WorldWideScience

Sample records for greenhouse fruit vegetable

  1. Effects of CO2 concentration on photosynthesis, transpiration and production of greenhouse fruit vegetable crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the C0 2 concentration of the greenhouse air (C) in the range 200 to 1100 μmol mol -1was investigated in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.), sweet

  2. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. ...

  3. [Fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.

  4. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  5. NEW GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGIES FOR VEGETABLE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First decade of XXI century is characterized by significant augmentation in vegetable world’s production. Average annual vegetable production has been 346 million tons, and it has exceeded the average annual potato production (318 million tons. It has occurred due to the use of up-to-date technologies for vegetable production and, particularly, in greenhouses. In Russian Federation, the total production of vegetables was 5 275.6 thousand tons in 2015 that was 13.3% more than in 2014. But the total vegetable production in greenhouses was only 722.8 thousand tons, that was 0.7% less than in 2014 (728.1 thousand tons. It can be explained that the old technologies have been used for many greenhouses around Russia. Up-to-date technologies for greenhouses are described in the article. Small-volume hydroponics. Plants are grown in mineral wadding, packed up in the special chutes. Mineral nutrition and water are supplied through special pipe with many branch pipes toward each plant. Advantage: pH and nutrition are maintained, consumption of water and mineral nutrition are optimized, and that improves plants grow control. Expenditures of labor decreased, quality of fruit became better and the yield increased significantly by 45-50 kg/m2 comparing with growing on the soil (25-30 kg/m2. Hydroponics with flowing water (salad production lines. Conveyor for salad and vegetable growing on horizontal moving chutes with flowing water and nutrition was developed. Advantage: high level of automation and mechanization of all processes of growing increased the effectiveness of the use of greenhouse areas (we can place 30% plants more at the same area. Seedling production lines. Production lines for seedlings enable to grow vegetables and leafy vegetables on stationary benches, being furnished with periodical nutrition and water supply at times. Advantage: 700 seedlings additionally on each m2 a year. Future technologies are

  6. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...

  7. Irradiation of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Beirne, David

    1987-01-01

    There is likely to be less economic incentive to irradiate fruits and vegetables compared with applications which increase the safety of foods such as elimination of Salmonella or decontamination of food ingredients. Of the fruit and vegetable applications, irradiation of mushrooms may offer the clearest economic benefits in North-Western Europe. The least likely application appears to be sprout inhibition in potatoes and onions, because of the greater efficiency and flexibility of chemical sprout inhibitors. In the longer-term, combinations between irradiation/MAP/other technologies will probably be important. Research in this area is at an early stage. Consumer attitudes to food irradiation remain uncertain. This will be a crucial factor in the commercial application of the technology and in the determining the balance between utilisation of irradiation and of technologies which compete with irradiation. (author)

  8. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  9. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.

  10. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    of fruit and vegetable intake (Nielsen et al. 2002). The overall aim of the present Ph.D. thesis was to further develop and validate this potentially new fruit and vegetable biomarker and furthermore use it for the validation of self-reported dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in intervention...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  11. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; Sinha, N; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  12. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000...... be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  15. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable...... relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables...... with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively...

  16. Prevention of metabolic diseases: fruits (including fruit sugars) vs. vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Jessica N; Schmidt, Kelsey A; Kratz, Mario

    2017-07-01

    To discuss recent evidence from observational and intervention studies on the relationship between fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and metabolic disease. Observational studies have consistently demonstrated a modest inverse association between the intake of fruit and leafy green vegetables, but not total vegetables, and biomarkers of metabolic disease as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. This is in contrast to limited evidence from recently published randomized controlled dietary intervention trials, which - in sum - suggests little to no impact of increased F&V consumption on biomarkers of metabolic disease. Evidence from observational studies that fruit and leafy green vegetable intake is associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk and better metabolic health could not be confirmed by dietary intervention trials. It is unclear whether this discrepancy is because of limitations inherent in observational studies (e.g., subjective dietary assessment methods, residual confounding) or due to limitations in the few available intervention studies (e.g., short duration of follow-up, interventions combining whole fruit and fruit juice, or lack of compliance). Future studies that attempt to address these limitations are needed to provide more conclusive insight into the impact of F&V consumption on metabolic health.

  17. Intensity of competition in the market of greenhouse vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Ivanovich Botkin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the competitive environment of the market greenhouse vegetables. Revealed specific features of the industry, determining the level of intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables. Classified factors internal and external environment, identify indicators that affect the state of the market. The factors that determine the intensity of competition in the market greenhouse vegetables.The main competitors on the Russian market of greenhouse production.Identified indicators of the intensity level of competition, in particular: the level of monopolization of the market greenhouse vegetables, the level of concentration of production in the industry, the generalized index of the intensity of the competitive environment.Shows a comparative analysis of competitors’ market greenhouse vegetables in Udmurtia.Revealed competitive advantages which can help local producers to reduce the pressure of competition and intra-industry to occupy a leading position in the Russian market of greenhouse vegetable production.The dynamics of economic performance of Russian producers. Ways of improving the competitiveness of enterprises for the production of greenhouse vegetables

  18. Ionizing energy treatment of fruit and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential of ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit and vegetables may be considered within four major use areas. The shelf life of such fruits as bananas, mangoes and pawpaws can be extended by a direct physiological effect on the fruit. This treatment renders the fruit less sensitive to ethylene, a natural senescence-promoting chemical, and retards the onset of the climactric rise in respiration which is associated with fruit ripening. Postharvest decay caused by radio-sensitive organisms can also be controlled by low irradiation treatments, although this is only applicable in cases where the host fruit is less sensitive to the treatment than the decay causing organism. The sprouting of onions and potatoes can be controlled by a single low dose treatment which has a direct effect on the meristematic tissue. By killing insects of quarantine significance the interstate and export marketing of Australian fresh fruit may be expanded, with a consequent expansion of these horticultural industries. Ionising energy treatment of fruit and vegetables is therefore a valuable postharvest tool to improve the quality of fresh produce on local and export markets

  19. Effect of perchlorate in fertilisers on lettuce and fruit vegetables : Uptake and distribution of perchlorate in greenhouse soil-grown butterhead lettuce and solless-grown cucumber, sweet pepper, round and cherry tomate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Eveleens, B.A.; Steenhuizen, J.W.; Vandevelde, I.; Vis, de R.; Lommel, van J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 traces of perchlorate were detected in fruits and vegetable samples. Because perchlorate (ClO4 -) is part of a group of substances (goitrogens) that may inhibit the uptake of iodine by the thyroid, these findings caused commotion in the markets. Fertilizers were named as one of the sources

  20. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  1. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    calculation of the bivariate correlation coefficients is the common approach when using only one reference method. Back in 2002, a strictly controlled dietary intervention study indicated that the sum of 7 different flavonoid aglycones excreted in 24h urine samples potentially could be used as a biomarker...... and cohort studies. The Ph.D. thesis contains four scientific papers. Paper I provides evidence that the sum of 7 flavonoids in 24h urine respond in a linear and sensitive manner to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables, and thus consolidates that the flavonoids are a valid biomarker...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...

  2. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragsted, Lars O; Krath, Britta; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Vogel, Ulla B; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Bo Jensen, Per; Loft, Steffen; Rasmussen, Salka E; Sandstrom, The late BrittMarie; Pedersen, Anette

    2006-02-01

    A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers, providing 600 g fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes. No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, but does not affect sex hormones. In conclusion, it has been shown that total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, markers of peripheral lipid oxidation, and erythrocyte GPX1 activity are affected by high intakes of fruit and vegetables. This finding provides support for a protective role of dietary fruit and vegetables against CVD.

  3. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fruits and vegetables moderate blood pressure, fibrinogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, blood viscosity and plasma fibrinogen and nutrient intake were determined before and during intervention. The complementary fruits and vegetables included in the normal dietary regimen of the patients during the 10 weeks study increased the levels of potassium, calcium, phosphorus, antioxidants and ...

  5. Pop! Go the Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eleanor

    1974-01-01

    Sparked by a filmstrip on Pop Art and its influence on contemporary sculpture, an eleventh year Art class at Clara Barton Vocational High School decided to create "larger than life" three-dimensional objects inspired by natural patterns and forms of fruits and vegetables. (Author)

  6. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  7. How Much Do Americans Pay for Fruits and Vegetables?

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Jane; Frazao, Elizabeth; Itskowitz, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Many Americans do not consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables. Almost half of Americans think eating more fruits and vegetables would make their diets healthier, so why don't they? One argument is that fruits and vegetables are expensive, especially when purchased fresh. According to an ERS study, a consumer can meet the recommendation of three servings of fruits and four servings of vegetables daily for 64 cents.

  8. Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Krølner, Rikke; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents.......In order to more effectively promote fruit and vegetable intake among children and adolescents, insight into determinants of intake is necessary. We conducted a review of the literature for potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents....

  9. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  10. 75 FR 47535 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry... to meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. This notice sets forth the schedule and location...

  11. 75 FR 8038 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry... to meet the fruit and vegetable industry's needs. This notice sets forth the schedule and location...

  12. Effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance at the beginning of weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, C.; Vries, de J.; Mojet, J.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated exposure to either vegetables or fruits on an infant's vegetable and fruit acceptance during the first 18 days of weaning. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to a type of vegetable or fruit, would increase its intake. Furthermore, we expected that

  13. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania Papa; Laura Cerullo; Anna Di Monaco; Giovanni Bartoli; Antonietta Fioretto

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr),  lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd)] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L.), plum (Prunus domestica L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily ...

  14. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits and vegetables were bought directly from rural farmers between the hours of 07:00 and 09:00hrs. Separately, each fruit and about 200gram of each type of vegetable was carefully washed in 200ml of distilled water. Formol-ether concentration technique was employed to concentrate the parasites. Fruits examined ...

  15. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to replace....... Collection of 24h urine is difficult and time consuming, and therefore morning spot urine may be a more convenient tool than 24h urine for validating the fruit and vegetable consumption in large population studies....

  16. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  17. Optimizing nitrogen and water inputs for greenhouse vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, R.B.; Gallardo, M.; Voogt, W.

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production systems require high N and irrigation inputs. Commonly, these systems are associated with environmental problems caused by nitrate leaching. Given increasing societal pressure to reduce these problems, there is a requirement to optimally use N and water inputs.

  18. Examining College Students' Daily Consumption of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    McLean-Meyinsse, Patricia E.; Harris, Edith G.; Taylor, Shervia S.; Gager, Janet V.

    2013-01-01

    Results from a random sample of 305 college students suggest that consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is independent of gender, academic ranks, and places of residence, but depends on perceptions of health status. Despite the statistically significant associations between perceptions of health and consumption of fruits and vegetables, 82 percent of the respondents who perceived their health status as poor or fair ate no fresh fruits or vegetables.

  19. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  20. Increasing portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school lunch program can increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole; Reicks, Marla; Redden, Joseph P; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Vickers, Zata

    2015-08-01

    Increasing portion size can increase children's consumption of food. The goal of this study was to determine whether increasing the portion sizes of fruits and vegetables in an elementary school cafeteria environment would increase children's consumption of them. We measured each child's consumption of the fruit and vegetables served in a cafeteria line on a control day (normal cafeteria procedures) and on two intervention days. When we increased the portion size of 3 of the 4 fruits and vegetables by about 50%, children who took those foods increased their consumption of them. Although this was an effective strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among students who took those foods, many children chose not to take any fruits or vegetables. Further efforts are needed to increase children's selection and consumption of fruits and vegetables in an environment of competing foods of higher palatability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ascorbic acid contents of Pakistani fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M Perwaiz; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Mehboobali, Naseema

    2006-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin C which is known for its antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. The objective of this study was to determine ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables available in Pakistani markets. Most commonly used fresh fruits and vegetables were homogenized in 5% trichloroacetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents in the extracts were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Banana, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya were found to be very rich in ascorbic acid. Among vegetables, capsicum (green sweet pepper), cauliflower, bittergourd, roundgourd, beetroot, spinach, cabbage and radish contained high concentrations of ascorbic acid. Chikoo, grapes, pear, apricot, peach, carrot, cucumber, lettuce and "kakri" were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Several Pakistani fruits and vegetables (pear, melon, onion, sweet green pepper, spinach, cucumber) had ascorbic acid values similar to those reported by US Department of Agriculture in these fruits and vegetables in USA. However, wide differences in vitamin C contents were also observed in certain other fruits and vegetables from these two countries. This indicates that regional varieties of fruits and vegetables could vary in their ascorbic acid contents. Since subclinical deficiency of vitamin C appears to be quite common in developing countries like Pakistan, there is a need to develop awareness among masses to consume fresh fruits and vegetables with high contents of vitamin C.

  2. Consumer perceptions of fruit and vegetables serving sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison M; Binns, Colin W

    2009-05-01

    To assess consumer understanding of fruit and vegetable serving sizes. The Western Australian Health Department launched the Go for 2&5(R) campaign to promote fruit and vegetables in March 2002. The Health & Wellbeing Surveillance System surveyed 1108 adults, aged 16 years and over, between September and November 2002 about what constituted a serving of fruit and of vegetables, their usual daily fruit and vegetables intake, and their recall of the campaign. The study was undertaken as a part of a public health intervention - social marketing campaign in Western Australia, which had a population of 1 927 000 in 2002. Forty-two per cent of respondents knew that the fruit serving size was one piece and only 14.5 % reported the (1/2) cup vegetable serving size. The mean fruit intake was 1.8 (95 % CI 1.7, 1.8) servings/d and the mean vegetable intake was 2.8 (95 % CI 2.7, 3.0) servings/d. Vegetable intake was associated with being female (P = 0.006), increasing age (P < 0.0001), awareness of the campaign (P = 0.031) and knowledge of standard serving size (P = 0.006). Fruit consumption was associated with being female (P = 0.007). Fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with educational attainment or household income. The Go for 2&5(R) campaign uses a prescriptive message to promote increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Respondent's knowledge of the standard of serving sizes for fruit and vegetables suggests there is value in separating fruit and vegetable recommendations in messages to encourage increased consumption.

  3. Evaluation of iodine content of some selected fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past few decades, there has been renewed interest on increase in intake of fruits and vegetables, owing to their numerous beneficial effects. The present study provides preliminary data on the ability of different fruits and vegetables grown and consumed in Ijebu North Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria to ...

  4. Few Associations between Income and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Amanda L.; Fisk, Paul S.; Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between income and the consumption of fruits and vegetables using the poverty income ratio (PIR). Design: Association between PIR and intake of fruits and vegetables combined. The PIR was divided into 5 groups ranging from less than poverty threshold (PT) to greater than or equal to 400% PT. Participants:…

  5. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for fresh fruits and vegetables has been successfully used in practices for decades. However, based on the review of published studies in this area, the research on MAP for fresh fruits and vegetables was still very active in the last few years. These suggest th...

  6. 76 FR 37312 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Reestablishment of the U.S. Department of... industry's needs. The Deputy Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service's Fruit and Vegetable...

  7. Transactions costs and spatial integration of vegetable and fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes transaction costs and spatial market integration of vegetable and fruit markets between major surplus producing zones and the Addis Ababa retail market taking onions, potatoes, and tomatoes from vegetables and root crops and bananas from fruits. Monthly retail price data from the Central Statistical ...

  8. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables have been identified as a significant source of pathogens and chemical contaminants. As a result, there has been a wealth of research on identifying and controlling hazards at all stages in the supply chain. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables reviews this

  9. Parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables in Benin city, Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables helps in protecting the human body from diseases and also has a positive impact on body-weight regulation and related conditions, including diabetes and hypertension. This study was conducted to determine the parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables in Benin ...

  10. Geohelminth contamination of some common fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of contamination by helminths of some common vegetable and fruits sold in markets in Enugu metropolis was assessed between January and April 2002. The vegetables and fruits were bought directly from the rural farmers and checked for helminthes and larvae by the formalin-ether concentration method.

  11. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Sold at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The safety of fruits and vegetables sold in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria for consumption was assessed with respect to their contamination by Ova and Cysts of parasites. Out of 320 samples of seven (7) varieties of vegetables and fruits examined from three different markets in Kaduna metropolis, 45 (14.00%) were positive ...

  12. 76 FR 5779 - Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... interested parties that the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) will hold a Fruit and Vegetable Industry..., from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The Committee meeting will be held at the Hyatt Hotel Crystal City...

  13. Knowledge And Intake of Fruit And Vegetables Consumption Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is an essential source of vital nutrients for the body's micronutrient requirements. However, the knowledge and intake of this essential aspect of nutrition is globally poor. This study therefore aimed at assessing the knowledge and intake of vegetables and fruits among adults in ...

  14. Incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geohelminths are soil-transmitted parasitic nematodes which present a potential public health hazard in Nigeria. The present study examined soil samples for the incidence of geohelminths on fruits and vegetable farms in Owena Community. Two hundred (200) soil samples were collected from five vegetable and fruits ...

  15. Marketing system analysis of vegetables and fruits in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to analyze the different aspects of marketing system of vegetable and fruit in Raya Kobo and Harbu woredas, Amhara regional state using different indicators. Probit estimation for determinant of participation probability in vegetable and fruit production and OLS estimation technique were also applied for ...

  16. Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables in nine regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vegetables and fruits are the main sources of a number of essential micronutrients, and therefore, information on availability and consumption of vegetables/fruits is vital in designing sustainable interventions to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, particularly that of vitamin A deficiency. Objective: The objective ...

  17. Frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables among adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low consumption of fruits and vegetables have been recognized as the sixth major risk factor for mortality globally. Objective: ... Common fruits and vegetables consumed by the respondent include bananas (20.4%), pawpaw (15.5%), oranges (15.3%) and okro (17%), garden eggs (14%) and tomatoes (13%). About 53% ...

  18. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Patterns and the Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Patterns and the Serum Ascorbate of Patients with Breast Cancer in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. ... to enlighten the public as well as patients with cancer on the importance of taking fruits and vegetables regularly, as part of their diet, need to be intensified by nutritionist-dietitian.

  19. Soil Phosphorus status in Chinese greenhouse vegetable production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kianpoor Kalkhajeh, Yusef

    Rapid expansion of greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) in China within the last three decades has been accompanied with intensive application of chemical and manure fertilizers, frequent irrigation, and year-round crop rotation. As a consequence, excessive P accumulation and availability have...... to the surrounding below threshold values Overall, very high P contents were measured in 75 representative Chinese GVP top soils (0-20 cm) with total P and Olsen P varying from 260 to 11,200 mg kg-1, and 5 to 740 mg kg-1, respectively. These large variations reflect the significant differences in vegetation history...

  20. Fruit and vegetable preferences and intake among children in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yen Li; Farmer, Anna; Fung, Christina; Kuhle, Stefan; Veugelers, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The association between preference for and intake of fruits and vegetables was examined among Albertan children. Data used were collected as part of a provincial population-based survey among grade 5 children in Alberta. Intake of two fruits and five vegetables was assessed using the Harvard food frequency questionnaire, and preference for individual fruit and vegetable items was rated using a three-point Likert-type scale. Random effects models with children nested within schools were used to test for associations between fruit and vegetable preference and intake. A total of 3398 children aged 10 to 11 years returned completed surveys. Children who reported a greater liking for fruits and vegetables also reported significantly (p<0.001) higher intake. On average, children who liked a food a lot ate 0.5 to 2.7 more weekly servings of the food than did children who did not like the food. These findings suggest that focusing on interventions designed to increase taste preference may lead to increased fruit and vegetable intake among children. Introducing children to unfamiliar fruits and vegetables through taste testing may be an effective and practical health promotion approach for improving dietary habits.

  1. Personal, Social and Environmental Factors regarding Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Schoolchildren in Nine European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Camilla; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Due, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    European schoolchildren, psychosocial correlates, environmental correlates, fruit intake, vegetable intake, pro children study......European schoolchildren, psychosocial correlates, environmental correlates, fruit intake, vegetable intake, pro children study...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-10 - Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-10 Importation of fruits and vegetables from Canada. (a) General permit for fruits and vegetables grown in Canada. Fruits and vegetables grown in Canada and offered for entry into the United...

  3. Measuring nitrate and nitrite concentrations in vegetables, fruits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and accuracy was measured by a conventional spectrophotometers. SAS and Excel were used to draw diagrams and statistical calculations. Statistical comparisons showed value of nitrate and nitrite in leafy vegetables is more than fruits and ...

  4. Monitoring Plan for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation has as objective of the study is monitoring in fruits and vegetables species, chemical submit higher risk for the consumer and for the purpose of establishing an order of priority in the products sampled

  5. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  6. Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2016 Print this issue Plants: Partners in Health? Vegetables, Fruits, Herbs, and You ... fresh herbs and spices? Growing your own edible plants—whether in a backyard garden or a few ...

  7. Knowledge and Intake of Fruit and Vegetables Consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    , the Bettina study was done among college students who are more likely to be better educated and knowledgeable than this study's population. Knowledge of the nutritional value of fruits and vegetables was found to be statistically associated ...

  8. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  9. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  10. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  11. DNA Damage, Fruits and Vegetables and Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the effect(s) of increasing fruit and vegetable intake on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in a population of women at elevated risk for breast cancer...

  12. Implementing a free school-based fruit and vegetable programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Krølner, Rikke; Suldrup Jørgensen, Thea

    2014-01-01

    Multi-component interventions which combine educational and environmental strategies appear to be most effective in increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in adolescents. However, multi-component interventions are complex to implement and often poorly implemented. Identification of barriers...

  13. Sustainable vegetable greenhouse production through bio-conversion of greenhouse solid wastes and re-utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheuk, W.W.L.

    2004-07-01

    In recognition that sustainable practices to conserve agricultural lands and ground waters are not currently implemented, this study proposed a sustainable growing practice for the vegetable greenhouse industry. Waste handling and biodegradable plastics were examined along with different composting control algorithms. Bench-scale and pilot scale composting studies were performed to test substrate recipes. It was shown that with a good control algorithm, composting of greenhouse wastes could reach the requirement for Process to Reduce Further Pathogens (PRFP) at 55 degrees C for 3 days. Although ammonia emissions present a challenge, they can be minimized by using air-recirculation. Ammonia emissions can also be removed by a biofilter. Recirculation cooling control was found to be the most effective method in keeping the process temperature below the set point. Fewer leachate and condensates were found within reactors with air recirculation control for cooling and aeration. These systems contributed to higher degradation rates and more consistent moisture content of the final product. Alder bark was a better bulking agent than hemlock bark because of its better substrate structure, more carbon loss , less nitrogen loss and higher process temperature. Although it was not necessary to shred prunings before composting, the addition of alder bark as a bulking agent was necessary. The best waste composting ratio recommended for in-vessel composting was presented along with results for vegetable yields for the different mixtures. Amendments to greenhouse compost also contributed to a reduction in diseased tomatoes.

