks as needed for better climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are column-averaged mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO on GOSAT. Other satellite instruments will be used to provide constraints in upper layers such as IASI, MIPAS, and ACE-FTS. Which of the advanced algorithms, which are under development, will be the best for a given data product still needs to be determined. For each of the 4 GHG-CCI core data products - XCO2 and XCH4 from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT - several algorithms are bing further developed and the corresponding data products are inter-compared to identify which data product is the most appropriate. This includes comparisons with corresponding data products generated elsewhere, most notably with the operational data products of GOSAT generated at NIES and the NASA/ACOS GOSAT XCO2 product. This activity, the so-called "Round Robin exercise", will be performed in the first two years of this project. At the end of the 2 year Round Robin phase (end of August 2012) a decision will be made which of the algorithms performs best. The selected algorithms will be used to generate the first version of the ECV GHG. In the last six months of this 3 year project the resulting data products will be validated and made available to all interested users. In the presentation and overview about this project will be given focussing on the latest results.

  17. The climate manufacturers. Ways out of a global greenhouse. 3. ed. Wir Klimamacher. Auswege aus dem globalen Treibhaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H [Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Meteorologisches Inst. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.); Klingholz, R

    1990-01-01

    This book - which is written in a way the lay person can understand - describes the problem of the greenhouse effect e.g. the warming-up of the global climate as a result of emissions, especially CO{sub 2}. The composition of the earth's atmosphere and the present state of climate research is described. Suggestions are made to the politicians and the consumers with the aim to reduce the emissions of gases through energy saving and changes in the energy structure. (orig.).

  18. Climate policy through changing consumption choices: Options and obstacles for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girod, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Hertwich, E.G.

    2014-01-01

    While national climate policy can address countries’ production or consumption, climate mitigation via changes in consumption has previously received relatively little attention in climate policy literature. In the absence of an effective international climate policy, the focus on consumption is

  19. Influence of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.)Kitamura) : First steps towards a quality model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of greenhouse climate and plant density on external quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum syn. Chrysanthemum morifolium) are reviewed. The external quality aspects analysed in this paper are stem morphology (length, diameter and "strength"), leaf morphology (number and

  20. Productivity of a building-integrated roof top greenhouse in a Mediterranean climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero, J.I.; Baeza Romero, Esteban; Heuvelink, E.; Rieradevall, J.; Muñoz, P.; Ercilla, M.; Stanghellini, C.

    2017-01-01

    Urban Agriculture (UA) is an emerging field of agricultural production aimed to improve food security and the resilience of cities and to improve the environmental, social, and economic sustainability of urban areas. One of the options of UA are roof top greenhouses (RTGs), which are greenhouses

  1. Energy saving potential of long-term climate adaptive greenhouse shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, C.; Costola, D.; Loonen, R.C.G.M.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes yearly and monthly optimization of greenhouse shells. Simulations adopt a validated building energy simulation program, adapted and re-validated for simulation of commercial greenhouses, including a tomato crop model. The work focuses on multi-objective optimization of thermal

  2. Use of supplementary lighting top screens and effects on greenhouse climate and return on investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bongaerts, E.

    2008-01-01

    Discomfort caused by light pollution from greenhouses that apply supplementary lighting is an issue in Dutch society nowadays. At this moment Dutch legislation requires an opaque screen that reduces light transmission of the greenhouse wall by 95%. In 2008 also the light transmission of the

  3. Cover materials excluding near infrared radiation: effect on greenhouse climate and plant processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, F.L.K.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, S.; Dai, J.

    2008-01-01

    Only about half of the energy that enters a greenhouse as sun radiation is in the wavelength range that is useful for photosynthesis (PAR, Photosynthetically Active Radiation). Nearly all the remaining energy fraction is in the Near InfraRed range (NIR) and warms the greenhouse and crop and does

  4. Climate Leadership webinar on Greenhouse Gas Management Resources for Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small businesses can calculate their carbon footprint and construct a greenhouse gas inventory to help track progress towards reaching emissions reduction goals. One strategy for this is EPA's Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator.

  5. Air pollution, greenhouse gases and climate change : global and regional perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized than problems with GHGs, however, is a comparably major g...

  6. Man -made greenhouse gases trigger unified force to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karishnan, K.J.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming problems due to man-made greenhouse gases (GHGs), appear to be a serious concern and threat to the globe. CO/sub 2/, O/sub 3, NOx and HFC's are the main greenhouse gases and CO/sub 2/ is one of the main cause of global warming. CO/sub 2/ is emitted from burning fossil fuels to produce electricity from power plants and burning of gasoline in vehicles and airplanes. Global greenhouse gases and its sources in regions are discussed in this paper. This paper initially discusses the CO/sub 2/ emissions and the recycle of CO/sub 2/ in biodiesel. This paper mainly focuses on 'Unified Force'. The increase of H/sub 2/O in the sea due to warming of the globe triggers the 'Unified Force' or 'Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force' which is proportional to the H/sub 2/O level in the sea to start global warming impacts referred to as climate change. This paper also points out the climate change and the ten surprising results of global warming. Finally, this paper suggests switching from fossil fuel technology to green energy technologies like biodiesel which recycles CO/sub 2/ emissions and also Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cell Technologies which eradicates global warming impacts. The benefits of switching from fossil fuel to biodiesel and Hydrogen Energy utilization includes reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and pollution, economic independence by having distributed production and burning of biodiesel does not add extra CO/sub 2/ to the air that contributes global warming impacts. (author)

  7. Irrigation water consumption modelling of a soilless cucumber crop under specific greenhouse conditions in a humid tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Alberto Salcedo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The irrigation water consumption of a soilless cucumber crop under greenhouse conditions in a humid tropical climate has been evaluated in this paper in order to improve the irrigation water and fertilizers management in these specific conditions. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted. Two trials were carried out during the years 2011 and 2014 in an experimental farm located in Vinces (Ecuador. In each trial, the complete growing cycle of a cucumber crop grown under a greenhouse was evaluated. Crop development was monitored and a good fit to a sigmoidal Gompertz type growth function was reported. The daily water uptake of the crop was measured and related to the most relevant indoor climate variables. Two different combination methods, namely the Penman-Monteith equation and the Baille equation, were applied. However, the results obtained with these combination methods were not satisfactory due to the poor correlation between the climatic variables, especially the incoming radiation, and the crop's water uptake (WU. On contrary, a good correlation was reported between the crop's water uptake and the leaf area index (LAI, especially in the initial crop stages. However, when the crop is fully developed, the WU stabilizes and becomes independent from the LAI. A preliminary model to simulate the water uptake of the crop was adjusted using the data obtained in the first experiment and then validated with the data of the second experiment.

  8. Papers of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association's 7. annual climate change workshop : energy efficiency and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference focused on the role that Canadian pipeline companies will play in addressing greenhouse gas emissions. Ninety-five per cent of Canada's oil and gas is transported by pipeline. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) is a national association representing all the major crude oil and natural gas transportation companies in Canada which operate 100,000 kilometres of pipeline in the country. CEPA's ongoing commitment to climate change includes a commitment to participate in the climate change process, share best management practices, develop energy efficient technology, and position Canadian companies so that they can be part of the solution. It was emphasized that a strong commitment to an effective innovation strategy will be crucial to a successful long term energy policy that meets both economic and environmental objectives. One of the key messages at the conference was that Canada's climate change policies should be consistent with those of the United States, its major trading partner, to ensure that Canada is not placed at a competitive disadvantage within North American and world energy markets. It was also noted that greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced in all consuming and producing sectors of the economy through energy efficiency practices and not through reductions in Canadian industry output for domestic or export markets. Five presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  9. What is the greenhouse effect?: its consequences on the future climate; Qu'est-ce que l'effet de serre?: ses consequences sur l'avenir du climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, M.

    2003-07-01

    In this book the greenhouse effect is explained and detailed from the knowledge of scientists. It presents also what could be, at short-dated and middle-dated, the climatic changes and their consequences if the greenhouse effect resulting from the human activities is not quickly stabilized. (A.L.B.)

  10. Energy climate study. Energy assessment, Greenhouse gas emission assessment, Analysis of vulnerability to climate change, Courses of mitigation and adaptation actions. Full report + Appendices + Restitution of the Energy-Climate Study, September 17, 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After a brief presentation of Le Mans region, a presentation of the study (context, scope, methodology), and a recall of challenges related to energy and to climate, this study reports a situational analysis and a discussion of development perspectives for energy production on the concerned territory, an assessment of energy consumptions and of greenhouse gas emissions by the different sectors, and a study of territory vulnerability to climate change (methodology, territory characteristics, climate scenarios, vulnerability assessment). It discusses lessons learned from energy and greenhouse gas emission assessments (social-economic stakes, territory strengths and weaknesses, perspectives for action). It discusses the implementation of these issues within a territorial planning document, and the perspective of elaboration of a territorial climate energy plan. An appendix reports an assessment of the potential of development of the different renewable energies (hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic and thermal, wind, wood, methanization, and other processes like waste valorisation, geothermal, and heat networks). Another appendix reports the precise assessment of greenhouse gas emissions on the territory. The next appendix proposes detailed descriptions of scenarios for the implementation of the issue of greenhouse gas emissions within the territorial planning document. The last appendix contains Power Point presentations of the study

  11. American policy conflict in the greenhouse: Divergent trends in federal, regional, state, and local green energy and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, John; Hughes, Kristen; Rickerson, Wilson; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2007-01-01

    Climate change threatens significant impacts on global ecosystems and human populations. To address this challenge, industrialized nations have ratified the Kyoto Protocol and undertaken commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, the primary agents linked to anthropogenic alteration of earth's climate. By contrast, the US government, led by the Bush Administration, has rejected mandatory targets for curbing emissions under the Protocol, and has instead pursued voluntary mitigation measures amid a larger push for clean coal and 'next generation' nuclear technologies. These actions in total have fueled global perceptions that the US is not acting in substantial ways to address climate change. Nevertheless, action within the US is indeed moving forward, with states, cities and regional partnerships filling the federal leadership vacuum. This paper reviews the diverse policies, strategies, and cooperative frameworks that have emerged at regional, state and local levels to guide climate protection, and identifies the environmental and economic benefits linked to such programs. The paper also attempts to explain the existing federal impasse on climate policy, with attention given to how sub-national efforts may ultimately obviate national governmental inaction

  12. Comparative Study of Evolutionary Multi-objective Optimization Algorithms for a Non-linear Greenhouse Climate Control Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishi, Newsha; Sørensen, Jan Corfixen; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    Non-trivial real world decision-making processes usually involve multiple parties having potentially conflicting interests over a set of issues. State-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) are well known to solve this class of complex real-world problems. In this paper, we...... compare the performance of state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms to solve a non-linear multi-objective multi-issue optimisation problem found in Greenhouse climate control. The chosen algorithms in the study includes NSGAII, eNSGAII, eMOEA, PAES, PESAII and SPEAII. The performance...... of all aforementioned algorithms is assessed and compared using performance indicators to evaluate proximity, diversity and consistency. Our insights to this comparative study enhanced our understanding of MOEAs performance in order to solve a non-linear complex climate control problem. The empirical...

  13. Energy and climatic change: within 30 years, divide France's emissions of greenhouse gases in three

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, H.

    2003-01-01

    Fighting against global warming means cutting down on greenhouse gases. France can significantly reduce its emissions by seriously modifying life-styles without disrupting them. The population will accept this all the better as far as it is deeply concerned with the issues. (author)

  14. Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priarone, A.; Fossa, M.; Paietta, E.; Rolando, D.

    2017-01-01

    This research has been devoted to the selection of the most favourable plant solutions for ventilation, heating and cooling, thermo-hygrometric control of a greenhouse, in the framework of the energy saving and the environmental protection. The identified plant solutions include shading of glazing surfaces, natural ventilation by means of controlled opening windows, forced convection of external air and forced convection of air treated by the HVAC system for both heating and cooling. The selected solution combines HVAC system to a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP), which is an innovative renewable technology applied to greenhouse buildings. The energy demand and thermal loads of the greenhouse to fulfil the requested internal design conditions have been evaluated through an hourly numerical simulation, using the Energy Plus (E-plus) software. The overall heat balance of the greenhouse also includes the latent heat exchange due to crop evapotranspiration, accounted through an original iterative calculation procedure that combines the E-plus dynamic simulations and the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The obtained hourly thermal loads have been used to size the borehole field for the geothermal heat pump by using a dedicated GCHP hourly simulation tool.

  15. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  16. The MIES and the fight against greenhouse effect: 2003 climate plan; La MIES et la lutte contre l'effet de serre: plan climat 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-06-01

    The French gas association (AFG) was invited to participate to the works of the inter-ministry mission on greenhouse effect (MIES) between March and May 2003 in order to update the French national program of fight against climatic change (PNLCC): the '2003 climate plan'. This plan aims at establishing a practical and operational tool ensuring the implementation of the French commitments of the Kyoto protocol. Several ministries (MEDD, DGEMP, Finances), organisations and associations (Ademe, FG3E etc..) and some representatives of the renewable energies and of the industrial sectors in concern participate to this project. The AFG participated to the working group 'energy production' which treats of the following aspects: power production, transport and distribution; renewable energies; refining and natural gas. (J.S.)

  17. Quantifying climate change impacts on hydropower generation and implications on electric grid greenhouse gas emissions and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Here we translate the impacts of climate change on hydropower generation, and discuss implications on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and operation in California. We integrate a model of major surface-water reservoirs with an electric grid dispatch model, and perturb it by projected runoff based on representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Results show that climate change and variability is expected to decrease the average annual hydropower generation by 3.1% under RCP4.5, but have negligible impact under the RCP8.5. Model simulations indicate more inflow, caused by more future extremes, in the future that does not necessarily translate to more energy production because of reservoir spillage of water. While overall volume of future available water for energy production may be similar or higher, the delivery of this volume is expected to be significantly more variable in the future climate than the historical average, which has many implications for hydropower generation. Our results show that the expected changes in future climate leads to increases in grid GHG emissions, load-following capacity, fuel usage, and costs for the RCP4.5 due to generation shortfall, and very slight increases in the same metrics for the RCP8.5 case due to variability causing decreased efficiencies in load-following power plants. - Highlights: • Climate change caused increased overall volume inflow levels to hydropower reservoirs. • Extreme precipitation events caused reservoir spillage and inability to fully use increased inflow. • Hydropower generation decreased for RCP 4.5 and remained similar to historical for RCP 8.5. • Increased climate variability caused decreased efficiencies in load-following power plants.

  18. Climate Change and the Impact of Greenhouse Gasses: CO2 and NO, Friends and Foes of Plant Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Raúl; Nocioni, Macarena; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth’s surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxides (NxO) and ozone (O3). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. The main sources of ROS in stress conditions are: augmented photorespiration, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, β-oxidation of fatty acids and disorders in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plants have developed an antioxidant machinery that includes the activity of ROS detoxifying enzymes [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and peroxiredoxin (PRX)], as well as antioxidant molecules such as ascorbic acid (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) that are present in almost all subcellular compartments. CO2 and NO help to maintain the redox equilibrium. Higher CO2 concentrations increase the photosynthesis through the CO2-unsaturated Rubisco activity. But Rubisco photorespiration and NOX activities could also augment ROS production. NO regulate the ROS concentration preserving balance among ROS, GSH, GSNO, and ASC. When ROS are in huge concentration, NO induces transcription and activity of SOD, APX, and CAT. However, when ROS are necessary (e.g., for pathogen resistance), NO may inhibit APX, CAT, and NOX activity by the S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues, favoring cell death. NO also regulates GSH concentration in several ways. NO may react with GSH to form GSNO, the NO cell reservoir and main source of S

  19. Climate Change and the Impact of Greenhouse Gasses: CO2 and NO, Friends and Foes of Plant Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassia, Raúl; Nocioni, Macarena; Correa-Aragunde, Natalia; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxides (N x O) and ozone (O 3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants. The main sources of ROS in stress conditions are: augmented photorespiration, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, β-oxidation of fatty acids and disorders in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plants have developed an antioxidant machinery that includes the activity of ROS detoxifying enzymes [e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and peroxiredoxin (PRX)], as well as antioxidant molecules such as ascorbic acid (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) that are present in almost all subcellular compartments. CO 2 and NO help to maintain the redox equilibrium. Higher CO 2 concentrations increase the photosynthesis through the CO 2 -unsaturated Rubisco activity. But Rubisco photorespiration and NOX activities could also augment ROS production. NO regulate the ROS concentration preserving balance among ROS, GSH, GSNO, and ASC. When ROS are in huge concentration, NO induces transcription and activity of SOD, APX, and CAT. However, when ROS are necessary (e.g., for pathogen resistance), NO may inhibit APX, CAT, and NOX activity by the S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues, favoring cell death. NO also regulates GSH concentration in several ways. NO may react with GSH to form GSNO, the NO cell reservoir and main source of S

  20. Greenhouse effect and climate: the man impact; Effet de serre et climat: l'influence humaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquart, Y. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, Lab. d' Optique Atmospherique, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2001-04-01

    In this article the author describes the different mechanisms that are involved in the setting of the earth climate. The main natural causes of climate variations are reviewed: - the variations in the orbit of the earth around the sun, - the interactions between oceans and the atmosphere, and - the volcanic eruptions. It is shown that mean earth temperature has continuously increased for the last 150 years. The impact of man activities on climate changes will not be scientifically proved before at least 10 years, but computerized simulations based on models taking into account industrial emissions of aerosols agree with temperatures values recorded since the beginning of the industrial era. This article supports the current opinion that climate is changing beyond natural variations. (A.C.)

  1. Some basic facts about climate change: global warming and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Q.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most profound challenges facing humidity today, Growing awareness of the problems inspired a surge of research in the relevant fields. but most of it in the form of highly technical reports which are not always comprehensible to non specialists. As a results, they often lack the authoritative but accessible information that they really need to understand the whole issue of this climate change. In this article answers to some of the very basic questions arising in the minds of general reader regarding the climate change are given. (author)

  2. Energy metrics of photovoltaic/thermal and earth air heat exchanger integrated greenhouse for different climatic conditions of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Sujata; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a study is carried out to evaluate the annual thermal and exergy performance of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) and earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) system, integrated with a greenhouse, located at IIT Delhi, India, for different climatic conditions of Srinagar, Mumbai, Jodhpur, New Delhi and Bangalore. A comparison is made of various energy metrics, such as energy payback time (EPBT), electricity production factor (EPF) and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE) of the system by considering four weather conditions (a-d type) for five climatic zones. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. The annual overall thermal energy, annual electrical energy savings and annual exergy was found to be best for the climatic condition of Jodhpur at 29,156.8 kWh, 1185 kWh and 1366.4 kWh, respectively when compared with other weather stations covered in the study, due to higher solar intensity I and sunshine hours, and is lowest for Srinagar station. The results also showed that energy payback time for Jodhpur station is lowest at 16.7 years and highest for Srinagar station at 21.6 years. Electricity production factor (EPF) is highest for Jodhpur, i.e. 2.04 and Life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE) is highest for Srinagar station. It is also observed that LCCE increases with increase in life cycle. (author)

  3. Climate change : enhanced : recent reductions in China's greenhouse gas emissions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streets, D. G.; Jiang, K.; Hu, X.; Sinton, J. E.; Zhang, X.-Q.; Xu, D.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Hansen, J. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Energy Research Inst.; LBNL; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Stanford Univ.; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    2001-11-30

    Using the most recent energy and other statistical data, we have estimated the annual trends in China's greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1990 to 2000. The authors of this Policy Forum calculate that CO2 emissions declined by 7.3% between 1996 and 2000, while CH4 emissions declined by 2.2% between 1997 and 2000. These reductions were due to a combination of energy reforms, economic restructuring, forestry policies, and economic slowdown. The effects of these emission changes on global mean temperatures are estimated and compared with the effects of concurrent changes in two aerosol species, sulfate and black carbon.

  4. Grappling with greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature suitable for life. Some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unprecedented rate because of human activity. These increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an overall warming of the Earth's surface. Global warming resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to be obscured by normal climatic fluctuations for another ten years or more. The extent of human-caused climate change will depend largely on future concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In turn, the composition of the atmosphere depends on the release of greenhouse gases. Releases are hard to predict, because they require an understanding of future human activity. The composition of the atmosphere also depends on the processes which remove greenhouse gases from it. This booklet is summarizing the latest research results in the form of climate change scenarios. The present scenarios of change are based on climate models, together with an understanding of how present-day climate, with its inherent natural variability, affects human activities. These scenarios present a coherent range of future possibilities for climate; they are not predictions but they serve as a useful starting point. It is estimated that human-caused climate change will affect all aspects of life in Australia, including our cities, agriculture, pests and diseases, fisheries and natural ecosystems. 15 figs., ills

  5. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on U.S. Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on hydropower generation due to changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff and increases in reservoir evaporation. These physical impacts will in turn have economic consequences through both producer revenues ...

  6. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Domke, Grant; Kurz, Werner A; Rocha, Marcelo T; Huffman, Ted; Swan, Amy; Smith, James E; Woodall, Christopher; Krug, Thelma

    2018-05-29

    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Governments report all emissions and removals from managed land to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change based on this proxy, and policy interventions to reduce emissions from land use are expected to focus on managed lands. Our objective was to review the use of the managed land proxy, and summarize the criteria that governments have applied to classify land as managed and unmanaged. We found that the large majority of governments are not reporting on their application of the managed land proxy. Among the governments that do provide information, most have assigned all area in specific land uses as managed, while designating all remaining lands as unmanaged. This designation as managed land is intuitive for croplands and settlements, which would not exist without management interventions, but a portion of forest land, grassland, and wetlands may not be managed in a country. Consequently, Brazil, Canada and the United States have taken the concept further and delineated managed and unmanaged forest land, grassland and wetlands, using additional criteria such as functional use of the land and accessibility of the land to anthropogenic activity. The managed land proxy is imperfect because reported emissions from any area can include non-anthropogenic sources, such as natural disturbances. However, the managed land proxy does make reporting of GHG emissions and removals from land use more tractable and comparable by excluding fluxes from areas that are not directly influenced by anthropogenic activity. Moreover

  7. Carbon balance variability in the Amazon Basin with climate change based on regular atmospheric profiling of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L.; Domingues, L. G.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Peters, W.; Silva, M. G.; Correia, C. S. D. C.; Basso, L. S.; Alden, C. B.; Borges, V. F.; Marani, L.; Santos, R. S.; Crispim, S. P.; Sanches, A.; Costa, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Net carbon exchange between tropical land and the atmosphere is potentially important because the vast amounts of carbon in forests and soils can be released on short time-scales e.g. via deforestation or changes in temperature and precipitation. Such changes may thus cause feedbacks on global climate as have been predicted in earth system models. The Amazon is the most significant region in the global carbon cycle, hosting by far the largest carbon vegetation and soil carbon pools ( 200 PgC). From 2010 onwards we have extended an earlier greenhouse gas measurement program to include regular vertical profiles of CO2 from the ground up to 4.5 km height at four sites along the main air-stream over the Amazon Basin. Our measurements demonstrate that surface flux signals are primarily concentrated to the lower 2 km and thus vertical profile measurements are ideally suited to estimate greenhouse gas balances. To understand the role of Amazon in global carbon budget it is important to maintain a long period of measurements that can represent the whole region. Our results already permit a range of insights about the magnitude, seasonality, inter-annual variation of carbon fluxes and their climate controls. Most recent years have been anomalously hot with the southern part of the Basin having warmed the most. Precipitation regimes also seem to have shifted with an increase in extreme floods. For the specific period we will discuss the period of 2010 to 2016, where the years 2010 and 2015/16 were anomalously dry and hot (both El Nino years) and the year 2013 was the wettest and coldest year. This period provides an interesting contrast of climatic conditions in a warming world with increasing human pressures and we will present the carbon balance for the basin during the last 7 years. We will analyze the effect of this climate variability on annual and seasonal carbon balances for these seven years using our atmospheric data. Our data permit us not only to estimate net CO2

  8. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-06-01

    Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

  9. Disentangling Greenhouse Warming and Aerosol Cooling to Reveal Earth's Transient Climate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelvmo, T.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's climate sensitivity has been the subject of heated debate for decades, and recently spurred renewed interest after the latest IPCC assessment report suggested a downward adjustment of the most likely range of climate sensitivities. Here, we present an observation-based study based on the time period 1964 to 2010, which is unique in that it does not rely on global climate models (GCMs) in any way. The study uses surface observations of temperature and incoming solar radiation from approximately 1300 surface sites, along with observations of the equivalent CO2 concentration (CO2,eq) in the atmosphere, to produce a new best estimate for the transient climate sensitivity of 1.9K (95% confidence interval 1.2K - 2.7K). This is higher than other recent observation-based estimates, and is better aligned with the estimate of 1.8K and range (1.1K - 2.5K) derived from the latest generation of GCMs. The new estimate is produced by incorporating the observations in an energy balance framework, and by applying statistical methods that are standard in the field of Econometrics, but less common in climate studies. The study further suggests that about a third of the continental warming due to increasing CO2,eq was masked by aerosol cooling during the time period studied.