  14. Quality determinants of fruit and vegetables productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mezzetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the main goal for modern horticultural production is the increase of quality. Furthermore, in consideration of the new consumer demand, always more attracted by a diet based on a larger consumption of fruit and vegetables without risks of pesticides residues and with increased nutritional value, new important features in addition to the traditional quality attributes are now requested. For a program of qualification and valorisation of modern horticultural productions, it is fundamental a study of the major quality determinants organized by following a heuristic approache useful to identify the contribution of each factor in defining the quality of the product. The genetic knowledge applied to all available techniques useful for the creation of new genetic variability surely represent the most important starting point for the release of new varieties with increased nutritional quality without limitation in plant productivity. About agronomic practices, new opportunities are offered by the sustainable management of the production factors able to improve the plant-environment interaction, to well address the reduction of inputs needed for the production, and finally to induce specific stress conditions able to promote higher quality at reduced inputs. Much more attention is also addressed to the post-harvest technologies, this because of the increased needs to guarantee the preservation of the high quality obtained in the field until the consumer use. Taking in account such complexity of the horticultural production systems and examples of some major model crops, an outlook of the main determinants and potential valorisation of high quality horticultural products are attempted.

  15. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  16. Radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ismail.

    1975-01-01

    The storage problem of fruits and vegetables is explained. The effect of gamma radiation on storage properties, organoleptic characteristics and chemical constituents of various fruits and vegetables has been discussed. The wholesomeness and clearance of various irradiated products is reviewed and the cost economics of the radiation technology calculated. It is concluded that since the problem of food spoilage is acute in Pakistan, radiation technique should be used commercially for food preservation

  17. IMPACTS OF INDISCRIMINATE USE OF PESTICIDES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Barboza Vinha; Cláudia Lúcia de Oliveira Pinto; Cleide Maria Ferreira Pinto; Caroline Franco de Souza; Maria Regina de Miranda Souza; Letícia Loures de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruit and vegetables can have serious public health problems and environmental issues. There is a lack of information on security measures for handling these products and their adverse effects on the entire production chain. The aim was to report the impact of indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruits and vegetables based on survey of scientific literature and data from National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The results indicate a high percentag...

  18. Increasing fruits and vegetables in midlife women: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Kruger, Marlena C

    2013-07-01

    The positive link between bone health and fruit/vegetable consumption has been attributed to the lower renal acid load of a diet high in alkaline-forming fruit/vegetables. Other important dietary determinants of bone health include micronutrients and bioactives found in fruit/vegetables. We hypothesized that increased intake of fruit/vegetables to 9 or more servings a day would lower net endogenous acid production (NEAP) significantly (~20 mEq/d) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units). This 8-week feasibility study investigated if 21 midlife women (age, 40-65 years) currently consuming 5 or less servings a day of fruit/vegetables could increase their intake to 9 or more servings a day to substantially lower NEAP and include specific vegetables daily. Three-day diet diaries were completed at baseline and the end of the study and assessed for NEAP (estimated) and number of servings from all food groups. Urine pH dipsticks were provided for the participants to assess and record their fasting urine pH daily (second void). Seventy-six percent of women achieved the study aim, which was to increase to 9 or more servings of fruit/vegetables for at least 5 d/wk. There was a reduction in the number of bread/cereal servings. Net endogenous acid production (estimated) was reduced significantly, with a mean urine pH increase of 0.68 pH units (95% confidence interval, 0.46-1.14); however, daily urine pH measures showed high variability. This study demonstrated that a group of midlife women can change their diet for 8 weeks by significantly increasing fruit/vegetable servings and include specific "bone friendly" vegetables daily, resulting in a significant decrease in estimated dietary NEAP and an increase in urine pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Business opportunities in the Ethiopian fruit and vegetable sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, R.C.; Jager, de A.

    2009-01-01

    The horticultural sector in Ethiopia is growing strongly. Major part of this growth is created by investments in the floriculture sector. Recently more and more in terest from the Dutch private sector is shown in the Ethiopian fruits and vegeta ble sector. Export of fruit and vegetables has been

  20. Accesibility to and consumption of indigenous vegetables and fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five indigenous fruit varieties were being gathered, and guavas were the most popular. Consumption of up to 9 varieties of indigenous vegetables was observed, with cow peas, jute mallow and amaranths reporting more than 50% consumption. Six varieties of indigenous fruits had been consumed. The low accessibility to ...

  1. The Health Potential of Fruits and Vegetables Phytochemicals: Notable Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa

    2016-05-18

    Fruit and vegetables are essential components of a healthy diet. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of five to eight portions (400-600 g) daily of fruits and vegetables to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, poor cognitive performance, and other diet-related diseases, as well as for the prevention of micronutrient deficiencies. Much of their potential for disease prevention is thought to be provided by phytochemicals, among which the preventive activity of antioxidants is most well documented. Since numerous meta-studies published indicate variable and often contradictory results about the impact of isolated phytochemicals on health, their consumption as supplements must be carried out with care, because doses may exceed the recommended nutritional intake. Nonetheless, there is a general consensus that whole fruit and vegetable intake is more important in providing health benefits than that of only one of their constituent, because of additive and synergistic effects. This review describes the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of some selected fruits and vegetables. Importantly, since some phytochemicals regulate the same genes and pathways targeted by drugs, diets rich in fruits and vegetables in combination with medical therapies are being considered as novel approaches to treatment. Therefore, phytochemicals in fruits and vegetable might be a promising tool for the prevention and/or amelioration of a wide range of diseases.

  2. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program and Requests for Fruits and Vegetables Outside School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Dachenhaus, Elizabeth; Gruner, Jessie; Mollner, Kristina; Hekler, Eric B; Todd, Michael

    2018-01-08

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables (F/V) among elementary school-aged children remains inadequate, especially among low-income children. The US Department of Agriculture's Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) provides F/V as snacks to children during the school day, outside of school meals. School-based initiatives are successful in changing behaviors in school settings; however, their influence on behaviors outside of schools needs investigation. To examine whether FFVP participation is associated with F/V requests at stores, self-efficacy to ask for and choose F/V at home, and F/V consumption. Cross-sectional study. Fourth graders in six classrooms (n=296) from three urban, low-income school districts in Phoenix, AZ, were surveyed during 2015; one FFVP and one non-FFVP school from each district that were similar in school size, percent free/reduced-price meal eligibility, and race/ethnicity of enrolled students were selected. Children's self-reported F/V requests during shopping, their self-efficacy to ask for and choose F/V at home, and F/V consumption on the previous day (non-FFVP school day) were measured using questions adapted from validated surveys. Multivariable mixed-effect regression models, adjusting for clustering of students within classes and classes within schools were explored. In models adjusting for individual-level factors (ie, age and sex) only, several significant positive associations were observed between school FFVP participation and healthier F/V outcomes. After additionally adjusting for school-level factors (ie, total enrollment and % Hispanic/Latino students) significant associations were observed between school FFVP participation and more requests for vegetables during shopping (Pvegetables at home (P=0.004), stronger preferences for vegetables (Pfruit (P=0.006). School FFVP participation was associated with more requests for vegetables during shopping and higher self-efficacy to make healthy choices at home, suggesting the

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-14 - Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of processed fruits, vegetables, and other... fruits, vegetables, and other products. (a) Fruits, vegetables, and other products that are processed.../plants/manuals/ports/downloads/puerto_rico.pdf. (b) Consignments of processed fruits, vegetables, or...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-12 - Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-12 Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits and vegetables may be imported... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of frozen fruits and vegetables. 319.56-12...

  5. Availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables in nine regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    vegetables of a variety of colors and kinds, with more emphasis to dark-green leafy vegetables and orange fruits. (6, 7). Agreeably, among several health and ... error margin = ±0.5% and design effect = 2, a sample size of about 3000 children was obtained (3000 x 9 regions = 27000 nationally). It was arbitrarily decided to.

  6. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  7. Effect of Optimal Daily Fertigation on Migration of Water and Salt in Soil, Root Growth and Fruit Yield of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Solar-Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. Th...

  8. Critical thickness ratio for buckled and wrinkled fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hui-Hui; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    This work aims at establishing the geometrical constraint for buckled and wrinkled shapes by modeling a fruit/vegetable with exocarp and sarcocarp as a hyperelastic layer-substrate structure subjected to uniaxial compression. A careful analysis on the derived bifurcation condition leads to the finding of a critical thickness ratio which separates the buckling and wrinkling modes, and remarkably, which is independent of the material stiffnesses. More specifically, it is found that if the thickness ratio is smaller than this critical value a fruit/vegetable should be in a buckled shape (under a sufficient stress); if a fruit/vegetable is in a wrinkled shape the thickness ratio is always larger than this critical value. To verify the theoretical prediction, we consider four types of buckled fruits/vegetables and four types of wrinkled fruits/vegetables with three samples in each type. The geometrical parameters for the 24 samples are measured and it is found that indeed all the data fall into the theoretically predicted buckling or wrinkling domains.

  9. Maintaining antioxidant potential of fresh fruits and vegetables after harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Rodriguez, Jose A; Palafox-Carlos, H; Yahia, Elhadi M; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables has increased in the past few years, not only because of their attractive sensorial properties, but also for their nutritional and health benefits. Antioxidants are compounds found in fresh fruits and vegetables, and evidence of their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases is continuously emerging. However, the antioxidants in some fruits and vegetables can be lost during handling after harvest, even during minimal processing and storage. In this sense, postharvest treatments are needed to preserve the quality and antioxidant potential of fresh produce. Postharvest treatments and technologic strategies (including ultraviolet light, controlled and modified atmospheres, heat treatments, and application of natural compounds, such as edible coatings, active packaging, microencapsulation, and nanoemulsion) have shown positive and promising results to maintain fruit and vegetable antioxidant potential. The purpose of this review is to analyze and propose the application of postharvest strategies to maintain, or even improve, the antioxidant status of fruits and vegetables, thus offering options to maximize health benefits to consumers.

  10. Associations between parenting styles and children's fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharairi, Naser A; Somerset, Shawn M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated associations between children's fruit and vegetable intake and their parents' parenting style (i.e., authoritative: high warmth-high control; authoritarian: low warmth-high control; permissive: high warmth-low control; and disengaged: low warmth-low control). Data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children K cohort, comprising approximately 5,000 children, were used for analyses in wave 1 (4-5 years), wave 2 (6-7 years), and wave 3 (8-9 years). Fruit and vegetable intake patterns were extracted through exploratory factor analysis. Boys with authoritarian mothers were found less likely to consume fruits and vegetables at 6-9 years. Children of both genders with authoritative and permissive fathers, and girls with authoritative mothers at 4-5 years were found most likely to consume fruits and vegetables two and four years later. Exploring possible mechanisms underlying such associations may lead to interventions aimed at increasing children's consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from vegetation fires in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholes, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic carbon, and aerosols emitted as a result of the deliberate or accidental burning of natural vegetation constitute a large component of the greenhouse gas emissions of many African countries, but the data needed for calculating these emissions by the IPCC methodology is sparse and subject to estimation errors. An improved procedure for estimating emissions from fires in southern Africa has been developed. The proposed procedure involves reclassifying existing vegetation maps into one of eleven broad, functional vegetation classes. Fuel loads are calculated within each 0.5 x 0.5 o cell based on empirical relationships to climate data for each class. The fractional area of each class that bums is estimated by using daily low-resolution satellite fire detection, which is calibrated against a subsample of pre- and post-fire high-resolution satellite images. The emission factors that relate the quantity of gas released to the mass of fuel burned are based on recent field campaigns in Africa and are related to combustion efficiency, which is in turn related to the fuel mix. The emissions are summed over the 1989 fire season for Africa south of the equator. The estimated emissions from vegetation burning in the subcontinent are 0.5 Tg CH 4 , 14.9 Tg CO, 1.05 Tg NO x , and 1.08 Tg of particles smaller than 2.5μm. The 324 Tg CO 2 emitted is expected to be reabsorbed in subsequent years. These estimates are smaller than previous estimates. 5 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Pest damage assessment in fruits and vegetables using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkapattu Canthadai, Badrinath; Muthuraju, M. Esakki; Pachava, Vengalrao; Sengupta, Dipankar

    2015-05-01

    In some fruits and vegetables, it is difficult to visually identify the ones which are pest infested. This particular aspect is important for quarantine and commercial operations. In this article, we propose to present the results of a novel technique using thermal imaging camera to detect the nature and extent of pest damage in fruits and vegetables, besides indicating the level of maturity and often the presence of the pest. Our key idea relies on the fact that there is a difference in the heat capacity of normal and damaged ones and also observed the change in surface temperature over time that is slower in damaged ones. This paper presents the concept of non-destructive evaluation using thermal imaging technique for identifying pest damage levels of fruits and vegetables based on investigations carried out on random samples collected from a local market.

  13. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhicheng, Xu; Dong, Cai; Fuying, He; Deyao, Zhao

    1993-07-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that the low dose irradiation is useful to preservation of fruits and vegetables. On the besis of research, 1900 tons garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated in commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store respense investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-live, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food.

  14. Successful selling of packed fresh fruit and vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the marketability of packaged fruit and vegetables, as a new trend of satisfying consumer needs, in connection with selling-culture of stall selling and self-stores sales. It emphasize fact that food have to be wrapped into the quality, health packages, under the conditions of the Act. 477/2001 Coll.Specific data for the analytical part of this paper was provided by Hortim International Ltd. This company has operate on the Czech market since 1995. Analysis of the economic results confirmes the legitimacy of the sale of packaged fresh fruits and vegetables, but there will be neccesary longer lasting promotion. This fact also confirmed the research of consumer demand, that was made by authors. Determinant for the success sales are these factors: consumer confidence that the packaged products of fruit and vegetables are high quality.

  15. Optimum returns from greenhouse vegetables under water quality and risk constraints in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouses have been used in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to produce vegetables that contribute toward UAE food security, including offering fresh vegetable produce in the off-season. However, to manage such greenhouses farmers face both technical and environmental limitations (i.e., high water s...

  16. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  17. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  18. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Chun [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu (China); Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu (China); Jia, Hui-Hui [State High-Tech Industrial Innovation Center, Shenzhen 518057, Guangdong (China); Wang, Jun-Jian, E-mail: junjian.wang@utoronto.ca [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control. - Highlights: • Vegetable farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China were severely polluted by As and Cd. • Greenhouses had

  19. Radiation preservation of some fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, S.D.

    1966-01-01

    Shelf life extension and sterilization processing by irradiation of certain tropical fruits were studied in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that alfonso mangoes and sapota slices could be kept for one year by first inactivating the enzymes by mild heat treatment and then irradiating to a dose of 4 x 10 5 rad. The irradiated products were equal in acceptance to thermally sterilized controls. Oxidative flavour changes in canned mangoes were minimized when the removal of oxygen by exhausting was efficient. Vitamin losses in mangoes and sapotas were no more than in thermally sterilized controls. By using a combined treatment in sterilizing orange juice the radiation dose could be lowered from 800 to 400 krad by a post-heat treatment of 15 min at 50 deg. C. Better retention of ascorbic acid, thiamine and riboflavin were obtained. Peas in brine sterilized by irradiation at 850 krad were found to be superior in flavour, colour, texture, and overall quality to thermally processed controls. Shelf-like extension of mangoes by delaying the ripening with irradiation was found to be effective at doses between 1200 and 2500 rad. Such a treatment would be useful in regulating ripening of such fruit for canning factory purposes. No difference could be found between irradiated and non-irradiated canned mangoes. In studying the inhibition of the sprouting of potatoes and onions by irradiation it was found that different varieties required different doses and those products approaching the break in dormancy required higher doses. Other work in radiation preservation showed that certain microorganisms were more sensitive to radiation when previously subjected to ultrasonic treatment. With yeasts there seemed to be a different mode of action in killing the cells at high and low frequencies. Research on combining radiation treatment with cold storage of fruits to extend shelf life shows promise. Work is also being done on the use of irradiation treatment to reduce microbial

  20. Tips for Eating More Fruits, Vegetables, & Whole Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    We all know fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are an important part of a healthy diet. But most people don’t eat enough of these healthy powerhouses. An easy way to make sure you’re getting enough of the good stuff is to find new ways to mix them into meals you already enjoy.

  1. Stages in water loss in fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A. Antonio; Flores, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    We analyzes the different stages in the dehydration of fruits and vegetables. It was found to vary from a lettuce: as a sharp drop at low temperature, (arround 150 °C) to five stages in total, with a loss almost continuous to about 300 ° C, such as grapefruit, papaya and fig. The first section in your paper.

  2. Explaining Fruit and Vegetable Intake Using a Consumer Marketing Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J.; DeJoy, David M.; Lance, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    In response to calls to reinvent the 5 A Day fruit and vegetable campaign, this study assesses the utility of VALS[TM], a consumer-based audience segmentation tool that divides the U.S. population into groups leading similar lifestyles. The study examines whether the impact of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs varies across VALS groups…

  3. Pulsed electric field processing for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column reviews the theory and current applications of pulsed electric field (PEF) processing for fruits and vegetables to improve their safety and quality. This month’s column coauthor, Stefan Toepfl, is advanced research manager at the German Institute of Food Technologies and professo...

  4. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semiarid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment ...

  5. calcium and iron levels in some fruits and vegetables commonly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usern

    ABSTRACT. Four different fruits and vegetables (i.e. Apple, Egg Plant, Pineapple, Watermelon, Cabbage,. Pepper, Spinach, and Tomato) in each case were analysed for their Calcium and iron levels using spectrophotometric method of analysis; From the results, it was found that the concentration of. Calcium was highest in ...

  6. Vital Signs-Children Need More Fruits and Vegetables!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-05

    This podcast is based on the August 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Children in the U.S. aren't eating enough fruits and vegetables. Learn what you can do to impact this problem.  Created: 8/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2014.

  7. The impact of fruit and vegetable intake on weight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetables (FV) are important sources of phytochemicals, dietary fiber, and low energy density, and their consumption may be protective against obesity. Despite these potential benefits of FV consumption on human health, rates of FV intake remain low throughout the world. This chapter revi...

  8. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...

  9. Irradiation applications in vegetables and fruits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Tsarouhas, Panagiotis

    2009-05-01

    There is an increasing trend both in advanced countries and many developing countries to centrally process fresh fruits and vegetables, properly packaged, for distribution and marketing. Irradiation technology proved to be effective in reducing post-harvest losses, and controlling the stored product insects and the microorganisms. Gamma irradiation was employed to restrain potato sprouting and kill pests in grain. Irradiation proved to be extremely beneficial in terms of prolonging the fruit and vegetable shelf life by 3-5 times. In order not to expose fruits and vegetables to high irradiation doses another approach is to use the "hurdle technology," that is to apply more than one technology toward better quality and longer shelf life. This review summarizes a) all the obtained results in this field (either irradiation on its own or in conjunction with other technologies) on fruits and vegetables in 11 figures and eight (8) very comprehensive tables, and b) provides an insight in the various methods (EPR, TL, Comet assay among others) for detection of irradiated foods.

  10. Tracing pathogens in fruit and vegetable production chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables and year-round availability of many produce commodities has led to increased consumption in the United States and other western countries. Increased consumption, however, has correlated with a rise in the number of foodborne outbreaks associated wi...

  11. Pigments in fruits and vegetables: genomics and dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This comprehensive treatise provides a systemic and insightful overview of current advances in the biosynthetic genomics/genetics and preventive dietetics of carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains, from a general perspective, and in specific fruits and vegetables as well. Genomics/genetics focuses on...

  12. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in two divisions of Meru District in Arusha region in Tanzania to investigate the profitability and coordination of fresh fruit and vegetable export marketing channels by small-scale farmers in Tanzania. Purposive sampling was done in order to select two divisions where most of the horticultural crops ...

  13. Fruits and Vegetables at Home: Child and Parent Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Burgess-Champoux, Teri; Haines, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Examine child and parent perceptions of home food environment factors and associations with child fruit and vegetable (FV) intake. Design: Research staff administered surveys to children during after-school sessions, and parents completed surveys by mail or over the phone. Setting: Four urban elementary schools in St. Paul, Minnesota,…

  14. Parental versus child reporting of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinaerts, E.B.; de Nooijer, J.M.; de Vries, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    PG - 33 AB - ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to (1) compare parental and child recording of children's fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption, including family-related factors, and (2) investigate the potential differences in the relation of children's and parents' perceptions of

  15. Access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Cook, Andrea J; Jiao, Junfeng; Seguin, Rebecca A; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-05-01

    We examined whether supermarket choice, conceptualized as a proxy for underlying personal factors, would better predict access to supermarkets and fruit and vegetable consumption than mere physical proximity. The Seattle Obesity Study geocoded respondents' home addresses and locations of their primary supermarkets. Primary supermarkets were stratified into low, medium, and high cost according to the market basket cost of 100 foods. Data on fruit and vegetable consumption were obtained during telephone surveys. Linear regressions examined associations between physical proximity to primary supermarkets, supermarket choice, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Descriptive analyses examined whether supermarket choice outweighed physical proximity among lower-income and vulnerable groups. Only one third of the respondents shopped at their nearest supermarket for their primary food supply. Those who shopped at low-cost supermarkets were more likely to travel beyond their nearest supermarket. Fruit and vegetable consumption was not associated with physical distance but, with supermarket choice, after adjusting for covariates. Mere physical distance may not be the most salient variable to reflect access to supermarkets, particularly among those who shop by car. Studies on food environments need to focus beyond neighborhood geographic boundaries to capture actual food shopping behaviors.

  16. Marketing System Analysis of Vegetables and Fruits in Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    standard, etc), long market channel, high and unfair profit margin distribution among the value chain actors with little share to the farmers were observed in both vegetable and fruit market. These are an indicative of poor marketing efficiency and thereby suboptimal operation of the marketing system. The econometric ...

  17. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among kindergarten children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansolios, Sanne; Brandhøj, Mia; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the study was to test the Sapere-method as a method to develop taste awareness for fruits and vegetables among kindergarten aged children. The study aimed at linking consumption of F&V to knowledge and awareness of different senses such as taste and texture. It was also...

  18. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export Marketing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accepted July, 2010. Economic Analysis of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Export. Marketing Channels by Small-Scale Farmers in Tanzania: The Case of Meru District. *C. P. Mgeni and A. E. Temu. Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Sokoine University of Agriculture,. P. O. Box 3007, Morogoro, Tanzania.

  19. The Association between Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Intake of fiber and antioxidants and following hypocaloric diets has beneficial effects on reduction of the liver enzymes. Fruits and vegetables are low in calorie and rich in fiber and antioxidants. There are few studies about special dietary effects on liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  20. Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance of these path......Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance...... the highest potential for accumulation from soil, and concentrations in leaves may be several hundred times higher than in soil. However, for most contaminants the accumulation in vegetables or fruits is much lower. Lipophilic (log KOW > 3) contaminants are mainly transported to leaves by attached soil......, due to the immense variation in environmental and plant physiological conditions. Uptake of organic contaminants into vegetables and fruits may lead to human health risks, but it may also be used to delineate subsurface plumes and monitor Natural Attenuation. Most models mentioned in this chapter...

  1. Nutrition education effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Meredith G; Rhee, Yeong; Honrath, Kerrie; Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H; Terbizan, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on weight and decreased risk for chronic disease, Americans' intake of fruits and vegetables is well below the recommended daily servings. While previous studies have assessed fruit and vegetable consumption and the influence of educational interventions on fruit and vegetable intake, no studies to date have examined the effects of nutrition education combined with provision of fruits and vegetables on changes in fruit and vegetable consumption among overweight and obese adults. The objectives of this study were to evaluate fruit and vegetable consumption patterns, including intake of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables, provide education about benefits of consuming fruits and vegetables, expose participants to different varieties of fruits and vegetables, and improve fruit and vegetable consumption. Fifty-four adults (19 men/35 women; 44.7 ± 12.1 y) were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups. The control group received no intervention, the education group attended weekly nutrition lessons focused on benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and the fruit and vegetable group attended weekly nutrition lessons and received one serving of fruits and two servings of vegetables per day for 10 weeks. Intake of fruits and vegetables was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires and three-day food records. Findings suggested that while the majority of participants failed to consume the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables per day, nutrition education was helpful in improving the consumption frequency of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables among overweight and obese adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Analyzing the factors of influencing the musculoskeletal disorders of greenhouse vegetable farmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-yun; Li, Hong-jun; Yu, Su-fang

    2012-03-01

    To study the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among greenhouse vegetable farmers and to explore the risk factors of MSDs. A household questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate 203 greenhouse vegetable farmers and 127 non-greenhouse vegetable farmers in February, 2011. The one-year prevalence rates of MSDs were 70.0% and 33.9% among greenhouse vegetable farmers and non-greenhouse vegetable farmers, respectively. The three main positions of MSDs in greenhouse farmers were low back, knee (s) and shoulder (s). Age, working years, body weight and usage of rolling machine were statistically associated with MSDs of greenhouse farmers, ORadj values were 1.17, 1.82, 1.08 and 0.07, respectively. The prevalence of MSDs is high in greenhouse workers. Low back pain, knee (s), and shoulder (s) disorders are the main disorders. Age, working years, body weight and usage of rolling machine are main risk factors for the development of MSDs in greenhouse farmers.

  3. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam

  4. USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Creates Positive Change in Children's Consumption and Other Behaviors Related to Eating Fruit and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Lori A.; Jamelske, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the 2009-2010 USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) on fruit intake and other behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption among Wisconsin fourth- and fifth-grade students. Methods: Participants were fourth- and fifth-grade from one FFVP school (n = 51)…

  5. Biosurfactant-producing yeasts widely inhabit various vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Furuta, Yoshifumi; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of biosurfactant-producing yeasts from food materials was accomplished. By a combination of a new drop collapse method and thin-layer chromatography, 48 strains were selected as glycolipid biosurfactant producers from 347 strains, which were randomly isolated from various vegetables and fruits. Of the producers, 69% were obtained from vegetables of the Brassica family. Of the 48 producers, 15 strains gave relatively high yields of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), and were identified as Pseudozyma yeasts. These strains produced MELs from olive oil at yields ranging from 8.5 to 24.3 g/L. The best yield coefficient reached 0.49 g/g as to the carbon sources added. Accordingly, MEL producers were isolated at high efficiency from various vegetables and fruits, indicating that biosurfactant producers are widely present in foods. The present results should facilitate their application in the food and related industries.

  6. Perception of non-communicable diseases predicts consumption of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Surjadi

    2015-12-01

    This study demonstrated that perception of NCD was the most determinant factor of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Activities to improve practice of regular fruit and vegetable consumption are part of control of NCD risk factors.

  7. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaete, Jolien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  8. Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables...

  9. Childhood Fruit and Vegetable Intake: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to assess the impact of a six-months nutrition program, taught by trained teachers, on fruit and vegetable consumption among children in grades 1 to 4. Four hundred and sixty-four children (239 female, 6 to 12 years old, from seven elementary schools were assigned to this randomized trial. Teachers were trained by researchers over six months, according to the following topics: nutrition, healthy eating, and strategies to increase physical activity. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop activities in the classroom on the topics learned. Children's sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were assessed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. The effect sizes ranged between small (Cohen's d=0.12 on “other vegetables” to medium (0.56 on “fruit and vegetable”, and intervened children reported a significantly higher consumption of vegetables and fruit. Interventions involving trained teachers offer promise to increase consumption of fruit and vegetable in children.

  10. Colors of Fruit and Vegetables and 10-Year Incidence of Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocké, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose—The color of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables reflects the presence of pigmented bioactive compounds, (eg, carotenoids, anthocyanidins, and flavonoids). Which fruit and vegetable color groups contribute most to the beneficial association of fruit and vegetables with

  11. Colours of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of CHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Ocke, M.C.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The colours of the edible part of fruit and vegetables indicate the presence of specific micronutrients and phytochemicals. The extent to which fruit and vegetable colour groups contribute to CHD protection is unknown. We therefore examined the associations between fruit and vegetables of different

  12. Health professionals' and dietetics practitioners' perceived effectiveness of fruit and vegetable parenting practices across six countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable intake may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. However, many children consume less-than-recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Because health professionals and dietetics practitioners often work with parents to increase children’s fruit and vegetable intake, assessing...

  13. Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits: a risk factor for Campylobacter infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L.; Jansen, H.A.P.M.; Veld, in 't P.H.; Beumer, R.R.; Zwietering, M.H.; Leusden, van F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits at retail level in the Netherlands, and to estimate its implications on the importance of vegetables and fruits as risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Thirteen of the 5640 vegetable and fruit

  14. 21 CFR 101.78 - Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer....78 Health claims: fruits and vegetables and cancer. (a) Relationship between substances in diets low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables and cancer risk. (1) Cancer is a constellation of more than...

  15. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the...

  16. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  17. Vegetable and Fruit Breaks in Australian Primary Schools: Prevalence, Attitudes, Barriers and Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Butler, Michelle; Bell, Andrew Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Campbell, Elizabeth; Milat, Andrew J.; Wiggers, John

    2011-01-01

    School-based vegetable and fruit programs can increase student consumption of vegetables and fruit and have been recommended for adoption by Australian schools since 2005. An understanding of the prevalence and predictors of and the barriers to the adoption of school-based vegetable and fruit programs is necessary to maximize their adoption by…

  18. Redox protective potential of fruits and vegetables: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Tahir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging to cells and tissues, causing variety of chronic ailments like, aging, cancer, autoimmune problems, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders etc. Redox protective systems are present in body for general immunization against free radicals, which can be supported by antioxidants that we take in our daily diet. Natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, coumarins, xanthones, phenolics, terpenoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and proanthocyanins are found in various plant products, including fruits, leaves, seeds oils, and juices. This review gives a brief account of research reports on fruits and vegetables which provide free radical scavenging compounds to the body.

  19. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-06-01

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  20. IMPACTS OF INDISCRIMINATE USE OF PESTICIDES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Barboza Vinha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruit and vegetables can have serious public health problems and environmental issues. There is a lack of information on security measures for handling these products and their adverse effects on the entire production chain. The aim was to report the impact of indiscriminate use of pesticides in fruits and vegetables based on survey of scientific literature and data from National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA. The results indicate a high percentage of irregularities in the use of pesticides. The presence of prohibited waste or excess of allowable limits, with consequent harm to the environment and public health point to the need for policy-making more efficient control and monitoring of pesticide use.

  1. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  2. Simple greenhouse for growing vegetables in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Indonesian market gardeners can get far better yields by buying a relatively simple greenhouse with a plastic roof and extensive natural ventilation. This kind of greenhouse is also suitable for tropical lowlands in other countries, argues the Indonesian researcher Impron in his PhD thesis. Impron,

  3. Vegetable Grafting: The Implications of a Growing Agronomic Imperative for Vegetable Fruit Quality and Nutritive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios C. Kyriacou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock–scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops. As the main drives behind the expansion of vegetable grafting have been the resistance to soilborne pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and increase in yields, rootstock selection and breeding have accordingly conformed to the prevailing demand for improving productivity, arguably at the expense of fruit quality. It is, however, compelling to assess the qualitative implications of this growing agronomic practice for human nutrition. Problems of impaired vegetable fruit quality have not infrequently been associated with the practice of grafting. Accordingly, the aim of the current review is to reassess how the practice of grafting and the prevalence of particular types of commercial rootstocks influence vegetable fruit quality and, partly, storability. Physical, sensorial and bioactive aspects of quality are examined with respect to grafting for watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. The physiological mechanisms at play which mediate rootstock effects on scion performance are discussed in interpreting the

  4. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Noori, Nazanin; Zavareh, Maryam Beheshti; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-04-01

    The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intakes as means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, only limited data are available on the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors in a community-based population. The aim of this study was to examine whether, and to what extent, intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with CVD risk factors in adults. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 840 Tehranian adults (male and female) aged 18 to 74 years was randomly selected in 1998. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders was used in 2 models. After adjusting for confounders, dietary fruit and vegetable were found to be significantly and inversely associated with CVD risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio for high low-density lipoprotein concentrations were 1.00, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.75 (P for trend history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, a trend which was not appreciably altered by additional adjustment for education, physical activity, and saturated, polyunsaturated, and total fat intakes. This association was observed across categories of smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of the Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner.

  5. Children Need More Fruits and Vegetables! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-05

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Children in the U.S. aren't eating enough fruits and vegetables. Learn what you can do to impact this problem.  Created: 8/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2014.

  6. Parents? Qualitative Perspectives on Child Asking for Fruit and Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran, Alicia; O?Connor, Teresia M.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 years old child asking for fruits and vegetables (FV). An online parenting style questionnaire was completed and follow-up qualitative telephone interviews assessed home food rules, child influence on home food availability, parents? pre...

  7. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  8. Antiulcer properties of fruits and vegetables: A mechanism based perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B

    2017-10-01

    Gastric ulcer is the damage caused to mucosal layer of the stomach under the action of various factors like high levels of acid and pepsin, invasion by Helicobacter pylori, etc. Although most cases have been controlled and the rate of ulcer occurrence has reduced over the last few decades, gastric ulcer still holds a prime concern today. A range of palliative medicines comprising proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor antagonists, COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) is widely in use and patients have also been administered with acid suppression therapies. But these remedies aggravate the condition of patients causing severe side effects, or rather impart temporary relief. Therefore, it is highly imperative to develop safe and effective therapies for the treatment of gastric ulcer. Nature provides us various fruits and vegetables that can combat gastric ulcer through multiple mechanisms; predominantly via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antisecretory, antimicrobial, anticholinergic and cytoprotective activity, inhibition of small intestinal propulsion etc. Various phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and saponins play a vital role in the prevention and cure of gastric ulcer. This review is a compendium of all fruits and vegetables known for their profound antiulcer effect and their underlying mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination and Extraction of Acetamiprid Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allah Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available   Vegetables (chilies, tomato, cauliflower and cucumber and fruits (mango and apple samples were spiked with known quantity (0.50 mg kg-1 of acetamiprid reference standard for testing the retrieval percentage of acetamiprid residue in those vegetables and fruits. The efficiency of different extracting (ethyl acetate and dichloromethane + acetone 8:2 and eluting (ethyl acetate and dichloromethane + acetone 8:2 solvents and adsorbents (activated charcoal and florisil for clean up purpose was calculated using HPLC. Amongst the extracting solvents ethyl-acetate was observed an effective extracting solvent alone which produced maximum 90-96%  recovery for acetamiprid residues while among the eluting solvents a combination of dichloromethane and acetone ( ratio 8:2 produced superior recoveries i.e. 87-95%. Similarly, between the adsorbents used for clean up purpose activated charcoal and florisil in tandem (first from charcoal and then through florisil yielded recoveries 82-90 % whereas adsorbents used alone in form of activated florisil and charcoal recovered only 70 to 78 % and 71 to 73% acetamiprid residues, respectively in all vegetables and fruits.

  10. Demand Analysis of Selected Fruits and Vegetables in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior and prospective changes in demand of food product have a significant impact on production and distribution decisions. Consumer responsiveness to changes in prices, income and other demand determinants is very important to production and market decision-makers. The present study estimates demand responses for selected fruits and vegetables in Oman using consumer aggregated national data. The main objective is to generate information needed for making public as well as private decisions. Results indicate that most fruit and vegetable consumers respond to price, and income changes in the expected manner. Responses are different from one commodity to another depending on its nature and importance in the consumer's diet habits. In a few cases income is not a significant determinant of the demand. Moreover, many fruits and vegetables have shown a relationship of substitution and complementary consistent with Omani diet. These results are useful in farmers and distributers to allow them to adjust their production and marketing services according to the consumer’s response.

  11. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbasum, R.; Aman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  12. GMOs IN THE POLISH FRUIT AND VEGETABLES CONSUMER AWARENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Jabłońska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of GMOs brings numerous benefi ts at the same time raising fears of threats to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to present the way GMOs are perceived by fruit and vegetables consumers, their attitude to genetic manipulations and knowledge of the presence of GMOs on the Polish food market. A survey conducted among 200 people served to accomplish this aim. The research shows that the majority of the respondents see GM foods as hazardous to health and they refuse to buy transgenic fruit and vegetables. At the same time 80% of them do not have suffi cient knowledge about GMOs, their cultivation and presence on the market as GM food. This also refers to a group of people with a university degree. As many as 1/3 of the surveyed do not know whether GMOs are present on the Polish market, and only 9% indicated GMOs share of over 60% of the market, while nearly 70% of the respondents pointed to the presence of transgenic fruit and vegetables, listing a number of their species. This shows the need for widespread education and dissemination activities. 

  13. Occurrence of parasites on fruits and vegetables in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2001-11-01

    Between August 1999 and January 2001, samples of various fruits and vegetables obtained within Norway were analyzed by published methods for parasite contamination. Neither Cyclospora oocysts nor Ascaris (or other helminth) eggs were detected on any of the samples examined for these parasites. However, of the 475 samples examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, 29 (6%) were found to be positive. No samples were positive for both parasites. Of the 19 Cryptosporidium-positive samples. 5 (26%) were in lettuce, and 14 (74%) in mung bean sprouts. Of the 10 Giardia-positive samples, 2 (20%) were in dill, 2 (20%) in lettuce, 3 (30%) in mung bean sprouts, 1 (10%) in radish sprouts, and 2 (20%) in strawberries. Mung bean sprouts were significantly more likely to be contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts or Giardia cysts than the other fruits and vegetables. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia detected were generally low (mean of approximately 3 [oo]cysts per 100 g produce). Although some of the contaminated produce was imported (the majority, if sprouted seeds are excluded), there was no association between imported produce and detection of parasites. Crvptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were also detected in water samples concerned with field irrigation and production of bean sprouts within Norway. This is the first time that parasites have been detected on vegetables and fruit obtained in a highly developed. wealthy country, without there being an outbreak situation. These findings may have important implications for global food safety.

  14. Genetically modified parthenocarpic eggplants: improved fruit productivity under both greenhouse and open field cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfini Tiziana

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenocarpy, or fruit development in the absence of fertilization, has been genetically engineered in eggplant and in other horticultural species by using the DefH9-iaaM gene. The iaaM gene codes for tryptophan monoxygenase and confers auxin synthesis, while the DefH9 controlling regions drive expression of the gene specifically in the ovules and placenta. A previous greenhouse trial for winter production of genetically engineered (GM parthenocarpic eggplants demonstrated a significant increase (an average of 33% increase in fruit production concomitant with a reduction in cultivation costs. Results GM parthenocarpic eggplants have been evaluated in three field trials. Two greenhouse spring trials have shown that these plants outyielded the corresponding untransformed genotypes, while a summer trial has shown that improved fruit productivity in GM eggplants can also be achieved in open field cultivation. Since the fruits were always seedless, the quality of GM eggplant fruits was improved as well. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the DefH9-iaaM gene is expressed during late stages of fruit development. Conclusions The DefH9-iaaM parthenocarpic gene is a biotechnological tool that enhances the agronomic value of all eggplant genotypes tested. The main advantages of DefH9-iaaM eggplants are: i improved fruit productivity (at least 30–35% under both greenhouse and open field cultivation; ii production of good quality (marketable fruits during different types of cultivation; iii seedless fruit with improved quality. Such advantages have been achieved without the use of either male or female sterility genes.

  15. Double Up Food Bucks program effects on SNAP recipients' fruit and vegetable purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Adjognon, Marie; Weatherspoon, Dave

    2017-12-12

    To encourage the consumption of more fresh fruits and vegetables, the 2014 United Sates Farm Bill allocated funds to the Double Up Food Bucks Program. This program provided Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program beneficiaries who spent $10 on fresh fruits and vegetables, in one transaction, with a $10 gift card exclusively for Michigan grown fresh fruits and vegetables. This study analyzes how fruit and vegetable expenditures, expenditure shares, variety and purchase decisions were affected by the initiation and conclusion, as well as any persistent effects of the program. Changes in fruit and vegetable purchase behaviors due to Double Up Food Bucks in a supermarket serving a low-income, predominantly Hispanic community in Detroit, Michigan were evaluated using a difference in difference fixed effects estimation strategy. We find that the Double Up Food Bucks program increased vegetable expenditures, fruit and vegetable expenditure shares, and variety of fruits and vegetables purchased but the effects were modest and not sustainable without the financial incentive. Fruit expenditures and the fruit and vegetable purchase decision were unaffected by the program. This study provides valuable insight on how a nutrition program influences a low-income, urban, Hispanic community's fruit and vegetable purchase behavior. Policy recommendations include either removing or lowering the purchase hurdle for incentive eligibility and dropping the Michigan grown requirement to better align with the customers' preferences for fresh fruits and vegetables.

  16. Association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Bela; Poínhos, Rui; Klepp, Knut-Inge; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11-13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions - strictness and involvement - were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.

  17. Validated scales to assess adult self-efficacy to eat fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainvil, Louise A; Lawson, Rob; Horwath, Caroline C; McKenzie, Joanne E; Reeder, Anthony I

    2009-01-01

    An audience-centered approach was used to develop valid and reliable scales to measure adult self-efficacy to eat fruit and vegetables. Cross-sectional survey of a national population. New Zealand. A sample of 350 adults ages 25 to 60 years was randomly selected from a nationally representative sampling frame. Overall, 231 questionnaires were returned, producing a 72% response rate. The mean age of subjects was 42.7years; 58% were female; 80% were of European descent; 11% were indigenous Maori. The 76-item, self-administered questionnaire collected data on demographics, fruit and vegetable intakes, stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy (24 items). Principal components analysis with oblimin rotation was performed. Principal components analysis yielded three distinct and reliable scales for self-efficacy to eat "vegetables," "fruit," and "fruit and vegetables" (Cronbach alpha = .80, .85, and .73, respectively). These scales were correlated, but only the "vegetable" scale was positively correlated with the "fruit and vegetable" scale (Kendall tau r = 0.30, -0.26 [fruit, "fruit and vegetables"], -0.38 [fruit, vegetable]). As predicted, self-efficacy was associated with intake (r = 0.30 [fruit], 0.34 [vegetables]). Assuming the factor structure is confirmed in independent samples, these brief psychometrically sound scales may be used to assess adult self-efficacy to eat fruit and to eat vegetables (separately) but not self-efficacy to eat "fruit and vegetables."

  18. Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976.

  19. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  20. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds (sea vegetables) and pancreatic cancer risk: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigihara, Michiko; Obara, Taku; Nagai, Masato; Sugawara, Yumi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Studies on the effects of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds on the incidence of pancreatic cancer are not conclusive. We examined the association (if any) between the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds and the risk of pancreatic cancer in Japan. Data from 32,859 participants registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who were 40-79 years old and free of cancer at baseline were analyzed. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds was assessed at baseline using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (containing 40 items). Incidences of pancreatic cancer were identified by computer linkage with the Miyagi Prefectural Cancer Registry. During 11 years of follow-up, 137 pancreatic cancers (67 men and 70 women) were identified. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of pancreatic cancer risk for the highest versus the lowest tertile were 0.82 (0.40-1.68, trend P=0.57) in men and 0.64 (0.35-1.20, trend P=0.22) in women for total consumption of fruits, 0.89 (0.46-1.73, trend P=0.76) in men and 0.67 (0.33-1.35, trend P=0.23) in women for total consumption of vegetables, and 0.92 (0.46-1.84, trend P=0.81) in men for consumption of seaweeds (results for the consumption of seaweeds in women were not analyzed because of poor reliability), respectively. Total consumption of fruits, vegetables, and seaweeds was not associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansdottir, Asa G; Thorsdottir, Inga; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-11 Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. (a) Dried, cured, or processed fruits and vegetables (except frozen fruits and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits...

  3. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  4. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular risk profile: a diet controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klopping-Ketelaars, W.A.; Klurft, C.; Berg, van den H.; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, van G.