  10. Disentangling Aerosol Cooling and Greenhouse Warming to Reveal Earth's Climate Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelvmo, Trude; Leirvik, Thomas; Phillips, Petter; Lohmann, Ulrike; Wild, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Earth's climate sensitivity has been the subject of heated debate for decades, and recently spurred renewed interest after the latest IPCC assessment report suggested a downward adjustment of the most likely range of climate sensitivities. Here, we present a study based on the time period 1964 to 2010, which is unique in that it does not rely on global climate models (GCMs) in any way. The study uses surface observations of temperature and incoming solar radiation from approximately 1300 surface sites, along with observations of the equivalent CO2 concentration (CO2,eq) in the atmosphere, to produce a new best estimate for the transient climate sensitivity of 1.9K (95% confidence interval 1.2K - 2.7K). This is higher than other recent observation-based estimates, and is better aligned with the estimate of 1.8K and range (1.1K - 2.5K) derived from the latest generation of GCMs. The new estimate is produced by incorporating the observations in an energy balance framework, and by applying statistical methods that are standard in the field of Econometrics, but less common in climate studies. The study further suggests that about a third of the continental warming due to increasing CO2,eq was masked by aerosol cooling during the time period studied.

  11. Vegetation, soil property and climatic controls over greenhouse gas fluxes in a blanket peatland hosting a wind farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Ostle, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important carbon (C) stores, with boreal and subarctic peatlands containing 15-30 % of the world soil carbon stock (Limpens et al., 2008). Research has demonstrated that greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in peatlands are influenced by vegetation, soil property and climatic variables, including plant functional type (PFT), water table height and temperature. In this paper we present data from Black Law Wind Farm, Scotland, where we examined the effect of a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient and PFT on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Moreover, we determined the role of vegetation, soil property and climatic variables as predictors of the variation in CO2 and CH4 emissions. We measured CO2 and CH4 at 48 plots within Black Law Wind Farm at monthly intervals from May 2011 to April 2012. Four sampling sites were located along a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient. At each site four blocks were established, each with plots in areas dominated by mosses, sedges and shrubs. Plant biomass and PFT (vegetation factors); soil moisture, water table height, peat depth, C content, nitrogen (N) content and C:N (soil properties); and soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (climatic variables) were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models based on the microclimatic gradient site, PFT and season when measurements were made explained 58 %, 44 % and 49 % of the variation in ecosystem respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Site, PFT, season and their interactions were all significant for respiration and photosynthesis (with the exception of the PFT*site interaction) but for CH4 only the main effects were significant. Parsimonious ANOVA models using the biotic, soil property and climatic explanatory data explained 62 %, 55 % and 49 % of the variation in respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Published studies (Baidya Roy and Traiteur 2010; Zhou et al., 2012) and preliminary

  12. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  13. County Governor's climate change work. Roles and responsibilities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change; Fylkesmannens klimaarbeid. Roller og oppgaver for aa redusere klimagassutslipp og tilpasse seg klimaendringene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The document provides an overall description of the County Department's tasks in the work of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation to climate change. Chapters 2 and 3 provides a picture of climate change and a description of the County Department's role in the implementation of the national climate policy. Chapter 4 describes the municipalities and county municipalities' responsibilities in climate change. Chapter 5 is a specific review of the County Department of Climate tasks as a regional sector authority in the environmental area, agricultural area and the emergency and civil protection area. (AG)

  14. Climate change sheet no. 01. The nuclear: a solution for the greenhouse effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The electric power production by the nuclear energy is often proposed as a solution to the climatic change problem. This document takes stock on this option with a state of the art, a technical and economical analysis. It concludes that the nuclear energy is not the energy of the sustainable development. (A.L.B.)

  15. Prospective Primary Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change, Greenhouse Effect, and Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Vasiliki

    2004-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems and for that reason there has been lately a great interest in educating pupils, the future citizens, about it. Previous research has shown that pupils of all ages and teachers hold many misconceptions and misunderstandings concerning this issue. This paper reports on research…

  16. The response of the climate system to very high greenhouse gas emission scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M; O'Neill, Brian C; Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Meehl, Gerald A; Knutti, Reto; Washington, Warren M

    2011-01-01

    Well informed decisions on climate policy necessitate simulation of the climate system for a sufficiently wide range of emissions scenarios. While recent literature has been devoted to low emissions futures, the potential for very high emissions has not been thoroughly explored. We specify two illustrative emissions scenarios that are significantly higher than the A1FI scenario, the highest scenario considered in past IPCC reports, and simulate them in a global climate model to investigate their climate change implications. Relative to the A1FI scenario, our highest scenario results in an additional 2 K of global mean warming above A1FI levels by 2100, a complete loss of arctic summer sea-ice by 2070 and an additional 43% sea level rise due to thermal expansion above A1FI levels by 2100. Regional maximum temperature increases from late 20th century values are 50-100% greater than A1FI increases, with some regions such as the Central US, the Tibetan plateau and Alaska showing a 300-400% increase above A1FI levels.

  17. The response of the climate system to very high greenhouse gas emission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M; O' Neill, Brian C; Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Meehl, Gerald A [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Knutti, Reto; Washington, Warren M, E-mail: bsander@ucar.edu [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    Well informed decisions on climate policy necessitate simulation of the climate system for a sufficiently wide range of emissions scenarios. While recent literature has been devoted to low emissions futures, the potential for very high emissions has not been thoroughly explored. We specify two illustrative emissions scenarios that are significantly higher than the A1FI scenario, the highest scenario considered in past IPCC reports, and simulate them in a global climate model to investigate their climate change implications. Relative to the A1FI scenario, our highest scenario results in an additional 2 K of global mean warming above A1FI levels by 2100, a complete loss of arctic summer sea-ice by 2070 and an additional 43% sea level rise due to thermal expansion above A1FI levels by 2100. Regional maximum temperature increases from late 20th century values are 50-100% greater than A1FI increases, with some regions such as the Central US, the Tibetan plateau and Alaska showing a 300-400% increase above A1FI levels.

  18. Astrochronology of extreme global warming events during the early Eocene greenhouse climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauretano, V.

    2016-01-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of enhanced global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system and the relationship between carbon cycling and climate. During this time interval, the Earth’s surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of

  19. Changes in Hydrologic Conditions and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Circumpolar Regions due to Climate Change Induced Permafrost Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiticar, M. J. [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria (Canada); Bhatti, J.; Startsev, N. [Northern Forestry Centre, St Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    Thawing permafrost peatlands substantially influence Canadian northern ecosystems by changing the regional hydrology and mobilizing the vast carbon (C) reserves that results in increased greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions to the atmosphere. With permafrost distribution controlled largely by topography and climate, our International polar y ear (IPY) study intensively monitored the local C cycling processes and GHG fluxes associated with different hydrologic and permafrost environments at 4 sites along a climatic gradient extending from the Isolated patches permafrost Zone (northern alberta), to the continuous permafrost Zone (Inuvik, NWT). Each site encompasses a local gradient from upland forest and peat plateau to collapse scar. Our multi-year measurements of peatland profiles and flux chambers for CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} concentrations and stable isotope ratios indicate processes, including methanogenesis, methanotrophy, transport and emission that control the distribution of these GHGs. These relationships are modulated by fluctuating local soil water and corresponding ecosystem conditions. The gas geochemistry shows that significant surface CH{sub 4} production occurs by both hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis in submerged, anaerobic peats, e.g., collapse scars, whereas methane oxidation is restricted to aerobic, drier environments, e.g., upland sites and peat-atmosphere interface. The most active methanogenesis and emissions are in areas of actively thawing permafrost contrasting with sites under continuous permafrost. This degree of methanogenesis is being amplified by the increased rate of Arctic warming and the rapid retreat of permafrost in canada's arctic (approximately. 2.5 km/a). (author)

  20. Industrial strategies for improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Examples from the Climate Wise program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhsmer, K.; Nelson, H.; Wayman, A.; Winkelman, S.; Milmoe, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Climate Wise is a partnership initiative between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and industry designed to stimulate the voluntary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions among participating manufacturing companies. Climate Wise works with the manufacturing sector, which comprises 25 to 30 percent of the total US energy consumption, to promote the continued and increased implementation of energy efficiency and other pollution prevention measures. This paper reviews the energy use and CO 2 emissions profiles of the following three energy intensive industries: cement, petroleum, and iron and steel. The paper also identifies what a typical Action Plan for a company from each of these industries might look like and the types of savings (energy, CO 2 emissions, and energy costs) which might be achieved. The measures featured in these Action Plans are widely applicable and are likely to offer relatively short payback times. In addition, the paper describes other measures and existing or emerging technologies that may be available to these industries

  1. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  2. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  3. Remarkable separability of circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-08-01

    Arctic sea ice loss may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation. The extent to which climate change can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by this loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. A novel sea ice nudging methodology in a fully coupled climate model reveals that the separate effects of doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated Arctic sea ice loss are remarkably additive and insensitive to the mean climate state. This separability is evident in several fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. The separability of the responses might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  4. Greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change: case of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghauri, B.; Lodhi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in climate caused by human activities will have far-reaching environmental impacts. Of particular concern are the possibilities of major changes in regional water quantity and quality. An increase in average monthly temperature of 4 deg. C decreases spring runoff over 50% while increasing winter runoff nearly 35%; summer Soil moisture decreases over 30%. Changes in precipitation, whether positive or negative may have been greater consequences for the timing and magnitude of runoff and may contribute significantly to the possibility and consequences of flooding and drought. Global Climatic Changes caused by increasing atmospheric concentration of CO/sub 2/ from fuel combustion and other trace gases are likely to appear within the next few decades. One of the most important of such environmental changes will be alternations in regional hydrologic characteristics such as surface runoff and soil moisture. (author)

  5. Model study on applicability of a semi closed greenhouse concept in Almeria: Effects on greenhouse climate, crop yield and resource use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, van 't A.; Ieperen, van W.; Kalaitzoglou, P.

    2012-01-01

    The application of climate control equipment is becoming increasingly popular in Mediterranean protected horticulture. New climate control techniques reduce ventilation requirement and, thus, increase the benefits of carbon dioxide fertilization. Moreover, temperature extremes are prevented.

  6. Impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: assessing the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions using selected CMIP5 climate projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, Felix T; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to minimize climate change requires very significant societal effort. To motivate this effort, it is important to clarify the benefits of avoided emissions. To this end, we analysed the impact of four emissions scenarios on future renewable groundwater resources, which range from 1600 GtCO 2 during the 21st century (RCP2.6) to 7300 GtCO 2 (RCP8.5). Climate modelling uncertainty was taken into account by applying the bias-corrected output of a small ensemble of five CMIP5 global climate models (GCM) as provided by the ISI-MIP effort to the global hydrological model WaterGAP. Despite significant climate model uncertainty, the benefits of avoided emissions with respect to renewable groundwater resources (i.e. groundwater recharge (GWR)) are obvious. The percentage of projected global population (SSP2 population scenario) suffering from a significant decrease of GWR of more than 10% by the 2080s as compared to 1971–2000 decreases from 38% (GCM range 27–50%) for RCP8.5 to 24% (11–39%) for RCP2.6. The population fraction that is spared from any significant GWR change would increase from 29% to 47% if emissions were restricted to RCP2.6. Increases of GWR are more likely to occur in areas with below average population density, while GWR decreases of more than 30% affect especially (semi)arid regions, across all GCMs. Considering change of renewable groundwater resources as a function of mean global temperature (GMT) rise, the land area that is affected by GWR decreases of more than 30% and 70% increases linearly with global warming from 0 to 3 ° C. For each degree of GMT rise, an additional 4% of the global land area (except Greenland and Antarctica) is affected by a GWR decrease of more than 30%, and an additional 1% is affected by a decrease of more than 70%. (letter)

  7. The ocean's role in polar climate change: asymmetric Arctic and Antarctic responses to greenhouse gas and ozone forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Armour, Kyle C; Scott, Jeffery R; Kostov, Yavor; Hausmann, Ute; Ferreira, David; Shepherd, Theodore G; Bitz, Cecilia M

    2014-07-13

    In recent decades, the Arctic has been warming and sea ice disappearing. By contrast, the Southern Ocean around Antarctica has been (mainly) cooling and sea-ice extent growing. We argue here that interhemispheric asymmetries in the mean ocean circulation, with sinking in the northern North Atlantic and upwelling around Antarctica, strongly influence the sea-surface temperature (SST) response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, accelerating warming in the Arctic while delaying it in the Antarctic. Furthermore, while the amplitude of GHG forcing has been similar at the poles, significant ozone depletion only occurs over Antarctica. We suggest that the initial response of SST around Antarctica to ozone depletion is one of cooling and only later adds to the GHG-induced warming trend as upwelling of sub-surface warm water associated with stronger surface westerlies impacts surface properties. We organize our discussion around 'climate response functions' (CRFs), i.e. the response of the climate to 'step' changes in anthropogenic forcing in which GHG and/or ozone-hole forcing is abruptly turned on and the transient response of the climate revealed and studied. Convolutions of known or postulated GHG and ozone-hole forcing functions with their respective CRFs then yield the transient forced SST response (implied by linear response theory), providing a context for discussion of the differing warming/cooling trends in the Arctic and Antarctic. We speculate that the period through which we are now passing may be one in which the delayed warming of SST associated with GHG forcing around Antarctica is largely cancelled by the cooling effects associated with the ozone hole. By mid-century, however, ozone-hole effects may instead be adding to GHG warming around Antarctica but with diminished amplitude as the ozone hole heals. The Arctic, meanwhile, responding to GHG forcing but in a manner amplified by ocean heat transport, may continue to warm at an accelerating rate.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 rice, 45.54 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO 2 eq kg -1 milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  9. Climate Response to Negative Greenhouse Gas Radiative Forcing in Polar Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanner, M. G.; Huang, X.; Chen, X.; Krinner, G.

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) additions to Earth's atmosphere initially reduce global outgoing longwave radiation, thereby warming the planet. In select environments with temperature inversions, however, increased GHG concentrations can actually increase local outgoing longwave radiation. Negative top of atmosphere and effective radiative forcing (ERF) from this situation give the impression that local surface temperatures could cool in response to GHG increases. Here we consider an extreme scenario in which GHG concentrations are increased only within the warmest layers of winter near-surface inversions of the Arctic and Antarctic. We find, using a fully coupled Earth system model, that the underlying surface warms despite the GHG addition exerting negative ERF and cooling the troposphere in the vicinity of the GHG increase. This unique radiative forcing and thermal response is facilitated by the high stability of the polar winter atmosphere, which inhibit thermal mixing and amplify the impact of surface radiative forcing on surface temperature. These findings also suggest that strategies to exploit negative ERF via injections of short-lived GHGs into inversion layers would likely be unsuccessful in cooling the planetary surface.

  10. On the Meaning of Feedback Parameter, Transient Climate Response, and the Greenhouse Effect: Basic Considerations and the Discussion of Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramm, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we discuss the meaning of feedback parameter, greenhouse effect and transient climate response usually related to the globally averaged energy balance model of Schneider and Mass. After scrutinizing this model and the corresponding planetary radiation balance we state that (a) the this globally averaged energy balance model is flawed by unsuitable physical considerations, (b) the planetary radiation balance for an Earth in the absence of an atmosphere is fraught by the inappropriate assumption of a uniform surface temperature, the so-called radiative equilibrium temperature of about 255 K, and (c) the effect of the radiative anthropogenic forcing, considered as a perturbation to the natural system, is much smaller than the uncertainty involved in the solution of the model of Schneider and Mass. This uncertainty is mainly related to the empirical constants suggested by various authors and used for predicting the emission of infrared radiation by the Earth's skin. Furthermore, after inserting the absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric constituents and the exchange of sensible and latent heat between the Earth and the atmosphere into the model of Schneider and Mass the surface temperatures become appreciably lesser than the radiative equilibrium temperature. Moreover, neither the model of Schneider and Mass nor the Dines-type two-layer energy balance model for the Earth-atmosphere system, both contain the planetary radiation balance for an Earth in the absence of an atmosphere as an asymptotic solution, do not provide evidence for the existence of the so-called atmospheric greenhouse effect if realistic empirical data are used.

  11. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect on earth can be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and climate system response within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained are determined. Quantitative examples illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by human activities, in particular if CO2 atmospheric concentration would double in the future. Recent satellite measurements of the greenhouse effect are given. The net cooling effect of clouds and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms are also discussed

  12. Intensification of extreme European summer precipitation in a warmer climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, O. B.; Christensen, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy and/or extended precipitation episodes with subsequent surface runoff can inflict catastrophic property damage and loss of human life. Thus, it is important to determine how the character of such events could change in response to greenhouse gas-induced global warming. Impacts of climate...... warming on severe precipitation events in Europe on a diurnal time scale were investigated with a high-resolution regional climate model for two of the greenhouse gas emission scenarios constructed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Nakicenovic, N., et al., 2000, IPCC special report...... models both originating from fully transient climate change simulations. Here, we show that although the summer time precipitation decreases over a substantial part of Europe in the scenarios analysed, an increase in the amount of precipitation exceeding the present-day 99th and in most cases even the 95...

  13. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    several Western European countries, very high rates of N application to both grazed grassland and to grass crops grown for winter feed have made these lands the principal source of N_2O. It has been estimated that 40% of global emissions of NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone, come from grasslands and savannas. Global warming is expected to bring about substantial changes in the overall greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands, with a net loss of soil C as CO_2, and possibly enhanced N_2O emissions. Increased rainfall is predicted for some regions, and this can also be expected to give rise to increases in N_2O.

  14. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  15. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  16. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  17. Food, land and greenhouse gases The effect of changes in UK food consumption on land requirements and greenhouse gas emissions. Report for the Committee on Climate Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Audsley, Eric; Angus, Andrew; Chatterton, Julia C.; Graves, Anil R.; Morris, Joe; Murphy-Bokern, Donal; Pearn, Kerry R.; Sandars, Daniel L.; Williams, Adrian G.

    2010-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY •1. Key findingsThis study examines the land use and greenhouse gas implications of UK food consumption change away from carbon intensive products. It shows that the UK agricultural land base can support increased consumption of plant-based products arising from the reduced consumption of livestock products. A 50% reduction in livestock product consumption reduces the area of arable and grassland required to supply UK food, both in the UK and overseas. It a...

  18. The climate fund. Some notions on the socio-economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and emission reductions in an international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Van der Burg, T.; Jansen, H.M.A.; Verbruggen, H.

    1995-05-01

    The title project investigates the possibility of setting up an international climate fund and the way in which this could be arranged. A climate fund is a potential method to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of the reduction of the increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. It would allow countries to transfer capital, for instance through the here proposed climate fund, and to redistribute the damages caused by global warming. This project focuses on the economic aspects of a climate fund, although some attention will also be given to its political feasibility. The system of tradeable emission permits, of which joint implementation is often seen as a pilot phase, presumes that fixed emission targets exist. In this report the emissions are not prefixed, but optimised in a cost-benefit analysis in which the impact of international capital transfer is examined. In order to determine the impact of international capital transfer on the efficiency and efficacy on optimal greenhouse gas emission reduction, three building blocks are needed. The first block concerns the costs of climate change, or the benefits of climate change control. The second block concerns the costs of emission reduction. The third block is the model to integrate costs and benefits, and calculate the optimal emission control with and without international capital transfers. The project is split into four conceptual phases. In the first phase, a literature survey has been performed of the socio-economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emission reductions, with a particular focus on the international distribution of costs and benefits. In the second phase, the costs and benefits are modelled in the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution (FUND). In the third phase the optimal emission reductions are calculated with and without international capital transfers in several game-theoretic settings. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Greenhouse effect gases and climatic change: quantification and tools to fight against the emissions; Gaz a effet de serre et changement climatique: quantification et instruments de lutte contre des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizec, R.F

    2006-07-01

    The greenhouse effect gases are considered responsible of the climatic change. Their consequences are numerous: increase of the sea level, displacement of the climatic areas, modification of the forests ecosystems, rarefaction of water, progressively decrease of glaciers... This fast modification of the climate would lead to the increase of natural hazards as hurricanes, storms, hails and so on. It is then a necessity to reduce as fast as possible the greenhouse effect gases. The author describes in a first part the methods of the greenhouse effect gases quantification and in the second part the tools to fight these gases, regulations, standards, economic tools, national tools and the projects. (A.L.B.)

  20. The potential role for management of U.S. public lands in greenhouse gas mitigation and climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia P; Cooley, David M; Galik, Christopher S

    2012-03-01

    Management of forests, rangelands, and wetlands on public lands, including the restoration of degraded lands, has the potential to increase carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions beyond what is occurring today. In this paper we discuss several policy options for increasing GHG mitigation on public lands. These range from an extension of current policy by generating supplemental mitigation on public lands in an effort to meet national emissions reduction goals, to full participation in an offsets market by allowing GHG mitigation on public lands to be sold as offsets either by the overseeing agency or by private contractors. To help place these policy options in context, we briefly review the literature on GHG mitigation and public lands to examine the potential for enhanced mitigation on federal and state public lands in the United States. This potential will be tempered by consideration of the tradeoffs with other uses of public lands, the needs for climate change adaptation, and the effects on other ecosystem services.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Implications of Peri-Urban Land Use Change in a Developed City under Four Future Climate Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Rothwell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Present decisions about urbanization of peri-urban (PU areas may contribute to the capacity of cities to mitigate future climate change. Comprehensive mitigative responses to PU development should require integration of urban form and food production to realise potential trade-offs. Despite this, few studies examine greenhouse gas (GHG implications of future urban development combined with impacts on PU food production. In this paper, four future scenarios, at 2050 and 2100 time horizons, were developed to evaluate the potential GHG emissions implications of feeding and housing a growing urban population in Sydney, Australia. The scenarios were thematically downscaled from the four relative concentration pathways. Central to the scenarios were differences in population, technology, energy, housing form, transportation, temperature, food production and land use change (LUC. A life cycle assessment approach was used within the scenarios to evaluate differences in GHG impacts. Differences in GHG emissions between scenarios at the 2100 time horizon, per area of PU land transformed, approximated 0.7 Mt CO2-e per year. Per additional resident this equated to 0.7 to 6.1 t CO2-e per year. Indirect LUC has the potential to be significant. Interventions such as carbon capture and storage technology, renewables and urban form markedly reduced emissions. However, incorporating cross-sectoral energy saving measures within urban planning at the regional scale requires a paradigmatic shift.

  2. Forestry in a greenhouse climate: For wood production or carbon storage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.F.W.

    1991-01-01

    The forest sector is one of the major sources of carbon dioxide in British Columbia, from pulp and papr processing and prescribed burning. To enhance knowledge about carbon budgets, Forestry Canada has developed a simulation model of the carbon pools and fluxes in the Canadian forest sector, which clearly indicates that the boreal forest, with its soils, is a major carbon pool, and also a major source of carbon, from combustion of biomass and soil organic matter. Outside the subarctic, forest growth more than compensates for fire losses in most years, and the forest is therefore calculated to be a net accumulator of carbon. While the conversion of old growth forest to managed stands on shorter rotations reduces stored carbon averaged over space and time, there is potential for managed forests to increase average live biomass, through genetic and silvicultural enhancement and through protection. A serious possibility of positive feedback by forests to the climatic warming exists in peatlands currently subject to permafrost. A warming could lead to substantial emissions of methane and carbon dioxide from vast areas. 14 refs

  3. Simulating last interglacial climate with NorESM: role of insolation and greenhouse gases in the timing of peak warmth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Langebroek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The last interglacial (LIG, ~130–116 ka, ka = 1000 yr ago is characterized by high-latitude warming and is therefore often considered as a possible analogue for future warming. However, in contrast to predicted future greenhouse warming, the LIG climate is largely governed by variations in insolation. Greenhouse gas (GHG concentrations were relatively stable and similar to pre-industrial values, with the exception of the early LIG when, on average, GHGs were slightly lower. We performed six time-slice simulations with the low-resolution version of the Norwegian Earth System Model covering the LIG. In four simulations only the orbital forcing was changed. In two other simulations, representing the early LIG, additionally the GHG forcing was reduced. With these simulations we investigate (1 the different effects of GHG versus insolation forcing on the temperatures during the LIG; (2 whether reduced GHGs can explain the low temperatures reconstructed for the North Atlantic; and (3 the timing of the observed LIG peak warmth. Our simulations show that the insolation forcing results in seasonal and hemispheric differences in temperature. In contrast, a reduction in the GHG forcing causes a global and seasonal-independent cooling. Furthermore, we compare modelled temperatures with proxy-based LIG sea-surface temperatures along a transect in the North Atlantic. The modelled North Atlantic summer sea-surface temperatures capture the general trend of the reconstructed summer temperatures, with low values in the early LIG, a peak around 125 ka, and a steady decrease towards the end of the LIG. Simulations with reduced GHG forcing improve the model–data fit as they show lower temperatures in the early LIG. Furthermore we show that the timing of maximum summer and winter surface temperatures is in line with the local summer and winter insolation maximum at most latitudes. Two regions where the maximum local insolation and temperature do not occur at the

  4. Carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions and water balance of Sudanese savannah woodlands in relation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 deg N; 21-36 deg E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world's major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed

  5. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  6. Sweden's Leadership in a Climate Constrained World. An analysis for Sweden of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartha, Sivan; Baer, Paul; Athanasiou, Tom; Kemp-Benedict, Eric

    2008-10-15

    This report presents an analysis of the Greenhouse Development Rights framework applied to the case of Sweden. Its objective is to provide useful quantitative guidance on Sweden's role as a leader in our climate constrained world. It presents guidance that is rigorous from the standpoint of climate science and framed in the context of a right to development for the world's poor. This analysis fully accounts for Sweden's true responsibility, by looking beyond territorial emissions alone, and reckoning emissions in terms of Sweden's net 'carbon footprint.' Accounting for carbon embedded in imports, exports and international transport reveals that Sweden's responsibility is 17% larger than would be inferred by considering Sweden's territorial emissions alone. Sweden will naturally have significant obligations under any burden-sharing regime that is based on capacity and responsibility, and only more so under a regime that honors a right to development. Under the GDR framework, our indicative quantification suggests that Sweden's share of responsibility and capacity, and hence its obligation under a politically viable climate regime, will be approximately 0.51% of the global total in 2010. This can be compared to the US's 33%, the EU's 26%, Japan's 7.8%, China's 5.5%, and India's 0.5%. Sweden's 0.51% share of the global total is thus not large in absolute terms, though it is rather large relative to Sweden's small size (0.14% of the global population). These national shares shift over time, as countries' relative proportion of income and emissions change. In light of the emergence of rapidly growing developing country economies, Sweden's share of the global total obligation is projected to decline to 0.43% by 2020, and to 0.35% by 2030. This quantification of Sweden's obligation is useful in two complementary ways. First, if the total global costs of an emergency climate

  7. Whole-farm models to quantify greenhouse gas emissions and their potential use for linking climate change mitigation and adaptation in temperate grassland ruminant-based farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Prado, A; Crosson, P; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed to quant......The farm level is the most appropriate scale for evaluating options for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because the farm represents the unit at which management decisions in livestock production are made. To date, a number of whole farm modelling approaches have been developed...... components and the sensitivity of GHG outputs and mitigation measures to different approaches. Potential challenges for linking existing models with the simulation of impacts and adaptation measures under climate change are explored along with a brief discussion of the effects on other ecosystem services....