    2001-01-01

    Interventions: During 4 weeks 24 volunteers consumed a standardised meal, consisting of 500 g/day fruit and vegetables and 200 ml/day fruit juice ('high' group) and 23 volunteers consumed 100 g/day fruit and vegetables ('low' group) with an energy and fat controlled diet. Results: Final total

  6. Encouraging the consumption of fruit and vegetables by older Australians: an experiential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Mullins, Robyn; Wakefield, Melanie; Hill, David

    2004-01-01

    To explore perceptions of dietary recommendations for fruit and vegetables, and barriers and opportunities for increasing consumption. Qualitative study with an experiential component. Older adults' households. Six focus groups with 38 Australian adults aged 50 to 64 years who reported low vegetable consumption. Week 1: focus group including demonstration of recommended fruit and vegetable servings; week 2: delivery of a week's supply of fruit and vegetables and recipes; week 3: follow-up focus group. Perceptions of a healthful diet, fruit and vegetable recommendations, barriers to consumption, and reactions to the food delivery and recipes. Qualitative, thematic analysis. Participants were unfamiliar with serving recommendations. Barriers to consumption were as follows: perceptions that vegetables are eaten only with evening meals, preference for eating meat, believing that recommended quantities were too big, and a lack of preparation time. The delivery had a positive impact on some (especially low fruit consumers), for whom the availability of appealing fruit served as a prompt for consumption. Possible strategies for enabling consumers to achieve adequate fruit and vegetable consumption are education about the recommended number and size of servings and distribution of fruit and vegetables relative to meat and carbohydrates, encouragement to spread fruit and vegetable consumption over the day, and promoting the appealing sensory attributes of fruit and vegetables.

  7. Life-course events and experiences: association with fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, C M; Wolfe, W S; Frongillo, E A; Bisogni, C A

    1999-03-01

    To examine how life-course experiences and events are associated with current fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups. A theoretic model developed from previous qualitative research guided the development of a telephone survey. Data were collected on fruit and vegetable consumption, sociodemographic characteristics, ethnic identity, and life-course events and experiences, including food upbringing, social roles, food skills, dietary changes for health, and practice of food traditions. Low- to moderate-income adults living in a northeastern US city were selected randomly from 3 ethnic groups: black (n = 201), Hispanic (n = 191), and white (n = 200). Bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis of associations between life-course variables and fruit and vegetable consumption. Black, Hispanic, and white respondents differed significantly in life-course experiences, family roles, socio-demographic characteristics, and place of birth. Explanatory models for fruit and vegetable consumption differed among ethnic groups and between fruits and vegetables. Among black respondents, a college education was positively associated with fruit consumption; education and family roles contributed most to differences in fruit (R2 = .16) and vegetable (R2 = .09) consumption. Among Hispanic respondents, life-course experiences such as liking fruits and vegetables in youth, making dietary changes for health, and food skills were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .25) and vegetable (R2 = .35) consumption. Among white respondents, socio-demographic characteristics, such as being married with a young child or single with no child and having a garden as an adult, were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .20) and vegetable (R2 = .22) consumption. An understanding of the determinants of food choice in different subcultural groups can be used to design effective nutrition interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Experiences such as eating fresh

  8. Life cycle inventory and carbon and water FoodPrint of fruits and vegetables: application to a Swiss retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Franziska; Juraske, Ronnie; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-03-20

    Food production and consumption is known to have significant environmental impacts. In the present work, the life cycle assessment methodology is used for the environmental assessment of an assortment of 34 fruits and vegetables of a large Swiss retailer, with the aim of providing environmental decision-support to the retailer and establishing life cycle inventories (LCI) also applicable to other case studies. The LCI includes, among others, seedling production, farm machinery use, fuels for the heating of greenhouses, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, storage and transport to and within Switzerland. The results show that the largest reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved by consuming seasonal fruits and vegetables, followed by reduction of transport by airplane. Sourcing fruits and vegetables locally is only a good strategy to reduce the carbon footprint if no greenhouse heating with fossil fuels is involved. The impact of water consumption depends on the location of agricultural production. For some crops a trade-off between the carbon footprint and the induced water stress is observed. The results were used by the retailer to support the purchasing decisions and improve the supply chain management.

  9. Life Cycle Inventory and Carbon and Water FoodPrint of Fruits and Vegetables: Application to a Swiss Retailer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Food production and consumption is known to have significant environmental impacts. In the present work, the life cycle assessment methodology is used for the environmental assessment of an assortment of 34 fruits and vegetables of a large Swiss retailer, with the aim of providing environmental decision-support to the retailer and establishing life cycle inventories (LCI) also applicable to other case studies. The LCI includes, among others, seedling production, farm machinery use, fuels for the heating of greenhouses, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides, storage and transport to and within Switzerland. The results show that the largest reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved by consuming seasonal fruits and vegetables, followed by reduction of transport by airplane. Sourcing fruits and vegetables locally is only a good strategy to reduce the carbon footprint if no greenhouse heating with fossil fuels is involved. The impact of water consumption depends on the location of agricultural production. For some crops a trade-off between the carbon footprint and the induced water stress is observed. The results were used by the retailer to support the purchasing decisions and improve the supply chain management. PMID:22309056

  10. 21 CFR 133.174 - Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vegetables, or meats. 133.174 Section 133.174 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and...

  11. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... meats. 133.125 Section 133.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method prescribed...

  12. 21 CFR 133.180 - Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vegetables, or meats. 133.180 Section 133.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... with fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized process cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or mixtures of these is a food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is...

  13. Effect of irradiation on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbayraktar, V.; Gueclue, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developing and developed countries. However, they carry the potential risk of contamination from soil, irrigation water and/or manure and result in food borne outbreaks. Since they are consumed without any treatments, they are the potential sources of contamination. Irradiation is a physical food preservation method; foods are exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation for sterilization or preservation purposes. Irradiation treatment has been shown to effectively enhance the microbial quality and increase the shelf-life by 3-5 times. Also, this treatment reduces the post harvest losses and controls the insects.

  14. Strategies for Biocontrol of Aphids in Greenhouse Vegetable Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Biological control in sweet pepper has been one of the success stories of the greenhouse industry for decades. This success is mainly based on inoculative releases of anthocorid predatory bugs and generalist phytoseiid predatory mites, which successfully control thrips, broad mites and whiteflies.

  15. Evaluation of Phytodesalination Potential of Vegetated Bioreactors Treating Greenhouse Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Fatehi Pouladi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved salt ions that are not absorbed during irrigation of greenhouse crops are gradually accumulated in the nutrient solution resulting in levels of salinity high enough to damage the crops. This water salinity presents operational and environmental challenges as the nutrient-rich greenhouse effluent should be discharged to the environment when deemed unsuited for irrigation. In this pilot-scale study, the potential of passive salt reduction (phytodesalination in gravel and wood-chip flow-through reactors was evaluated using seven plant species including Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Andropogon gerardii, Typha angustifolia, Elymus canadensis, Panicum virgatum, Spartina pectinata and Distichlis spicata along with an unplanted control reactor. While the unplanted system outperformed the planted units with gravel media, the wood-chip bioreactors with S. tabernaemontani and S. pectinata improved the greenhouse effluent reducing the solution conductivity (EC by a maximum of 15% (average = 7%. S. tabernaemontani and D. spicata showed higher accumulated contents of Na+ and Cl− in comparison with T. angustifolia and S. pectinata. Overall, S. tabernaemontani was selected as the most capable species in the wood-chip bioreactors for its better salt management via EC reduction and salt accumulation. It was however concluded that further treatment would be required for the greenhouse effluent to meet the stringent irrigation water quality guidelines in order not to pose any adverse effects on sensitive crops. Finally, the present hydraulic residence time (HRT = 3.7 days and the solution salinity concentration were identified as the potential factors that may be limiting the efficiency of plant salt uptake, emphasizing the need for conducting more research on the optimization and enhancement of passive desalination systems for the greenhouse effluent.

  16. Quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake and risk of coronary heart disease123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Wedick, Nicole M; Pan, An; Manson, JoAnn E; Rexrode, Kathyrn M; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary guidelines recommend increasing fruit and vegetable intake and, most recently, have also suggested increasing variety. Objective: We prospectively examined the independent roles of quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable intake in relation to incident coronary heart disease (CHD). Design: We prospectively followed 71,141 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2008) and 42,135 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2008) who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by using a validated questionnaire and updated every 4 y. Variety was defined as the number of unique fruit and vegetables consumed at least once per week. Potatoes, legumes, and fruit juices were not included in our definition of fruit and vegetables. Results: During follow-up, we documented 2582 CHD cases in women and 3607 cases in men. In multivariable analyses, after adjustment for dietary and nondietary covariates, those in the highest quintile of fruit and vegetable intake had a 17% lower risk (95% CI: 9%, 24%) of CHD. A higher consumption of citrus fruit, green leafy vegetables, and β-carotene– and vitamin C–rich fruit and vegetables was associated with a lower CHD risk. Conversely, quantity-adjusted variety was not associated with CHD. Conclusions: Our data suggest that absolute quantity, rather than variety, in fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a significantly lower risk of CHD. Nevertheless, consumption of specific fruit and vegetable subgroups was associated with a lower CHD risk. PMID:24088718

  17. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Plant and Fruit Yield in Greenhouse Organic Tomato Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Ulusu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production is in the first place in Turkey, 34% of total tomato production (3.614.472 tonnes is under greenhouse conditions. The increase in yield in Turkey is due to the spread of undergrowth cultivation besides the use of qualified varieties and seeds. Synthetic fertilizers can’t be used to obtain economic efficiency in underground organic tomato growing Therefore, the application of alternative fertilizers (barn stubble, green manure, organic fertilizer, vermicompost etc. needs to be improved. For this purpose, effect of the eight different fertilizer combination including organic and worm liquid fertilizer, humic acid and mycorrhizae applications on tomato plant and fruit yield were investigated in the study. Negative check without any fertilizer application growing and a positive check; a synthetic liquid fertilizer application was included. Experiment was set up according to completely randomised block design with 3 replications under greenhouse conditions. Tomato fruit length, diameter and weight was determined as fruit yield and fresh and dry weight as plant yield. There was not any statistical difference among fertilizer applications for fruit and plant yield. However, the highest tomato fruit yield was obtained in the treatments of organic (7.17 kg/ plot and worm fertilizers (4,80 kg/ plot in combination with mycorrhizae. The results were similar for fruit diameter and length. Plant fresh and dry weight was between 2.01 to 5.92 and 0.368 to 1.153 kg, respectively. The highest plant weight was belong to mycorrhizae and organic fertilizer application.

  18. Unrestricted fruits and vegetables in the PKU diet: a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, C; Mütze, U; Schulz, S; Thiele, A G; Ceglarek, U; Thiery, J; Mueller, A S; Kiess, W; Beblo, S

    2014-03-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) therapy demands phenylalanine (Phe) calculation. In most countries, almost all food is taken into account, even fruits and vegetables. We investigated whether unrestricted consumption of fruits and vegetables negatively influences metabolic control. Nineteen PKU children (2-10 years) started with 2 weeks of free or restricted fruit and vegetable intake. After 2 weeks, the regime changed from free to restricted or restricted to free (cross-over design). Over the first 4 weeks, dried blood Phe concentration was measured, fruit and vegetable consumption recorded and nutrient intake calculated from diet records. Thereafter the diet was changed to free use of fruits and vegetables for all patients. Six and 12 months later, diet and Phe concentrations were monitored. Median Phe intake increased significantly by 65 mg/day (week 4, PPKU diet liberalization for fruits and vegetables seems unproblematic.

  19. Access to Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in School Lunches: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Celeste; Thorlton, Janet

    2018-01-01

    Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables helps to reduce childhood obesity and improves academic achievement and attendance. However, providing fresh fruits and vegetables is challenging for some schools due to cost, administrative burden, and concern for food waste. To address these challenges, the Fruit and Vegetable Access for Children Act proposes to allow federally funded programs to substitute fresh fruits and vegetables with canned, frozen, or pureed versions. In this policy analysis, we propose options for providing fresh fruits and vegetables to children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program. We recommend that school nurses actively facilitate the process of obtaining fresh fruits and vegetables by being appointed members of Team Nutrition giving them authority to collaborate with local famers, entrepreneurs, and land-grant universities in Farm to School Programs. This strategy empowers school nurses in promoting healthy eating habits, reducing obesity, and improving academic performance and school attendance.

  20. Perceived quality and availability of fruit and vegetables are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Thornton, Lukar; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-07-01

    Perceptions that fruit and vegetables are expensive have been found to be associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables among disadvantaged women; however, the determinants of these perceptions are relatively unknown. The purpose of the current paper is to examine whether perceived availability and quality of fruit and vegetables, and social support for healthy eating, are associated with perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability among women residing in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cross-sectional self-report survey. The study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia. An Australian sample of 4131 women, aged 18-45 years, residing in neighbourhoods ranked in the lowest Victorian tertile of relative disadvantage by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, an index that considers aspects of disadvantage such as residents' income, education, motor vehicle access and employment. Results showed that irrespective of education, income and other key covariates, women who perceived poor availability and quality of fruit and vegetables in their local neighbourhood were more likely to perceive fruit and vegetables as expensive. Our results suggest that perceptions of fruit and vegetable affordability are not driven exclusively by lack of financial or knowledge-related resources, but also by women's psychological response and interpretation of their local nutrition environment.

  1. Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Manas Ranjan Swain; Marimuthu Anandharaj; Ramesh Chandra Ray; Rizwana Parveen Rani

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are eas...

  2. Parental child-feeding strategies in relation to Dutch children's fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinstra, Gertrude G; Koelen, Maria A; Kok, Frans J; van der Laan, Nynke; de Graaf, Cees

    2010-06-01

    To identify parental child-feeding strategies that may increase children's fruit or vegetable intake, since the relationship between these strategies and children's intake has never been investigated for fruit and vegetables as two separate food groups. A survey study, where parents provided information about their practices in relation to feeding their children and about their own and their children's fruit and vegetable intake. Children completed a preference questionnaire about fruit and vegetables. To find underlying parental child-feeding strategies, factor analysis was applied to parents' practices in relation to fruit and vegetables separately. Regression analysis was used to predict the effect of these strategies on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The impact of the strategies was further analysed by estimating children's intake based on the frequency of use of specific strategies. The study was conducted at three primary schools in The Netherlands. A total of 259 children between 4 and 12 years old and their parents (n 242). Parents used different strategies for fruit as compared with vegetables. The vegetable-eating context was more negative than the fruit-eating context. Parental intake and presenting the children with choice were positive predictors of children's intake of both fruit and vegetables. The intake difference based on frequency of use of the strategy 'Choice' was 40 g/d for vegetables and 72 g/d for fruit (P < 0.001). Future interventions should focus on presenting children with choice during fruit- and vegetable-eating situations, since this is a powerful strategy to stimulate children's fruit and vegetable intake.

  3. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang

    OpenAIRE

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were col...

  4. Fruits and vegetables in consumption basket of Republic of Armenia in 2008–2015

    OpenAIRE

    G.V. Vardanyan; G.H. Keshishyan

    2016-01-01

    In follow article quarterly seasonal fluctuations of the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the food basket were studied in period of 2008–2015 by data of RA. Among the other products in food basket the seasonal fluctuations of fruits and vegetables are more noticeable. The main purpose of this research is to discompose the time series of consumption volumes of fruits and vegetables for studying the seasonal component's impact and for making the credible predictions. The tendency of thes...

  5. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  6. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  7. Uptake of Organic Contaminants from Soil into Vegetables and Fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance of these path......Contaminants may enter vegetables and fruits by several pathways: by uptake with soil pore water, by diffusion from soil or air, by deposition of soil or airborne particles, or by direct application. The contaminant-specific and plantspecific properties that determine the importance...... of these pathways are described in this chapter. A variety of models have been developed, specific for crop types and with steady-state or dynamic solutions. Model simulations can identify sensitive properties and relevant processes. Persistent, polar (log KOW ... particles, or from air. Volatile contaminants have a low potential for accumulation because they quickly escape to air. Experimental data are listed that support these model predictions, but underline also the high variability of accumulation under field conditions. Plant uptake predictions are uncertain...

  8. Antioxidant flavonols from fruits, vegetables and beverages: measurements and bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAN CROZIER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonols are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites that are present in varying levels in commonly consumed fruits, vegetables and beverages. Flavonols have long held an interest for nutritionists, which has increased following a Dutch study in the early 1990’s showing that dietary intake of flavonols was inversely correlated with the incidence of coronary heart disease. The main factors that have hindered workers in the field of flavonol research are (i the accurate measurement of these compounds in foods and biological samples, and (ii a dearth of information on their absorption and metabolism. This review aims to highlight the work of the authors in attempting to clarify the situation. The sensitive and selective HPLC procedure to identify and quantify common flavonols and their sugar conjugates is described. In addition, the results of an on-going screening program into the flavonol content of common produce and beverages are presented. The bioavailability of dietary flavonols is discussed with reference to an intervention study with onions, as well as pilot studies with tea, red wine and cherry tomatoes. It is concluded that flavonols are absorbable and accumulate in plasma and that consuming high flavonol-containing varieties of fruits and vegetables and particular types of beverages could increase their circulatory levels

  9. Vegetables, fruits and phytoestrogens in the prevention of diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber David

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The intake of 400-600 g/d of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced incidence of many common forms of cancer, and diets rich in plant foods are also associated with a reduced risk of heart disease and many chronic diseases of ageing. These foods contain phytochemicals that have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties which confer many health benefits. Many phytochemicals are colourful, and recommending a wide array of colourful fruits and vegetables is an easy way to communicate increased diversity of intake to the consumer. For example, red foods contain lycopene, the pigment in tomatoes, which is localized in the prostate gland and may be involved in maintaining prostate health, and which has also been linked with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Green foods, including broccoli, Brussels sprouts and kale, contain glucosinolates which have also been associated with a decreased risk of cancer. Garlic and other white-green foods in the onion family contain allyl sulphides which may inhibit cancer cell growth. Other bioactive substances in green tea and soybeans have health benefits as well. Consumers are advised to ingest one serving of each of the seven colour groups daily, putting this recommendation within the United States National Cancer Institute and American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines of five to nine servings per day. Grouping plant foods by colour provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumers make wise food choices and promote health.

  10. Awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, knowledge of the fruit and vegetable recommendation, and fruit and vegetable intake of adults in the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors (FAB) Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Moser, Richard P; Oh, April Y; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-08-01

    Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables is recommended to reduce chronic disease risk. Few studies have examined awareness of the current fruit and vegetable campaign in the United States, Fruits and Veggies-More Matters. This study assessed awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign and knowledge of the 7-13 serving recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption among adults, and determined whether these were associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Cross-sectional data from 3021 adults in the United States' National Cancer Institute's 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey were analyzed. Few participants were aware of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign (2%) and the 7-13 recommendation (6%) for adults. More participants were aware of the former 5 A Day campaign (29%) and recommendation (30%). Thirty-nine percent reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. Participants were more likely to consume ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetables/day if they were aware of the 5 A Day/Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and reported that the recommendation for adults was ≥5 servings/day. Findings suggest the need to increase awareness of the Fruits and Veggies-More Matters campaign, and the 7-13 recommendation among adults to support high fruit and vegetable intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental versus child reporting of fruit and vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to (1 compare parental and child recording of children's fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption, including family-related factors, and (2 investigate the potential differences in the relation of children's and parents' perceptions of family-related factors. Methods Children were recruited from Dutch seventh and eighth grade classrooms. Each child and one of their parents completed parallel questionnaires. A total of 371 matched child-parent surveys were included in the analyses. To compare parental and child reports of consumption and family-related factors regarding F&V intake several techniques were used such as paired sample t-test, chi-square tests, Pearson's correlations and Cohens's kappa as measurement of agreement. To investigate potential differences between the parent's and children's perceptions of family-related factors, linear regression analyses were conducted. Results The results indicated weak agreement for F&V consumption (Cohen's kappa coefficients of .31 and .20, respectively but no differences in mean consumption of fruit at the group level. Regarding the family-environmental factors related to fruit consumption, significant differences were found between the perceptions of subjective norm, and the availability and accessibility of fruit. Perceptions of subjective norm, parental modelling and exposure regarding vegetable consumption were also viewed differently by the two groups. The family-environmental factors reported by the children were similarly associated with F&V consumption compared to those reported by their respective parents. However, parents rated these factors more favourably than their children did. Conclusion The results indicated a low level of agreement between parental and child reporting of F&V intake and their assessment of family-environmental factors on individual level. This has important implications for the development and evaluation of interventions

  12. Fruits, vegetables and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, D; Chan, D S M; Vieira, A R; Rosenblatt, D A Navarro; Vieira, R; Greenwood, D C; Norat, T

    2012-07-01

    Evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. To clarify the association, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence from prospective studies. We searched PubMed for prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk until April 30, 2011. We included fifteen prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest versus the lowest intake was 0.89 (95 % CI: 0.80-0.99, I (2) = 0 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.92 (95 % CI: 0.86-0.98, I (2) = 9 %) for fruits, and 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.92-1.06, I (2) = 20 %) for vegetables. In dose-response analyses, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.96 (95 % CI: 0.93-1.00, I (2) = 2 %) for fruits and vegetables combined, 0.94 (95 % CI: 0.89-1.00, I (2) = 39 %) for fruits, and 1.00 (95 % CI: 0.95-1.06, I (2) = 17 %) for vegetables. In this meta-analysis of prospective studies, high intake of fruits, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not vegetables, is associated with a weak reduction in risk of breast cancer.

  13. Analysis of factors influencing the opinions of fresh fruits and vegetables consumers on food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Can Niyaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the factors that influence opinions of fruits and vegetables consumers‟ in Canakkale province in terms of food safety. Data for the study were collected from 166 consumers, determined by means of Propositional Random Sampling. Factor Analysis and Binary Logistic Regression Analysis were used to analyze the data. According to the research, quality problems and the possibility of physical and chemical fraud in fruits and vegetables in terms of food safety proved to have a negative impact on consumer opinions towards fruits and vegetables, whereas locally produced fruits and vegetables affected the consumer opinions positively

  14. Effects and Mechanisms of Fruit and Vegetable Juices on Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have indicated that consumption of vegetables and fruits are positively related to lower incidence of several chronic noncommunicable diseases. Although composition of fruit and vegetable juices is different from that of the edible portion of fruits and vegetables, they contain polyphenols and vitamins from fruits and vegetables. Drinking vegetable and fruit juices is very popular in many countries, and also an efficient way to improve consumption of fruits and vegetables. The studies showed that fruit and vegetable juices affect cardiovascular risk factors, such as lowering blood pressure and improving blood lipid profiles. The main mechanisms of action included antioxidant effects, improvement of the aspects of the cardiovascular system, inhibition of platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory effects, and prevention of hyperhomocysteinemia. Drinking juices might be a potential way to improve cardiovascular health, especially mixtures of juices because they contain a variety of polyphenols, vitamins, and minerals from different fruits and vegetables. This review summarizes recent studies on the effects of fruit and vegetable juices on indicators of cardiovascular disease, and special attention is paid to the mechanisms of action.

  15. Do 'food deserts' influence fruit and vegetable consumption?--A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tim; Russell, Jean; Campbell, Michael J; Barker, Margo E

    2005-10-01

    Lack of access to affordable healthy foods has been suggested to be a contributory factor to poor diet. This study investigated associations between diet and access to supermarkets, transport, fruit and vegetable price and deprivation, in a region divergent in geography and socio-economic indices. A postal survey of 1000 addresses (response rate 42%) gathered information on family demographics, supermarket and shop use, car ownership, mobility and previous day's fruit and vegetable intake. Postcode information was used to derive road travel distance to nearest supermarket and deprivation index. Fruit and vegetable prices were assessed using a shopping basket survey. Generalised linear regression models were used to ascertain predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Male grocery shoppers ate less fruit than female grocery shoppers. Consumption of vegetables increased slightly with age. Deprivation, supermarket fruit and vegetable price, distance to nearest supermarket and potential difficulties with grocery shopping were not significantly associated with either fruit or vegetable consumption. These data suggest that the three key elements of a food desert, fruit and vegetable price, socio-economic deprivation and a lack of locally available supermarkets, were not factors influencing fruit or vegetable intake. We suggest that food policies aimed at improving diet should be orientated towards changing socio-cultural attitudes towards food.

  16. Area-wide pest management of fruit flies in Hawaiian fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Roger I.; Jang, Eric B.; Klungness, L. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Four economically important fruit flies have been accidentally introduced into Hawaii: melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and the so-called Malaysian (solanaceous) fruit fly. Over 400 different host fruits are attacked. These fruit flies inhibit development of a diversified tropical fruit and vegetable industry, require that commercial fruits undergo quarantine treatment prior to export, and in Hawaii provide a breeding reservoir for their introduction into the continental United States. These exotic pests a serious threat of establishment into new areas with movement of people and commodities throughout the U.S. and the world. For example, if the Mediterranean fruit fly became established in California, projected losses would exceed $1 billion per year due to trade embargoes, loss of jobs, increased pesticide use, and direct crop loss. Present fruit fly control measures in Hawaii relay heavily on the application of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides to crops. Overuse of these insecticides has been implicated with secondary pest outbreaks, negative effects on beneficial insects, environmental contamination and adverse effects on human health. In 1999 a 5 year Area-wide Pest Management (AWPM) program was funded (for FY2000) for management of fruit flies in Hawaii. The goal of the Fruit Fly AWPM program is to develop and integrate biologically based pest management approaches that will result in area-wide suppression and control of fruit flies throughout selected agricultural areas of Hawaii. The IPM program will integrate two or more technologies into a comprehensive package that is economically viable, environmentally acceptable and sustainable. The program will result in a reduction in the use of organophosphate insecticides, and further growth and development of diversified agriculture in Hawaii. The technologies include: 1) field sanitation, 2) protein bait sprays and/or traps, 3) male annihilation with male lures and attractants, 4

  17. Optimum Returns from Greenhouse Vegetables under Water Quality and Risk Constraints in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses have been used in the United Arab Emirates (UAE to produce vegetables that contribute toward UAE food security, including offering fresh vegetable produce in the off-season. However, to manage such greenhouses, farmers face both technical and environmental limitations (i.e., high water scarcity, as well as vegetable market price instability. The objective of this study is to explore tradeoffs between returns (i.e., gross margin of selected vegetables (tomato, pepper, and cucumber, risk (deviation from gross margin means, and an environmental constraint (water salinity using a unique target MOTAD (minimization of total absolute deviations approach to support UAE farmer decision-making processes. The optimal target MOTAD solution included all three vegetables and no corner solution. The results showed tradeoffs between returns and risks, and confirmed that product diversification reduces overall risk. The analysis was consistent with farmer perceptions based on a survey of 78 producers in the region. The search for the optimal mix of vegetable production under UAE greenhouse conditions revealed that reduction in tomato production should be offset by an increase in cucumber production while maintaining a constant level of pepper production. In other words, risk is reduced as cucumber production increases due to the high level of tomato and lettuce price volatility as the alternative to cucumber. The results also demonstrated the importance of the water salinity environmental constraint, as it was found to have a positive marginal value in the optimal vegetable mix solution (i.e., important factor. Thus the optimal solution was highly sensitive to changes in the crop water salinity constraint. The study results also demonstrate that the target MOTAD approach is a suitable optimization methodology. As a practical approach, a decision-maker in the UAE can consider gross margin (total revenue-variable costs maximization with risk and water

  18. Does school environment affect 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krølner, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Rasmussen, Mette

    2009-01-01

    > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls...... stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate....../vegetables available. The small school-level effects on 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake imply that family level interventions may be more important and that the success of school interventions will rely on the degree of parental involvement....

  19. Diversity of enterobacteria associated with tomato (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill fruits and greenhouse soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lorena Luna-Guevara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of Enterobacteriaceae present in soil and tomato fruits from three greenhouses with fertirigation system. These crop systems are an important alternative for production in protected agriculture; however, there is little information about the microbiological quality of the fruit and its relationship with chemical soil characteristics. Soil evaluations consisted of analyzing organic matter content and pH. In the microbiological analysis were isolated and identified enterobacterias organisms from composite samples of soil and fruits at different stages of maturity (0, 50 and 100%. Culture media used was selective, differential and confirmatory testing with VITEK system. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC were characterized genotypically, amplifying the lngA and bfpA genes by the technique of polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Diversity index (Simpson (D, Shannon-Wiener (H' and Chao estimator (SChao1 were calculated with the identified species. The species Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and C. brakii had a higher frequency of isolation, EPEC and ETEC were identified in soil samples and in fruits with 100% maturity. In soil, H' indices were positively correlated with the highest organic matter percentages. In fruit, although H 'and D showed less diverse bacterial communities, the isolation of ETEC and Shigella boydii on the fruit surface compromise their safety because they are usually consumed raw.

  20. Fruit and vegetable intake among participants in a District of Columbia farmers' market incentive programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Sara; Bost, Anna; McGonigle, Meghan; Rosen, Lillie; Peterson-Kosecki, Amelia; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan; Robien, Kim

    2018-02-01

    Limited research is available on whether participation in healthy food incentive programmes is associated with higher fruit and vegetable intake. The objective of the present study was to determine fruit and vegetable intake among participants in the Produce Plus Program, a farmers' market-based healthy food incentive programme in Washington, DC, and identify demographic and behavioural factors associated with higher fruit and vegetable intake. Using a cross-sectional survey, programme participants were interviewed at markets across DC between June and September 2015. Questions included the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) fruit and vegetable module. Fruit and vegetable intake among 2013 DC BRFSS participants reporting annual household incomes of ≤$US 35 000 was calculated for context. Washington, DC, USA. Participants (n 288) in the Produce Plus Program. On average, participants reported consuming both fruits (interquartile range: 1·0-3·0) and vegetables (interquartile range: 1·3-3·5) two times/d. Participants who reported eating home-cooked meals ≥3 times/week also reported higher median fruit (2·0 v. 0·8) and vegetable (2·3 v. 1·3) intake compared with those eating home-cooked meals less frequently. No statistically significant differences in reported median fruit or vegetable intake were observed over the course of the farmers' market (June v. August/September) season. Produce Plus Program participants reported higher median fruit and vegetable intake compared with DC BRFSS respondents with similar incomes, but still below recommended levels. More frequent home-cooked meals were associated with higher fruit and vegetable intake. Thus, efforts to increase home cooking may represent an opportunity to increase fruit and vegetable intake among healthy food incentive participants.

  1. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews

  2. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  3. Fruit and vegetable consumption and sports participation among UK Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena; Graham, Hilary; Law, Catherine; Platt, Lucinda; Wardle, Heather; Hall, Julia

    2014-02-01

    UK guidelines for youth recommend daily physical activity and five portions of fruit and vegetables per day. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of meeting recommendations among 10- to 15-year old. Data for 3,914 youth, from the first wave of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study, were analysed. Clustering was assessed using the observed/expected ratio method. A minority of youth met both recommendations, and these behaviours were clustered. The odds of meeting both recommendations were lower for older youth and for Pakistani and Bangladeshi youth; boys in lower income households were less likely to meet both recommendations. Most youth met neither recommendation and the behaviours clustered with variations by ethnicity and socioeconomic conditions.

  4. Motivational Interviewing and Fruit/Vegetable Consumption in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle; Wong-Anuchit, Choochart; Stallings, Devita; Krieger, Mary M

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and risk reduction for several illness conditions, even for older adults. Thus, we examined the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) on FVC in adults with a mean age ≥60. We chose MI because of its growing popularity as an effective behavior change strategy and because the person-centered MI principles are a good fit for older adults. We searched 10 electronic databases, several journals, and unpublished and fugitive literature. We retrieved seven primary studies, providing nine comparisons, with 1,978 participants. The overall MI effect size (ES) was .221 ( p = .002). When the percentage of women was greater, ES was lower; when interventionists had more training, ES was higher; and when sessions were longer, ES was stronger. Future researchers might test longer sessions with trained interventionists and examine gender differences. Practitioners should be well trained and offer sessions that are 30 to 40 min in length.

  5. Mothers prefer fresh fruits and vegetables over jarred baby fruits and vegetables in the new Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children food package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Loan P; Whaley, Shannon E; Gradziel, Pat H; Crocker, Nancy J; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Harrison, Gail G

    2013-01-01

    This study examined Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participant use and satisfaction with jarred baby foods, assessed preference for cash value vouchers (CVVs) for fruits and vegetables vs jarred baby foods, and examined whether preferences varied among selected ethnic groups. A survey of California WIC participants and statewide redemption data were used. Participants reported high satisfaction with the CVV for fruits and vegetables and jarred baby foods, with statistically significant variation across ethnic groups. About two thirds of all participants reported a preference for CVVs for fruits and vegetables over jarred baby foods. Redemption data indicated declining redemption rates for jarred fruits and vegetables with increasing age of the infant across all ethnic groups. Although the addition of jarred fruits and vegetables to the food package for infants ages 6-11 months was well received, many caregivers want the option to choose between jarred foods and fresh fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  6. Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

  7. Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui Hai

    2013-05-01

    Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements.

  8. The Experiences of New Zealand-Based Children in Consuming Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Emma; Whitehead, Dean; Mather, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: It is known that the consumption of fruits and vegetables in children is declining despite wide-spread national and international policy attempts to increase consumption. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of children's consumption of fruits and vegetables so as to facilitate better health education targeting.…

  9. Fruits and vegetables increase plasma carotenoids and vitamins and decrease homocysteine in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.A.A.; Schuurman, C.R.W.C.; Verhagen, H.; Berg, H. van den; Kok, F.J.; Poppel, G. van

    2000-01-01

    Observational epidemiologic studies have shown that a high consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases. Little is known about the bioavailability of constituents from vegetables and fruits and the effect of these constituents on markers for disease

  10. Study on the use of vegetables and fruits in athlete's nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Barbuica

    2015-01-01

    Eating fruits and vegetables can cover 90-95% of vitamin C and 60-80% of the vitamin A needs of an adult living in normal environment who practice a profession requiring a moderate energy consumption. This is also true for athletes in recovery phase. The present paper presents a study about the use of vegetables and fruits in the diet of athletes.

  11. Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

  12. Fresh, Frozen or Canned Fruits and Vegetables: All Can Be Healthy Choices!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... milk and yogurt. Mix frozen berries into baked goods and oatmeal. Fresh Fruits & Vegetables Fresh fruits & vegetables are easy, portable choices. Whenever you leave the house, get into the habit of stashing a fresh snack in your purse or backpack; think: apple, orange, ...

  13. A study of microbial analysis of fresh fruits and vegetables, in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables are essential parts of diets of people around the world. However, these food items have consistently served as vehicles for human diseases worldwide. This study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of fresh fruits and vegetables sold at Sagamu markets, ...

  14. Eat Your Fruit and Vegetables (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-07

    Getting kids to eat their fruits and vegetables is a common problem for many parents, but it’s a battle worth fighting. In this podcast, Dr. Latetia Moore discusses the importance of encouraging children to eat their fruit and vegetables.  Created: 8/7/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/7/2014.

  15. Weight Management and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M.; McKenna, Mary L.; Galuska, Deborah A.; Kann, Laura K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Consumption of fruits and vegetables is often recommended to promote healthy weight. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between fruit and vegetable intake and common weight management behaviors among US high school students who were trying to lose or stay the same weight. Methods: Data from the 1999, 2001, and 2003…

  16. Parental child-feeding strategies in relation to Dutch children's fruit and vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.A.; Kok, F.J.; Laan, van der N.; Graaf, de C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify parental child-feeding strategies that may increase children's fruit or vegetable intake, since the relationship between these strategies and children's intake has never been investigated for fruit and vegetables as two separate food groups. Design: A survey study, where

  17. Different Disinfectants Efficiency of Fruits and Vegetables Available in Market of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Dargahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fruits and vegetables are carrier microbial flora and in every stage of production, transportation, packaging, storage and sale to consumers are exposed to microbial contamination. Raw fruits and vegetables are suitable place for growing a variety of parasites and bacteria such as Shigella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Campylobacter that many of theirs can cause epidemic if the conditions have provide.

  18. 21 CFR 133.170 - Pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.170 Section 133.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Unless a definition and standard of identity specifically applicable is established by another section of this part, a pasteurized process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats...

  19. The USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program: A Case Study of Implementation and Consumption in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamelske, Eric M.; Bica, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The US Department of Agriculture created its Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) to address poor nutrition and rising obesity among children. The FFVP allocates funding for selected elementary schools with at least 50% free/reduced price school meal enrollments to provide free fresh fruit and vegetable snacks to students.…

  20. Food Safety Is a Key Determinant of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Urban Beninese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nago, Eunice S.; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Lachat, Carl K.; Dossa, Romain A.; Kolsteren, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in urban Beninese adolescents and elements to develop a school-based fruit and vegetable program. Design: Sixteen focus groups conducted with a key word guide. Setting and Participants: Two private and 2 public secondary schools in Cotonou, Benin. One hundred fifty-three…

  1. School Gardens as a Strategy for Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Erin; King, Amber D.

    2010-01-01

    School gardens as a form of nutrition education have become widespread. It is well known that children fall short of the daily recommended intake of fruit and vegetables. School-garden based programs show promise as a method of hands-on learning that promotes and increases fruit and vegetable consumption among school-aged children. There is little…

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption trends among adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in 33 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vereecken, Carine; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Ojala, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption is linked to many positive health outcomes, nevertheless many adolescents do not consume fruit and vegetables on a daily basis. METHODS: Data of 488,951 adolescents, aged 11-, 13- and 15- years, from 33 mainly European and North American countries/regio...

  3. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  4. Factors influencing fruit and vegetable intake among urban Fijians: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, E H; Vatucawaqa, P; Snowdon, W; Worsley, A; Dangour, A D; Lock, K

    2016-06-01

    Low fruit and vegetable intake is an important risk factor for micronutrient deficiencies and non-communicable diseases, but many people worldwide, including most Fijians, eat less than the World Health Organization recommended amount. The present qualitative study explores factors that influence fruit and vegetable intake among 57 urban Fijians (50 women, 7 men) of indigenous Fijian (iTaukei) and South Asian (Indian) descent. Eight focus group discussions were held in and around Suva, Fiji's capital and largest urban area, which explored motivation for eating fruit and vegetables, understandings of links to health and disease, availability and sources, determinants of product choice, and preferred ways of preparing and eating fruit and vegetables. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Regardless of ethnicity, participants indicated that they enjoyed and valued eating fruit and vegetables, were aware of the health benefits, and had confidence in their cooking skills. In both cultures, fruit and vegetables were essential components of traditional diets. However, increasing preferences for processed and imported foods, and inconsistent availability and affordability of high-quality, low-priced, fresh produce, were identified as important barriers. The findings indicate that efforts to improve fruit and vegetable intake in urban Fijians should target the stability of the domestic fruit and vegetable supply and access. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fruit and Vegetable Perceptions Among Caregivers of American Indian Toddlers and Community Stakeholders: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    American Indians experience higher rates of obesity than any other ethnic group living in the USA. This disparity begins to develop in early childhood, and the excess weight carried by American Indian children contributes to health conditions that can affect their quality of life by the time they enter preschool. These children consume less than recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, a dietary pattern that may be related to the development of obesity and other health conditions. This qualitative study explored the fruit and vegetable intake of American Indian toddlers through use of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. Focus groups with caregivers of American Indian toddlers and interviews with stakeholders in American Indian communities were conducted to investigate perceptions of knowledge, motivational, and behavioral skills related to the fruit and vegetable intake of American Indian toddlers. Study participants communicated that peer support, food insecurities, cultural norms, self-efficacy, and skills to prepare fruits and vegetables impact their ability to provide fruits and vegetables to toddlers. Study participants expressed a desire to increase their knowledge regarding fruits and vegetables, including variety, benefits, and recommendations for consumption. Findings from this qualitative study provide essential insights into perceptions of fruits and vegetables among caregivers of American Indian toddlers and stakeholders in American Indian communities. Future research will utilize these findings to develop a culturally appropriate IMB-model-based fruit and vegetable-focused nutrition education program for American Indian families.

  6. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption during Elementary School Snack Periods Using Incentives, Prompting and Role Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Lori A.; Jamelske, Eric M.; Lagorio, Carla H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: American children's consumption of fruits and vegetables (FVs) does not meet current recommendations. Hence, several federally funded, school-based programs have been initiated over the last several years. One such program is the United States Department of Agriculture Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP), which provides…

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-4 - Approval of certain fruits and vegetables for importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... into the United States subject to one or more of those measures, as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d.... (1) Fruits or vegetables are subject to inspection upon arrival in the United States and comply with...: (i) Pest risk analysis. The risk posed by the particular fruit or vegetable from a specified country...

  8. Determining the availability of, and access to, fresh fruit and vegetables in Arcadia and Eastwood, Pretoria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phaphana, HM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that food choices are affected by the food environment. Similarly, the presence of fruit and vegetables in the home results in greater fruit and vegetable consumption by children. A food desert is an area without ready access to fresh...

  9. Vegetable and fruit consumption and prostate cancer risk: A cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The association between 21 vegetables and eight fruits and prostate cancer risk was assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 58,279 men of ages 55-69 years at baseline in 1986. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 610 cases with complete vegetable data and 642 cases with complete fruit data were

  10. Fruits and vegetables and ovarian cancer risk in a pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koushik, A.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Arslan, A.A.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Cerhan, J.R.; Colditz, G.A.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Genkinger, J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Koenig, K.L.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Patel, A.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Smit, E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Because fruits and vegetables are rich in bioactive compounds with potential cancer-preventive actions, increased consumption may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer. Evidence on the association between fruit and vegetable intake and ovarian cancer risk has not been consistent. We analyzed and pooled

  11. Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer: A pooled analysis of cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith-Warner, S.A.; Spiegelman, D.; Yaun, S.-S.; Albanes, D.; Beeson, W.L.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Feskanich, D.; Folsom, A.R.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Kushi, L.H.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Speizer, F.E.; Willett, W.C.; Hunter, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    Inverse associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, identifying the specific fruits and vegetables associated with lung cancer is difficult because the food groups and foods evaluated have varied across studies. We analyzed

  12. Proximity and Visibility of Fruits and Vegetables Influence Intake in a Kitchen Setting among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J.; Creary, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that participants will eat more fruits (apple slices) and vegetables (carrot cuts) if they are made more proximate and visible was tested using a 2 × 2 between-participants design. Proximity was manipulated by placing fruits and vegetables in a bowl at a table where participants sat (near) or 2 m from the table (far). Visibility was…

  13. “Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit every day”: A food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An extensive body of research demonstrates an association between vegetable and fruit intake and reduced disease risk. Available evidence indicates that greater vegetable and fruit intake has been associated with the reduced risk of many of the nutrition-related diseases and risk factors that contribute substantially to the ...

  14. Study on the Degree of Technological Equipment Used by Vegetable and Fruit Producers from Arad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorie Sanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study on vegetable and fruit producers from Arad County intends to offer a clear cut image on the vegetable and fruit production, but also on the producers’ technological endowment . This paper is part of a large work and we wish to present aspects regarding the technological endowment and the producers’ content towards the middleman companies.

  15. Effect of greenhouse micro-climate on the selected summer vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, V.P.; Lal, T.; Gupta, Y.P.; Hans, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The study deals with creating suitable environment for the germination and subsequent growth of plants in the greenhouse of size 7 m x 3 m x 2 m for raising early summer vegetable nursery. It was observed that the average air temperature inside the greenhouse was 10–12°C higher than the ambient air temperature. Inside average soil temperature was also 5–7°C higher than the corresponding temperature outside the greenhouse. Greenhouse night micro-climate was modified by covering its roof with a polyester sheet to cut down the effect of night sky radiation thereby raising the inside minimum temperature. The effect of elevated temperature was monitored on the germination and subsequent growth of “muskmelon” seedlings up to two true leaf stage. It was observed that the germination of seeds, sown inside the greenhouse occurred one week earlier as compared to the seeds sown in the open field. The rate of growth of the seedlings inside the greenhouse took only three weeks to attain two-leaf stage, whereas seedlings sown in the open field took five weeks to reach up to two-leaf stage. Thus, there was a clear saving of 15 days in raising the nursery under the greenhouse. (author)

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy and risk for development of sporadic retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Manuela A; Titievsky, Lina; Liu, Xinhua; Ramirez-Ortiz, Marco; Ponce-Castaneda, Veronica; Lecona, Evelia; Molina, Evelyn; Beaverson, Katherine; Abramson, David H; Mueller, Nancy E

    2005-06-01

    Little is known about the causes of sporadic (noninherited) retinoblastoma. Rates seem to be somewhat higher among poorer populations in Mexico. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of carotenoids and folate. We examined whether decreased gestational maternal intake of fruits and vegetables may contribute to development of sporadic retinoblastoma. At the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria in Mexico City, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate prenatal maternal diet. We examined dietary intake of fruits and vegetables of mothers of 101 children with retinoblastoma and 172 control children using a dietary recall questionnaire and published food nutrient content tables. The reported number of mean daily servings of fruits and vegetables was lower among case mothers when compared with control mothers [vegetables: 2.28 in controls, 1.75 in cases (P vegetables and fruits was higher in controls (103 microg) than in cases (48 microg; P vegetables [odds ratios (OR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.0-6.0] or with a low intake of folate (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.3), or lutein/zeaxanthin (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6) derived from fruits and vegetables. Decreased intake of vegetables and fruits during pregnancy and the consequent decreased intake of nutrients such as folate and lutein/zeaxanthin, necessary for DNA methylation, synthesis, and retinal function, may increase risk for having a child with sporadic retinoblastoma.