  8. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  9. The Role of Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases as Principal LW Control Knob that Governs the Global Surface Temperature for Past and Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E.; Russell, Gary L.; Oinas, Valdar; Jonas, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterized by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs) that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapor and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapor and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius-Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernible long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm per year, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm per year. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  10. The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Lacis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterised by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO2. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapour and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapour and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius–Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discernable long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late 1970s. This leaves atmospheric CO2 as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO2, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO2, to increase by 2 ppm yr−1, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm yr−1. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO2 climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  11. The role of long-lived greenhouse gases as principal LW control knob that governs the global surface temperature for past and future climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E.; Russell, Gary L.; Oinas, Valdar; Jonas, Jeffrey [NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York (United States)], e-mail: Andrew.A.Lacis@nasa.gov

    2013-11-15

    The climate system of the Earth is endowed with a moderately strong greenhouse effect that is characterised by non-condensing greenhouse gases (GHGs) that provide the core radiative forcing. Of these, the most important is atmospheric CO{sub 2}. There is a strong feedback contribution to the greenhouse effect by water vapour and clouds that is unique in the solar system, exceeding the core radiative forcing due to the non-condensing GHGs by a factor of three. The significance of the non-condensing GHGs is that once they have been injected into the atmosphere, they remain there virtually indefinitely because they do not condense and precipitate from the atmosphere, their chemical removal time ranging from decades to millennia. Water vapour and clouds have only a short lifespan, with their distribution determined by the locally prevailing meteorological conditions, subject to Clausius-Clapeyron constraint. Although solar irradiance is the ultimate energy source that powers the terrestrial greenhouse effect, there has been no discern able long-term trend in solar irradiance since precise monitoring began in the late seventies. This leaves atmospheric CO{sub 2} as the effective control knob driving the current global warming trend. Over geological time scales, volcanoes are the principal source of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and the weathering of rocks is the principal sink, with the biosphere participating as both a source and a sink. The problem at hand is that human industrial activity is causing atmospheric CO{sub 2}, to increase by 2 ppm yr{sup -1}, whereas the interglacial rate has been 0.005 ppm yr{sup -1}. This is a geologically unprecedented rate to turn the CO{sub 2} climate control knob. This is causing the global warming that threatens the global environment.

  12. Paludiculture as a chance for peatland and climate: the greenhouse gas balance of biomass production on two rewetted peatlands does not differ from the natural state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke; Huth, Vytas; Jurasinski, Gerald; Albrecht, Kerstin; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, rising prices for farm land make it increasingly difficult for government administrations to compete with external investors during the acquisition of land for wetland conservation. Thus, adding economic value to these, otherwise "lost", areas by combining extensive land use with nature conservation efforts could increase the amount of ground available for wetland restoration. Against this background, the concept of paludiculture aims to provide biomass for multiple purposes from peatlands with water tables high enough to conserve the peat body. However, as plants have been shown to contribute to greenhouse gas exchange in peatlands, manipulating the vegetation (by harvesting, sowing etc.) might alter the effect of the restored peatlands on climate. Here, we present greenhouse gas data from two experimental paludiculture systems on formerly drained intensive grasslands in northern Germany. In a fen that has been rewetted more than 15 years ago three species of reed plants were harvested to simulate biomass production for bioenergy and as construction material. And in a peat bog that has been converted from drained grassland to a field with a controlled water table around ground surface Sphagnum mosses were cultivated to provide an alternative growing substrate for horticulture. In both systems, we determined carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide exchange using closed chambers over two years. Additionally, water and peat chemistry and environmental parameters as recorded by a weather station were analyzed. Both restored peatlands show greenhouse gas balances comparable to those of natural ecosystems. Nitrous oxide was not emitted in either system. Fluctuations of the emissions reflect changes in weather conditions across the study years. In the fen, relative emission patterns between plant species were not constant over time. We did not find a negative short-term effect of biomass harvest or Sphagnum cultivation on net greenhouse gas balances

  13. The climate controversy demands substantive discussion. 'Climatic change sceptics' opposite 'greenhouse effect believers'; De klimaatcontroverse vergt inhoudelijke discussie. 'Klimaatsceptici' tegenover 'broeikasgelovigen'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoenes, D.; Labohm, H.

    2006-07-01

    With the aim to inform policymakers an overview is given of the arguments that are used by climatic change sceptics and greenhouse effect believers, and on which arguments do they agree or disagree. [Dutch] Met het doel beleidsmakers te informeren wordt een overzicht te geven van de argumenten die worden gebruikt door klimaatsceptici en broeikasgelovigen, en over welke argumenten ze het (on)eens zijn.

  14. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  15. An integrated framework to address climate change (ESCAPE) and further developments of the global and regional climate modules (MAGICC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulme, M.; Raper, S.C.B.

    1995-01-01

    ESCAPE (the Evaluation of Strategies to address Climate change by Adapting to and Preventing Emissions) is an integrated climate change assessment model constructed between 1990 and 1992 for DG XI of the Commission of the European Community by a consortium of research institutes headed by the Climatic Research Unit (CRU). It has been designed to enable the user to generate future scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (through an energy-economic model), examine their impact on global climate and sea level (through two independent global climate models), and illustrate some of the consequences of this global climate change at a regional scale for the European Community (through a regional climate scenario generator and impact models). We provide a very brief overview of the ESCAPE model which, although innovative, suffers from a number of major limitations. Subsequent work in the CRU has concentrated on improvements to the global climate module and work has also commenced on an improved regional climate scenario generating module. These improvements will lead to a new integrated climate change assessment model, MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse gas Induced Climate Change) which can easily be incorporated into new larger integrated frameworks developed by other institutes. (Author)

  16. Economic Analysis of the Effects of Climate Change Induced by Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Agricultural Productions and Available Water Resources (Case Study: Down Lands of the Taleghan Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mozaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Greenhouse gases absorb the radiation reflected from the earth surface which would otherwise be sent back into space. The composition and mixture of these gases make life on earth possible. In recent years, human activity has affected both the composition and mixture of the atmosphere, modifying the climate. When climate changes, crop production is affected. There are many studies that consider the type and amount of production changes for particular crops, places and scenarios. Others attempt to expand knowledge about production changes and their impacts on economy and regional welfare. Climate change affects agriculture through direct and indirect affects i.e. temperature, and precipitation changes in the biological and physical environment. Restriction in water availability is one of the most dramatic consequences of climate change for the agricultural sector. Water availability is expected to be even more limited in the future. Scarcity of water is due to potential evapotranspiration increase. It is related to increase in air and earth surface temperatures. This phenomenon is important in low-precipitation seasons, and is even more severe in dry areas. The number of regions with loss of soil moisture is expected to increase, resulting in direct economic consequences on the production capacity. Considering the above decisions, the main objective of this paper is to integrate climate change into agricultural decision-making by using an Economic Modeling System to identify the impacts of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions on agricultural sector productions and available water resources in the down lands of the Taleghan Dam. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of greenhouse gases on climate variables of temperature and precipitation under emission scenarios A1B, A2 and B1 were evaluated using time series data from 1981- 2008 and General Circulation Models (GCM. Then Ordinary Least Squares (OLS was used

  17. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National

  18. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  19. Climate change: Bio-technologies are facing a huge challenge. Why is climate changing? Control and measurement of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Soils at the heart of climate change. Between pollution and climate change, the survival of soil organisms. Modelling microbial degradation in soils to analyse greenhouse gas releases. A threat against plant health. The opinion of the seed industry. Truly living clouds. Language, the other stake of the struggle against climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas y Melia, David; Delmotte, Marc; Chenu, Claire; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Mougin, Christian; Lamy, Isabelle; Caquet, Thierry; Garnier, Patricia; Sache, Ivan; Pagesse, Pierre; Amato, Pierre; Desprez, Basile; Vernet, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    As the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 decided to react to limit the irrecoverable global warming, this publication, through several articles, outlines that this issue has not progressed at all after 23 years on a political point of view, and has even regressed with respect to initially defined objectives, but has progressed in terms of understanding of climate change under the influence of our production modes, notably in the agriculture sector. Thus, the articles discuss or recall the origin and process of climate change, how greenhouse gas emissions are controlled and measured, how soil are impacted or play a role in climate change as the survival of soil organisms is at stake under the pressure of pollution and climate change, how climate change can be a threat for plants, how the seed industry perceives these issues, how micro-organisms present in the air and clouds are now a topic in atmosphere sciences. The last article discusses the importance of intelligibility of scientific publications on these issues

  20. Historical contribution by country of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) to the climate change and Equity principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muylaert, M.S.; De Campos, C.P.; Pinguelli Rosa, L.

    2003-11-01

    The historical contribution by country to climate change can be used as a basis of analysis for a second period of commitments to the burden share. The historical greenhouse gases emission inventory is an important tool to evaluate the common but differentiated responsibilities of groups according to the principle of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Convention (1992). This paper aims to discuss the differences among the meaning of the GHG historical emissions in terms of development patterns and suggests that different weights for different sectors should be taken into account. GHG emissions due to enteric fermentation from domestic livestock, for example, are linked to different regional activities such as food production, cultural expression or even religion meaning, depending on the region analyzed. Emissions due to fossil fuel sector represent in the majority a not feasible consumption pattern in terms of sustainable development

  1. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  2. Contribution of N2O to the greenhouse gas balance of first-generation biofuels : climate change and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, E.M.W.; Bouwman, A.F.; Stehfest, E.; van Vuuren, D.P.; Posthuma, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the impact of fertilizer- and manure-induced N2O emissions due to energy crop production on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when conventional transportation fuels are replaced by first-generation biofuels (also taking account of other GHG emissions during

  3. Quantification of physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure in Alaska and benefits of global greenhouse gas mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Larsen, P.; Boehlert, B.; Martinich, J.; Neumann, J.; Chinowsky, P.; Schweikert, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change poses many risks and challenges for the Arctic and sub-Arctic, including threats to infrastructure. The safety and stability of infrastructure in this region can be impacted by many factors including increased thawing of permafrost soils, reduced coastline protection due to declining arctic sea ice, and changes in inland flooding. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is coordinating an effort to quantify physical and economic impacts of climate change on public infrastructure across the state of Alaska and estimate how global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation may avoid or reduce these impacts. This research builds on the Climate Change Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project developed for the contiguous U.S., which is described in an EPA report released in June 2015. We are using a multi-model analysis focused primarily on the impacts of changing permafrost, coastal erosion, and inland flooding on a range of infrastructure types, including transportation (e.g. roads, airports), buildings and harbors, energy sources and transmission, sewer and water systems, and others. This analysis considers multiple global GHG emission scenarios ranging from a business as usual future to significant global action. These scenarios drive climate projections through 2100 spanning a range of outcomes to capture variability amongst climate models. Projections are being combined with a recently developed public infrastructure database and integrated into a version of the Infrastructure Planning Support System (IPSS) we are modifying for use in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region. The IPSS tool allows for consideration of both adaptation and reactive responses to climate change. Results of this work will address a gap in our understanding of climate change impacts in Alaska, provide estimates of the physical and economic damages we may expect with and without global GHG mitigation, and produce important insights about infrastructure vulnerabilities in response to

  4. Application of a Bayesian belief network for assessing the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw and implications for greenhouse gas production and climate feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, K.L.; McLaughlin, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Permafrost areas are subject to accelerated rates of climate change leading to thaw. • Thaw will increase decomposition rates, exacerbating climate feedback. • We present a Bayesian belief network as a tool to examine interacting factors. • Organic soil (Hudson Plain region) and mineral soil (Arctic region) are contrasted. • Hudson Plain has contributed more to climate feedback than Arctic, but gap closing. - Abstract: Permafrost affected soils are an important component of the Boreal, Subarctic, and Arctic ecosystems of Canada. These areas are undergoing accelerated rates of climate change and have been identified as being at high risk for thaw. Thaw will expose soil to warmer conditions that support increased decomposition rates, which in turn will affect short- and long-term carbon storage capacity and result in feedback to global climate. We present a tool in the form of a Bayesian belief network influence diagram that will allow policymakers and managers to understand how interacting factors contribute to permafrost thaw and resulting effects on greenhouse gas (GHG) production and climate feedback. A theoretical example of expected responses from an organic soil typical of the Hudson Plain region and a mineral soil typical in the Arctic region demonstrate variability in responses across different combinations of climate and soil conditions within Canada. Based on the network results, the Arctic has historically had higher probability of thaw, but the Hudson Plain has had higher probability of producing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ). Under past and current climate conditions, the Hudson Plain has, on a per unit area basis, contributed more to climate feedback than the Arctic. However, the gap in contribution between the two regions is likely to decrease as thaw progresses more rapidly in the Arctic than Hudson Plain region, resulting in strong positive feedback to climate warming from both regions. The flexible framework

  5. Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on World Agriculture, Food Consumption, and Economic Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Because of many uncertainties, quantitative estimates of agriculturally related economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions are often given low confidence. A major source of uncertainty is our inability to accurately project future changes in economic activity, emissions, and climate. This paper focuses on two issues. First, to what extent do variable projections of climate generate uncertainty in agriculturally related economic impacts? Second, to what extent do agriculturally related economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions depend on economic conditions at the time of impacts? Results indicate that uncertainty due to variable projections of climate is fairly large for most of the economic effects evaluated in this analysis. Results also indicate that economic conditions at the time of impact influence the direction and size of as well as the confidence in the economic effects of identical projections of greenhouse gas impacts. The economic variable that behaves most consistently in this analysis is world crop production. Increases in mean global temperature, for example, cause world crop production to decrease on average under both 1990 and improved economic conditions and in both instances the confidence with respect to variable projections of climate is medium (e.g., 67%) or greater. In addition and as expected, CO2 fertilization causes world crop production to increase on average under 1990 and improved economic conditions. These results suggest that crop production may be a fairly robust indicator of the potential impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. A somewhat unexpected finding is that improved economic conditions are not necessarily a panacea to potential greenhouse-gas-induced damages, particularly at the region level. In fact, in some regions, impacts of climate change or CO2 fertilization that are beneficial under current economic conditions may be detrimental under improved economic conditions (relative to the new economic base). Australia plus

  6. Changes of climate regimes during the last millennium and the twenty-first century simulated by the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Feng, Song; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jie; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the shifts in terrestrial climate regimes using the Köppen-Trewartha (K-T) climate classification by analyzing the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM-LME) simulations for the period 850-2005 and CESM Medium Ensemble (CESM-ME), CESM Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) and CESM with fixed aerosols Medium Ensemble (CESM-LE_FixA) simulations for the period 1920-2080. We compare K-T climate types from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (950-1250) with the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1550-1850), from present day (PD) (1971-2000) with the last millennium (LM) (850-1850), and from the future (2050-2080) with the LM in order to place anthropogenic changes in the context of changes due to natural forcings occurring during the last millennium. For CESM-LME, we focused on the simulations with all forcings, though the impacts of individual forcings (e.g., solar activities, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land use changes) were also analyzed. We found that the climate types changed slightly between the MCA and the LIA due to weak changes in temperature and precipitation. The climate type changes in PD relative to the last millennium have been largely driven by greenhouse gas-induced warming, but anthropogenic aerosols have also played an important role on regional scales. At the end of the twenty-first century, the anthropogenic forcing has a much greater effect on climate types than the PD. Following the reduction of aerosol emissions, the impact of greenhouse gases will further promote global warming in the future. Compared to precipitation, changes in climate types are dominated by greenhouse gas-induced warming. The large shift in climate types by the end of this century suggests possible wide-spread redistribution of surface vegetation and a significant change in species distributions.

  7. Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froelicher, Thomas L.; Joos, Fortunat [University of Bern, Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Institute, Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, Bern (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The legacy of historical and the long-term impacts of 21st century greenhouse gas emissions on climate, ocean acidification, and carbon-climate feedbacks are investigated with a coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Emission commitment scenarios with zero emissions after year 2100 and 21st century emissions of 1,800, 900, and 0 gigatons of carbon are run up to year 2500. The reversibility and irreversibility of impacts is quantified by comparing anthropogenically-forced regional changes with internal, unforced climate variability. We show that the influence of historical emissions and of non-CO{sub 2} agents is largely reversible on the regional scale. Forced changes in surface temperature and precipitation become smaller than internal variability for most land and ocean grid cells in the absence of future carbon emissions. In contrast, continued carbon emissions over the 21st century cause irreversible climate change on centennial to millennial timescales in most regions and impacts related to ocean acidification and sea level rise continue to aggravate for centuries even if emissions are stopped in year 2100. Undersaturation of the Arctic surface ocean with respect to aragonite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate secreted by marine organisms, is imminent and remains widespread. The volume of supersaturated water providing habitat to calcifying organisms is reduced from preindustrial 40 to 25% in 2100 and to 10% in 2300 for the high emission case. We conclude that emission trading schemes, related to the Kyoto Process, should not permit trading between emissions of relatively short-lived agents and CO{sub 2} given the irreversible impacts of anthropogenic carbon emissions. (orig.)

  8. Effects of shoot pruning and inflorescence thinning on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of greenhouse tomatoes in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. J. Max

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of shoot pruning (one or two stems and inflorescence thinning (five or ten flowers per inflorescence on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality were studied during the dry season (DS and rainy season (RS in Central Thailand. Poor fruit set, development of undersized (mostly parthenocarpic fruits, as well as the physiological disorders blossom-end rot (BER and fruit cracking (FC turned out to be the prevailing causes deteriorating fruit yield and quality. The proportion of marketable fruits was less than 10% in the RS and around 65% in the DS. In both seasons, total yield was significantly increased when plants were cultivated with two stems, resulting in higher marketable yields only in the DS. While the fraction of undersized fruits was increased in both seasons when plants were grown with a secondary stem, the proportions of BER and FC were significantly reduced. Restricting the number of flowers per inflorescence invariably resulted in reduced total yield. However, in neither season did fruit load considerably affect quantity or proportion of the marketable yield fraction. Inflorescence thinning tended to promote BER and FC, an effect which was only significant for BER in the RS. In conclusion, for greenhouse tomato production under climate conditions as they are prevalent in Central Thailand, the cultivation with two stems appears to be highly recommendable whereas the measures to control fruit load tested in this study did not proof to be advisable.

  9. Limiting climate change verification of compliance with treaty commitments to limit greenhouse gas emissions from forests and land use by remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanchbery, J.; Salt, J.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study of how to verify compliance with treaty commitments to limit anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The study concentrated on establishing methods of verifying compliance with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. In particular, it examined methods of monitoring commitments to limit anthropogenic emissions from forests, agriculture and waste (for example, landfill sites) rather than from fossil fuel burning, which has been the subject of other detailed studies. Verification of compliance with international agreements must be carried out at a national level, because nation states are the parties to such agreements and it is their compliance with their commitments that must be checked by any verification regime. Therefore, it is essential that any verification regime is able to measure the amount (preferably the mass) of greenhouse gas which is anthropogenically generated within each nation which is party to an agreement to limit emissions of them. Also, because gases disperse rapidly in the atmosphere, it is necessary to monitor emissions at their source. The first task in the study reported here was thus to identify emission sources. (orig.)

  10. 32 questions concerning climate change (results of a questionnaire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, I; Boehm, R [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Steinacker, R [Vienna Univ. (Austria).Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1996-12-31

    The intention of the inquiry was to investigate the opinion within the scientific community about climate change questions that are believed to be already well solved in the public opinion. 32 questions were formulated that deal with 12 main assumptions about the existence, the predictability and the impacts of climate changes due to an artificially enhanced greenhouse effect. The possibilities to answer reached from `sure yes`, over `guess yes`, `not answerable or no opinion` to `guess no` and `sure no`. There were additional questions about the way the answers were gained: `by own research`, `by studying scientific literature or discussion with colleagues` and `by mass media consumption`. In the following some of the key assumptions about climate change topics will be discussed as the predictability of future evolution of climate by climate models and the detectability of an artificially enhanced greenhouse effect in climate time series. The other assumptions can be shown here only in the form of a comprehensive overview. In a very comprehensive form the results of the inquiry could be described in the following: A weak majority of climatologists believe today`s climate models to be able to describe a greenhouse gas induced climate change in global scale - much less in regional scale and not in local scale. A majority of climatologists believe an anthropogenic greenhouse gas forced climate and its impacts to be developing in the future but not already at present. The shape of the opinion spectra is in most cases far from that of a scientifically solved problem - a lot of work still has to be done

  11. 32 questions concerning climate change (results of a questionnaire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, I.; Boehm, R. [Central Inst. for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Vienna (Austria); Steinacker, R. [Vienna Univ. (Austria).Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    The intention of the inquiry was to investigate the opinion within the scientific community about climate change questions that are believed to be already well solved in the public opinion. 32 questions were formulated that deal with 12 main assumptions about the existence, the predictability and the impacts of climate changes due to an artificially enhanced greenhouse effect. The possibilities to answer reached from `sure yes`, over `guess yes`, `not answerable or no opinion` to `guess no` and `sure no`. There were additional questions about the way the answers were gained: `by own research`, `by studying scientific literature or discussion with colleagues` and `by mass media consumption`. In the following some of the key assumptions about climate change topics will be discussed as the predictability of future evolution of climate by climate models and the detectability of an artificially enhanced greenhouse effect in climate time series. The other assumptions can be shown here only in the form of a comprehensive overview. In a very comprehensive form the results of the inquiry could be described in the following: A weak majority of climatologists believe today`s climate models to be able to describe a greenhouse gas induced climate change in global scale - much less in regional scale and not in local scale. A majority of climatologists believe an anthropogenic greenhouse gas forced climate and its impacts to be developing in the future but not already at present. The shape of the opinion spectra is in most cases far from that of a scientifically solved problem - a lot of work still has to be done

  12. Model for calculating regional energy use, industrial production and greenhouse gas emissions for evaluating global climate scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, H.J.M. de; Olivier, J.G.J.; Wijngaart, R.A. van den; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Toet, A.M.C.

    1994-01-01

    In the integrated IMAGE 2.0 model the 'Energy-Industry System' is implemented as a set of models to develop global scenarios for energy use and industrial processes and for the related emissions of greenhouse gases on a region specific basis. The Energy-Economy model computes total energy use, with a focus on final energy consumption in end-use sectors, based on economic activity levels and the energy conservation potential (end-use approach). The Industrial Production and Consumption model computes the future levels of activities other than energy use, which lead to greenhouse gas emissions, based on relations with activities defined in the Energy-Economy model. These two models are complemented by two emissions models, to compute the associated emissions by using emission factors per compound and per activity defined. For investigating energy conservation and emissions control strategy scenarios various techno-economic coefficients in the model can be modified. In this paper the methodology and implementation of the 'Energy-Industry System' models is described as well as results from their testing against data for the period 1970-1990. In addition, the application of the models is presented for a specific scenario calculation. Future extensions of the models are in preparation. 59 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  13. Short-term fluctuations in vegetation and phytoplankton during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate: a 640-kyr record from the Messel oil shale (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Olaf K.; Wilde, Volker; Riegel, Walter

    2011-11-01

    The Palaeogene was the most recent greenhouse period on Earth. Especially for the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene, several superimposed short-term hyperthermal events have been described, including extremes such as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Major faunal and floral turnovers in the marine and terrestrial realms were recorded in association with these events. High-resolution palynological analysis of the early Middle Eocene maar lake sediments at Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany, provides an insight into the dynamics of a climax vegetation during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate in a time span without significant climatic excursions. Numerical techniques like detrended correspondence analysis and wavelet analysis have been applied to recognize cyclic fluctuations and long-term trends in the vegetation through a time interval of approximately 640 kyr. Based on the numerical zoning of the pollen diagram, three phases in the development of the vegetation may be distinguished. Throughout these phases, the climax vegetation did not change substantially in qualitative composition, but a trend towards noticeably less humid conditions probably in combination with a drop of the water level in the lake may be recognized. A shift in algal population from the freshwater dinoflagellate cyst Messelodinium thielepfeifferae to a dominance of Botryococcus in the uppermost part of the core is interpreted as a response to changes in acidity and nutrient availability within the lake. Time series analyses of pollen assemblages show that variations in the Milankovitch range of eccentricity, obliquity and precession can be distinguished. In addition, fluctuations in the sub-Milankovitch range are indicated. This demonstrates that floral changes during steady depositional conditions in the Middle Eocene of Messel were controlled by orbital forcing.