  17. Impact assessment of an intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables by students and teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Farias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an intervention that promoted the consumption of fruits and vegetables on the intake of these products by students and teachers in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil. METHODS: This is a one-group pretest-posttest study of students and teachers from elementary public schools in Rio de Janeiro. The intervention included a training course for promoting healthy eating; distribution of educational materials; and holding of a one-day health fair. We assessed the activities that had been carried out, teachers' habitual fruits and vegetables intake, students' fruits and vegetables intake at school, and intervention-related issues. RESULTS: Before the intervention, 65.1% of the students consumed the school lunch and most (>79.4% accepted and consumed the fruits and vegetables served. Most teachers (>75.0% consumed fruits and other vegetables regularly, but only 36.4% consumed leaf vegetables regularly. The intervention was implemented only moderately (52.7% but was well accepted by the teachers. The students of schools that implemented the intervention more extensively showed better acceptance of vegetables (p=0.009. Teachers' fruits and vegetables intake did not change. CONCLUSION: Students' fruits and vegetables intake changed modestly. This study contributes to the design of intervention studies for Brazilian schools because it coordinated the National School Food Program with educational activities.

  18. Urinary excretion of flavonoids reflects even small changes in the dietary intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brevik, A.; Rasmussen, Salka Elbøl; Drevon, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    excretion of flavonoids could be used to identify subjects who are meeting Norwegian recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake (5 servings per day) from individuals who are consuming the national average amount of fruits and vegetables (2 servings per day). Design: Twenty-four-hour urine samples were......, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin. The citrus flavonoids naringenin and hesperetin showed a steep dose-response relationship to dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas the association to eriodictyol, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin was more moderate....... Conclusion: The present study indicates that urinary excretion of dietary flavonoids may be used to assess changes of mixed fruit and vegetable intake corresponding to an increase from the present national intake in Norway to the recommended amount of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily....

  19. [Consumption of fruits and vegetables in Chinese adults from 2010 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuna; Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Dongmei; Fang, Hongyun; Yu, Wentao; Guo, Qiya; Wang, Xun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults. Data were collected from 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Surveillance. Information on fruits and vegetables consumption was collected by using the 24 h recall method for 3 consecutive days. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. The participants selected were more than 18 years old of 150 counties from 31 provinces in China. Age and sex standardization was performed based on the China 2009 population published by National Statistics Bureau. The average consumption of vegetables or fruits after weight adjustment for complex sampling was reported to analyze the consumption of fruits and vegetables of Chinese adults (x ± Sx). The average daily consumptions of vegetables and fruits for Chinese residents were (255 ± 6) and (36 ± 3)g/d, respectively. The total consumptions of fruits and vegetables were (291 ± 7)g/d, (295 ± 8)g/d for male, (286 ± 7)g/d for female. Rates on intake of vegetables in Chinese adults during the three survey days were 99.0%-99.8%.Rates on intake of fruits of urban and rural residents were 36.9%-51.5% and 21.3%-30.3%,respectively.The proportion of people whose total amount of vegetables and fruits intake reached 400 g/d were 24%-28% and 13%-23% in urban and rural areas, respectively. In urban and rural areas, the proportion of adults whose consumption reached Chinese dietary guidelines recommended level were 22%-26% and 14%-19% in vegetables, 2%-5% and 1%-2% in fruit, respectively. The consumptions of vegetables and fruits were inadequate in Chinese adults.

  20. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  1. Validation of brief instruments to measure adult fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainvil, Louise A; Horwath, Caroline C; McKenzie, Joanne E; Lawson, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Four brief food frequency questionnaires were developed and validated to measure an adult's usual daily intake of fruit or vegetable servings over the past month. Fifty males and 50 females, aged 25-52 years, completed two fruit instruments, two vegetable instruments, and a dietary history (the reference method). Individual agreement and group mean estimation were assessed. The 5-item fruit instrument and the 15-item vegetable instrument performed best. At an individual level, the 5-item fruit instrument had 64% sensitivity and 88% specificity for assessing goal attainment (≥ 2 fruit servings/day), while the 15-item vegetable instrument had 67% sensitivity and 82% specificity for measuring goal attainment (≥ 3 vegetable servings/day). At a group level, the 15-item vegetable instrument closely estimated mean intake (ratio of geometric means=0.94), while the 5-item fruit instrument overestimated mean intake by 32%. Nevertheless, when it was used to rank participants, reference method fruit servings increased across the quartiles of intake. These two instruments can be used to assess goal attainment. This vegetable instrument can also be used to estimate group mean intakes, while the fruit instrument can be used to rank participants. Used appropriately, these instruments can be used for screening, monitoring, and evaluation purposes in New Zealand public health and clinical settings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between blood pressure in adolescents and the consumption of fruits, vegetables and fruit juice--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Marta M C; de Araújo, Márcio F M; de Freitas, Roberto W J Freire; de Almeida, Paulo C; Zanetti, Maria L

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate blood pressure levels with the consumption of fruit, vegetables and pulses and fruit juice among Brazilian adolescents. Scientific evidence has shown a relationship between the regular consumption of vegetables and the prevention of cardiovascular disturbances, such as arterial hypertension, cerebrovascular disease and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional and correlational study was designed involving a random sample of 794 adolescents from 12 private schools located in a metropolitan area in the north-east of Brazil. The subjects responded to a questionnaire structured so as to investigate their regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and juice. Blood pressure was measured three times, with an interval of one minute between each measurement. The average of the last two measurements was used for the study. The chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation were used to investigate the association between blood pressure and the consumption of fruit, vegetables, pulses and juice. Lower values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were identified in adolescents with a consumption of fruit ≥twice daily (pvegetables and pulses, systolic blood pressure was lower among adolescents who consumed more of this type of food (p=0·021). This study concluded that adolescents who consume more fruit have lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure, while those who regularly consume vegetables and pulses also had lower levels of systolic pressure. The results of this study suggest that nurses can develop health education activities in schools to encourage the consumption of fruits, vegetables, pulses and fruit juices, especially among those adolescents who are more likely to develop arterial hypertension. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer subtypes in the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steevens, J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2011-01-01

    Prospective epidemiologic data on vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of subtypes of esophageal and gastric cancer are sparse. We studied the association between vegetables and fruits consumption and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), gastric

  4. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Uses of Screener Estimates in CHIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake estimates from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) Fruit and Vegetable Screener are rough estimates of usual intake of fruits and vegetables. They are not as accurate as more detailed methods.

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption among high school students--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    A diet high in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk for many chronic diseases and some cancers, and can aid in weight management. Current daily fruit and vegetable recommendations for adolescents who participate in tomato). However, recently published data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004 revealed that consumption was considerably below these levels. To assess fruit and vegetable consumption among high school students, CDC analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2010, the median number of times per day that high school students consumed fruits and vegetables was 1.2 for both. For vegetables, the median number of times per day was lower for non-Hispanic black students (1.0) and Hispanic students (1.1) than non-Hispanic white students (1.4). Overall, 28.5% of high school students consumed fruit <1 time daily, and 33.2% of high school students consumed vegetables <1 time daily. The infrequent fruit and vegetable consumption by high school students highlights the need for effective strategies to increase consumption. Policy and environmental approaches to provide greater access to and availability of fruits and vegetables are among the strategies that schools and communities might choose to achieve this goal.

  6. Effect of greenhouse vegetable farming duration on Zinc accumulation in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Peiying; Cui, Shuang; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has rapidly expanded, and reqiures more attention due to its heavy metal contamination. In this study, different cultivation greenhouses of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 13 years were selected to investigate the effects of GVP duration on Zn accumulation. The results revealed high Zn (total Zn and available Zn) accumulation in GVP surface layers (0-20 cm), and Zn contents in 0-20 cm soil layers were positively correlated with GVP duration (Pgreenhouse sustainability, reduction of manure application and reasonable use of passivation materials may alleviate metal phytoavailability and the health risk.

  7. Colors of vegetables and fruits and the risks of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeeyoo; Shin, Aesun; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-04-14

    To investigate the relationship between the colors of vegetables and fruits and the risk of colorectal cancer in Korea. A case-control study was conducted with 923 colorectal cancer patients and 1846 controls recruited from the National Cancer Center in Korea. We classified vegetables and fruits into four groups according to the color of their edible parts ( e.g ., green, orange/yellow, red/purple and white). Vegetable and fruit intake level was classified by sex-specific tertile of the control group. Logistic regression models were used for estimating the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). High total intake of vegetables and fruits was strongly associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in women (OR = 0.32, 95%CI: 0.21-0.48 for highest vs lowest tertile) and a similar inverse association was observed for men (OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.45-0.79). In the analysis of color groups, adjusted ORs (95%CI) comparing the highest to the lowest of the vegetables and fruits intake were 0.49 (0.36-0.65) for green, and 0.47 (0.35-0.63) for white vegetables and fruits in men. An inverse association was also found in women for green, red/purple and white vegetables and fruits. However, in men, orange/yellow vegetables and fruits (citrus fruits, carrot, pumpkin, peach, persimmon, ginger) intake was linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.61, 95%CI: 1.22-2.12). Vegetables and fruits intake from various color groups may protect against colorectal cancer.

  8. The Potential Research of Catch Crop in Decrease Soil Nitrate Under Greenhouse Vegetable Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Xing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impact of catch crops on greenhouse vegetable soil nitrate, explore the mechanism of barrier and controll soil nitrogen leaching losses in greenhouse, and provide a theoretical basis for control nitrogen leaching and prevention of groundwater pollution, this study selected the traditional greenhouse vegetable rotation system in North China plain as research subjects, using field situ remediation technologies on deep-root planting catch crops in the vegetable fallow period by sweet corn, Achyranthes bidentata and white Chrysanthemum. The results showed that: nitrogen content and nitrogen uptake of sweet corn and sweet corn with Achyranthes bidentata intercropping were the highest, respectively 20.11 t·hm-2, 19.62 t·hm-2 and 240.34 kg·hm-2, 287.56 kg·hm-2, significantly higher than white Chrysanthemum. The density of root length and root dry weight decreased with soil depth in the profiles, root length density was demonstrated in order as: intercropping sweet corn> sweet corn> white Chrysanthemum> intercropping Achyranthes bidentata blume. The reduction of NO3--N of sweet corn reached 907.87 kg·hm-2 in soil profile 0~200 cm, significantly higher than sweet corn and hyssop intercropping and white Chrysanthemums. In the interim period of vegetable crop rotation, planting catch crops could effectively reduce nitrate accumulation in the soil, control the soil profile nitrate leaching down.

  9. Fruit and vegetable intake among Jordanians: results from a case-control study of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Abu-Mweis, Suhad S; Bawadi, Hiba A; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Heath, Dennis D

    2014-10-01

    Diets that include fruits and vegetables have been suggested as one way to reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the association between consuming fruits and vegetables and CRC risk is not clear. The objective of the present study is to compare fruit and vegetable intake between 2 groups of Jordanians and further investigate this possible relationship. A history of fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained from 220 people with CRC and 281 healthy controls, all of whom were from Jordan. Both groups were matched for age, sex, occupation, and marital status. Fruit and vegetable consumption was quantified for the previous 12 months in both groups. Total vegetable intake was associated with the risk of developing CRC. Consuming 5 servings of vegetables a day decreased the risk of developing CRC when compared with no more than 1 serving a day (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.97). A significant direct relationship between CRC risk and consuming cauliflower and cabbage was found; however, no association was found for raw or cooked leafy vegetable and other vegetable types. Consuming several types of fruits also revealed no association with risk of CRC, although an increased intake of dates and figs was associated with a reduced risk of developing CRC. The ORs for the highest intake of servings compared with the lowest intake were 0.48 (95% CI: 0.27-0.87; P = .004) for dates and 0.604 (95% CI: 0.35-1.06; P = .003) for figs. Consuming fruits and vegetables did not significantly correlate with a lowered incidence of CRC. However, a trend of protection was detected for several types of fruits and vegetables.

  10. Combined nutritional and environmental life cycle assessment of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, Katerina S.; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    ; 35 μDALY/serving fruit benefit compared to a factor 10 lower impact. Replacing detrimental foods, such as trans-fat and red meat, with fruits or vegetables further enhances health benefit. This study illustrates the importance of considering nutritional effects in food-LCA.......Nutritional health effects from the ‘use stage’ of the life cycle of food products can be substantial, especially for fruits and vegetables. To assess potential one-serving increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe, we employ the Combined Nutritional and Environmental LCA (CONE......-LCA) framework that compares environmental and nutritional effects of foods in a common end -point metric, Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). In the assessment, environmental health impact categories include green house gases, particulate matter (PM), and pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables, while...

  11. Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

  12. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Manas Ranjan; Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Ray, Ramesh Chandra; Parveen Rani, Rizwana

    2014-01-01

    As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics.

  13. Dietary intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Lydia A; Serdula, Mary K; Liu, Simin

    2003-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. In this review, we examine the scientific evidence in support of current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake for CVD prevention. Available evidence indicates that persons who consume more fruits and vegetables often have lower prevalence of important risk factors for CVD, including hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent large, prospective studies also show a direct inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and the development of CVD incidents such as coronary heart disease and stroke. However, the biologic mechanisms whereby fruits and vegetables may exert their effects are not entirely clear and are likely to be multiple. Many nutrients and phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables, including fiber, potassium, and folate, could be independently or jointly responsible for the apparent reduction in CVD risk. Functional aspects of fruits and vegetables, such as their low dietary glycemic load and energy density, may also play a significant role. Although it is important to continue our quest for mechanistic insights, given the great potential for benefits already known, greater efforts and resources are needed to support dietary changes that encourage increased fruit and vegetable intake.

  14. Cooling parameters for fruits and vegetables of different sizes in a hydrocooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruel Bárbara

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The cooling of fruits and vegetables in hydrocooling system can be a suitable technique. This work aimed to define cooling time for fruits and vegetables of different sizes, presenting practical indexes that could be used to estimate cooling time for produce with similar characteristics. Fruits (orange melon-Cucumis melo, mango-Mangifera indica, guava-Psidium guajava, orange-Citrus sinensis Osbeck, plum-Prunus domestica, lime-Citrus limon, and acerola-Prunus cerasus and vegetables (cucumber-Cucumis sativus, carrot-Daucus carota, and green bean-Phaseolus vulgaris, were cooled in a hydrocooling system at 1°C. The volume of fruits and vegetables ranged between 8.18 cm³ and 1,150.35 cm³, and between 13.06 cm³ and 438.4 cm³, respectively. Cooling time varied proportionally to produce volume (from 8.5 to 124 min for fruits, and from 1.5 to 55 min, for vegetables. The relationship between volume and time needed to cool fruits (from 1.03 min cm-3 to 0.107 min cm-3 and vegetables (from 0.06 min cm-3 to 0.12 min cm-3 is an index that could be used to estimate cooling time for fruits and vegetables with similar dimensions as those presented in this work.

  15. Fruits and vegetables intake and characteristics associated among adolescents from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieth Marta A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased body weight has been associated with an unhealthy diet, low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our objective was to investigate whether adolescents had low intake of fruits and vegetables, and whether gender, age and education could affect the feeding patterns. Methods A population-based sample of adolescents, aged 12–19 years, were randomly selected in southern Brazil and included in this cross-sectional study. The total daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, rice and beans were investigated in standardized household interviews, using a food frequency questionnaire and questions, being categorized as five or more servings per day as the five-a-day diet. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and modified Poisson regression were used in the analysis. Results Adolescents (n = 568 were included, 49.5% boys, 14.3% had overweight and 8.8% obesity. Approximately 23% of participants consumed five daily servings of fruits and vegetables. It was observed that 36.7% of boys and 31.0% of girls consumed less than one serving of fruit per day, and 58.4% and 44.6%, respectively, consumed less than one serving of vegetables. The consumption of vegetables, fruits, and rice and beans were not independently associated with gender. Overweight was associated with higher intake of five-a-day, independently of confounding factors. Conclusions Adolescents from southern Brazil have lower frequency of consumption of five servings a day of fruits and vegetables combined.

  16. Psychosocial factors and physical activity as predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Miranda TASSITANO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze whether psychosocial factors and physical activity are predictors of fruit and vegetable intake in young adults attending college. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a representative sample of students from a public university in the Brazilian Northeast (n=717. Fruit and vegetable intake was measured by a Food Frequency Questionnaire containing 21 items. The psychosocial factors for behavior change, measured by a questionnaire, were: behavior change strategy, self-efficacy, perceived barriers and facilitators in decision making, and social support. The level of physical activity was measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression was the intake prediction model using a significance level of 5% (p<0.05. Results: The median fruit and vegetable intake was 2.0 servings/day. In adjusted analysis, behavior change strategy (R²=0.31, self-efficacy (R²=0.03, friends' support (R²=0.02, and physical activity (R²=0.03 explained 39% of the fruit and vegetable intake variance in men. Behavior change strategy (R²=0.03, self-efficacy (R²=0.13, perceived barriers (R²=0.08, and physical activity (R²=0.02 explained 26% of the fruit and vegetable intake variance in women. Fruit and vegetable intake would increase by one serving for every extra 35 and 47 minutes of physical activity men and women, respectively, practice a day. Conclusion: The main predictors of fruit and vegetable intake are behavior change strategies, self-efficacy, and physical activity.

  17. Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sarah Krull; Stickley, Andrew; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-11-01

    To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption. Cross-sectional surveys. A standard questionnaire was administered at both time points to examine fruit and vegetable consumption frequency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between demographic, socio-economic and health behavioural variables and low fruit and vegetable consumption in 2010. Nationally representative population samples from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adults aged 18 years and older. Between 2001 and 2010 notable changes occurred in fruit and vegetable consumption in many countries resulting in a slight overall deterioration in diet. By 2010 in six countries about 40% of the population was eating fruit once weekly or less often, while for vegetables the corresponding figure was in excess of 20% in every country except Azerbaijan. A worse socio-economic situation, negative health behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and rural residence were all associated with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. International dietary guidelines emphasise the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption. The scale of inadequate consumption of these food groups among much of the population in many FSU countries and its link to socio-economic disadvantage are deeply worrying. This highlights the urgent need for a greater focus to be placed on population nutrition policies to avoid nutrition-related diseases in the FSU countries.

  18. Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Swain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc. have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics.

  19. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, U.; Winkler, L. L.; Mikkelsen, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    .04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A space...... the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0...

  20. Fruit and vegetables on prescription: a brief intervention in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktuncer, Z; Kearney, M; Ryan, C L; Thurston, M; Ellahi, B

    2014-04-01

    Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a goal for the U.K. Therefore, the effectiveness of a fruit and vegetable voucher scheme coupled with key 'five-a-day' consumption messages as a brief intervention in primary care consultations was assessed in the present study. One thousand one hundred and eighty-eight vouchers as a prescription for fruits and vegetables were routinely distributed to patients attending a primary healthcare centre in a deprived area, and 124 volunteer patients routinely attending the centre were included. Telephone-based questionnaires were used to examine changes in consumption over the short and medium term. Other key aspects assessed in the evaluation related to fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviour, knowledge relating to what constitutes a portion size, the relationship between food and health, and barriers to consumption. Although 76.2% of participants used the prescription vouchers when purchasing fruits and vegetables, a significant change in the consumption or purchasing behaviour was not observed (P > 0.05). Participants' level of knowledge relating to the number of portions recommended and the portion size of different fruits and vegetables showed a moderate increase from baseline over the short and medium term. The primary barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption were reported as 'the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables' and 'the money available to spend on food'. The use of 'the fruit and vegetable on prescription' scheme was an effective method of engaging participants in improving awareness of key diet-related health messages. However, further intervention is required to produce a significant impact on the actual behaviour change. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  1. Phosphorus saturation and mobilization in two typical Chinese greenhouse vegetable soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kianpoor Kalkhajeh, Yusef; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou

    2017-01-01

    Chinese greenhouse vegetable production can cause eutrophication of fresh waters due to heavy use of fertilizers. To address this, phosphorus (P) leaching was compared between two major greenhouse vegetable soils from Jiangsu Province, Southeast China: clayey and acid-neutral Guli Orthic Anthrosols...... and sandy and alkaline Tongshan Ustic Cambosols. A total of 20 intact soil columns were collected based on differences in total P content varying between 1360 and 11,220 mg kg(-1). Overall, six leaching experiments were carried out with collection of leachates over 24 h. Very high P concentrations......, with a mean of 3.43 mg L(-1), were found in the leachates from P rich Tongshan soils. In contrast, P leaching from fine-textured but less P rich Guli soils rarely exceeded the suggested environmental P threshold of 0.1 mg L(-1). Strong linear correlations were found between different soil test P measures...

  2. Parents' Qualitative Perspectives on Child Asking for Fruit and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-05

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 years old child asking for fruits and vegetables (FV). An online parenting style questionnaire was completed and follow-up qualitative telephone interviews assessed home food rules, child influence on home food availability, parents' preferences for being asked for food, and common barriers and reactions to their child's FV requests. Parents ( n = 73) with a 10 to 14 years old child were grouped into authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved parenting style categories based on responses to questionnaires, and interviewed. Almost no differences in responses were detected by parenting style or ethnicity. Parents reported their children had a voice in what foods were purchased and available at home and were receptive to their child's asking for FV. The most important child asking characteristic was politeness, especially among authoritarian parents. Other important factors were asking in person, helping in the grocery store, writing requests on the grocery shopping list, and showing information they saw in the media. The barrier raising the most concern was FV cost, but FV quality and safety outside the home environment were also considerations.

  3. At the Moscow market of frozen vegetables and fruits need new strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Frozen fruits and vegetables, in the form as we are accustomed to see them, are in Russia is relatively short history. The main goal of our marketing research is to obtain an overview of the status of the Moscow market of frozen vegetables and fruits by the end of 2000 and early 2001. The study is based on the conduct of unstructured interviews with managers, leading managers and owners of wholesale companies and industries engaged in wholesale and retail trade in frozen fruits and vegetables...

  4. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeing, Heiner; Bechthold, Angela; Bub, Achim; Ellinger, Sabine; Haller, Dirk; Kroke, Anja; Leschik-Bonnet, Eva; Müller, Manfred J; Oberritter, Helmut; Schulze, Matthias; Stehle, Peter; Watzl, Bernhard

    2012-09-01

    Vegetables and fruit provide a significant part of human nutrition, as they are important sources of nutrients, dietary fibre, and phytochemicals. However, it is uncertain whether the risk of certain chronic diseases can be reduced by increased consumption of vegetables or fruit by the general public, and what strength of evidence has to be allocated to such an association. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the studies available in the literature and the respective study results has been performed and evaluated regarding obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, cancer, chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, osteoporosis, eye diseases, and dementia. For judgement, the strength of evidence for a risk association, the level of evidence, and the number of studies were considered, the quality of the studies and their estimated relevance based on study design and size. For hypertension, CHD, and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of overweight, there is probable evidence that there is no influence of increased consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, COPD, and RA indicate that an

  5. Vegetable and fruit intake and its relevance with serum osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Myung-Hee; Bae, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the daily vegetable and fruit intake status of Korean adults and to examine the relationship of vegetable and fruit intake with bone metabolism. The vegetable and fruit intake of 542 healthy male and female adults was analyzed. Then, by selecting 51 targets from the subjects, the relation of vegetable and fruit intake with serum calcium, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline (DPD) excretion in urine was examined. The total vegetable intake per day was 397.7 g and 333.5 g by men and women respectively for the age group of 20-29, 366.9 g and 309.2 g respectively for the age group of 30-49, 378.4 g and 325.9 g respectively for the age group of 50-64. Of vegetable varieties, leafy and stem vegetables displayed the highest intake. The order of major intake items of vegetables and fruits was found to be Chinese cabbage kimchi, onion, radish, cucumber, and welsh onion for the age group of 20-29, watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, peach, potato, and onion for the age group of 30-49 and watermelon, Chinese cabbage kimchi, tomato, potato, and peach for the age group of 50-64. Of 51 targets, β-carotene intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with serum osteocalcin. While caloric intake as well as protein, carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorous, zinc and total food intake displayed a significantly negative correlation with DPD excretion in urine, tuber vegetable intake displayed a significantly positive correlation with DPD excretion in urine. In the future, a study will be necessary to accurately explain the relevance of vegetable and fruit intake with bone mineral density and bone metabolism. Also, efforts will be required to increase vegetable and fruit intake.

  6. Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your oatmeal, yogurt, or pancakes for a special start to your day. 9 Make a tasty fruit smoothie Blend fresh or frozen berries and bananas with 100% fruit juice for ...

  7. Effect of environmental change on yield and quality of fruits and vegetables: two systematic reviews and projections of possible health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P.; Scheelbeek, P.; Bird, F.; Green, R.; Dangour, A.

    2017-12-01

    Background - Environmental changes—including climatic change, water scarcity, and biodiversity loss—threaten agricultural production and pose challenges to global food security. In this study, we review the evidence of the effects of environmental change on the yield and quality of fruits and vegetables - a food group that plays a highly important role in our diets - and assess possible implications for nutrition and health outcomes. Methods - We undertook two systematic reviews of the published literature on the effect of 8 different environmental stressors on yields and nutritional quality of (1) fruits and (2) vegetables, measured in greenhouse and field studies. We combined the review outcomes with Food Balance Sheet data to assess the potential consequences of changed availability and quality of fruits and vegetables for global nutrient deficiencies and related chronic diseases. Findings - Overall, fruits were affected more prominently by changing environmental patterns than vegetables. In tropical countries, there were largely adverse effects on yield of increased temperature and changing precipitation patterns, although in more temperate zones some beneficial effects were reported. In contrast, the effects on nutritional quality were mostly positive, especially in fruit crops, with higher vitamin and mineral content measured in most crops. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations had a predominantly positive effect on yield, especially in legumes, but a negative effect on nutritional quality of both fruits and vegetables. Adverse nutritional implications were estimated to be largest in areas characterised by high vulnerability to environmental change, high dependency on local markets, and high rates of food insecurity. Interpretation - Our study identified effects of environmental change on yields and quality of fruits and vegetables that might pose threats to population health, especially in areas vulnerable to climate-change and food insecurity. To

  8. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of U.S. Youth, 2009-2010. NCHS Data Brief. Number 156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Rossen, Lauren M.; Harris, Diane M.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), 2010 encourage Americans, including youth, to increase their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Individuals are encouraged to "eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark-green and red and orange vegetables." Fruits and vegetables are sources of many under-consumed nutrients and consuming…

  9. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in solar-greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xinshu; Gao, Yinan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Yongqiang; Zhang, Zhenxian; Gao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (Pfertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving crop yield and the water and fertilizers use efficiency in solar greenhouse.

  10. Home food environment factors associated with the presence of fruit and vegetables at dinner: A direct observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofholz, Amanda C; Tate, Allan D; Draxten, Michelle L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Berge, Jerica M

    2016-01-01

    Little research exists about the factors influencing the foods available at family meals. This study examines the home food environment factors contributing to the presence of fruit and vegetables at family meals. Home food inventory (HFI) and survey data were collected from low-income, minority families (n = 120) with children 6-12 years old. Observations from video-recorded family dinner meals, totaling 800 videos, were used to measure the frequency at which fruit and vegetables were served. Multiple regression was used to investigate how the fruit and vegetables in the HFI and other home food environment factors were related to the number of days fruit and vegetables were served at dinner during the observation period. Availability and accessibility of fruit and vegetables in the home were each found to be significantly associated with the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners. Of the fruit and vegetable categories (i.e., fresh, canned, or frozen), having fresh fruit and vegetables available in the home was found to be most strongly associated with serving fruit and vegetables at dinner, respectively. Higher parent intake of vegetables was associated with the presence of vegetables at dinners, and parent meal planning was associated with the presence of fruit at dinners. Increasing the availability and accessibility of fresh fruit and vegetables in the home may be an effective approach to increasing the presence of fruits and vegetables at family dinners, especially among low-income, minority households. It is also essential to understand why families are not using all fruits and vegetables (e.g., canned and frozen) available in the home for family meals. Family meals are a place to promote the increased presence of both fruit and vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. EnviroAtlas - Fruit and vegetable crops for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes data on the area, yield, and number of fruit and vegetable crops grown per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in the conterminous USA....

  12. Review of Antidiabetic Fruits, Vegetables, Beverages, Oils and Spices commonly consumed in the Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-01-01

    of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. RESULTS: Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic......-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes....... for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Our aim is to present a review...

  13. Urinary excretion of flavonoids reflects even small changes in the dietary intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brevik, A.; Rasmussen, Salka Elbøl; Drevon, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    , quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin. The citrus flavonoids naringenin and hesperetin showed a steep dose-response relationship to dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas the association to eriodictyol, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin was more moderate...

  14. A Multipurpose Fruit and Vegetable Processing System for Advanced Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the one-year no-cost extension, we completed the fabrication of the multipurpose fruit and vegetable food processor (MFVP) and the remaining trials with its...

  15. Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French family dinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Morgenstern, Aliyah; Peters, Chloe; Beaupoil, Pauline; Caët, Stéphanie; Debras, Camille; le Mené, Marine

    2015-06-01

    The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner--what, when and how food is served--and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Children Eating More Fruit, Not Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs such as the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. State and local officials can Include nutrition ... MB] CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables [PDF – 2.1 MB] ...

  17. The first detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in environmental fruits and vegetables samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, A; Pietkiewicz, H; Szostakowska, B; Myjak, P

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in humans and animals all over the world. The aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of T. gondii oocysts in fruits and vegetables and determine the genotype of the parasites. A total number of 216 fruits and vegetables samples were taken from shops and home gardens located in the area of northern Poland. Oocysts were recovered with the flocculation method. Then, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the B1 gene was used for specific T. gondii detection and quantification. Toxoplasma DNA was found in 21 samples. Genotyping at the SAG2 locus showed SAG2 type I and SAG2 type II. This is the first investigation describing T. gondii DNA identification in a large number of fruits and vegetables samples with rapid molecular detection methods. The results showed that fruits and vegetables contaminated with T. gondii may play a role in the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Poland.

  18. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references

  19. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn Caroline A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ≥ 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet. Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide

  20. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Kruger, Marlena C

    2013-01-10

    Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ≥ 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. This study will provide information on midlife women's bone health and how a dietary intervention

  1. Improvement of the Raman detection system for pesticide residues on/in fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Peng, Yankun; Zhai, Chen; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    Pesticide residue is one of the major challenges to fruits safety, while the traditional detection methods of pesticide residue on fruits and vegetables can't afford the demand of rapid detection in actual production because of timeconsuming. Thus rapid identification and detection methods for pesticide residue are urgently needed at present. While most Raman detection systems in the market are spot detection systems, which limits the range of application. In the study, our lab develops a Raman detection system to achieve area-scan thorough the self-developed spot detection Raman system with a control software and two devices. In the system, the scanning area is composed of many scanning spots, which means every spot needs to be detected and more time will be taken than area-scan Raman system. But lower detection limit will be achieved in this method. And some detection device is needed towards fruits and vegetables in different shape. Two detection devices are developed to detect spherical fruits and leaf vegetables. During the detection, the device will make spherical fruit rotate along its axis of symmetry, and leaf vegetables will be pressed in the test surface smoothly. The detection probe will be set to keep a proper distance to the surface of fruits and vegetables. It should make sure the laser shins on the surface of spherical fruit vertically. And two software are used to detect spherical fruits and leaf vegetables will be integrated to one, which make the operator easier to switch. Accordingly two detection devices for spherical fruits and leaf vegetables will also be portable devices to make it easier to change. In the study, a new way is developed to achieve area-scan result by spot-scan Raman detection system.

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of COPD: a prospective cohort study of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Joanna; Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola; Linden, Anders; Wolk, Alicja

    2017-06-01

    Antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables may protect the lung from oxidative damage and prevent COPD. To determine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of COPD by smoking status in men. The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 44 335 men, aged 45-79 years, with no history of COPD at baseline. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 13.2 years, 1918 incident cases of COPD were ascertained. A strong inverse association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and COPD was observed in smokers but not in never-smokers (p-interaction=0.02). The age-standardised incidence rate per 100 000 person-years in the lowest quintile (fruit and vegetable consumption was 1166 in current smokers and 506 in ex-smokers; among those in the highest quintile (≥5.3 servings/day), 546 and 255 per 100 000 person-years, respectively. The multivariable HR of COPD comparing extreme quintiles of total fruit and vegetable consumption was 0.60 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.76, p-trend fruit and vegetable consumption decreased risk of COPD significantly by 8% (95% CI 4% to 11%) in current smokers and by 4% (95% CI 0% to 7%) in ex-smokers. These results indicate that high consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced COPD incidence in both current and ex-smokers but not in never-smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Potential applications of ionizing radiation in postharvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kader, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of potential uses of ionizing radiation of harvested fresh fruits and vegetables are discussed. Potential applications include: sprout inhibition of tuber, bulb, and root vegetables; inhibition of post-harvest growth of asparagus and mushrooms; insect disinfestation; alteration of ripening and senescence in fresh fruits; and post-harvest microorganism disease control. Cost, consumer acceptance, and logistical problems are cited as possible limiting factors. Factors influencing response also are discussed

  4. Role of fruits and vegetables in adolescent cardiovascular health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collese, Tatiana Sadalla; Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Rendo-Urteaga, Tara; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Moreno, Luis A; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

    2017-05-01

    Levels of fruit and vegetable consumption are low among adolescents, and the possible effect of this on cardiovascular health in this age group is undefined. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the potential role of fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescent cardiovascular health. Six electronic databases (BioMed Central, MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO) were searched from database inception to December 2015. The search strategy used the following sets of descriptors: adolescents; fruits and vegetables; cardiovascular risk indicators; cross-sectional and cohort studies. Potentially eligible articles were selected independently by 2 reviewers. Eleven articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included (10 cross-sectional, 1 cohort). The main reasons for study exclusion (n = 71) were misclassification of individuals as adolescents, an unspecified outcome that was incongruent with the definitions provided, and assessment of fruits and vegetables as part of a food pattern. Articles evaluated fruit and vegetable intake (separately, together, only vegetables, or with fruit juice) in diverse units, using food frequency questionnaires, 24-hour dietary recalls, and food records. One-third of the studies showed significant inverse associations of fruit and vegetable intake with systolic blood pressure, abdominal obesity, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome. The associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and indicators of cardiovascular risk in adolescents are inconsistent, likely because of heterogeneity in the methods used to assess and classify consumption and to define cardiovascular risk in adolescents. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, V. R.; Suresh Kumar, P.

    2010-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying ...

  6. Recommended domestic handling of fruits and vegetables to preserve their nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Basulto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of daily consumption of at least 5 portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables are well documented. The World Health Organization (WHO public health goal, established in 600 grams per person/day, is not achieved in Spain, so it is important to improve access to these foods, maintain their potential nutritive value and overcome barriers for their consumption. The objectives of this paper are: facilitate responsible decision-making regarding health; maximize the nutritional value of fruit and vegetables, help overcome barriers for fruit and vegetables consumption and report on how their storage at home, their handling and cooking affect to nutritional value of fruit and vegetables.In order to minimize nutrients loss and improve their bioavailability during fruit and vegetables handling, the Association for the promotion of fruit and vegetables “5 a day” (Spain recommends: avoid prolonged storage of fruit and vegetables in the fridge; use layers and outer leaves; peel and/or cut them just before consumption; wash the whole pieces and then chop them; controlling the soaking time of cut pieces; prefer cooking techniques that do not require direct contact with water; a shorter cooking time, less loss of nutrients; the correct frying retains nutrients very well, although it is a technique of which should not be abused; add a few drops of vinegar or lemon juice to the cooking water if it does not change the taste and dish acceptance; use the water of cooking to elaborate other foods (e.g. sauces, soups, purees, etc. except those coming from chard, spinach or beets. The “5 a day” Association (Spain recommends increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables, and state that theloss of nutrients during their home handling should not be understood as a barrier for their consumption.

  7. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Jallow, Mustapha F. A.; Awadh, Dawood G.; Albaho, Mohammed S.; Devi, Vimala Y.; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometr...

  8. Perception of non-communicable diseases predicts consumption of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Surjadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Nutrition has come to the fore as one of the major modifiable determinants of chronic disease. Establishing healthy eating habits during adolescence is important given that fruit and vegetable consumption has long-term health-protective benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the determinant factors of fruit and vegetable consumption habits among Padang inhabitants Methods We conducted a questionnaire-based rapid assessment of 150 respondents who came from different settings: The questionnaire consisted of items on personal characteristics such as age, working status, gender, and personal knowledge of the subjects about the cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and their activities to prevent NCDs. Bivariate analysis was applied to look for variables significantly related to healthy eating (vegetable and fruit consumption. We applied multiple logistic regression to look for the best model to explain factors related to regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Results The age range of the subjects was 14 to 76 years, 60% of subjects were women, and 40% were men. The study indicated that 64.7% of the respondents perceived that eating habits relate to NCD, while 67.3% consumed fruits and vegetables regularly. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that gender (O.R.=2.74; 95% C.I. 1.54-5.27 and perception of NCD as being related to healthy eating (O.R.=5.62;95% C.I. 2.93-10.76 were significantly related to regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusion This study demonstrated that perception of NCD was the most determinant factor of regular fruit and vegetable consumption. Activities to improve practice of regular fruit and vegetable consumption are part of control of NCD risk factors.

  9. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of overall mortality and gastrointestinal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Leenders, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are considered a major part of a healthy diet, because consumption increases satiety and reduces total energy intake by replacing more energy dense foods. In addition, they contain dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and thousands of naturally occurring biologically active compounds (phytochemicals). A minimum consumption of 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day is recommended to prevent noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer...

  10. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Selected Local Markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tefera, Tamirat; Biruksew, Abdissa; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Eshetu, Teferi

    2014-01-01

    Background. A study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from local markets in Jimma Town, Ethiopia, was conducted between April and May 2013. Methods. A total of 360 samples of fruits and vegetables were examined by sedimentation concentration after washing using normal saline. Results. The overall prevalence of parasitic contamination was 57.8%. Strongyloides like parasite (21.9%) was the most frequent parasitic con...

  11. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the A...

  12. Classroom Nutrition Education Combined with Fruit and Vegetable Taste Testing Improves Children's Dietary Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Abby; Larson, Mary; Tucker, Jared; Strang, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background: We tested the effectiveness of the Go Wild With Fruits and Veggies! (GWWFV) Extension curriculum on increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of third graders. Methods: An intervention study was used testing self-reported FV intake pre/post GWWFV. Recruited schools were randomized to control (12 schools, N = 369, third grade children)…

  13. Effect of Fruit/Vegetable-Drug Interactions on CYP450, OATP and p ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To review the concomitant use of certain drugs with fruit/vegetable juices that may lead to drug-juice interactions resulting in medication-related problems. Method: In this systematic review, online databases (PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct) were searched for information on juices derived from fruits ...

  14. Would an increase in vegetable and fruit intake help to reduce the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-10

    Feb 10, 2013 ... and fruit intake has been associated with prevalent nutrition-related problems in South Africa, including vitamin A status and adiposity in children .... Diet patterns where vegetable and fruit intake was not assessed independently (31). .... for colorectal cancer and 0.94 (0.88-1.01) for oesophageal cancer.

  15. 78 FR 70259 - 2013-2015 Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 2013-2015 Fruit and Vegetable Industry Advisory Committee AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; call for nominations. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is announcing a call for nominations to the Fruit...

  16. Vine balance: relationships between Pinot noir vegetative vigor and fruit composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine balance metrics have been determined in hot climates to help growers quantify vine growth in relation to crop level to produce high quality fruit. A study was implemented in a commercial vineyard to evaluate a range of crop loads in relation to vine growth and fruit quality. Vegetative vigor wa...

  17. Fruit, vegetables and prevention of cognitive decline or dementia: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, M; Walach, H

    2012-07-01

    Regular consumption of fruit and vegetables has been considered to be associated with a reduced risk of dementia and age-associated cognitive decline, although the association is currently unsupported by a systematic review of the literature. We searched Medline, Embase, Biosis, ALOIS, the Cochrane library, different publisher databases as well as bibliographies of retrieved articles. All cohort studies with a follow-up of 6 months or longer were included if they reported an association of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline in regard to the frequency of fruit and vegetables consumption. Nine studies with a total of 44,004 participants met the inclusion criteria. Six studies analyzed fruit and vegetables separately and five of them found that higher consumption of vegetables, but not fruit is associated with a decreased risk of dementia or cognitive decline. The same association was found by three further studies for fruit and vegetable consumption analytically combined. Increased intake of vegetables is associated with a lower risk of dementia and slower rates of cognitive decline in older age. Yet, evidence that this association is also valid for high fruit consumption is lacking.

  18. Car ownership and the association between fruit and vegetable availability and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, J Nicholas; Hutchinson, Paul L; Rose, Donald

    2013-12-01

    Nearly all research on the food environment and diet has not accounted for car ownership - a potential key modifying factor. This study examined the modifying effect of car ownership on the relationship between neighborhood fruit and vegetable availability and intake. Data on respondents' (n=760) fruit and vegetable intake, car ownership, and demographics came from the 2008 New Orleans Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Shelf space data on fresh, frozen, and canned fruits and vegetables were collected in 2008 from a random sample of New Orleans stores (n=114). Availability measures were constructed by summing the amount of fruit and vegetable shelf space in all stores within defined distances from respondent households. Regression analyses controlled for demographics and were run separately for respondents with and without a car. Fruit and vegetable availability was positively associated with intake among non-car owners. An additional 100 m of shelf space within 2 km of a residence was predictive of a half-serving/day increase in fruit and vegetable intake. Availability was not associated with intake among car owners. Future research and interventions to increase neighborhood healthy food options should consider car ownership rates in their target areas as an important modifying factor. © 2013.

  19. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. Objective: This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. Design: In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3–5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Results: Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218. PMID:23902783

  20. Encouraging children to eat more fruit and vegetables: Health vs. descriptive social norm-based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Maxine; Robinson, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Traditional intervention approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption outline the health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables. More recently, social norm-based messages describing the healthy eating habits of others have been shown to increase fruit and vegetable intake in adults. Here we report two experimental studies which investigated whether exposure to descriptive social norm-based messages about the behaviour of other children and health-based messages increased fruit and vegetable intake in young children. In both studies children were exposed to messages whilst playing a board-game. After exposure to the messages, children were able to consume fruit and vegetables, as well as high calorie snack foods. Although findings were inconsistent across the two individual studies, in a pooled analysis we found evidence that both health messages and descriptive social norm-based messages increased children's fruit and vegetable intake, relative to control condition messages (p < .05). Whether descriptive social norm-based messages can be used to promote meaningful changes to children's dietary behaviour warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE FROM PROCESSING AND PRESERVING OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APOSTOL CIPRIAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that the world population is increasing continuously in recent years, and natural resources are becoming increasingly scarce, ensuring healthy food problem is a global challenge. Nutritional value, palatability, and high degree of assimilation by the body makes fruits and vegetables are recommended and widely used in food, both fresh and preserved. The study aims at comparing the activity of manufacturing fruit and vegetable juices with the processing and preservation of fruit and vegetables to highlight which of the two is more efficient in the economic and financial point of view. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are reflected the main aspects of the performance of the two sectors in Romania. The main source of information is the National Agency for Fiscal Administration. The period analyzed is from 2008, when started financial and economic crisis in Romania, and 2015, because until this year were available the necessary information, which can explain the evolution of performance not only during the crisis, as well as after it is finished. In this study, it was found that the industry processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables in Romania is quite efficient and has been constantly developing, but mainly in the processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables, the production of fruit and vegetables recording much lower.

  2. Serving a variety of vegetables and fruit as a snack increased intake in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    Although serving a greater variety of food increases intake, this effect has not been well studied as a strategy to encourage consumption of vegetables and fruit in preschool children. This study examined whether providing a variety of familiar vegetables or fruit to preschool children as a snack would lead to increased selection and intake. In a crossover design, 61 children (aged 3-5 y) ate a snack in their childcare facility on 8 afternoons. At 4 snack times, the children were offered vegetables: either a single type (cucumber, sweet pepper, or tomato) or a variety of all 3 types. At 4 other snack times, the children were offered fruit (apple, peach, pineapple, or all 3 types). Uniform-sized pieces were served family style, and children selected and ate as much as they desired. Offering a variety of vegetables or fruit increased the likelihood of selection (P snacks with variety and in 70% of snacks without variety. Serving a variety also increased consumption of both vegetables and fruit (P snack led to increased consumption of both food types in a childcare facility. Serving a variety of vegetables or fruit as a snack could help preschool children meet recommended intakes. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01557218.