  14. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  15. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  16. Optimal Control Design for a Solar Greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteghem, van R.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: An optimal climate control has been designed for a solar greenhouse to achieve optimal crop production with sustainable instead of fossil energy. The solar greenhouse extends a conventional greenhouse with an improved roof cover, ventilation with heat recovery, a heat pump, a heat

  17. Optimal control design for a solar greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteghem, van R.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research of this thesis was part of a larger project aiming at the design of a greenhouse and an associated climate control that achieves optimal crop production with sustainable instead of fossil energy. This so called solar greenhouse design extends a conventional greenhouse with an improved

  18. Crossing the chasm in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, J.S.; Smit, P.X.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch greenhouse horticulture has an innovation and development programme called 'Kas als Energiebron' (Greenhouse as Energy Producer). The objective of this programme is reducing the carbon footprint and improving the energy efficiency of greenhouse horticulture, and developing a climate neutral

  19. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Friborg, Thomas; Schelde, K.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated......2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more accurately......., and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from...

  1. Harnessing greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, F.; Rivet, P.; Terrier, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the energy and greenhouse effect questions in a global way. It presents the different methods of fight against the increase of the greenhouse effect (energy saving, carbon sinks, cogeneration,..), describes the main alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (biomass, wind power, solar, nuclear,..), and shows that, even worrying, the future is not so dark as it seems to be and that technical solutions exist which will allow to answer the worldwide growing up energy needs and to slow down the climatic drift. (J.S.)

  2. Assessing the environmental consequences of global climate and economic changes in Venezuela: Impacts of the greenhouse effect and of free trade agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, M.F.; Harwell, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The ecological resources of most Latin American countries are subject to intense pressures for economic and industrial development which need to be balanced with local and global concerns about the long term sustainability of that resource base. Global issues and their potential long term effects should not be ignored when environmental policy strategies at the national level are elaborated. In this paper, the potential environmental consequences of two important global changes are examined, by taking Venezuela as a country case study: changes in climate, temperature, precipitation and radiation, generated by the greenhouse effect and changes in environmental stresses originating from shifts in local economic activity due to changing global trade, specifically free trade agreements. Both assessments are conducted using scenario-consequence approaches and expert judgment. The first analysis reported here is an example of the application of simulation models of global climate and local ecosystems, whereas the second analysis demonstrates the application of screening methodology which relies on processing of qualitative information. The approaches illustrated here are generic and can be applied to other Latin American countries

  3. Agreements on climatic protection - the verification problem. IKARUS. Instrumente fuer Klimagas-Reduktionsstrategien. Final report. Subproject 9: International Greenhouse Gas Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W.; Hoffmann, H.J.; Katscher, W.; Kotte, U.; Lauppe, W.D.; Stein, G.

    1995-12-31

    The sustained reduction of climate gas emissions associated with the generation, conversion and utilization of energy is clearly becoming an ever more important task in energy and environmental policy. Different strategies are conceivable in order to fulfil this mission. The aim of the IKARUS Project (Instrumente fuer Klimagas-Reduktionsstrategien - Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies) was to provide a set of tools with which strategies can be developed and reconstructed (making conceptual use of the various technologies) and also tested with respect to their internal consistency and examined with regard to their economic impacts. Corresponding to the great complexity of the task in hand and the technological range of energy applications, the set of instruments is very extensive. It consists of two parts: a data base with a comprehensive data collection and several computer models of various types.The ``Verification`` project was integrated into IKARUS as a link between the national project and the international environment, enabling the examination of technologies and methods for verifying the compliance of statesparty to the Framwork Convention on Climate Change (FCCC).(orig/KW)

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  5. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herbst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG budget of a restored wetland in western Denmark was established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes. The water table in the wetland, which was restored in 2002, was unregulated, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from the atmosphere. However, in terms of the full annual GHG budget (assuming that 1 g CH4 is equivalent to 25 g CO2 with respect to the greenhouse effect over a time horizon of 100 years the wetland was a sink in 2009, a source in 2010 and neutral in 2011. Complementary observations of meteorological factors and management activities were used to explain the large inter-annual variations in the full atmospheric GHG budget of the wetland. The largest impact on the annual GHG fluxes, eventually defining their sign, came from site management through changes in grazing duration and animal stocking density. These changes accounted for half of the observed variability in the CO2 fluxes and about two thirds of the variability in CH4 fluxes. An unusually long period of snow cover in 2010 had the second largest effect on the annual CO2 flux, whose interannual variability was larger than that of the CH4 flux. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to quantify the effects of ecosystem disturbance, in terms of management activities and exceptional weather patterns, on the atmospheric GHG budget more

  6. One Million Climate Jobs or 528 Megatons of Greenhouse Gases? An interview with Jonathan Neale and Nancy Lindisfarne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Jeffs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An interview addresses one of the currently most important environmental and political iniciatives in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – the One million Climate Jobs Campaign. An extensive programme of change, which was prepared as part of this campaign, is discussed and with it many of the political and socio-economic areas that are affected by climate change and that thus directly alter human life. The interlocutors reveal how the barriers to solving the problem of pollution stem from our reality – capitalism and its corresponding organisation of the economy and society. Special attention is also given to the fact that some of the world’s crises are usually the consequence of interests of the fossil fuels elites and the profits inevitably connected to them. All this means that in order to achieve any real changes in the ways we treat our planet, what is needed is radical social transformation.

  7. Climate and site management as driving factors for the atmospheric greenhouse gas exchange of a restored wetland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Mathias; Friborg, Thomas; Schelde, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The full atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) budget of a restored wetland in Western Denmark could be established for the years 2009–2011 from eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. The water table in the wetland, being restored in 2002, was unregulated...... patterns through an unusually long period of snow cover in the second year of observations. Since integrated CO2 and CH4 flux data from restored wetlands are still very rare, it is concluded that more long-term flux measurements are needed to predict the role of this land use type in the atmospheric GHG......, and the vegetation height was limited through occasional grazing by cattle and grass cutting. The annual net CO2 uptake varied between 195 and 983 g m−2 and the annual net CH4 release varied between 11 and 17 g m−2. In all three years the wetland was a carbon sink and removed between 42 and 259 g C m−2 from...

  8. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates.

  9. Performance of a day/night water heat storage system for heating and cooling of semi-closed greenhouses in mild winter climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeza, E.J.; Pérez Parra, J.J.; López, J.C.; Gázquez, J.C.; Meca, D.E.; Stanghellini, C.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Montero, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    A novel system for heating/cooling greenhouses based on air/water heat exchangers connected to a thermally stratified water storage tank was tested in a small greenhouse compartment at the Experimental Station of the Cajamar Foundation in Almería, Spain. The system maintained a closed greenhouse (no

  10. Greenhouse effect: analysis, incertitudes, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, A.

    1991-01-01

    A general presentation of climatic changes due to greenhouse effect with their consequences is analysed. After a schematic description of this effect a simplified atmospheric model (box model) is proposed. This model integrates the main feedback effects and quantifies them. The effects of astronomic and atmospheric factors on climatic changes are analyzed and compared with classical paleoclimatic results. This study shows the need of good global modelization to evaluate long term quantification of climatic greenhouse effects according to the main time lag of the several biospheric boxes. An overview of biologic and agronomic consequences is given to promote new research subjects and to orientate protecting and conservative biospheric actions [fr

  11. Long-term ice sheet-climate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex Earth System Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizcaino, Miren [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); University of California, Department of Geography, Berkeley, CA (United States); Mikolajewicz, Uwe; Maier-Reimer, Ernst [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Groeger, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Schurgers, Guy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Lund University, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund (Sweden); Winguth, Arne M.E. [Center for Climatic Research, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Several multi-century and multi-millennia simulations have been performed with a complex Earth System Model (ESM) for different anthropogenic climate change scenarios in order to study the long-term evolution of sea level and the impact of ice sheet changes on the climate system. The core of the ESM is a coupled coarse-resolution Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model (AOGCM). Ocean biogeochemistry, land vegetation and ice sheets are included as components of the ESM. The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) decays in all simulations, while the Antarctic ice sheet contributes negatively to sea level rise, due to enhanced storage of water caused by larger snowfall rates. Freshwater flux increases from Greenland are one order of magnitude smaller than total freshwater flux increases into the North Atlantic basin (the sum of the contribution from changes in precipitation, evaporation, run-off and Greenland meltwater) and do not play an important role in changes in the strength of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (NAMOC). The regional climate change associated with weakening/collapse of the NAMOC drastically reduces the decay rate of the GrIS. The dynamical changes due to GrIS topography modification driven by mass balance changes act first as a negative feedback for the decay of the ice sheet, but accelerate the decay at a later stage. The increase of surface temperature due to reduced topographic heights causes a strong acceleration of the decay of the ice sheet in the long term. Other feedbacks between ice sheet and atmosphere are not important for the mass balance of the GrIS until it is reduced to 3/4 of the original size. From then, the reduction in the albedo of Greenland strongly accelerates the decay of the ice sheet. (orig.)

  12. Greenhouse effect and climate change - projections for the 21st century; Treibhauseffekt und Klimawandel - Projektionen fuer das 21. Jahrhundert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, A.; Sausen, R. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    2007-07-01

    Climate change is seen as a global issue, with observations from around the world confirming its reality. However the nature of these changes is very variable across the globe, and to some extent, these changes can be seen as beneficial. Global mean temperature has risen by some 0.7 C in the last 100 years and a further increase of 2 to 4 C is predicted for the next 100 years. Predictions for Germany are that summers will be drier and winters wetter. (orig.)

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of value added (“GEVA”) — A corporate guide to voluntary climate action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randers, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the global economy continues to grow at its historical rate of 3.5% per year. The suggested 5% per year decline can be translated into a corporate resolution to reduce corporate “GHG emissions per unit of value added” (GEVA) by 5% per year. If all corporations cut their GEVA by 5% per year, the same global result will be achieved. The suggested 5% per year decline can be used as a guideline for responsible action on a voluntary basis. The guideline is unlikely to be made mandatory soon, but compulsory publication of the necessary emissions and productivity data by nations and corporations could help civil society highlight top performers. - Highlights: ► The world needs to reduce GHG emissions by 50% by 2050. ► Is achievable if nations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5%/year. ► Or if corporations reduce “GHG emissions per unit of value added” by 5 %/year. ► Corporations that reduce GEVA by 5%/year can be said to do their fair share. ► Mandatory reporting of corporate GEVA could motivate such reductions.

  14. Pragmatics in the greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, M.J.; Victor, D.G.; Hope, C.W. (Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (UK))

    1991-12-05

    Negotiations towards a global framework convention on climate change are hampered by the range of greenhouse gases, sources and sinks. The US government promotes a comprehensive approach to climate change which provides flexibility but faces obstacles arising from the different characteristics of the sources and sinks involved, and uncertainties in attempting to estimate and compare the radiative impacts of different gases. Relying on approximations to enable a comprehensive approach is unrealistic for two reasons: monitoring and revision. The comprehensive approach is a worthwhile goal but is not yet fully practicable. Two lists are suggested - a quantified list for CFCs and CO{sub 2} and a transition list. Frequent renegotiation would be necessary. With this approach an overall goal for controlling the magnitude and rate of change in greenhouse forcing is possible. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Greenhouse gas strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Because the overall effects of climate change will likely be more pronounced in the North than in other parts of the country, the Government of the Northwest Territories considers it imperative to support global and local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Government support is manifested through a coordinating role played by senior government representatives in the development of the NWT Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and by participation on a multi-party working committee to identify and coordinate northern actions and to contribute a northern perspective to Canada's National Climate Change Implementation Strategy. This document outlines the NWT Government's goals and objectives regarding greenhouse gas emission reduction actions. These will include efforts to enhance awareness and understanding; demonstrate leadership by putting the Government's own house in order; encouraging action across sectors; promote technology development and innovation; invest in knowledge and building the foundation for informed future decisions. The strategy also outlines the challenges peculiar to the NWT, such as the high per person carbon dioxide emissions compared to the national average (30 tonnes per person per year as opposed to the national average of 21 tonnes per person per year) and the increasing economic activity in the Territories, most of which are resource-based and therefore energy-intensive. Appendices which form part of the greenhouse gas strategy document, provide details of the potential climate change impact in the NWT, a detailed explanation of the proposed measures, an emission forecast to 2004 from industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration, and a statement of the official position of the Government of the NWT on climate change

  16. Farming for a Better Climate by Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (FarmClim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Schröck, Andrea; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Schaller, Lena; Moser, Tobias; Baumgarten, Andreas; Dersch, Georg; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Kitzler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The project FarmClim (Farming for a better climate) assesses impacts of agriculture on N and GHG fluxes in Austria and proposes measures for improving N efficiency and mitigating emissions, including their economic assessment. This paper focuses on animal husbandry and crop production measures, and on N2O emissions from soils. FarmClim applies national inventory reporting methods to assess Austrian NH3 and GHG fluxes in order to develop flux estimates with implementation of mitigation measures. Based on scientific literature and on the outcome of the Austrian working group agriculture and climate protection a list of potential mitigation measures has been produced: phase feeding, dairy cattle diet, biogas production. Data cover resulting production levels as well as GHG mitigation. In crop production, an optimisation potential remains with respect to N fertilization and nutrient uptake efficiency. Projected regional yield data and information on the N content of arable crops have been delivered from field experiments. These data complement official statistics and allow assessing the effect of increasing proportions of legume crops in crop rotations and reducing fertilizer input on a regional scale. Economic efficiency of measures is a crucial factor for their future implementation on commercial farms. The economic model evaluates investment costs as well as changes in direct costs, labour costs and economic yield. Biophysical modelling with Landscape DNDC allows establishing a framework to move from the current approach of applying the IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions from soils. We select two Austrian model regions to calculate N fluxes taking into account region and management practices. Hot spots and hot moments as well as mitigation strategies are identified. Two test regions have been identified for soil emission modelling. The Marchfeld is an intensively used agricultural area in North-East Austria with very fertile soils and dry climate. The

  17. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  18. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  19. Carbon dioxide and climate impulse response functions for the computation of greenhouse gas metrics: a multi-model analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Joos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other climate variables to an emission pulse of CO2 into the atmosphere are often used to compute the Global Warming Potential (GWP and Global Temperature change Potential (GTP, to characterize the response timescales of Earth System models, and to build reduced-form models. In this carbon cycle-climate model intercomparison project, which spans the full model hierarchy, we quantify responses to emission pulses of different magnitudes injected under different conditions. The CO2 response shows the known rapid decline in the first few decades followed by a millennium-scale tail. For a 100 Gt-C emission pulse added to a constant CO2 concentration of 389 ppm, 25 ± 9% is still found in the atmosphere after 1000 yr; the ocean has absorbed 59 ± 12% and the land the remainder (16 ± 14%. The response in global mean surface air temperature is an increase by 0.20 ± 0.12 °C within the first twenty years; thereafter and until year 1000, temperature decreases only slightly, whereas ocean heat content and sea level continue to rise. Our best estimate for the Absolute Global Warming Potential, given by the time-integrated response in CO2 at year 100 multiplied by its radiative efficiency, is 92.5 × 10−15 yr W m−2 per kg-CO2. This value very likely (5 to 95% confidence lies within the range of (68 to 117 × 10−15 yr W m−2 per kg-CO2. Estimates for time-integrated response in CO2 published in the IPCC First, Second, and Fourth Assessment and our multi-model best estimate all agree within 15% during the first 100 yr. The integrated CO2 response, normalized by the pulse size, is lower for pre-industrial conditions, compared to present day, and lower for smaller pulses than larger pulses. In contrast, the response in temperature, sea level and ocean heat content is less sensitive to these choices. Although, choices in pulse size, background concentration, and model lead to uncertainties, the most important and

  20. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckner, Jens; Peter, Christiane; Vetter, Armin

    2015-01-01

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  1. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  2. Understanding climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the climate? What factors do determine our climate? What is solar radiation? How does solar radiation relate to the earth's energy? What is greenhouse effect? What role does the greenhouse effect play in the global ecosystem? How does the water cycle affect climate? What is drought? What role do oceans play in influencing climate. (author)

  3. Modeling of the climate system and of its response to a greenhouse effect increase; Modelisation du systeme climatique et de sa reponse a une augmentation de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The anthropic disturbance of the Earth's greenhouse effect is already visible and will enhance in the coming years or decades. In front of the rapidity and importance of the global warming effect, the socio-economical management of this change will rise problems and must be studied by the scientific community. At the modeling level, finding a direct strategy for the validation of climate models is not easy: many uncertainties exist because energy transformations take place at a low level and several processes take place at the same time. The variability observed at the seasonal, inter-annual or paleo- scales allows to validate the models at the process level but not the evolution of the whole system. The management of these uncertainties is an integral part of the global warming problem. Thus, several scenarios can be proposed and their risk of occurrence must be estimated. This paper presents first the greenhouse effect, the climatic changes during geologic times, the anthropic disturbance of the greenhouse effect, the modeling of climate and the forecasting of its evolution. (J.S.)

  4. Modeling of the climate system and of its response to a greenhouse effect increase; Modelisation du systeme climatique et de sa reponse a une augmentation de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS, Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The anthropic disturbance of the Earth's greenhouse effect is already visible and will enhance in the coming years or decades. In front of the rapidity and importance of the global warming effect, the socio-economical management of this change will rise problems and must be studied by the scientific community. At the modeling level, finding a direct strategy for the validation of climate models is not easy: many uncertainties exist because energy transformations take place at a low level and several processes take place at the same time. The variability observed at the seasonal, inter-annual or paleo- scales allows to validate the models at the process level but not the evolution of the whole system. The management of these uncertainties is an integral part of the global warming problem. Thus, several scenarios can be proposed and their risk of occurrence must be estimated. This paper presents first the greenhouse effect, the climatic changes during geologic times, the anthropic disturbance of the greenhouse effect, the modeling of climate and the forecasting of its evolution. (J.S.)

  5. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  6. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  7. Assessment of energy consumption in organic tomato greenhouse production - a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptista, F.J.; Murcho, D.; Silva, L.; Stanghellini, C.; Montero, J.I.; Kempkes, F.; Munoz, P.; Gilli, Celine; Giuffrida, F.; Stepowska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse production has increased over the last decades in the Mediterranean region. Greenhouses allow protecting crops from adverse climate conditions, creating microclimate conditions appropriate for obtaining high production with high quality all over the year. However, greenhouse production is

  8. Effects of climate and geochemistry on soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions along altitudinal transects in different mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boudin, Mathieu; Dercon, Gerd; Doetterl, Sebastian; Matulanya, Machibya; Msigwa, Anna; Vermeir, Pieter; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strongly influenced by climate change and soils are key compartments of the global carbon (C) cycle in terms of their potential to store or release significant amounts of C. This study is part of the interregional IAEA Technical Cooperation Project ``Assessing the Impact of Climate Change and its Effects on Soil and Water Resources in Polar and Mountainous Regions (INT5153)'' aiming to improve the understanding of climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) in fragile polar and high mountainous ecosystems at local and global scale for their better management and conservation. The project includes 13 benchmark sites situated around the world. Here we present novel data from altitudinal transects of three different mountain regions (Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; Mount Gongga, China; Cordillera Blanca, Peru). All altitudinal transects cover a wide range of natural ecosystems under different climates and soil geochemistry. Bulk soil samples (four field replicates per ecosystem) were subjected to a combination of aggregate and particle-size fractionation followed by organic C, total nitrogen, stable isotope (13C, 15N) and radiocarbon (14C) analyses of all fractions. Bulk soils were further characterized for their geochemistry (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Si, P) and incubated for 63 days to assess greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, NO, N2O). Further, stable C isotopic signature of CO2 was measured to determine the isotopic signature of soil respiration (using Keeling plots) and to estimate potential respiration sources. The following four ecosystems were sampled at an altitudinal transect on the (wet) southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro: savannah (920m), lower montane rain forests with angiosperm trees (2020m), upper montane cloud forest with gymnosperm trees (2680m), subalpine heathlands (3660m). Both forests showed highest C contents followed by subalpine and savannah. The largest part of SOC was found in particulate organic matter

  9. Remarkable separability of the circulation response to Arctic sea ice loss and greenhouse gas forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, K. E.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; Sigmond, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Bitz, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice loss has an important effect on local climate through increases in ocean to atmosphere heat flux and associated feedbacks, and may influence midlatitude climate by changing large-scale circulation that can enhance or counter changes that are due to greenhouse gases. The extent to which climate change in a warming world can be understood as greenhouse gas-induced changes that are modulated by Arctic sea ice loss depends on how additive the responses to the separate influences are. Here we use a novel sea ice nudging methodology in the Canadian Earth System Model, which has a fully coupled ocean, to isolate the effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) to determine their additivity and sensitivity to mean state. We find that the separate effects of Arctic sea ice loss and doubled CO2 are remarkably additive and relatively insensitive to mean climate state. This separability is evident in several thermodynamic and dynamic fields throughout most of the year, from hemispheric to synoptic scales. The extent to which the regional response to sea ice loss sometimes agrees with and sometimes cancels the response to CO2 is quantified. In this model, Arctic sea ice loss enhances the CO2-induced surface air temperature changes nearly everywhere and zonal wind changes over the Pacific sector, whereas sea ice loss counters CO2-induced sea level pressure changes nearly everywhere over land and zonal wind changes over the Atlantic sector. This separability of the response to Arctic sea ice loss from the response to CO2 doubling gives credence to the body of work in which Arctic sea ice loss is isolated from the forcing that modified it, and might provide a means to better interpret the diverse array of modeling and observational studies of Arctic change and influence.

  10. The greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    At Kyoto, Australia was successful in gaining acceptance for a differentiated response to climate change which takes account of our special circumstances and allows for an 8% rise in emissions above 1990 levels by 2008 - 2012. This outcome is both environmentally effective but also responsible from the perspective of Australia's economic and trade interests. While our target is achievable it will require significant efforts on the part of industry, all levels of government and the wider community to move towards best practice in managing our greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, it will provide an incentive for industry and businesses to further improve their efficiency and perhaps even to capture new opportunities that may present themselves. An outline of the National Greenhouse Strategy is given and some of the many implications for the minerals and energy sector are discussed

  11. National inventory report of greenhouse gas sources and sinks in Canada 1990-2004 : submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzert, F.; Collas, P.; Matin, A.; Jaques, A. (comps.) [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Greenhouse Gas Division

    2006-04-15

    As a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Canada must submit an annual national inventory of anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouses gases (GHGs) not included in the Montreal Protocol. Climate change refers to changes in long-term weather patterns caused by natural phenomena and human activities that alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the build up of GHGs that trap heat and reflect it back to the Earth's surface. Canada has been submitting a complete inventory annually for more than a decade, continuously improving the quality of GHG inventory and updating previous estimates to provide a consistent and comparable trend in emissions and removals of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride, perfluorocarbons, and hydrofluorocarbons. The changes for 2004 include studies in upstream oil and oil refining industries; updates in Statistics Canada's underlying energy data; adoption of improved, country-specific methodologies and factors for agricultural soils nitrous oxide emissions; and, major revision of the estimation model for emissions from landfills. The general impact of these changes is that emission growth over the reporting period, previously reported to be 24.2 per cent, is now estimated to be 25.9 per cent. In terms of GHG emission trends in 2004, the total GHG emissions in Canada, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}e) were 758 Mt which represents a 0.6 per cent increase over the 2003 total and a 26.6 per cent increase over the 1990 total, and 34.6 per cent above the Kyoto target. The increase from 2003 to 2004 was small because of a reduced demand for heating fuel due to warmer weather, and greater emissions reductions from electricity production on the basis of increased nuclear availability and reduced coal generation. In 2004, emissions from most sectors such as industrial process, solvent, agriculture and waste were increased, but emissions from

  12. Scientific perspectives on greenhouse problem. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrow, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Seitz, F.

    1992-01-01

    The spectre of major climate change caused by the greenhouse effect has generated intensive research, heated scientific debate and a concerted international effort to draft agreements for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This report of Scientific Perspectives on the greenhouse problem explains the technical issues in the debate in language readily understandable to the non-specialist. The inherent complexities of attempts to simulate the earth's climate are explained, particularly with regard to the effects of clouds and the circulation of the oceans, which together represent the largest factors of uncertainty in current global warming forecasts. Results of the search for the 'greenhouse signal' in existing climate records aredescribed in chapter 3 (part two). Chapter 5 (part two) develops a projection of 21st-century warming based on relatively firm evidence of the earth's actual response to known increases in greenhouse gas emissions during the last 100 years

  13. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research, Development, and Deployment in Meeting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Goals. The Case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S. 2191)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Sharon [OnLocation, Inc./ Energy Systems Consulting, Vienna, VA (United States); Wood, Frances [OnLocation, Inc./ Energy Systems Consulting, Vienna, VA (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. federal government is considering actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so the cost of these technologies could significantly influence the overall cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits. This paper examines the potential benefit of reduced technology cost by analyzing the case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191). This act had a goal of reducing national carbon emissions in 2050 to levels 72 percent below 2006 emission levels. In April 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) published an analysis of the effects of S.2191 on the U.S. energy sector. This report presents a similar analysis: both analyses examined the impacts of S.2191, and both used versions of the National Energy Modeling System. The analysis reported here used modified technology assumptions to reflect U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program goals. The results show that achieving EERE program goals could reduce the cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits, reduce the cost of renewable electricity generation and biofuels, and reduce energy intensity.

  14. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Research, Development, and Deployment in Meeting Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Goals: The Case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, S.; Wood, F.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. federal government is considering actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so the cost of these technologies could significantly influence the overall cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits. This paper examines the potential benefit of reduced technology cost by analyzing the case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191). This act had a goal of reducing national carbon emissions in 2050 to levels 72 percent below 2006 emission levels. In April 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) published an analysis of the effects of S.2191 on the U.S. energy sector. This report presents a similar analysis: both analyses examined the impacts of S.2191, and both used versions of the National Energy Modeling System. The analysis reported here used modified technology assumptions to reflect U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program goals. The results show that achieving EERE program goals could reduce the cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits, reduce the cost of renewable electricity generation and biofuels, and reduce energy intensity.

  15. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  16. Book ''greenhouse effect and climatic changes''; Livret ''effet de serre et dereglements climatiques''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Devoted to the public information, this book provides explanations on the greenhouse effect and its consequences, proposes attitudes, solutions in the transport, the house, the purchases and the work domains. (A.L.B.)

  17. Energy and greenhouse gas life cycle assessment and cost analysis of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems: Influence of scale, population density, climate, and methane recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study calculated the energy and greenhouse gas life cycle and cost profiles of transitional aerobic membrane bioreactors (AeMBR) and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). Membrane bioreactors (MBR) represent a promising technology for decentralized wastewater treatment and...

  18. Greenhouse effect: realities and policies versus a possible climatic change. Efecto invernadero: realidades y politicas frente a un posible cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The present book presents the conferences of 6 experts to reduce the greenhouse gas effects in environment. The physical causes and consequences, the answer of electrical industry, the fuels, the ecotaxe and reduction of CO[sub 2] are discussed.

  19. A need for greenhouse geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaak, F

    1991-12-01

    As regards the greenhouse issue, research has reached the frontiers of present-day scientific knowledge and understanding. Earth scientists, especially geologists could provide extra input, for example from studies of the sun's energy activity; by providing data on CO{sub 2} storage in the oceans and coral reefs; and on the climatic effect of volcanic activity.

  20. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  1. Greenhouse gases - observed tendencies contra scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2006-01-01

    The article presents a study of the increase in greenhouse gases and concludes that it will be necessary to substantially reduce the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere in order to avoid serious climatic changes

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study quantifies greenhouse gas emissions from Kenya's energy activities. It is organised in four major sections, namely, an overview of the energy sector; data sources and methodology of analysis; results and recommendations for future climate change mitigation

  3. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  4. Computational fluid dynamics in greenhouses: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... reduce environmental impact while enhancing crop qua- lity and yields .... within a mild climate, appropriate design and control of ventilation are required .... crucial parameter in the pattern of internal greenhouse temperatures ...

  5. Politics scenarios for climatic protection V - On the way to structural change, scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions up to the year 2030; Politikszenarien V - auf dem Weg zum Strukturwandel, Treibhausgas-Emissionsszenarien bis zum Jahr 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, P.; Matthes, F.C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    For the project 'Politics scenarios for climate protection V' (Politics scenarios V), two scenarios for the development of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany for the period 2005 to 2030 were developed: (a) a 'With-Measure-scenario'; (b) a 'structural-change-scenario'. In the context of the scenario analyses a detailed evaluation of the respective climatic political and energy political measures is performed regarding to their effects on the development of the greenhouse gas emissions in Germany. Methane, laughing gas, halogenated hydrocarbons, perfluorinated hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride are considered for the source sectors energy, industrial processes, product application, agriculture and waste management are considered. Sector-specific model analyses are used in the development of the scenarios. These model analyses are summarized to consistent and complete quantity structure for the power requirement and the emissions of greenhouse gases. Specific investigations are accomplished for the areas space heating and warm water, electrical devices, industry, trade and services, traffic, power generation from renewable energies and the fossil power generation as well as for the volatile emissions of the energy sector, process-related emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides. For other selected sources (emissions of halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride as well as the agriculture) results of other investigations were taken over and processed. In the case of an integration and determination of emissions a system integration module and an emission computation model are used in order to consolidate the detailed sector results to a quantity structure. This quantity structure completely is compatible to the German greenhouse gas inventories (according to the conditions of the inventory report 2008).

  6. Utilising temperature differences as constraints for estimating parameters in a simple climate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodman, Roger W; Karoly, David J; Enting, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Simple climate models can be used to estimate the global temperature response to increasing greenhouse gases. Changes in the energy balance of the global climate system are represented by equations that necessitate the use of uncertain parameters. The values of these parameters can be estimated from historical observations, model testing, and tuning to more complex models. Efforts have been made at estimating the possible ranges for these parameters. This study continues this process, but demonstrates two new constraints. Previous studies have shown that land-ocean temperature differences are only weakly correlated with global mean temperature for natural internal climate variations. Hence, these temperature differences provide additional information that can be used to help constrain model parameters. In addition, an ocean heat content ratio can also provide a further constraint. A pulse response technique was used to identify relative parameter sensitivity which confirmed the importance of climate sensitivity and ocean vertical diffusivity, but the land-ocean warming ratio and the land-ocean heat exchange coefficient were also found to be important. Experiments demonstrate the utility of the land-ocean temperature difference and ocean heat content ratio for setting parameter values. This work is based on investigations with MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change) as the simple climate model.

  7. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, Valerie J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Babiker, Mustafa; Reilly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  8. About greenhouse effect origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrhenius, S.; Chamberlin, Th.; Croll, J.; Fourier, J.; Pouillet, C.; Tyndall, J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand and decipher the ecological crisis in progress, an historical prospect of its origins and evolution at the worldwide scale is necessary. This book gathers seven founder articles (including 4 original translations), harbingers of the present day climate change. Written during the 19. century by famous scientists like Joseph Fourier, Claude Pouillet, James Croll, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius and Thomas Chamberlin, they relate a century of major progress in the domain of Earth's sciences in praise of these scientists. This book allows to (re)discover these texts: discovery of the greenhouse effect principle (Fourier), determination of solar radiation absorption by the atmosphere (Pouillet), rivalry between the astronomical theory of glacial cycles (Croll) and the carbon dioxide climatic theory (Tyndall), influence of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on the global warming (Arrhenius), and confirmation of the major role of CO 2 in the Earth's temperature regulation (Chamberlin). (J.S.)

  9. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  10. Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0 to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Badawy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Land Surface Scheme and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM together form the land surface component in the family of Canadian Earth system models (CanESMs. Here, CLASS-CTEM is coupled to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC's weather and greenhouse gas forecast model (GEM-MACH-GHG to consistently model atmosphere–land exchange of CO2. The coupling between the land and the atmospheric transport model ensures consistency between meteorological forcing of CO2 fluxes and CO2 transport. The procedure used to spin up carbon pools for CLASS-CTEM for multi-decadal simulations needed to be significantly altered to deal with the limited availability of consistent meteorological information from a constantly changing operational environment in the GEM-MACH-GHG model. Despite the limitations in the spin-up procedure, the simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological forcing from GEM-MACH-GHG were comparable to those obtained from CLASS-CTEM when it is driven with standard meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit (CRU combined with reanalysis fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP to form CRU-NCEP dataset. This is due to the similarity of the two meteorological datasets in terms of temperature and radiation. However, notable discrepancies in the seasonal variation and spatial patterns of precipitation estimates, especially in the tropics, were reflected in the estimated carbon fluxes, as they significantly affected the magnitude of the vegetation productivity and, to a lesser extent, the seasonal variations in carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, the simulated fluxes based on the meteorological forcing from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are consistent to some extent with other estimates from bottom-up or top-down approaches. Indeed, when simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological data from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are used as

  11. Coupling the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0) to Environment and Climate Change Canada's greenhouse gas forecast model (v.107-glb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Bakr; Polavarapu, Saroja; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Deng, Feng; Neish, Michael; Melton, Joe R.; Nassar, Ray; Arora, Vivek K.

    2018-02-01

    The Canadian Land Surface Scheme and the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CLASS-CTEM) together form the land surface component in the family of Canadian Earth system models (CanESMs). Here, CLASS-CTEM is coupled to Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC)'s weather and greenhouse gas forecast model (GEM-MACH-GHG) to consistently model atmosphere-land exchange of CO2. The coupling between the land and the atmospheric transport model ensures consistency between meteorological forcing of CO2 fluxes and CO2 transport. The procedure used to spin up carbon pools for CLASS-CTEM for multi-decadal simulations needed to be significantly altered to deal with the limited availability of consistent meteorological information from a constantly changing operational environment in the GEM-MACH-GHG model. Despite the limitations in the spin-up procedure, the simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological forcing from GEM-MACH-GHG were comparable to those obtained from CLASS-CTEM when it is driven with standard meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) combined with reanalysis fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to form CRU-NCEP dataset. This is due to the similarity of the two meteorological datasets in terms of temperature and radiation. However, notable discrepancies in the seasonal variation and spatial patterns of precipitation estimates, especially in the tropics, were reflected in the estimated carbon fluxes, as they significantly affected the magnitude of the vegetation productivity and, to a lesser extent, the seasonal variations in carbon fluxes. Nevertheless, the simulated fluxes based on the meteorological forcing from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are consistent to some extent with other estimates from bottom-up or top-down approaches. Indeed, when simulated fluxes obtained by driving the CLASS-CTEM model with meteorological data from the GEM-MACH-GHG model are used as prior estimates

  12. Waste management and climate protection. Contribution of Bavarian waste management for greenhouse gas minimization; Abfallwirtschaft und Klimaschutz. Beitrag der bayerischen Abfallwirtschaft zur Treibhausgas-Minderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peche, R.; Kreibe, S. [bifa Umweltinstitut, Augsburg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    bifa created a material flow model for approximately 23 million tons of Bavarian municipal and industrial waste that incorporates collection of waste, waste disposal and processing and treatment of residual material. bifa determined the influence of these material flows on emissions of greenhouse gases. The analysis shows that the Bavarian waste management achieved a reduction of greenhouse gases in the municipal and industrial waste sector that amounted to 3.2 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO{sub 2}E) in 2003, thus reducing environmental impact considerably. To see the overall reduction of greenhouse gases it is however necessary to compare the system of waste collection, waste treatment and waste processing with a fictitious scenario of waste disposal exclusively via landfill. This would cause an environmental load of 9.58 million tons CO{sub 2}E. Together with the amount of reduction attained in 2003, an overall reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 12.78 millions tons CO{sub 2}E has thus been achieved by the Bavarian waste management. Analysis of possible future waste processing and waste avoidance measures showed two areas with significant additional potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. One is waste avoidance - e. g. through increased municipal counselling - however, this is difficult to realize. The other possibility is the optimisation of bio-waste processing. (orig.)

  13. Global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Present processes of global climate change are reviewed. The processes determining global temperature are briefly described and the concept of effective temperature is elucidated. The greenhouse effect is examined, including the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. 18 refs

  14. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  15. Enhanced greenhouse warming: Regional response and believability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.

    1991-01-01

    Climate models predict significant changes in the world's climate over the next 50-100 y due to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. To what extent these predictions can be believed has been the subject of considerable scientific debate. The ability of climate models to reproduce the current climate depends on how well the available data sets specify the earth's climate and how well the models reproduce that specification. A study of historical and paleo climates provides information on how the climate system operates and on past fluctuations in climate, and may also provide useful analogues of future climates. The best tools for understanding and predicting future climate changes are likely numerical models. Sophisticated climate models suffer from uncertainties about the feedback loops present in the real climate system. The ability of global circulation models to replicate current climate globally is fairly good, but significant disagreements have been found among different models at regional scales. For a region such as the Mackenzie Valley, understanding of historical and current climate is essential in terms of developing reasonable scenarios of future climate change. Uncertainty will probably remain an issue with respect to greenhouse warming for the foreseeable future, and as a result the detailed climate prediction on a regional scale needed for some kinds of impact studies may not be attainable. 73 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Greenhouse gas flux under warm-season perennial C4 grasses across different soil and climate gradients on the Islands of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, M. N.; Crow, S. E.; Sumiyoshi, Y.; Wells, J.; Kikkawa, H. R.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural soils can serve as either a sink or a source for atmospheric carbon (C) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). This is particularly true for tropical soils where influences from climate and soil gradients are wide ranging. Current estimates of GHG flux from soil are often under or overestimated due to high variability in sample sites and inconsistencies in land use and vegetation type, making extrapolation to new study systems difficult. This work aimed to identify patterns of trace fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) across two soil types and three species of warm season perennial C4 grasses: Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass), Panicum maximum (Guinea grass) and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane) on the islands of Oahu and Maui in Hawaii. Multiple static vented chambers were installed into replicate plots for each species; flux measurements were made during the growth, fertilization and harvest cycles at set time intervals for one hour and analyzed by gas chromatography. Initial results from Oahu indicate no significant differences in CO2 flux between the P. maximum and P. purpureum species after fertilization or at full growth. We observed an average flux of 143 mg m-2 h-1 and 155 mg m-2 h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively at full growth for CO2 and 1.7 μg m-2 h-1and 0.3 μg m-2 h-1 for N2O. Additionally, N2O rates sampled after a typical fertilizer application were significantly greater than at full growth (p=0.0005) with flux rates of 25.2 μg m2h-1 and 30.3 μg m2h-1 for P. maximum and P. purpureum respectively. With a global warming potential of 310 for N2O, even short-term spikes following fertilizer application can cause long lasting effects of GHG emission from agricultural soils. CH4 flux was negligible for all species on the Oahu plots during these sample periods. Globally, water limitation is a major factor influencing the potential productivity of agricultural crops and the sustainability of

  17. Energy and the greenhouse effect. Answers to 60 questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, H.; De Wolff, J.J.; Folkert, R.J.M.; Hoekstra, J.; Ruijgrok, W.; Stortelder, B.J.M.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.; Ruiter, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this report is to clarify the complex interaction between the greenhouse effect and the energy sector in the Netherlands, focusing on the future of the energy supply and how changes in policies with respect to energy consumption can influence climatic change. The relation between energy sector and greenhouse effect is dealt with on the basis of 60 questions on the greenhouse effect, emission of greenhouse gases and energy scenarios, and concise answers. Calculations of consequences of future scenarios for the climate are executed by means of the KEMA-developed integrated scenario model for climatic change DIALOOG. 27 refs

  18. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  19. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  1. Global change of the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moharam-nejad, Naser.

    1995-01-01

    Greenhouse effect is defined. greenhouse gases which are capable to produce greenhouse effect is mentioned. The production of greenhouse effects depends on the following factors; The amount of discharge to the atmosphere, Concentration, Life span, stability, Absorption and Emission. The effect of global change of climate on agriculture and living organisms is discussed. Global actions related to climate change and national procedures are described. The aim of climate change convention is given and the important points of convention is also mentioned

  2. Steps toward a cooler greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    In April a committee of the National Academies of Science and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine urged the Bush Administration and Congress to begin cutting emissions of greenhouse gases immediately. The risk of delay is great, and the cost of insurance against disastrous climate warming is cheap. Now the committee's panel on mitigation has issued a 500-page report describing just how cheap that hedge against a climate calamity could be. The panel found that it would not be unreasonable to expect that a 25% reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions might be achieved at a cost of less than $10 per ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. In more familiar terms, that considerable reduction in greenhouse emissions would cost about $4.75 for each barrel of oil burned or $0.11 per gallon of gasoline. The most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions, are increasing the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings and activities, vehicles, and industrial processes that use electricity

  3. Politics in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberthuer, S.

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 1 gives an introduction into the problems surrounding the man-made greenhouse effect, the emphasis being on those features that were significant for the course for the international talks. Chapter 2 describes the course of the talks, giving particular attention to the standpoints of the different protagonists. Further the outcome of the talks is presented. Factors that exerted on influence on the standpoints of the protagonists and on the course of the climate talks are examined in Chapter 3 with special consideration to the interests of the individual protagonists and the international constellation of interests, the values supported by the protagonists and the institutional conditions bearing on the course of the talks. Chapter 4 attempts to explain the process of coming to terms about the international climate convention and the results of this process. This is followed in Chapter 5 by a discussion of the room for manoeuvre and possible tendencies of development of the international alliance for climate protection created by the convention. (HSCH) [de

  4. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  5. Holistic greenhouse gas management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P. [Dept. of Applied and International Economics, Massey Univ. (New Zealand); Parshotam, A. [Inst. of Fundamental Sciences, Massey Univ. (New Zealand)

    2005-07-01

    A holistic greenhouse gas management strategy is described. The first stage is the growth of a large-scale global bio-energy market with world trade in bio-fuels and with a strategic stock of biomass raw material in new plantation forests. Later stages, more costly - as needs may be in response to possible future precursors of abrupt climate change - would involve linking CO2 capture and sequestration to bio-energy, yielding a negative emissions energy system. Illustrative calculations point to the feasibility of a return to pre-industrial CO{sub 2} levels before mid-century. This result is subject to significant caveats, but, prima facie, the first stage can provide several environmental and socio-economic side-benefits while yielding a positive financial return if oil prices remain above 35$/bbl. The vision is that the polluter pays principle can be turned to a greening of the earth. (orig.)

  6. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  7. Greenhouse intelligent control system based on microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congwei

    2018-04-01

    As one of the hallmarks of agricultural modernization, intelligent greenhouse has the advantages of high yield, excellent quality, no pollution and continuous planting. Taking AT89S52 microcontroller as the main controller, the greenhouse intelligent control system uses soil moisture sensor, temperature and humidity sensors, light intensity sensor and CO2 concentration sensor to collect measurements and display them on the 12864 LCD screen real-time. Meantime, climate parameter values can be manually set online. The collected measured values are compared with the set standard values, and then the lighting, ventilation fans, warming lamps, water pumps and other facilities automatically start to adjust the climate such as light intensity, CO2 concentration, temperature, air humidity and soil moisture of the greenhouse parameter. So, the state of the environment in the greenhouse Stabilizes and the crop grows in a suitable environment.

  8. Measures and instruments for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from Norwegian buildings. A contribution to Climate Cure 2020; Tiltak og virkemidler for redusert utslipp av klimagasser fra norske bygninger.Et innspill til Klimakur 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, Karen Byskov; Magnussen, Ingrid H.

    2010-03-15

    This sector report is about energy use in buildings in the service sector and households, and is backing a report to Climate Cure 2020 who came with its main report 17.february 2010 entitled 'Measures and instruments for achieving Norwegian climate targets to 2020'. The main mandate for Climate Cure 2020 was to study the measures and costs to achieve the national emissions target of 12-14 million tonnes of CO{sub 2} reduction in 2020. In this work, the use of electricity credited with zero greenhouse gas emissions. The work in Climate Cure has been divided by sectors and industry groups in society. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration was responsible for all transportation work, Climate and Pollution Agency has also been responsible for industry, waste and agriculture, the NPD petroleum and NVE has been responsible for the district heating sector and energy use in residential and commercial buildings. It follows that industrial buildings are not included in this sector report, but is taken care of in Climate and Pollution Agency sector report for industry. Dwellings and commercial buildings outside the industry currently accounts for approximately 33% of Norwegian energy and a CO{sub 2} emissions of around 3% of the total Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions. The dwellings were energy consumption 45 TWh in 2007 and 29 TWh in commercial buildings except industrial buildings. Growth in energy consumption in these two building categories were respectively 9% and 23% since 1990, but growth has leveled off in the latter half of the period. In this study of greenhouse gas reduction measures for buildings in Norway are analyzed measures to reduce use of fossil energy in the operational phase of buildings. Life-cycle analysis for buildings with construction and demolition is therefore not considered. This as a result of sectoral division of tasks in Climate Cure and challenges of imports of construction materials to Norway. The use of fossil energy, fuel oil

  9. Intergenerational modelling of the greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    1994-01-01

    A major implication of global climate change is that future generations will suffer severe damages while the current generation benefits. In this paper a model is developed to analyze the potential need for mitigating the adverse impacts of the greenhouse effect on efficiency grounds. The model characterises basic transfers, investigate the effect of greenhouse emissions, and analyze exogenous and endogenous uncertainty. The first (or current) generation faces the problem of dividing availabl...

  10. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  11. Statistical analyses for the purpose of an early detection of global and regional climate change due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect; Statistische Analysen zur Frueherkennung globaler und regionaler Klimaaenderungen aufgrund des anthropogenen Treibhauseffektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, J.; Staeger, T.; Schoenwiese, C.D.

    2000-03-01

    The report answers the question where, why and how different climate variables have changed within the last 100 years. The analyzed variables are observed time series of temperature (mean, maximum, minimum), precipitation, air pressure, and water vapour pressure in a monthly resolution. The time series are given as station data and grid box data as well. Two kinds of time-series analysis are performed. The first is applied to find significant changes concerning mean and variance of the time series. Thereby also changes in the annual cycle and frequency of extreme events arise. The second approach is used to detect significant spatio-temporal patterns in the variations of climate variables, which are most likely driven by known natural and anthropogenic climate forcings. Furtheron, an estimation of climate noise allows to indicate regions where certain climate variables have changed significantly due to the enhanced anthropogenic greenhouse effect. (orig.) [German] Der Bericht gibt Antwort auf die Frage, wo sich welche Klimavariable wie und warum veraendert hat. Ausgangspunkt der Analyse sind huntertjaehrige Zeitreihen der Temperatur (Mittel, Maximum, Minimum), des Niederschlags, Luftdrucks und Wasserdampfpartialdrucks in monatlicher Aufloesung. Es wurden sowohl Stationsdaten als auch Gitterpunktdaten verwendet. Mit Hilfe der strukturorientierten Zeitreihenzerlegung wurden signifikankte Aenderungen im Mittel und in der Varianz der Zeitreihen gefunden. Diese betreffen auch Aenderungen im Jahresgang und in der Haeufigkeit extremer Ereignisse. Die ursachenorientierte Zeitreihenzerlegung selektiert signifikante raumzeitliche Variationen der Klimavariablen, die natuerlichen bzw. anthropogenen Klimaantrieben zugeordnet werden koennen. Eine Abschaetzung des Klimarauschens erlaubt darueber hinaus anzugeben, wo und wie signifikant der anthropogene Treibhauseffekt welche Klimavariablen veraendert hat. (orig.)

  12. Climate-chemical interactions and effects of changing atmospheric trace gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L.; Cess, R.; Hansen, J.; Isaksen, I.; Lacis, A.; Kuhn, W.; Luther, F.; Mahlman, J.; Reck, R.; Schlesinger, M.

    1992-01-01

    The problem concerning the greenhouse effects of human activities has broadened in scope from the CO 2 -climate problem to the trace gas-climate problem. The climate effects of non-CO 2 trace gases are strongly governed by interactions between chemistry, radiation, and dynamics. The authors discuss in detail the nature of the trace gas radiative heating and describe the importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and the stratosphere. They make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends for the period covering the preindustrial era to the present and for the next several decades. Non-CO 2 greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are now adding to the greenhouse effect by an amount comparable to the effect of CO 2 . The rate of decadal increase of the total greenhouse forcing is now 3-6 times greater than the mean rate for the period 1850-1960. Time-dependent calculations with a simplified one-dimensional diffusive ocean model suggest that a surface warming about 0.4-0.8 K should have occurred during 1850 to 1980. For the various trace gas scenarios considered in this study, the equilibrium surface warming for the period 1980 to 2030 ranges from 0.8 to 4.1 K. This wide range in the projected warming is due to the range in the assumed scenario as well as due to the threefold uncertainty in the sensitivity of climate models. For the 180-year period from 1850 to 2030, their analysis suggests a trace gas-induced cumulative equilibrium surface warming in the range of 1.5 to 6.1 K

  13. The greenhouse effect of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, K.Ya.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of the atmosphere is the main factor of possible climate changes of anthropogenic origin. The growing pollution of the atmosphere leads to an increase of the concentration of various gaseous components. Of great importance is also the consideration of the aerosols. All the gaseous components, as well as aerosols, have the absorption bands in the IR spectral range. The traditional attention to the problem of the CO 2 contribution to the greenhouse effect has somewhat overshadowed the significance of the different components. The data characterizing the significance of the different components of the greenhouse effect are considered. The results of studying the absorption spectra of methane, nitrous oxides, sulphuric gas, ammonia, nitric-acid vapours and other components are discussed. The assessments of their contribution to the greenhouse effect are given. The important role of the small-size fraction of the atmospheric aerosols as a factor of the greenhouse effect is discussed. Both the analysis of the causes of the Earth's climate variability and the relevant investigation of the atmospheric greenhouse effect determine the expediency of analysing the conditions of the greenhouse effect formation on other planets. Laboratory studies of the IR absorption spectra of synthetic CO 2 atmospheres were carried out. Some results from these studies are discussed. (author)

  14. Research activities related to the role of forests and forestry in climate change mitigation in Austria. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests and forestry play important roles in Austria with its close to 50/ forest cover. This paper provides details about the Austrian forest carbon inventory, discusses briefly the sources and sinks accounted under the land use, land use change and forestry articles of the Kyoto Protocol, and presents an integrated carbon model (Austrian C-Balance Model that was developed to include not only the forest sector, but other sectors that are greenhouse-gas relevant. Improvements in forest management practices are seen as important possibilities of increasing the carbon sink strength of Austrian forests, but also of pursuing other goals such as increased biodiversity and resistance to future climate-change impacts. This paper presents a process model and a carbon accounting model that are applicable for evaluating carbon impacts of changes in forest management.

  15. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  16. The governance challenge for implementing effective market-based climate policies: A case study of The New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, Robert; MacGill, Iain; Outhred, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    The New South Wales (NSW) Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (GGAS) in Australia is a baseline and credit emissions trading scheme with the stated aim of reducing the per-capita greenhouse emissions associated with electricity consumption in the state of NSW. Here we provide a detailed assessment of the GGAS design and operation, with a particular emphasis on its effectiveness in delivering physical emissions reductions that would not have occurred in its absence. We find that a number of design features mean a significant proportion of the tradeable 'abatement' certificates are unlikely to correspond to the claimed emissions reductions. While some of these adverse design choices might be corrected, others would seem inherent to the underlying scheme design. Our analysis highlights the major governance challenges with emissions trading approaches and hence the importance of good policy implementation processes including the need for separation of powers through a scheme development process that involves design, assessment and revision. These GGAS lessons would seem relevant for governance with all emissions trading schemes, and has particular implications for cap and trade schemes that incorporate baseline and credit offset schemes, as well as to the 'White Certificate' schemes increasingly being seen as a means of fostering enhanced end-use energy efficiency

  17. A meteorologist's view of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillman, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is a natural process in the atmosphere which keeps the earth's surface warm enough for human life There are theoretical and observational reasons for believing that increasing atmospheric concentrations of the trace gases responsible for this surface warmth are leading to enhanced warming and other changes of global and regional climate By modifying the meteorological models used for routine numerical weather prediction to incorporate the influences that are believed to be of most importance on decade to century and longer time scales, the climate research community are able to explore the possible impacts on global and regional climate of a range of possible future greenhouse gas emissions and concentrations. Despite many uncertainties, these provide the principal scientific basis for intergovernmental negotiation on the development of global strategies for averting or minimising adverse human impacts on climate and assisting national communities in planning to live with natural climate variability and possible future human-induced change

  18. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  19. Detailed climate-change projections for urban land-use change and green-house gas increases for Belgium with COSMO-CLM coupled to TERRA_URB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Hendrik; Vanden Broucke, Sam; van Lipzig, Nicole; Demuzere, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Recent research clearly show that climate modelling at high resolution - which resolve the deep convection, the detailed orography and land-use including urbanization - leads to better modelling performance with respect to temperatures, the boundary-layer, clouds and precipitation. The increasing computational power enables the climate research community to address climate-change projections with higher accuracy and much more detail. In the framework of the CORDEX.be project aiming for coherent high-resolution micro-ensemble projections for Belgium employing different GCMs and RCMs, the KU Leuven contributes by means of the downscaling of EC-EARTH global climate model projections (provided by the Royal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands) to the Belgian domain. The downscaling is obtained with regional climate simulations at 12.5km resolution over Europe (CORDEX-EU domain) and at 2.8km resolution over Belgium (CORDEX.be domain) using COSMO-CLM coupled to urban land-surface parametrization TERRA_URB. This is done for the present-day (1975-2005) and future (2040 → 2070 and 2070 → 2100). In these high-resolution runs, both GHG changes (in accordance to RCP8.5) and urban land-use changes (in accordance to a business-as-usual urban expansion scenario) are taken into account. Based on these simulations, it is shown how climate-change statistics are modified when going from coarse resolution modelling to high-resolution modelling. The climate-change statistics of particular interest are the changes in number of extreme precipitation events and extreme heat waves in cities. Hereby, it is futher investigated for the robustness of the signal change between the course and high-resolution and whether a (statistical) translation is possible. The different simulations also allow to address the relative impact and synergy between the urban expansion and increased GHG on the climate-change statistics. Hereby, it is investigated for which climate-change statistics the

  20. Achievements and opportunities from ESF Research Networking Programme: Natural molecular structures as drivers and tracers of terrestrial C fluxes, and COST Action 639: Greenhouse gas budget of soils under changing climate and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckx, P.; Rasse, D.; Jandl, R.

    2009-04-01

    soils under changing climate and land use" (BurnOut) (www.cost.esf.org/domains_actions/essem/Actions/changing_climate or bfw.ac.at/rz/bfwcms.web?dok=5906) BurnOut aims at improving the management of greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different regimes of ecosystem disturbances and land-use change. This will allow the identification of soil and site conditions (hot spots) that are vulnerable to greenhouse gas emissions. The specific objectives are: - Identification of hot spots of greenhouse gas emissions from soils; - Identification of soil and site conditions that are vulnerable to GHG emissions; - Development of an advanced greenhouse gas reporting concept across different of land forms, land use and land use changes; - Communication of policy relevant GHG reporting concepts; Burnout covers the following activities: - Organisation of specific topical workshops; - Short-term scientific visits for scientists. Participating countries in BurnOut are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, Russian Federation, and Bosnia Herzegovina. During this oral presentation, possible lines of cooperation, opportunities and recent achievements will be exemplified and the audience will be invited to contribute their views on these initiatives.

  1. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  2. Politicised climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerner, Olavi

    1999-01-01

    Global warming is possible due to the increase of the greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. That circumstance, together with the general uncertainty about the exact definition of climate, enables politicians to give arbitrary interpretations of the time sequences collected on changes in temperatures, precipitations, etc., and thus, to intimidate people by predicting dire consequences. The paper explains some of the popular (mis)interpretations. The real effect on the contemporary climate caused by the increasing greenhouse gas reinforcement is still unknown owing to the complexity of the Earth's climatic system. Its modelling accuracy is still miserable. (author)

  3. Greenhouse effect increase and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.F.; Mahfouf, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Observations on the evolution of the atmospheric composition concerning trace gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , NO 2 , CFC) are first described. Then the fundamental role played by these gases in the radiative equilibrium of the earth through the greenhouse effect is examined. Numerical models have been developed to forecast the consequences of an increase of the greenhouse effect. The importance of the feedback mechanism, where the oceans and the clouds have the central part, but not well estimated by the models, is explained. Climatic changes generally accepted are reviewed. In conclusion the need to improve our knowledge of the global climatic system to forecast future modifications is underlined

  4. The additional greenhouse effect and the global climate: Do we burn our future. Der zusaetzliche Treibhauseffekt und das Weltklima: Verbrennen wir unsere Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-09-10

    The article is the abridged version of a lecture of the general meeting of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG). The most important gases which influence the climate, their concentration and sources are presented. Climate models predict for a doubling of the pre-industrial CO{sub 2}-content an increase of the mean temperature by 2.5deg C with an uncertainty of 1.5deg to 4.5deg C. The significance of even slight changes in precipitation is stressed and appropriate steps are called for in order to reduce the energy consumption. (KW).

  5. The EU climate policy: Is the will to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases greater than the capability to do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterstad, Joergen

    2002-01-01

    The climate policy of the EU is rapidly developing. The EU is emerging as an ideal in the international cooperation that aims to initiate trade of emission quotas. The EU was playing a major role on the Johannesburg conference of 2002 and has always supported the Kyoto Protocol, which may come into force in 2003. However, the development of emission situation in most of the member countries, the slow follow-up of the goals and the coming expansion into Eastern Europe raises the question if the EU is a climate political instigator on unsafe ground

  6. Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.

    2005-02-01

    This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)

  7. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  8. Long-Term Field Data and Climate-Habitat Models Show That Orangutan Persistence Depends on Effective Forest Management and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Stephen D.; Brook, Barry W.; Goossens, Benoît; Ancrenaz, Marc; Alfred, Raymond; Ambu, Laurentius N.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Southeast Asian deforestation rates are among the world’s highest and threaten to drive many forest-dependent species to extinction. Climate change is expected to interact with deforestation to amplify this risk. Here we examine whether regional incentives for sustainable forest management will be effective in improving threatened mammal conservation, in isolation and when combined with global climate change mitigation. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a long time-series of orangutan nest counts for Sabah (2000–10), Malaysian Borneo, we evaluated the effect of sustainable forest management and climate change scenarios, and their interaction, on orangutan spatial abundance patterns. By linking dynamic land-cover and downscaled global climate model projections, we determine the relative influence of these factors on orangutan spatial abundance and use the resulting statistical models to identify habitat crucial for their long-term conservation. We show that land-cover change the degradation of primary forest had the greatest influence on orangutan population size. Anticipated climate change was predicted to cause reductions in abundance in currently occupied populations due to decreased habitat suitability, but also to promote population growth in western Sabah by increasing the suitability of presently unoccupied regions. Conclusions/Significance We find strong quantitative support for the Sabah government’s proposal to implement sustainable forest management in all its forest reserves during the current decade; failure to do so could result in a 40 to 80 per cent regional decline in orangutan abundance by 2100. The Sabah orangutan is just one (albeit iconic) example of a forest-dependent species that stands to benefit from sustainable forest management, which promotes conservation of existing forests. PMID:22970145

  9. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change; L'economie de l'effet de serre: point sur les engagements internationaux de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again.

  10. Harvested wood products in the context of climate change : A comparison of different models and approaches for the Norwegian greenhouse gas inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bache-Andreassen, Lihn

    2009-07-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases is accounted for and reported annually under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol. In the current accounting system, emissions of CO2 from harvested wood products (HWP) are attributed to the year of harvest and the country of harvest. All harvested wood is thus assumed to be oxidised to CO{sub 2} in the year of harvesting, and no wood goes into long term storage. This is called the IPCC default approach. Much of the harvested wood will however be stored for a short or long period of time before it oxidises and this will cause a delayed emission of CO{sub 2}. If more wood is stored than oxidised in a given year, harvested wood products will act as a sink and a removal of CO{sub 2} is recorded. However, if the consumption of wood decreases to a level below what is oxidised, harvested wood products will act as a source and emissions of CO{sub 2} is recorded. In Norway, as on many other countries, the stock of harvested wood products has been increasing for many years, and is likely to increase further. Including emissions/removals of CO{sub 2} from harvested wood products in the post Kyoto 2012 regime is under consideration by the UNFCCC, and in that context it is imperative to evaluate estimation models and approaches for the reporting/accounting. (Author)

  11. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  12. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  13. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Verification and accreditation schemes for climate change activities: A review of requirements for verification of greenhouse gas reductions and accreditation of verifiers—Implications for long-term carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed-Larsen, Trygve; Flach, Todd

    The purpose of this chapter is to provide a review of existing national and international requirements for verification of greenhouse gas reductions and associated accreditation of independent verifiers. The credibility of results claimed to reduce or remove anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) is of utmost importance for the success of emerging schemes to reduce such emissions. Requirements include transparency, accuracy, consistency, and completeness of the GHG data. The many independent verification processes that have developed recently now make up a quite elaborate tool kit for best practices. The UN Framework Convention for Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol specifications for project mechanisms initiated this work, but other national and international actors also work intensely with these issues. One initiative gaining wide application is that taken by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development with the World Resources Institute to develop a "GHG Protocol" to assist companies in arranging for auditable monitoring and reporting processes of their GHG activities. A set of new international standards developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) provides specifications for the quantification, monitoring, and reporting of company entity and project-based activities. The ISO is also developing specifications for recognizing independent GHG verifiers. This chapter covers this background with intent of providing a common understanding of all efforts undertaken in different parts of the world to secure the reliability of GHG emission reduction and removal activities. These verification schemes may provide valuable input to current efforts of securing a comprehensive, trustworthy, and robust framework for verification activities of CO2 capture, transport, and storage.

  15. The solar greenhouse : a highly insulated greenhouse design with an inflated roof system with PVDF or ETFE membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijenberg, D.; Hemming, S.; Campen, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    In a co-operation project of Wageningen University (Wageningen UR), Agrotechnology & Food Innovations B.V. (A&F), Priva Hortimation B.V. and Hyplast N.V. (Belgium) a greenhouse for the future has been developed. The project has four lines, namely 1. lowering the energy demand, 2. using solar energy for heating (greenhouse as solar collector), 3. modifying climate control and dehumidification and 4. developing of the highly insulated greenhouse. This paper deals with the development of...

  16. Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalensee, R.

    1993-01-01

    In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to ratios of discounted marginal contributions to radiative forcing, where the discount rate is the difference between the discount rate relevant to climate-related damages and the rate of growth of marginal climate-related damages over time. If there are important gas-specific costs or benefits not tied to radiative forcing, however, such as direct effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth, there is in general no shortcut around explicit comparison of discounted net marginal damages. 16 refs

  17. Climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss in brief the magnitude and rate of past changes in climate and examine the various factors influencing climate in order to place the potential warming due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in context. Feedback mechanisms that can amplify or lessen imposed climate changes are discussed next. The overall sensitivity of climate to changes in forcing is then considered, followed by a discussion of the time-dependent response of the Earth system. The focus is on global temperature as an indicator for the magnitude of climatic change

  18. Natural ventilation of large multi-span greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de T.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the ventilation of large multi-span greenhouses caused by wind and temperature effects is studied. Quantification of the ventilation is important to improve the control of the greenhouse climate.

    Knowledge of the flow characteristics of the one-side-mounted windows of

  19. The greenhouse effect; L'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  20. The greenhouse effect gases; Les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  1. Economics-based optimal control of greenhouse tomato crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tap, F.

    2000-01-01

    The design and testing of an optimal control algorithm, based on scientific models of greenhouse and tomato crop and an economic criterion (goal function), to control greenhouse climate, is described. An important characteristic of this control is that it aims at maximising an economic

  2. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  3. Increased greenhouse effect substantiated through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skartveit, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on the greenhouse effect which substantiates the results from satellite measurements during the period 1970 - 1997. These show an increased effect due to increase in the concentration of the climatic gases CO 2 , methane, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere

  4. Greenhouse effect: a much debate question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, Y.

    1992-01-01

    After a two year inquiry, a french research worker has denounced the official thesis of a growth of greenhouse effect. This paper gives the point of view of the author on climatic change and opens the debate with two another experts

  5. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  6. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyanjui, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study considers greenhouse gas emissions stemming from industrial activities such as cement production; limestone use and lime production. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1995a) methodology for industrial sector was applied for the three components selected. Limitations hindering the handling of other industrial process are listed as budgetary and time. Data sources and recommendations are listed

  8. Pakistan: Preliminary National Greenhouse Gas Inventory | KHAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The gases covered in the inventory are the direct greenhouse gases (carbon ... Industrial processes, Agriculture, Land?use change and forestry and Waste (guided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  9. Misperception and mismanagement of the greenhouse effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatlebakk, M.; Moxnes, E.

    1992-12-01

    We present a stochastic simulation model of the world economy, useful for the analysis of climate policy. The model will also be used in an experiment to investigate the ability of policy makers to tackle the greenhouse problem. Preliminary simulations are conducted to find an optimal stationary tax rate. 30 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  11. Evaluation of fertilizer and water management effect on rice performance and greenhouse gas intensity in different seasonal weather of tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hyun-Hwoi; Hayashi, Keiichi; Agbisit, Ruth; Villegas-Pangga, Gina

    2017-12-01

    Intensively double cropping rice increases greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in tropical countries, and hence, finding better management practices is imperative for reducing global warming potential (GWP), while sustaining rice yield. This study demonstrated an efficient fertilizer and water management practice targeting seasonal weather conditions effects on rice productivity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), GWP, and GHG intensity (GHGI). Two-season experiments were conducted with two pot-scale experiments using urea and urea+cattle manure (CM) under continuous flooding (CF) during the wet season (2013WS), and urea with/without CaSiO 3 application under alternate wetting and drying (AWD) during the dry season (2014DS). In 2013WS, 120kgNha -1 of urea fertilizer resulted in lower CH 4 emission and similar rice production compared to urea+CM. In 2014DS, CaSiO 3 application showed no difference in yields and led to significant reduction of N 2 O emission, but increased CH 4 emission and GWP. Due to significant increases in GHG emissions in urea+CM and CaSiO 3 application, we compared a seasonal difference in a local rice cultivation to test two water management practices. CF was adopted during 2013WS while AWD was adopted during 2014DS. Greater grain yields and yield components and NUE were obtained in 2014DS than in 2013WS. Furthermore, higher grain yields contributed to similar values of GHGI although GWP of cumulative GHG emissions was increased in 2014DS. Thus, utilizing urea only application under AWD is a preferred practice to minimize GWP without yield decline for double cropping rice in tropical countries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Policy scenarios for climate protection VI. Greenhouse gas emission scenarios up to the year 2030; Politikszenarien fuer den Klimaschutz VI. Treibhausgas-Emissionsszenarien bis zum Jahr 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Busche, Julia; Doering, Ulrike [Oeko-Institut, Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    The largest emission reduction effects of the policy instruments analysed in this report arise from the more robust implementation of energy rehabilitation standards in the buildings sector, the measures geared to more efficient use of electricity in the tertiary and households sectors, including the effect of higher electricity prices as a consequence of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, more ambitious efficiency standards for passenger cars and the increased use of renewable energies in the heat, transport and electricity production sectors. Primary energy consumption in Germany decreases in this scenario by approx. 16 % by 2020 and by approx. 32 % by 2030 compared to 2008. The share of renewable energies increases by a factor of 2.2 by 2020 and by a factor of 2.8 by 2030 compared to 2008; overall the share of The largest emission reduction effects of the policy instruments analysed in this report arise from the more robust implementation of energy rehabilitation standards in the buildings sector, the measures geared to more efficient use of electricity in the tertiary and households sectors, including the effect of higher electricity prices as a consequence of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, more ambitious efficiency standards for passenger cars and the increased use of renewable energies in the heat, transport and electricity production sectors. Primary energy consumption in Germany decreases in this scenario by approx. 16 % by 2020 and by approx. 32 % by 2030 compared to 2008. The share of renewable energies increases by a factor of 2.2 by 2020 and by a factor of 2.8 by 2030 compared to 2008; overall the share of renewable energies in the primary energy supply increases to approx. 23 % by 2020 and to approx. 36 % by 2030. Alongside energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, additional measures in industrial processes also bring about substantial contributions to emission reductions.

  13. The greenhouse effect - little strokes fell great oaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    It is a common assumption that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases constitute only a very small fraction of the atmosphere and thus cannot be as important as the climate researchers maintain. However, the adage of the title is appropriate for the impact of the greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. During the last 25 years, the global temperature has risen 0,5 o C, and during the last century by 0,75 o C. Thus according to the UN Climate Panel, there is evidence of a noticeable anthropogenic impact on the global climate. The article discusses the concept of greenhouse effect, the composition of the atmosphere, greenhouse gases and their importance, emission of carbon dioxide and natural climate changes

  14. Multi Wavelength Greenhouse gas LIDAR (MUGGLE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Climate change is a growing concern, leading NASA to the need to track concentrations of such greenhouse gases as CO2 and CH4, including the need to detect them...

  15. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... climate control of greenhouses owned by villagers, having only small holdings barely adequate for supporting ... Mediterranean Sea cost line in Turkey and has rather ..... stove and combination of wood burning and gas tube.

  16. 78 FR 19605 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ..., Administrative practice and procedures, Air pollution control, Greenhouse gases, Monitoring, Reporting and..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Carole Cook, Climate Change Division, Office of Atmospheric...

  17. Reductions in labour capacity from heat stress under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, John P.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; John, Jasmin G.

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental aspect of greenhouse-gas-induced warming is a global-scale increase in absolute humidity. Under continued warming, this response has been shown to pose increasingly severe limitations on human activity in tropical and mid-latitudes during peak months of heat stress. One heat-stress metric with broad occupational health applications is wet-bulb globe temperature. We combine wet-bulb globe temperatures from global climate historical reanalysis and Earth System Model (ESM2M) projections with industrial and military guidelines for an acclimated individual's occupational capacity to safely perform sustained labour under environmental heat stress (labour capacity)--here defined as a global population-weighted metric temporally fixed at the 2010 distribution. We estimate that environmental heat stress has reduced labour capacity to 90% in peak months over the past few decades. ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to 80% in peak months by 2050. Under the highest scenario considered (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5), ESM2M projects labour capacity reduction to less than 40% by 2200 in peak months, with most tropical and mid-latitudes experiencing extreme climatological heat stress. Uncertainties and caveats associated with these projections include climate sensitivity, climate warming patterns, CO2 emissions, future population distributions, and technological and societal change.

  18. Climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change (including climate variability) refers to regional or global changes in mean climate state or in patterns of climate variability over decades to millions of years often identified using statistical methods and sometimes referred to as changes in long-term weather conditions (IPCC, 2012). Climate is influenced by changes in continent-ocean configurations due to plate tectonic processes, variations in Earth’s orbit, axial tilt and precession, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, solar variability, volcanism, internal variability resulting from interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and ice (glaciers, small ice caps, ice sheets, and sea ice), and anthropogenic activities such as greenhouse gas emissions and land use and their effects on carbon cycling.

  19. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  20. Greening the greenhouse grower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed...... to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse...

  1. Science-policy interaction in the global greenhouse. Institutional design and institutional performance in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodvin, Tora

    1999-08-01

    This paper explores the science-policy interaction and the extent to which and how institutional arrangements may be used as instruments for enhancing the effectiveness of the dialog. The first part develops the theory. The point of departure of the analysis is the internal dynamics of science and politics in their pure forms and the nature of the dynamics that are generated when these two distinct systems of behaviour meet. On this basis, then, the question of which functions the institutional apparatus should be able to serve in order to enhance the effectiveness of science-policy dialogue is addressed. This approach is then applied to an empirical case study of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from its establishment in 1988 to the provision of the Second IPCC Assessment Report in 1995. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Linking glacial and future climates through an ensemble of GCM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Hargreaves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the relationships between the modelled climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and that for doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide compared to the pre-industrial climate by analysing the output from an ensemble of runs from the MIROC3.2 GCM. Our results lend support to the idea in other recent work that the Antarctic is a useful place to look for historical data which can be used to validate models used for climate forecasting of future greenhouse gas induced climate changes, at local, regional and global scales. Good results may also be obtainable using tropical temperatures, particularly those over the ocean. While the greater area in the tropics makes them an attractive area for seeking data, polar amplification of temperature changes may mean that the Antarctic provides a clearer signal relative to the uncertainties in data and model results. Our result for Greenland is not so strong, possibly due to difficulties in accurately modelling the sea ice extent. The MIROC3.2 model shows an asymmetry in climate sensitivity calculated by decreasing rather than increasing the greenhouse gases, with 80% of the ensemble having a weaker cooling than warming. This asymmetry, if confirmed by other studies would mean that direct estimates of climate sensitivity from the LGM are likely to be underestimated by the order of half a degree. Our suspicion is, however, that this result may be highly model dependent. Analysis of the parameters varied in the model suggest the asymmetrical response may be linked to the ice in the clouds, which is therefore indicated as an important area for future research.

  3. A 600 k.y. record of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO): Evidence for persisting teleconnections during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate of Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Olaf K.; Wilde, Volker; Riegel, Walter; Harms, Franz-Juergen

    2010-07-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a globally important factor in today's climate dynamics. Annually laminated oil shales from the maar lake of Messel (Germany) provide high-resolution sedimentological and paleoenvironmental data of a time interval of ˜600 k.y. during the Eocene greenhouse phase. Individual laminae consist of a light spring and summer algal layer (Tetraedron minimum layer) and a dark winter layer composed of terrigenous background sediment. Four sections were selected from the core of the Messel 2001 well in order to count varves and to measure total varve thickness and the thickess of light and dark laminae. Spectral analyses were done in order to detect possible cyclic fluctuations in varve thickness. Fluctuations are significant in the quasi-biennial (2.1-2.5 yr) and low-frequency band (2.8-3.5 yr, 4.9-5.6 yr), thus showing that algal growth as well as the background sedimentation were controlled by ENSO effects at least over a time interval of 600 k.y. This confirms the existence of a previously postulated robust Eocene ENSO. Significant peaks within a quasi-decadal (10-11 yr), interdecadal (17-26 yr), and multidecadal band (˜52 yr, ˜82 yr) show either the enduring influence of more or less cyclic instabilities or the influence of solar cycles.

  4. Climate protection and energy crops. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction through crop rotation and crop planning; Klimaschutz und Energiepflanzenanbau. Potenziale zur Treibhausgasemissionsminderung durch Fruchtfolge- und Anbauplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckner, Jens [Thueringer Landesanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (Germany); Peter, Christiane; Vetter, Armin

    2015-07-01

    The EVA project compares nationwide energy crops and crop rotations on site-specific productivity. In addition to agronomic suitability for cultivation economic and environmental benefits and consequences are analyzed and evaluated. As part of sustainability assessment of the tested cultivation options LCAs are established. The model MiLA developed in the project uses empirical test data and site parameters to prepare the inventory balances. At selected locations different cultivation and fertilization regimes are examined comparatively. In the comparison of individual crops and crop rotation combinations cultivation of W.Triticale-GPS at the cereals favor location Dornburg causes the lowest productrelated GHG-emissions. Due to the efficient implementation of nitrogen and the substrate properties of maize is the cultivation despite high area-related emissions and N-expenses at a low level of emissions. Because of the intensity the two culture systems offer lower emissions savings potentials with high area efficiency. Extensification with perennial alfalfagrass at low nitrogen effort and adequate yield performance show low product-related emissions. Closing the nutrient cycles through a recirculation of digestates instead of using mineral fertilization has a climate-friendly effect. Adapted intensifies of processing or reduced tillage decrease diesel consumption and their related emissions.

  5. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy production in Russia: Current status and possible scenarios for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the framework Convention on Climate Change that was signed and ratified by Russian Federation, periodical reports about the actions of Russia are published. An inventory of human origin sources of greenhouse gas was prepared. Carbondioxide represented 72% of total greenhouse das emissions. Policy and action plans for limiting of greenhouse gas emissions are developing

  7. Chinese – Dutch cooperation on the Chinese Solar Greenhouse experiment in Shouguang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese Solar Greenhouse is simple but has a low productivity. To improve this, the inner greenhouse climate will have to become more controllable. To contribute to this, but keeping the passive character of the greenhouse, meaning that it doesn’t need additional heating, the Chinese Academy of

  8. Global Warming: Understanding and Teaching the Forecast. Part A The Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Provides information necessary for an interdisciplinary analysis of the greenhouse effect, enhanced greenhouse effect, global warming, global climate change, greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, and scientific study of global warming for students grades 4-12. Several activity ideas accompany the information. (LZ)

  9. A Simple, Student-Built Spectrometer to Explore Infrared Radiation and Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Wilson, Tiffany A.; Bruce, Alice E.; Bessey, S. Max; Flood, Virginia J.

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, students build a spectrometer to explore infrared radiation and greenhouse gases in an inquiry-based investigation to introduce climate science in a general chemistry lab course. The lab is based on the exploration of the thermal effects of molecular absorption of infrared radiation by greenhouse and non-greenhouse gases. A…

  10. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  11. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  12. Towards the semiclosed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    What can we do right now to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in the greenhouse sector? What technologies should we concentrate on in the future? Researchers, consultants and technology enterprises working with the greenhouse sector have tried to answer these questions in collaboration with the

  13. Selection of appropriate greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1999-10-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation options help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid the adverse environmental impacts due to global warming/climate change. They have different characteristics when evaluated using different criteria. For example, some options may be very cost effective, while some may have an additional advantage of reducing local pollution. Hence, selection of these options, for consideration by a national government or by a funding agency, has to incorporate multiple criteria. In this paper, some important criteria relevant to the selection are discussed, and a multi-criteria methodology is suggested for making appropriate selection. The methodology, called the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is described using two illustrations. (author)

  14. Climate change. Proposal by 'Entreprises pour l'Environnement' for an effective plan of action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacturing sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    Globalization, equity, efficiency, and maintaining the competitiveness of European industry are the overall requirements of this plan of action, enabling the manufacturing sector to contribute to the national commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). It is in the interest of efficiency, in particular, that we have to ensure that we stick to the objective of reducing emissions without seeking additional goals. It means making flexibility a priority, motivating rather than restricting, and avoiding bureaucracy whilst ensuring that the simplicity of the mechanisms put in place is counterbalanced by an almost automatic compliance to the commitments made by the companies. Accompanying measures for a major innovation initiative are also crucial. In order to guide efforts to reduce GHG emissions within the manufacturing sector, Entreprises pour l'Environnement (EpE) proposes a combination of voluntary negotiated agreements (VNA) and emission credits (traded on the market). These voluntary agreements will be negotiated with authorities (national and, in some cases, EU) by industrial gas emitters (companies, industrial groups, industrial sectors or ad hoc groups of companies). In order to be eligible for a VNA, these industrial emitters must demonstrate their capacity to measure their emissions and to successfully conduct emission reductions or, in case of failure, to implement compensatory measures, and must show that they 'represent' a quantity of emissions in excess of a certain threshold, thereby enabling them to enter the permits market. This mechanism will make it possible to cover a large part of the manufacturing sector. The scheme is simple - if an industrial emitter improves on the target negotiated with the authorities, then he receives emission credits which he can sell or keep for a subsequent period. Should he fail to reach the target, then, on the contrary, he will have to purchase emission credits (permits) on the market

  15. Inherent safety phenomenon of fission-gas induced axial extrusion in oxide and metal fueled LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.J.; Kalimullah.

    1985-01-01

    The current emphasis in LMFBR design is to develop reactor systems that contain as many features as possible to limit the severity of hypothetical accidents and provide the maximum time before corrective action is required while maintaining low capital costs. One feature is the possibility of fission-gas induced axial extrusion of the fuel within the intact cladding. The potential exists for this phenomenon to enable the reactor to withstand most accidents of the TOP variety, or at least provide an extended time for corrective action to be taken. Under transient conditions which produce a heating of the fuel above its nominal operating temperature, thermal expansion of the material axially produces a negative reactivity effect. This effect is presently considered in most accident analysis codes. The phenomenon of fission-gas induced axial extrusion has received renewed interest because of the consideration of metal alloys of uranium and plutonium for the fuel in some current reactor designs

  16. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  17. Climate catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budyko, Mikhail

    1999-05-01

    Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

  18. Climate Leadership Awards and Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seventh annual Climate Leadership Awards Dinner will be held during the 2018 Climate Leadership Conference; the event publicly recognize individuals and organizations for their outstanding leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Climate protection by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases in households and the tertiary sector through climate-conscious behaviour. Vol. 1; Klimaschutz durch Minderung von Treibhausgasemissionen im Bereich Haushalte und Kleinverbrauch durch klimagerechtes Verhalten. Bd. 1. Private Haushalte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brohmann, B; Cames, M

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the project was to identify areas in households and the tertiary sector in which changes in behaviour could result in energy conservation and thus a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and to quantify the potentials for 1995, 2005 and 2020. A second focus was on the analysis and evaluation of programmes and instruments to realise the potentials. With literature evaluation, expert interviews, and a household servey potentials and further technical development have been identified. In sum, behavioural measures can contribute to the CO2 reduction by 64 million tons in 1995 in households and 27 in the commercial sector in which the potential decreases to 18 million tons in 2020 due to the autonomous technical development. Adequate promotion programmes can help to realise 20-30% of the potential by 2020. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war, im Sektor private Haushalte und Kleinverbrauch Bereiche zu identifizieren, in denen Verhaltensaenderungen zur Energieeinsparung fuehren koennen, und diese Potenziale fuer 1995, 2005 und 2020 zu quantifizieren. Darauf aufbauend waren Programme und Instrumente zur Umsetzung aufzuzeigen und zu bewerten. Gestuetzt auf Literaturrecherchen und Expertengespraeche wurden Einzelpotenziale, Rahmenbedingungen, Entwicklungstrends in der Technik und im Ausstattungsgrad ermittelt. Insgesamt koennten Verhaltensmassnahmen im Haushaltssektor die CO2-Emissionen im Basisjahr 1995 um 64 Mio, im Kleinverbrauch um 27 Mio t vermindern. Bis 2020 bleibt dieses Potenzial im Haushaltssektor in etwa gleich. Im Kleinverbrauch sinkt es infolge der autonomen Technikentwicklung auf 18 Mio t ab. Durch geeignete Programme koennen bis 2020 etwa 20-30% des Potenzials erreicht werden. (orig.)

  20. Climate change and transportation : challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Transportation in the United States is responsible for a disproportionate amount of global greenhouse gas emissions, : which contribute to climate change. To address the issue, strategies that seek to mitigate transportation-related : greenhouse gas ...

  1. Through the greenhouse window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is being promoted as the only answer to the greenhouse effect. However, power station emissions (from fossil-fuel powered stations) account for only a fraction of the total carbon dioxide emissions. And carbon dioxide accounts for only about a half of the global warming effect -the other gases which create the greenhouse effect must also be limited. Nuclear energy is neither a practical nor economic alternative. Energy efficiency and conservation is a far better answer to the greenhouse effect. (U.K.)

  2. Environmental policy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weenink, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Emissions, resulting from human activity, are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. This is causing an additional average warming of the Earth's surface. This article presents an overview of recent developments in the international discussion on climate change, taking into account the work of other organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The long term and global character of the climate change problem requires an international long term strategy based on internationally agreed principles such as sustainable development and the precautionary principle. Research is needed to further develop risk assessment and environmental quality standards, from which emission targets can be derived. As a first step, governments of many industrialized countries have already set provisional national CO 2 emission targets, aimed at stabilization at present levels by the year 2000 and in some cases, reductions thereafter. Under the auspices of United Nations, negotiations have begun on an international framework climate convention and associated agreements, on, for example, greenhouse gas emissions, forestry and funding mechanisms. Obligations imposed on individual nations may be expected to reflect their responsibility for greenhouse warming; this paper presents some views on the equity of burden sharing. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Noel J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled “Joint Implementation,” whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a Jl project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically selfsustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.

  4. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  5. Stopping the greenhouse effect - recommendations submitted by the Bundestag Enquete Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.

    1991-01-01

    Details are given about the factors which influence the greenhouse effect and about the impact of the greenhouse effect on the climate. The strategy developed by the enquete commission for the Federal Republic of Germany is essentially based on the international and the EC recommendations for stopping the additional greenhouse effect and for reducing the emission of power-generation trace gases which affect the climate. Different scenarios are analyzed to evaluate the recommended measures. (DG) [de

  6. The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030. Reviving the EU emissions trading system and bringing EU greenhouse gas emissions on a 2C track. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Gilbert, A.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H.; Lam, Long; De Vos, R. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    This paper explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). This paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. The European Commission estimates that by 2020, the companies participating in the ETS will have accumulated a surplus of 1.5 to 2.3 billion allowances, which may be banked and used beyond 2020. This is about the same size as the annual emissions budget of ETS companies (just below 2 billion tonnes). Applying equity principles to the global distribution of efforts in reaching the 2C goal, an indicative 'fair' EU contribution would be a reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by around 49% (median of a full range from 39 to 79%) by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The 2030 targets can be set in a way to also accommodate the surplus expected until 2020. If the entire surplus of allowances from the ETS were to be used after 2020, the 2030 target has to become around 7 percentage points more stringent to compensate for that. Alternatively, the trajectory of the target from 2021 to 2030 could be set to compensate for the surplus. In addition, a more ambitious trajectory towards 2030 would cast its shadow on the mitigation in the period 2013-2020. It would strengthen the ETS, in conjunction with any other ETS recalibration options such as shifting the auctioning ('backloading') or cancelling allowances before 2020.

  7. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  8. Greenhouse governance: An Australian iconoclast`s view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, B.J. [Brian J O`Brien Associates Pty Ltd, Floreat Park, WA (Australia)

    1996-10-01

    The `No Regrets` policy was an imported stop-gap measure taken over five years ago when greenhouse fears were large and knowledge small. This paper suggests that this policy by 1995 is actually a `Three Regrets Policy` for Australia. Regret 1 is that El Nino effects which greatly affect Australia are given lower priority than greenhouse. Regret 2 is the deteriorating image and role of Science and Engineering in Australian society. Regret 3 is the growing domination of the energy debate by greenhouse. It is suggested that greenhouse fears should be put into an updated Australian perspective. The issues of sea level rise, and increasing temperatures are updated. It is believed that recognition of the importance of natural climate variation is increasing, this is not yet being used to put greenhouse into popular perspective. The paper concludes with five suggested actions to turn the `Three Regrets for Australia` into one that truly is `no regrets` for Australia. Putting greenhouse in perspective means a vigorous program of investigating and gradually understanding the whole suite of influences on the climate, natural as well as greenhouse. It includes making a competitive advantage out of the climate variabilities in Australia, from more accurate seasonal forecasts. (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs., refs.

  9. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  10. Climate Project Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    2011-01-01

    Climate change poses a challenge for resource managers as they review current management practices. Adaptation is a critical means of addressing climate change in the near future because, due to inherent time lags in climate impacts, the effects of increased atmospheric greenhouse gases will be felt for decades even if effective mitigation begins now. To address the...

  11. Solar greenhouse aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toever, W V

    1979-01-01

    Rainbow and Speckled Trout have been successfully hatched and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The system is integrated into the Ark greenhouse providing thermal mass for temperature regulation and supplying nutrient-rich water for plants. The system incorporates bacterial, algal and hydroponic water filtration. Various vegetable crops have been raised in the hydroponic troughs. A scaled-down system suitable for domestic solar greenhouse application is also under development.

  12. Greenhouse effect gases: reduction challenges and accounting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumergues, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author first proposes an overview of strategic challenges related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. He indicates and discusses the various economic consequences of climate change. These consequences can be environmental (issues ranging from a loss of biodiversity to agriculture), social (from climate refugees to tourism), and economic (from climate disasters to insurance). He focuses on the issue of energy (oil at the base of our economy, carbon contents) and discusses competition issues (an always more demanding regulation, and unavoidable practices). In the second part, he proposes an overview of methods of accounting of greenhouse effect gases, and discusses how to perform an emission inventory

  13. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  14. Climate change reference guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    At the heart of climate change is the greenhouse effect, in which molecules of various gases trap heat in Earths atmosphere and keep it warm enough to support life. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) are an important part of Ea...

  15. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  16. Greenhouse gases and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Dudek, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

  17. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  18. Ozone depletion, greenhouse effect and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzersen, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    After describing the causes and effects of ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect, the author discusses the alternative offered by the nuclear industry. In his opinion, a worldwide energy strategy of risk minimisation will not be possible unless efficient energy use is introduced immediately, efficiently and on a reliable basis. Atomic energy is not viewed as an acceptable means of preventing the threatening climate change. (DG) [de

  19. Greenhouse gas reductions; not warranted, not beneficial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, K.

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, especially regional climate change predictions, from a sceptic's point of view. It rejects all the conventional evidence supporting claims of extreme man-made climate changes, dismissing them as alarmist and inherently uncertain. Similarly, it characterizes policy prescriptions based on this evidence as faulty and as measures which, if implemented, would do both current and future generations considerably more harm than good. Calls for energy efficiency and conservation, reliance on renewable energy sources, improved efficiency of conventional vehicles, hybrid and fuel-cell-driven cars, reducing the amount of driving, establishing greenhouse gas registries, are all dismissed as impractical, imposing higher costs on energy generally, slowing economic growth in the process, and scaring people to adopt unwise public policies by exaggerating the certainty of predictions about man-made climate change. While dismissing the arguments advanced by 'old-school' environmentalists, the report does not question the validity of the overall theory or details of the core greenhouse effect, its main targets are the anthropogenic components of the observed temperature record, and the evidence of a clear cause-and-effect link between anthropogenic forcing and changes in the Earth's surface temperature. Overall, the report dismisses the 'conventional' view of the extent of climate change, the cause of that change and the risk it poses. It emphasizes the limitations on economic freedom that proposed policies would inflict, and argues in favour of more studies to provide the foundation for a societal response based on a solid understanding of the science behind climate change, and the impact of proposed policy options. 32 refs., 2 figs

  20. Modeling and (adaptive) control of greenhouse climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udink ten Cate, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis can be grouped around four themes, system concepts, modeling, control and adaptive control. In this summary these themes will be treated separately.

    System concepts

    In Chapters 1 and 2 an overview of the problem formulation

  1. The greenhouse effect: A new source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Climate change induced by global warming is a result of an excess of energy at the earth's surface due to the greenhouse effect. But a new energy management can reverse the situation taking advantage of the greenhouse effect to produce renewable energy. In fact, both the renewable energy and the energy consumed which are not dissipated into heat are subtracted from the excess of energy produced by the greenhouse effect and contribute to mitigate climate change. This opens perspectives to harness the greenhouse effect [F. Meunier, Domestiquer l'effet de serre, Dunod, 2005]. Should all the primary energy be renewable energy and should part of the energy production not dissipated into heat, the present earth's energy imbalance should be beneficial and should serve to produce renewable energy

  2. The greenhouse effect: A new source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, Francis [CNAM-IFFI (EA 21), 292 rue Saint Martin, 75141 Paris (France)]. E-mail: meunierf@cnam.fr

    2007-02-15

    Climate change induced by global warming is a result of an excess of energy at the earth's surface due to the greenhouse effect. But a new energy management can reverse the situation taking advantage of the greenhouse effect to produce renewable energy. In fact, both the renewable energy and the energy consumed which are not dissipated into heat are subtracted from the excess of energy produced by the greenhouse effect and contribute to mitigate climate change. This opens perspectives to harness the greenhouse effect [F. Meunier, Domestiquer l'effet de serre, Dunod, 2005]. Should all the primary energy be renewable energy and should part of the energy production not dissipated into heat, the present earth's energy imbalance should be beneficial and should serve to produce renewable energy.

  3. Greenhouse Environmental Control Using Optimized MIMO PID Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateh BOUNAAMA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate control for protected crops brings the added dimension of a biological system into a physical system control situation. The thermally dynamic nature of a greenhouse suggests that disturbance attenuation (load control of external temperature, humidity, and sunlight is far more important than is the case for controlling other types of buildings. This paper investigates the application of multi-inputs multi-outputs (MIMO PID controller to a MIMO greenhouse environmental model with actuation constraints. This method is based on decoupling the system at low frequency point. The optimal tuning values are determined using genetic algorithms optimization (GA. The inside outsides climate model of the environmental greenhouse, and the automatically collected data sets of Avignon, France are used to simulate and test this technique. The control objective is to maintain a highly coupled inside air temperature and relative humidity of strongly perturbed greenhouse, at specified set-points, by the ventilation/cooling and moisturizing operations.

  4. Climate: from yesterday to tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joussaume, S.

    1999-01-01

    Historical climatology and paleoclimatology aim at understanding the climatic memory of the Earth using geological and biological markers. These climate archives are used to understand the origins of climate changes in the past and to foresee the future climate changes according to the present day changes (global warming, greenhouse gases accumulation). (J.S.)

  5. Climate Change Portal - Home Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Partnerships Contact Us Take Action Climate change is already having significant and widespread of climate change. Business Businesses throughout California are taking action to address climate climate change impacts and informing policies to reduce greenhouse gases, adapt to changing environments

  6. Greenhouse effect: science or religion of the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploye, F.

    2000-01-01

    This book is a study about the natural phenomenon of the greenhouse effect, about its importance for the development of life on the Earth's surface and about the effect of human activities on its enhancement and on the future climatic changes. In particular, the increase of the greenhouse gases content of the atmosphere due to the combustion of fossil fuels is analyzed and some possible solutions to oppose this evolution are evoked. (J.S.)

  7. Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

    2012-07-01

    The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

  8. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  9. The greenhouse effect and energy efficiency: some facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Human activities are changing the composition of the atmosphere. In particular the burning of fossil fuels emits carbon dioxide, one of the so-called ''greenhouse gases'' that help maintain the Earth's surface at a temperature suitable for life. They transmit incoming sunlight but trap outgoing radiated heat. Levels of greenhouse gases are increasing, giving rise to concern that the world may warm further, leading to climate change. Energy efficiency can make an important contribution to controlling the greenhouse effect, and brings further benefits for industry and commerce through cost savings. 17 figs

  10. Greenhouse effects on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Calculations that used Pioneer-Venus measurements of atmosphere composition, temperature profiles, and radiative heating predicted Venus' surface temperature ‘very precisely,’ says the Ames Research Center. The calculations predict not only Venus' surface temperature but agree with temperatures measured at various altitudes above the surface by the four Pioneer Venus atmosphere probe craft.Using Pioneer-Venus spacecraft data, a research team has virtually proved that the searing 482° C surface temperature of Venus is due to an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Until now the Venus greenhouse effect has been largely a theory.

  11. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  12. Answering the Oregon challenge : climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-13

    This paper outlines Gov. Kulongoski's agenda concerning the issue of climate change. It addresses several key topics: greenhouse gas reduction, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable transportation.

  13. Climate Leadership Award for Organizational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Organizational Leadership, which publicly recognizes organizations for their comprehensive greenhouse gas inventories and aggressive emissions reduction goals.

  14. Policy options for stabilizing global climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashof, D.A.; Tirpak, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This report to congress by the US EPA explains the greenhouse effect and its influence on global climate. It outlines the trends in the greenhouse gases - their concentration history, distribution, sources and sinks and chemical and radiative properties. Climate change processes are discussed including climate feedbacks. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate are explained, followed by a chapter on the technical options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions which looks at energy services, energy supply, industry, forestry and agriculture. The future is considered, and the final chapters are concerned with policy options and international cooperation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 934 refs., 102 figs., 84 tabs

  15. Reply to "Comment on 'Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change' by Dana Nuccitelli et al."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.-B.

    2014-04-01

    In the Comment by Nuccitelli et al., they make many false and invalid criticisms of the CFC-warming theory in my recent paper, and claim that their anthropogenic forcings including CO2 would provide a better explanation of the observed global mean surface temperature (GMST) data over the past 50 years. First, their arguments for no significant discrepancy between modeled and observed GMST changes and for no pause in recent global warming contradict the widely accepted fact and conclusion that were reported in the recent literature extensively. Second, their criticism that the key data used in my recent paper would be "outdated" and "flawed" is untrue as these data are still used in the recent or current literature including the newest (2013) IPCC Report and there is no considerable difference between the UK Met Office HadRCUT3 and HadRCUT4 GMST datasets. The use of even more recently computer-reconstructed total solar irradiance data (whatever have large uncertainties) for the period prior to 1976 would not change any of the conclusions in my paper, where quantitative analyses were emphasized on the influences of humans and the Sun on global surface temperature after 1970 when direct measurements became available. For the latter, the solar effect has been well shown to play only a negligible role in global surface temperature change since 1970, which is identical to the conclusion made in the 2013 IPCC Report. Third, their argument that the solar effect would not play a major role in the GMST rise of 0.2°C during 1850-1970 even contradicts the data and conclusion presented in a recent paper published in their Skeptical Science by Nuccitelli himself. Fourth, their comments also indicate their lack of understandings of the basic radiation physics of the Earth system as well as of the efficacies of different greenhouse gases in affecting global surface temperature. Their listed "methodological errors" are either trivial or non-existing. Fifth, their assertion that

  16. The climatic out of control. the climatic forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bony-Lena, S.; Dufresne, J.L.; Acot, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Berger, A.; Loutre, M.L.; Raynaud, D.; Thuiller, W.; Le Treut, H.; Houssais, M.N.; Duplessy, J.C.; Royer, J.F.; Douville, H.; Barberousse, A.; Quinon, P.

    2007-01-01

    The expert group on the climate evolution affirms that the global warming is unequivocal and that the human being is the main responsible. This document broaches the climatic change under many aspects: the principle, the historical aspect of the greenhouse effect, the GIEC, the carbon cycle, the paleo-climate theory, the antarctic ices and the impacts of the climatic change on the biodiversity, the simulations and the models, the climatic indicators and the climatic forcing by human activities. (A.L.B.)

  17. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  18. Simulated climate change during the last 1,000 years: comparing the ECHO-G general circulation model with the MAGICC simple climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Timothy J.; Briffa, Keith R. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Raper, Sarah C.B. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dalton Research Institute, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    An intercomparison of eight climate simulations, each driven with estimated natural and anthropogenic forcings for the last millennium, indicates that the so-called ''Erik'' simulation of the ECHO-G coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model exhibits atypical behaviour. The ECHO-G simulation has a much stronger cooling trend from 1000 to 1700 and a higher rate of warming since 1800 than the other simulations, with the result that the overall amplitude of millennial-scale temperature variations in the ECHO-G simulation is much greater than in the other models. The MAGICC (Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas-Induced Climate Change) simple climate model is used to investigate possible causes of this atypical behaviour. It is shown that disequilibrium in the initial conditions probably contributes spuriously to the cooling trend in the early centuries of the simulation, and that the omission of tropospheric sulphate aerosol forcing is the likely explanation for the anomalously large recent warming. The simple climate model results are used to adjust the ECHO-G Erik simulation to mitigate these effects, which brings the simulation into better agreement with the other seven models considered here and greatly reduces the overall range of temperature variations during the last millennium simulated by ECHO-G. Smaller inter-model differences remain which can probably be explained by a combination of the particular forcing histories and model sensitivities of each experiment. These have not been investigated here, though we have diagnosed the effective climate sensitivity of ECHO-G to be 2.39{+-}0.11 K for a doubling of CO{sub 2}. (orig.)

  19. The earth in a greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, T.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive article discusses climate change as a challenge for the 21 st century. The effects of the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting emissions of greenhouse gases are reviewed and the increase in average temperatures resulting from these emissions is commented on. The mechanisms involved are briefly described. The gulf stream's function as a 'heat-pump' in the transport of heat and the bipolar swing noted in the statistics for atmospheric temperature given by the analysis of air trapped in ice in the Arctic and Antarctic are commented on. When the 'heat-pump' stutters, abrupt changes in climatic conditions can occur. Details are shown in graphics and curves. The author also introduces a mathematical model for these temperature variations. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is looked at and its influence on the 'heat-pump' is discussed. Probable frequency distribution for summer temperatures in Europe are looked at. Popular short-term recipes for tackling the problem such as ocean-dumping of exhaust gases or reforestation are considered by the author as being practically useless. Only long-term measures such as increasing resource efficiencies and gradual reduction of emissions are considered to be effective

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  1. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section

  2. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  3. The role of clouds and oceans in global greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffert, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    During the past three years we have conducted several studies using models and a combination of satellite data, in situ meteorological and oceanic data, and paleoclimate reconstructions, under the DoE program, ''Quantifying the Link Between Change in Radiative Balance and Atmospheric Temperature''. Our goals were to investigate effects of global cloudiness variations on global climate and their implications for cloud feedback and continue development and application of NYU transient climate/ocean models, with emphasis on coupled effects of greenhouse warming and feedbacks by both the clouds and oceans. Our original research plan emphasized the use of cloud, surface temperature and ocean data sets interpreted by focused climate/ocean models to develop a cloud radiative forcing scenario for the past 100 years and to assess the transient climate response; to narrow key uncertainties in the system; and to identify those aspects of the climate system most likely to be affected by greenhouse warming over short, medium and long time scales

  4. How to (really) reduce the greenhouse gases releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masurel, J.; Frot, J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the last 2008 GIEC report, 'Sauvons le Climat' presupposes the character essentially anthropic of the climatic change and concludes to the requirement to divide by four, between now and 2050, the releases of greenhouse gases of the OECD countries. The world energetic balance is composed, for 80% of carbonaceous energies: petroleum, coal and natural gas. At the world-wide level, the preoccupations of the energetic resources and those of climate protection go therefore hand in hand. It is the same thing for the European Union but not for France whose carbonaceous energies part is only of 50%. That is to say, in France, an energy savings has only one chance of two to improve its energetic independence and to protect the climate. Especially for France, 'Sauvons le Climat' gives then here some advices to really reduce the greenhouse gases releases. (O.M.)

  5. Greenhouse cooling using a rainwater basin under the greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the technical and economical aspects of additional applications for a rainwater basin installed under a greenhouse. The installation for cooling the greenhouse can be placed under the greenhouse. Part of the installation consists of a short-term heat store

  6. Energy and environment - greenhouse effect. The international, european and national actions to control the greenhouse gases emissions: which accounting and which perspectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The scientific knowledge concerning the climatic change justifies today immediate fight actions against the greenhouse reinforcement. This fight is based on an ambitious international device which must take into account more global challenges. At the european and national scale, the exploitation of the potential of greenhouse gases reduction must be reinforced and more specially the evolution of the life style. (A.L.B.)

  7. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  8. Nuclear energy and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power plants against the greenhouse effects is evaluated, not only nuclear energy is unable to fight greenhouse effect increase but long life wastes endanger environment. 8 refs

  9. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  10. Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulstad, Johan Greger

    2001-01-01

    Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy

  11. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  12. Sectoral Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores sectoral approaches as a new set of options to enhance the effectiveness of greenhouse gas reduction policies and to engage emerging economies on a lower emission path. It surveys existing literature and recent policy trends in international climate change discussions, and provides an overview of sectoral approaches and related issues for trade-exposed, greenhouse-gas intensive industries (cement, iron and steel and aluminium). It is also based on interviews conducted by the IEA Secretariat in Australia, China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. Sectoral approaches were also discussed during workshops on technology and energy efficiency policies in industry, following the IEA's mandate under the Gleneagles Plan of Action.

  13. Modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Guzmán, José Luis; Ramírez-Arias, Armando

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of challenges related to the modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth, this book presents state-of-the-art answers to those challenges. The authors model the subsystems involved in successful greenhouse control using different techniques and show how the models obtained can be exploited for simulation or control design; they suggest ideas for the development of physical and/or black-box models for this purpose. Strategies for the control of climate- and irrigation-related variables are brought forward. The uses of PID control and feedforward compensators, both widely used in commercial tools, are summarized. The benefits of advanced control techniques—event-based, robust, and predictive control, for example—are used to improve on the performance of those basic methods. A hierarchical control architecture is developed governed by a high-level multiobjective optimization approach rather than traditional constrained optimization and artificial intelligence techniques.  Reference trajector...

  14. Greenhouse gas measurements from aircraft during CARVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Daube, B.; Pittman, J. V.; Miller, J. B.; Budney, J. W.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Santoni, G. W.; Kort, E. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Permafrost in the Arctic contain large carbon pools that are currently non-labile. As the polar regions warm, these carbon reserves can be released into the atmosphere and impact the greenhouse gas budget. In order to predict future climate scenarios, we need to understand the emissions of these greenhouse gases under varying environmental conditions. This study presents aircraft measurements made as a part of the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) which flew over Alaska from May to September 2012 and captured seasonal and spatial variations. Results from in situ cavity ring down spectroscopy measurements of CO2, CH4 and CO will be discussed and compared with aircraft measurements made during the summer of 1988 as a part of the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition as well as relevant measurements from the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations experiments (2009-2011).

  15. Enhancing policy to manage and minimise Australian greenhouse emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The development of climate change policy in Australia is at an important stage in its evolution. Australia, as a ratifying nation of 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, has obligations as a party including development and implementation of national policy. In 2004, Australia announced a Climate Change Strategy updating the 1997 National Greenhouse Strategy which set out the framework for a coordinated and collaborative approach by all levels of government in Australia. The 2004 Climate Change Strategy is directed toward the achievement of three overarching goals: 'international engagement - pursuing an effective global response to climate change', 'emissions management...', and 'providing the foundations for Australia's climate change response...'. Despite not ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, Australia has committed to informally meet its 108% Kyoto Protocol target by taking on the role of an 'as if Party. Development and implementation a broad range of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies, policies and programs, at the Commonwealth, state and territory, and local government levels, has occurred. Notably, the recent 2007-08 Australian Government Budget brought its total commitment to its climate change strategy to A$2.8 billion. Combined government action and industry investment in climate change mitigation via implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction schemes are thus well underway. The Commonwealth's programs for greenhouse emission reduction are significant, and in particular, the Greenhouse Challenge Plus program certainly is a key industry motivator. Both state and local government actions have been drivers in policy development, supporting reduction of greenhouse emissions. Several states have implemented their own climate change strategies and the states have been proactive in their interest in emissions trading. Local councils' roles, in particular, have been and will increase in significance in the future

  16. Greenhouse and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaine, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The book is based on papers at the conference held at Macquarie University, Australia, in December 1989. The topics include energy aspects of the greenhouse effect, effects of reduction of carbon dioxide, methane emissions, sources of energy production, various aspects of electricity, liquid building, new technology, energy management and environmental and sociological aspects. Whilist the emphasis is on Australian conditions, the approaches are of relevance to other countries. Contains lists of referees and participants. Twenty-three papers have been separately indexed

  17. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  18. Climate Leadership in the Financial Sector Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Financial sector winners from the 2015 Climate Leadership Awards discuss best practices and challenges faced by their corporations based on their experience of attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and address climate risk.

  19. Climate Change, Indoor Environment and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  20. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  1. Climate variability and change

    CERN Document Server

    Grassl, H

    1998-01-01

    Many factors influence climate. The present knowledge concerning the climate relevance of earth orbital parameters, solar luminosity, volcanoes, internal interactions, and human activities will be reported as well as the vulnerability of emission scenarios for given stabilization goals for greenhouse gas concentrations and the main points of the Kyoto Protocol

  2. Olivine and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, thanks mainly to the water vapor in our atmosphere, has created a livable climate on Earth. Climate change, however, may potentially have dire consequences. It is generally assumed that the rise in CO2 levels in the atmosphere is the main culprit, although several other

  3. Submission under the United Nations framework convention on climate change and Kyoto protocol 2010. National inventory report for the German greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2008; Berichterstattung unter der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen und dem Kyoto-Protokoll 2010. Nationaler Inventarbericht zum Deutschen Treibhausgasinventar 1990-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strogies, Michael; Gniffke, Patrick (comps.)

    2010-06-15

    As a Party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), since 1994 Germany has been obliged to prepare, publish and regularly update national emission inventories of greenhouse gases. In February 2005, the Kyoto Protocol entered into force. As a result, for the first time ever the international community of nations is required to implement binding action objectives and instruments for global climate protection. This leads to extensive obligations vis-a-vis the preparation, reporting and review of emissions inventories. As a result of Europe's own implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, via the adoption of EU Decision 280/20041, these requirements became legally binding for Germany in spring 2004. Pursuant to Decision 3/CP.5, all The purpose of such reports is to ensure the transparency, consistency and comparability of inventories and support the independent review process. The Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Climate Change has made submission of the inventory report a pre-requisite for performance of the agreed inventory reviews. Germany now presents its eighth National Inventory Report (NIR 2010), following its inventories for the years 1990 to 2008. This latest report covers the same period (1990 to 2008), and it describes the methods and the data sources on which the calculations are based. This year, the NIR contains, for the first time, an additional Part II, along with additional sub-chapters in the existing part, in conformance with expanded requirements under the Kyoto Protocol and the relevant decisions at the European level. Part I of the NIR presents, in Chapters 1 to 10, all the information relevant to the annual greenhouse gas inventory. Chapter 1 provides background information about climate change and about greenhouse gas inventories, as well as further information relative to the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, this chapter describes the basic principles and methods with which the emissions and sinks of the IPCC categories

  4. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases and the effects on income distribution : A case study of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, Annemarie C.; Moll, Henri C.; Drissen, Eric; Wilting, Harry C.

    2008-01-01

    Current economic instruments aimed at climate change mitigation focus on CO2 emissions only, but the Kyoto Protocol refers to other greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as CO2. These are CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6. Taxation of multiple greenhouse gases improves the cost-effectiveness of climate change

  5. The biological treatment of the wastes facing the greenhouse effect and the climatic change; Les traitements biologiques des dechets vis-a-vis de l'effet de serre et du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, E

    2007-07-01

    The weight of the wastes treatment in the accounting of the greenhouse gases production is really poor: 1 to 2% of the CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} emissions. The aim of this paper is to qualify and quantify the interest of biological solutions for the treatment of domestic wastes and sludges. (A.L.B.)

  6. Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, B.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

  7. Preparing for the regulation of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekiel, R.; Wilson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth is warming, and this belief is shared by the leading scientists that sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, where it is expected that the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit between 1990 and 2100. It is felt that the main culprit is greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1992 with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to specified targets below 1990 levels by 2012. For Canada, this commitment is a reduction to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. To avoid penalizing a country that adopts greenhouse gas regulations where the neighbouring country does not follow, negotiations are being held at the international level in an attempt to keep everyone on a level playing field. The United States recently decided not to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions, which could seriously jeopardize the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors examined what the future looks like, in terms of policy options and market-based instruments. In the next section, they discussed the preparations for the regulation of greenhouse gases. The topics reviewed were carbon taxes, command and control regulation, emissions trading, contracts and baseline protection. Canada's baseline protection initiative (BPI) process was closely examined, and identified what reductions are eligible and touched upon ownership issues. The authors concluded that it might be prudent for emitters in Canada to prepare for a variety of regulatory scenarios, as there are a number of uncertainties remaining. Emissions trading must be carefully documented

  8. Australian public perception of the greenhouse issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson-Sellers, A [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia)

    1990-08-01

    During 1987 and 1988 in Australia there have been two national meetings on the greenhouse effect and a campaign designed to increase public awareness. A study of the backgrounds, level of comprehension and attitudes of attendees at two state Greenhouse-88 meetings has been undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey and a set of personal interviews. Two crucial caveats pertain: some of the questions reflect the prejudices of the author who is an atmospheric scientist, and the respondents comprise a small, self-selected group. All the ensuing results should be viewed in the context of these caveats. Over 97% of the respondents believe that action should be taken now to alleviate the effects of increased greenhouse gases. Despite the fact that the majority of the 321 respondents are professional people (73%) and that over 53% have tertiary level educational qualifications, there was a failure to grasp some fundamental issues. On the other hand, the respondents generally demanded a relatively low level of confidence (50-70%) about the greenhouse issue from scientists before action is taken. Sixty-four percent believe that life will be worse for them and/or their children in Australia in 'Greenhouse 2025' with the youngest age range being the second most pessimistic group about the future. Relatively little interest was shown in the possibility of obtaining more information on topics that interest climatic scientists but more information was desired on the social and economic implication and on the scientific background to the issues. Overall, teachers are perceived as trying to increase understanding; whereas politicians, multinational corporations, the media and some extreme environmentalists are perceived as often attempting to deceive intentionally. Scientists are seen as neither especially malevolent nor benign. 15 figs., 39 refs.

  9. Our knowledge on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A workshop was organised to evaluate and discuss the report 'Scientific Assessment of Climate Change (1990)' of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Thirty prominent Dutch experts in the field attended the workshop. The introductions and discussions held on our knowledge of climatic change as a result of the growth of the greenhouse effect caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human actions are presented. It is concluded that the IPCC-report shows in a clear and balanced way the certainties and uncertainties in our knowledge of climate change. There is a large chance that the earth's climate will change considerably, if the policy remains unamended. 15 figs., 2 apps

  10. Climate change - global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2001-01-01

    An explanation about climate, weather, climate changes. What is a greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gases (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their influence on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate changes in the previous period by known international institutions, higher concentrations of global average temperature. Projecting of likely scenarios for the future climate changes and consequences of them on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resources. The main points of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. The need of preparing a country strategy concerning the acts of the Kyoto Protocol, suggestions which could contribute in the preparation of the strategy. A special attention is pointed to the energy, its resources, the structure of energy consumption and the energy efficiency. (Author)

  11. Sistem Monitoring Suhu Dan Kelembaban Tanaman Cabai Pada Greenhouse Berbasis Labview

    OpenAIRE

    Syarief, Syafrizal; Neparassi, William Benelliwod; Nurwidiana, Gendis Anisa

    2016-01-01

    . This study discusses the Temperature and Humidity Monitoring System Chili Plant Greenhouse Based on LabVIEW. Each plant requires a climate in order to grow optimally and results in a good quality. Greenhouse is ideal for the cultivation of various crops, especially of pepper plants. In the greenhouse is used multiple sensors such as sensors DHT11 which serves as a detector temperature and humidity of the environment, soil moisture sensor as a detector of soil moisture and the addition of LD...

  12. Scariest thing about climate change: climate flips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulieu, P.

    1997-01-01

    The idea that an increase in greenhouse gases will cause the global average temperature to rise slowly over the next decades was discussed. Studies of ice core from Greenland have shown that in the past climate shifts seem to have happened quickly. Some scientists fear that increasingly frequent extreme weather events could be a sign that the climate system is nearing its threshold and a rapid climate flip may be just ahead. In the case of global climatic system, the danger is that stresses from greenhouse gas effects are pushing the present system over the threshold where it must flip into a new warmer system that will be stable, but different from the climate on which our agriculture, economy, settlements and lives depend. 4 refs

  13. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect. A pedagogic explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2017-05-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  14. A review of greenhouse gas research in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yundt, P.

    1995-11-01

    Greenhouse gas research programs and projects that relate to the Canadian natural gas industry were presented. Fossil fuel related emissions, primarily methane and carbon dioxide, impact on the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, strategies to reduce these emissions should impact on the Canadian natural gas industry. A list of 39 projects and 18 research programs of potential interest to the natural gas industry were presented in summary form. The involvement of CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology), Environment Canada, and NSERC (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council) in doing or sponsoring research projects directed towards greenhouse gas emission reduction was highlighted. Some potential options for member companies of the Canadian natural gas industry, to support climate change and greenhouse gas research, were outlined. 6 refs., 12 tabs

  15. Coal and the greenhouse effect: strategies for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, K M [Australian Coal Association, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1991-07-01

    A number of gases, including carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, nitrous oxide, ozone and chlorofluorocarbons are transparent to incoming short-wave radiation, but are relatively opaque to outgoing longwave radiation. Variations in the concentration of these gases in the troposphere can alter the thermal balance of the earth's atmosphere. Outgoing terrestrial radiation which would otherwise escape to space, is trapped within the inner layer of the atmosphere, resulting in a potential warming and the greenhouse effect. It is estimated that at present greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide, contribute about 50% to the greenhouse effect. However, in the future, the contribution made by gases other than CO{sub 2} will be become greater. Greenhouse gases arise from a wide range of sources and their escalating increase is largely related to an increase in the world's population, and the standard of living of many areas as well as changes in lifestyle. The effect of increasing man-made greenhouse gases in the troposphere is unknown, but it is proposed that it may increase temperature and may modify climate, agricultural response and land use. The facts and uncertainties relating to potential greenhouse warming are examined. Man-generated emissions are quantified and their source identified. Coal's contribution worldwide is examined in detail and is shown to be small, being about 10% of man-made greenhouse gases. Strategies for minimising emissions, having maximum potential for reduction, with minimum impact on man are suggested. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  17. New data confirm humanly made climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2000-01-01

    The article describes studies of climatic changes during the last millennium. Factors as volcanic eruptions, solar activities, greenhouse gases and human activities are considered. The conclusion is that the global warming in the last 150 years is most certainly, mainly caused by increased greenhouse effect due to humanly produced emissions of climatic gases

  18. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  19. The storage of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Kaarstad, O.; Eliasson, B

    2000-01-01

    Since 1850, that is to say the beginning of the industrial era,the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, this increase is mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Today fossil fuels represent 85% of all the energy used in the world. Fearing progressive climatic changes, more and more governments become aware of the necessity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. A more efficient use of energy and the promoting of renewable energies and of the nuclear energy are the most evident solutions but they appear to be insufficient. A third solution is the storage of carbon dioxide in geological layers. This technique has been put into use since 1996 in Norway. An off-shore natural gas platform injects carbon dioxide in a geological reservoir situated 1000 meters below the ocean bed. The injection of CO 2 could be used in oil fields in order to facilitate the extraction of petroleum. Far more large and efficient reservoirs would be the oceans, they already hold up 40000 10 9 tons of dissolved CO 2 . Even if the double of the carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere since 1850 were injected, the concentration of carbon in sea waters would rise by less than 2%. The safety of CO 2 storage and the impact on the environment of ocean injection sites are being studied. (A.C.)

  20. Comment: Legal Liability as Climate Change Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman

    2007-01-01

    Several U.S. states have attempted to use of legal liability imposed on greenhouse gas emitters as a public policy instrument for climate change. This brief comment considers the desirability of this approach, focusing on three possible roles for climate change liability: as a source of compensation, as a direct influence on greenhouse gas concentrations, and as a means to facilitate the adoption of ex ante public policies to control greenhouse gases. The strongest argument for liability may ...

  1. Theory and validation of a liquid radiation filter greenhouse simulation for performance prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuermann, D.; Kopel, R.; Zeroni, M.; Levi, S.; Gale, J.

    1997-01-01

    A greenhouse is described which has a selectively absorbing liquid radiation filter (LRF) circulating in double layered cladding. The filter removes much of the near infrared wave band of solar radiation (700 nm) while transmitting most of the photosynthetic radiation (400-700 nm). This greatly reduces the heat input to the greenhouse and, by transferring heat from day to night, facilitates better temperature control. This is particularly important for CO2 fertilization, which requires that the greenhouse should remain closed during daylight hours. A computer simulation model was developed to study the relationship between design parameters of such a LRF greenhouse and its thermal performance under different climatic conditions. The model was based on a small number of governing equations describing the major physical phenomena responsible for the greenhouse climate. Validation of the simulation was performed with data from a 330 m2 LRF greenhouse, operating in the Negev (Israel) desert highlands. The predicted greenhouse temperatures were found to agree with measured values to within one to two degrees Celsius. Performances of a LRF and a conventional greenhouse were compared using the simulation and hourly meteorological data for central Israel. For the summer season of May to October, the number of daylight hours during which the LRF greenhouse could remain closed was larger by about two-thirds than that of the conventional greenhouse

  2. A simple demonstration of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelhelm, M.; Hoehn, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    One of the greatest threats humankind may face in the future is the expected warming of the atmosphere within the next decades, caused by the release of infrared-absorbing gases especially carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere. For an increase of atmospheric CO 2 concentration to twice its present value, model calculations predict an increase in temperature of the lower atmosphere of 1.5 to 4.5 C, with concomitant dramatic effects on vegetation, climate, and ocean levels. Much has been published about causes, effects, and possible strategies for abatement of this 'greenhouse effect', and this important topic in science curricula

  3. Day-to-night heat storage in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, Ido; Straten, van Gerrit; Beveren, van Peter J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Day-to-night heat storage in water tanks (buffers) is common practice in cold-climate greenhouses, where gas is burned during the day for carbon dioxide enrichment. In Part 1 of this study, an optimal control approach was outlined for such a system, the basic idea being that the virtual value

  4. Will malaria return to Europe under the greenhouse effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Wege, van de J.; Jetten, T.H.

    1995-01-01

    Malaria risk is determined by environmental and socio-economic factors. The predicted climate change under the greenhouse effect is likely to affect the epidemic potential of malaria due to a change in vector mosquito phenology and distribution. This effect was simulated using a computer model

  5. Process-based humidity control regime for greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    Modern greenhouses in The Netherlands are designed for efficient use of energy. Climate control traditionally aims at optimal crop performance. However, energy saving is a major issue for the development of new temperature regimes. Temperature integration (TI) results in fluctuating and often high

  6. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  7. Development of a pneumatic roof envelope for industrial greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, G.; Vos, de G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) was approached by Van Diemen BV, a turn-key greenhouse builder looking for a new and higher insulated design for their green house envelope. They had developed a new system of climate control which rendered windows for ventilation purposes unnecessary

  8. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  9. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  11. The greenhouse effect: A summary of KEMA research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijgrok, W.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of current research at KEMA in the field of the greenhouse effect and climatic change is presented. Project information regarding motivation, aim, planning and results is given. The projects are carried out within the framework of the so-called 'Collectieve Opdracht' (joint assignment) of the Dutch electric power generating utilities

  12. A Lesson on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jim

    This cooperative learning activity, for grades 7-12, promotes critical thinking skills within the context of learning about the causes and effects of climate change. Objectives include: (1) understanding factors that reduce greenhouse gases; (2) understanding the role of trees in reducing greenhouse gases; (3) identifying foods that produce…

  13. What Light through Yonder Window Breaks?--The Greenhouse Effect Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    1992-01-01

    Presents three experiments exploring aspects of the greenhouse effect. Topics and discussion includes radiation in energy transfer, emissivity and absorptivity, the irrelevance of reflectivity, a digression on insulators and convection, climate change, and radiative energy balance. (MCO)

  14. The greenhouse effect - little strokes fell great oaks; Drivhuseffekten - liten tue kan velte stort lass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2003-07-01

    It is a common assumption that carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases constitute only a very small fraction of the atmosphere and thus cannot be as important as the climate researchers maintain. However, the adage of the title is appropriate for the impact of the greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. During the last 25 years, the global temperature has risen 0,5 {sup o}C, and during the last century by 0,75 {sup o}C. Thus according to the UN Climate Panel, there is evidence of a noticeable anthropogenic impact on the global climate. The article discusses the concept of greenhouse effect, the composition of the atmosphere, greenhouse gases and their importance, emission of carbon dioxide and natural climate changes.

  15. Self-Calibrating Greenhouse Gas Balloon-Borne Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases has been recognized as critical to predicting climate change and global warming. A...

  16. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases is essential for addressing climate change. This inventory adheres to both 1) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodolog...

  17. Climate strategy for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn

    1995-01-01

    1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...

  18. Which climate for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, S.

    2000-01-01

    This book explains in a clear way todays scientific knowledge about climate change and presents the method used by scientists to study climate and its evolution. It stresses on the urgency for an efficient international policy in order to fight against the striking increase of the Earth's greenhouse effect. However, it remains unbiased about the numerous uncertainties that exist in the possible scenarios proposed for tomorrows climate, despite the important progresses made in climatology these last years. (J.S.)

  19. Climate variations in greenhouse cultivated with gerbera and relationship with external conditions Variações meteorológicas em ambiente protegido cultivado com gérberas e suas relações com as condições externas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Black meshes used in greenhouses provide shade to plants, affecting photosynthesis and presenting certain properties that change the microclimatic conditions in these environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation in climate elements in greenhouse cultivated with gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Vr. Rambo in relation to external conditions and the reference evapotranspiration (ETo at Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil. The measurements were obtained from July to October 2007 by an automatic data acquisition system installed inside and outside the greenhouse. The global solar radiation, evapotranspiration, precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were estimated. The results showed that major effect of the shading occurred on the mean air temperature during the 120 days, making it higher than the external environment. Inside the greenhouse, mean values of relative air humidity, reference evapotranspiração, global solar radiation and wind speed were lower compared to those outside the greenhouse.Os ambientes protegidos cobertos com malha negra fornecem sombreamento às plantas, têm forte influência no processo da fotossíntese e possuem propriedades particulares que interferem nas condições micrometeorológicas desses ambientes. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar os elementos meteorológicos no interior do ambiente protegido cultivado com gérbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Vr. Rambo em relação ao ambiente externo e na evapotranspiração de referência (ETo, a qual foi correlacionada às variáveis ambientais em Teresina-PI. No período de julho a outubro de 2007, os elementos meteorológicos foram obtidos por um sistema de aquisição de dados automático instalado no interior do ambiente protegido e externamente. Estimaram-se a radiação solar global, temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, evapotranspiração de referência, precipitação e velocidade do ar. Os resultados mostraram que o maior efeito

  20. Key data for climate. France and the World. Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouradou, Frederic; Wong, Florine; Delalande, Daniel; Delbosc, Anais

    2012-01-01

    This document proposes figures, tables, graphs and maps which illustrate climate change (greenhouse effect, impact of human activity, greenhouse gas tanks, fluxes and concentrations), emissions of greenhouse gases (at the world, European and French levels), emissions of greenhouse gases due to energy production in the world, the sector-based distribution of greenhouse gas emissions in Europe and in France (energy combustion, energy production and transformation, transports, industry, other sectors). Then, it presents the climate policies: Kyoto protocol, the emission permit market, Kyoto protocol project mechanisms, other initiatives aimed at emission reduction, the European trading scheme (EU ETS), carbon price in the EU ETS, French climate policy