  3. Consumption of raw vegetables and fruits: a risk factor for Campylobacter infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff-Bakkenes, L; Jansen, H A P M; in 't Veld, P H; Beumer, R R; Zwietering, M H; van Leusden, F M

    2011-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in fresh vegetables and fruits at retail level in the Netherlands, and to estimate its implications on the importance of vegetables and fruits as risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Thirteen of the 5640 vegetable and fruit samples were Campylobacter positive, resulting in a prevalence of 0.23% (95% confidence interval (Cl): 0.12-0.39%). The prevalence of packaged products (0.36%, 95% Cl: 0.17-0.66) was significantly higher than of unpackaged products (0.07; 95% Cl: 0.01-0.27). No statistical differences were found between seasons. Combining the mean prevalence found in this study with data on the consumption of vegetables and fruits, an exposure of 0.0048 campylobacters ingested per person per day in the Netherlands by transmission via vegetables and fruits, was calculated. This exposure, as input in a Beta-Poisson dose-response model, resulted in an estimated number of 5.3×10⁵ cases of infection with Campylobacter per year for the whole Dutch population. This constitutes the consumption of raw vegetables and fruits, especially when packaged, to be a risk factor for Campylobacter infections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Family income, food prices, and household purchases of fruits and vegetables in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Rafael Moreira; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2010-12-01

    To analyze the influence of family income and food prices on the participation of fruits and vegetables in the food purchases of Brazilian households. Data analyzed refers to the Household Budget Survey conducted by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística on a probabilistic sample of 48,470 Brazilian households between 2002 and 2003. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases was expressed as a percentage of total calories purchased and as calories from fruit and vegetables adjusted for total calories purchased. A multiple regression analysis was employed to estimate elasticity coefficients, controlling for sociodemographic variables and price of other foods. Fruit and vegetable participation in total food purchases increased as the price of these foods decreased, or as income increased. A 1% decrease in the price of fruit and vegetables would increase their participation by 0.79%, whereas a 1% increase in family income would increase participation by 0.27%. The effect of income tended to be smaller among higher income strata. Reducing the price of fruit and vegetables, either by supporting their production or through fiscal measures, is a promising public policy instrument, capable of increasing the participation of these foods in the diet of the Brazilian population.

  5. Fruits and vegetables in consumption basket of Republic of Armenia in 2008–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Vardanyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In follow article quarterly seasonal fluctuations of the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the food basket were studied in period of 2008–2015 by data of RA. Among the other products in food basket the seasonal fluctuations of fruits and vegetables are more noticeable. The main purpose of this research is to discompose the time series of consumption volumes of fruits and vegetables for studying the seasonal component's impact and for making the credible predictions. The tendency of these commodities have been shown by the linear regression model. According regression model the consumption value of fruits in the food basket each quarter decreased increased by 1.741 AMD, the rest part of the fruit consumption level is formed through the seasonal and error components. According regression model, the consumption value of vegetable in the food basket each quarter increased by 27.97 AMD, and main part of the volume of vegetables consumption in the time series is formed through the seasonal and error components. The seasonal fluctuations of commodities of have been presented with the help of multiplicative models. Taking account the main components of studied time series, the predicted values of the consumption of fruits and vegetables in the food basket have built for the further quarters.

  6. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type?2 diabetes: A meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping?Yu; Fang, Jun?Chao; Gao, Zong?Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu?Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta‐analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Materials and Meth...

  7. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, Tek N; Cockfield, Geoff; Maroulis, Jerry; Chen, Guangnan

    2010-08-01

    Recently, partly due to the increasing carbon consciousness in the electorates and partly due to the imminent introduction of the Australian Government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), estimating carbon footprints is becoming increasingly necessary in agriculture. By taking data from several sources, this study estimates the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a variety of farm inputs, for the 23 key vegetables crops grown in Australia. For the 121,122 ha of land occupied by vegetable farms, there are 1.1 MtCO(2)e GHG emissions or 9.2 tCO(2)e ha(-1). In total, 65% of total GHG emissions from the vegetable industry are due to electricity use for irrigation and post-harvest on-farm activities, 17% from soil N(2)O emissions due to N fertiliser use, 10% from agrochemicals, 7% through fossils fuels and 1% from on-farm machinery. The top four vegetables (by area), potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes and broccoli account for 29.1%, 7.9%, 5.9% and 7.2% of total GHG emissions from vegetables, respectively. However, the ratio of GHG emissions between the highest and lowest-emitting crops per hectare and per tonne, are different. Therefore, care must be exercised in carbon footprint labelling vegetable products to ensure that the labels reflect carbon emissions on a per tonnage basis.

  8. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  9. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages.

  10. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  11. Evaluation of iodine content of some selected fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... consumption of other vegetables in this group may not guarantee the RDA, however, combination of these vegetables with other cereals and legumes that are high in iodine levels would complement the iodine requirement of individuals. Furthermore, these groups of vegetables could be taken regularly by ...

  12. Assessment of feeding value of vegetable-carried pineapple fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Asaolu

    2015-08-03

    Aug 3, 2015 ... pineapple fruits are produced in Nigeria. Weight composition of a typical Cayena lisa pineapple is pulp. (33%), core (6%), peel (41%) and crown (20%) (Medina and Garcia, 2005). Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is the third most important tropical fruit in the world after banana (Musa spp.) and Citrus spp.

  13. “Eat plenty of vegetables and fruit every day”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, overweight and obesity .... Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Systematic reviews of cohort studies36,37. • There is no association between vegetable and fruit intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. ..... Chile, while certain developed countries only have a qualitative vegetable ...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-3 - General requirements for all imported fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vegetables into the United States must do so by faxing their application to: Animal and Plant Health... vegetables. 319.56-3 Section 319.56-3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits...

  15. Pairing Fruit and Vegetables to Promote Consumption in Elementary School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Anastasia; Newman, Constance; Watts, Erin; Van Dyke, Hugo; Malloy, Elizabeth; Gharmarian, Yasha; Guthrie, Joanne; Mancino, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study evaluated a behavioral economic strategy which paired a fresh cold fruit and cold vegetable to increase consumption of vegetables among elementary school children. Methods: The 14-day study was conducted in 12 public elementary schools in a suburban school district, which follows the offer model allowing students to…

  16. [Research on the behavior of fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents with Transtheoretical Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen-Jia; Xu, Liang-Wen; Qu, Xu-Ping; Yang, Qi-Fa; Hu, Han-Qiong; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    To study the current situation and factors influencing the behavior of fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents, and to discuss health education strategy related to the behavior. 1677 students were selected from primary school and middle school in urban area of Hangzhou by a multistage sampling method. The behavior of fruit and vegetable intake was surveyed by questionnaires of the patient-centered assessment and counseling for exercise plus nutrition project (PACE+) for adolescent-scale of fruit and vegetable consumption, and analyzed by Transtheoretical Model on the servings of intake, the stage of change, process of change, decisional balance and the current status of self-efficacy. The average intake of fruit and vegetable in adolescents was (3.21 +/- 1.50) servings per day ("one serving" means 100 g cooked vegetable or 100 g fruit). The behavior of consuming fruit and vegetable in most of the adolescents was in the contemplation stage, accounting for 36.91% (619/1677). The process of behavior change, decisional balance (Pros) and self-efficacy existed a positive correlation with the process of stage (r(process) = 0.38, r(decisional balance (Pros)) = 0.26, r(self-efficacy) = 0.33, t values were 16.78, 11.02 and 14.31, P < 0.05). The servings of fruit and vegetable intake existed a positive correlation with stage transition and self-efficacy (beta(stage transition) = 0.665, t = 35.07, P < 0.05; beta(self-efficacy) = 0.050, t = 2.63, P < 0.05), and existed a negative correlation with decisional balance (Cons) (beta(decisional balance (Cons)) = -0.051, t = -2.84, P < 0.05). Fruit and vegetable intake of these adolescents are under the recommended dietary intake. Along with behavior stage development and self-efficacy improvement, the intake of fruit and vegetable also increased correspondingly. Intervention strategies should aim at improving the awareness of adolescents on the health benefits of fruit and vegetable intake and promoting their confidence to reach

  17. Fruit and vegetables consumption and breast cancer risk: the EPIC Italy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Ermini, Ilaria; Sieri, Sabina; Grioni, Sara; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Berrino, Franco; Saieva, Calogero; Palli, Domenico

    2012-04-01

    The role of fruit and vegetables in breast cancer (BC) development has long been debated. A large variety of vegetables and fruit are consumed by Mediterranean populations, a favourable setting for evaluating the effects of these foods. The association between vegetables and fruit consumption, overall and by specific types, and BC risk was studied in the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Over 31,000 women, aged 36-64 years, recruited in five Italian centers between 1993 and 1998, were available for analyses with dietary and lifestyle information and anthropometric measurements. After a median follow-up of 11.25 years, 1,072 invasive and in situ incident BC cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models (adjusted for education, anthropometry, reproductive history, hormone replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) showed an inverse association between consumption of all vegetables and BC risk (highest vs. lowest quintile HR 0.65; 95% CI 0.53-0.81, P for trend = 0.003). According to subtypes of vegetables, an inverse association emerged for increasing consumption of leafy vegetables (highest vs. lowest quintile HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.86, P for trend = 0.0001) and fruiting vegetables (highest vs. lowest quintile HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.60-0.94, P for trend = 0.01). An inverse association also emerged with increasing consumption of raw tomatoes (P for trend = 0.03). In contrast, no association of fruit, overall or by subtypes, with BC risk was found. In this Mediterranean population, a clear protective role of increasing vegetables consumption, mainly leafy and fruiting vegetables, on BC risk emerged.

  18. Recommended alternative daily intake of fruits and vegetables for Indonesian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Organisasi Kesehatan se Dunia (WHO merekomendasin konsumsi sayur dan buah paling sedikit 400 gr atau 5 (lima porsi sayur dan buah sehari. Penelitian ini untuk menentukan alternatif jumlah dan jenis anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk usia 65 tahun atau lebih untuk kecukupan zat gizi vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, asam folat, dan serat. Metode:Penelitian menggunakan data konsumsi sayur dan buah dari data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2010. Analisis data menggunakan program analisis linier untuk memperoleh lima alternatif jumlah dan jenis sayur dan buah untuk usia lebih dari 65 tahun.Hasil:Subjek yang dapat dianalisis sebanyak 7087 orang. Lima jenis buah yang paling banyak dikonsumsi adalah pisang, jeruk, pepaya, apel dan semangka. Lima jenis sayur yang paling banyak dikonsumsi adalah sayur bayam, sayur kangkung, sayur daun singkong, sayur asam, dan sayur sop. Berdasarkan hasil analisis progam linier dan ngka Kecukupan Gizi tahun 2004 untuk vitamin A, vitamin C, asam folat, serat, dan potasium bagi usia lebih dari 65 tahun, maka jumlah anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah adalah 300 gram sayuran dan 200-400 gram buah.Kesimpulan: Anjuran alternatif konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk usia lebih dari 65 tahun adalah 300 gram (3 mangkok sayuran dan 200-400 gram (2-4 potong buah. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:30-4Kata kunci:anjuran konsumsi harian, sayur, buah, usia lajut AbstractBackground: The WHO recommends the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables of at least 400 grams or 5 servings. This study was conducted to assess consumption of fruits and vegetables in 65 year-old and above Indonesians, and the adequacy of daily requirements of vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, and fiber. Methods: The study used data from 2010 National Health Survey Indonesia. Using linier programming, 5 alternatives of combination of fruits and vegetables were presented for 65 year-old and above.Result: The number of subjects that

  19. A general review on the effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on vitamin C in fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuntang; Guo Dongquan; Yang Zhongqiang; Zhang Jianwei; Yang Baoan; Wang Yulian

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin C is a nutrient component in fruits and vegetables, it's also an important bioactive substance in human body, and there are also many factors that affect the contents of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables. There papers reported that 60 Co γ-rays irradiation has effects on vitamin C in fruits and vegetables, but the effect degree has some differences. Some reports says the contents of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables could be significantly reduced by irradiation, while some literatures reported that irradiation at low doses had no significant effect. The content of vitamin C in fruits and vegetables could be influenced by various factors, such as ascorbic oxidative enzyme, chemical composition, irradiation dose, irradiation environment, physiological metabolism of fruits and vegetables, etc. Irradiation treatment is an important preservation technique of fruits and vegetables. Though there were some effects of irradiation on vitamin C of fruits and vegetables, it would not influence the applications of irradiation technology in the fruit and vegetable storage, because the effects of irradiation on vitamin C could be avoided or minimized through appropriate technical treatment. This paper tries systematically analyses and summarizes the results of related investigation and provides a helpful reference in scientific applications of irradiation technology on fruits and vegetables preservation. (authors)

  20. [Association between frequency of fruit and vegetable intake and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Li, Yi-chong; Wang, Li-min; Zhao, Wen-hua

    2011-08-01

    To explore the association between frequency of fruit and vegetable intake and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In 2007, 48 974 Chinese residents aged 15 - 69 years were selected as study participants by multistage stratified proportionate to size random sampling from the 161 sites of Disease Surveillance Points System. Standardized questionnaires were used to collect relevant information to compare the risk for self-reported physician diagnosed COPD between different frequency groups for fruit (vegetable (vegetable intake was 89.9% (44 019/48 974) and 4.6% (2262/48 974) for individuals with frequency of 6-7 and fruit intake was 30.8% (15 072/48 974) and 31.5% (15 432/48 974) for individuals with frequency of 5 - 7 and history, the risk of COPD decreased among those with high frequency (5 - 7 d/week) of fruit intake (OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.66 - 0.98 for never smokers; OR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.64 - 0.99 for ever smokers), compared to subjects with low frequency of fruit intake (vegetable intake (6 - 7 d/w) had a low risk of developing COPD (OR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.48 - 0.89). There were beneficial effects of fruit and vegetable intake on COPD.

  1. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  2. Produce from Africa's Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa's populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa's resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations.

  3. Eat Smart, Live Strong intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption among low-income older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James C; Cates, Sheryl C; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Kosa, Katherine M; Santiago Rivera, Olga J; Contreras, Dawn A; Long, Valerie A; Singh, Anita; Berman, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a four-session interactive nutrition education program-Eat Smart, Live Strong (ESLS)-on the consumption of fruit and vegetables by low-income older adults. A pre-post quasi-experimental design study was conducted with a longitudinal sample of 614 low-income Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants and those eligible for SNAP, aged 60 to 80 years, in 17 intervention and 16 comparison senior centers in Michigan. The study compared participants' self-reports of their consumption of fruit and vegetables using a modified version of the University of California Cooperative Extension Food Behavior Checklist. ESLS increased participants' average daily consumption of fruit by 0.2 cups (P income older adults eat more fruit and vegetables.

  4. Health Risks of Heavy Metals for Population via Consumption of Greenhouse Vegetables in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Sohrabi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The last 25 years have seen a remarkable increase in public concern about food contamination. Food and water are the main sources of our essential metals.These are also the media through which we are exposed to various toxic metalsAs such, this study aimed to assess the risks arising from the use of greenhouse vegetables, cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers in Hamadan Province. Materials & Methods: Soil and plant samples were digested using wet digestion method (HClO4/HNO3, 2:1 ratio solution, and the concentrations of total As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AE. Results: High concentrations of elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were found in vegetables sampled from overused phosphate fertilized soils, which increased the daily intake of metals in food. The Health risk assessment values of all tested vegetables (pepper, cucumber and tomato were below 1 in As and Cd. The health risk index (HRI value above 1 indicated a relative health risk through the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Conclusions: Heavy metal concentrations should be periodically monitored in vegetables grown in contaminated soils. This study found that long-term fertilizer use led to a growing accumulation of heavy metals (HMs in soils. It would also be beneficial to implement effective remediation technologies to minimize possible impacts on human health.

  5. Health risks of heavy metals for Population via Consumption of greenhouse vegetables in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Sohrabi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The last 25 years have seen a remarkable increase in public concern about food contamination. Food and water are the main sources of our essential metals.These are also the media through which we are exposed to various toxic metalsAs such, this study aimed to assess the risks arising from the use of greenhouse vegetables, cucumbers, tomatoes and peppers in Hamadan Province. Materials & Methods: Soil and plant samples were digested using wet digestion method (HClO 4 /HNO 3 , 2:1 ratio solution, and the concentrations of total As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AE. Results: High concentrations of elements As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were found in vegetables sampled from overused phosphate fertilized soils, which increased the daily intake of metals in food. The Health risk assessment values of all tested vegetables (pepper, cucumber and tomato were below 1 in As and Cd. The health risk index (HRI value above 1 indicated a relative health risk through the ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Conclusions: Heavy metal concentrations should be periodically monitored in vegetables grown in contaminated soils. This study found that long-term fertilizer use led to a growing accumulation of heavy metals (HMs in soils. It would also be beneficial to implement effective remediation technologies to minimize possible impacts on human health. 

  6. Phosphorus saturation and mobilization in two typical Chinese greenhouse vegetable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhajeh, Yusef Kianpoor; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Holm, Peter E; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2017-04-01

    Chinese greenhouse vegetable production can cause eutrophication of fresh waters due to heavy use of fertilizers. To address this, phosphorus (P) leaching was compared between two major greenhouse vegetable soils from Jiangsu Province, Southeast China: clayey and acid-neutral Guli Orthic Anthrosols and sandy and alkaline Tongshan Ustic Cambosols. A total of 20 intact soil columns were collected based on differences in total P content varying between 1360 and 11,220 mg kg -1 . Overall, six leaching experiments were carried out with collection of leachates over 24 h. Very high P concentrations, with a mean of 3.43 mg L -1 , were found in the leachates from P rich Tongshan soils. In contrast, P leaching from fine-textured but less P rich Guli soils rarely exceeded the suggested environmental P threshold of 0.1 mg L -1 . Strong linear correlations were found between different soil test P measures (STPs) or degree of P saturations (DPSs) and dissolved reactive P (DRP) for Tongshan soil columns. The correlations with Olsen P (r 2  = 0.91) and DPS based on MehlichIII extractable calcium (DPS M3-Ca ) (r 2  = 0.87) were the most promising. An Olsen P value above 41 mg kg -1 or a DPS M3-Ca above 3.44% led to DRP leaching exceeding 0.1 mg L -1 . Accordingly, more than 80% of Tongshan soils resulted in DRP leaching exceeding the environmental P threshold. In conclusion P rich alkaline sandy soils used for greenhouse vegetable production are at high risk of P mobilization across China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable,s the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitrogen utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and eventually to identify the best N fertilizer rate greenhouse experiments were conducted for two years. Yazgi F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be the suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. Five N treatments [N 0 =0, N 1 =150, N 2 =300, and N 3 =450 kg/ha; also, soil N application treatment (N soil ) equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 300 kg/ha was included for tomato and pepper, however N rates for cucumber was 131, 266 and 339 kg N/ha; N soil being 266 kg N/ha] were investigated using 15 N labeled urea fertilizer. Significantly higher marketable fresh fruit and total dry matter yields and N uptakes values were obtained from N 3 treatments for tomato and cucumber, but from N 2 treatment for pepper. Also, significantly higher yields, N uptakes and % NUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. (author)

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF SOME PATHOGENIC CONTROL AGENTS AGAINST PESTS IN GREENHOUSE VEGETABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima Markova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato and cucumber are attacked by a great number of pests. The most frequently occurred pests are: greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westw., cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glov., tobacco and western flower thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman, Frankliniella occidentalis Perg., cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera Hb. and two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch.. Plant protection products applied in practice are not always efficient enough due to arising of resistance to these products in the populations. Moreover their use could results in accumulation of residual amounts and environmental pollution. Recently a great interest to find alternative solutions for pest control is observed. Some viruses, bacteria and fungi which are pathogenic to the pests but safety for human, could be used. There are products with good efficacy, which are developed on this basis and applied for pest control. Investigations for determining of the biological activity in the following products were carried out during the period 2016-2017 in the “Maritsa” Vegetable Crops Research Institute - Plovdiv: Naturalis (a. i. Beauveria bassiana strain АТСС 74040 at a dose of 100 ml/da, Rapax (a. i. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain EG 2348 at a dose of 100 ml/da and Helicovex (a. i. Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus Hear NVP, DSMZ-BV0003 – 7,5 x 1012 NPV/liter at a dose of 20 ml/da. The product Naturalis at a dose 100 ml/da has a good effectiveness (over 75% against greenhouse whitefly, cotton aphids, thrips, and movable forms of the two spotted spider mite in tomato and cucumber grown under greenhouses. The products Rapax at a dose of 100 ml/da and Helicovex at a dose of 20 ml/da have a good biological activity (E = 76,32% and E = 76,92%, respectively towards to the larvae of the cotton bollworm in greenhouse tomatoes.

  10. Intakes of Vegetables and Fruits are Negatively Correlated with Risk of Stroke in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariri, Mitra; Darvishi, Leila; Maghsoudi, Zahra; Khorvash, Fariborz; Aghaei, Mahmud; Iraj, Bijan; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza

    2013-05-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death. Current therapeutic strategies have been unsuccessful. Several studies have reported benefits on reducing stroke risk and improving the poststroke associated functional declines in patients who ate foods rich in fruits and vegetables. Their potential protective effects may be due to their antioxidants, calcium, potassium, riboflavine, peridoxin, riboflavin contents. Folic acid, peridoxin, and riboflavin are all cofactors in hyperhomocysteinemia as a stroke risk factor.Studies suggest that oxidative stress plays important roles in pathogenesis of ischemic cerebral injury and higher intake of antioxidants has been associated with a lower stroke risk. The aim of this study was to examine if the dietary intake of vegetables and fruits in patients with stroke were comparatively worse than those in patients without stroke. In this case control study, 93 stroke patients admitted to Alzahra hospital were matched for age and sex with 60 patients who were not affected with acute cerebrovascular diseases and did not have a history of stroke. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire.Food intakes were compared between two groups and with recommended value. Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits was more in male with stroke than male without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was higher in male with stroke.Mean daily intake of vegetable and fruits were lower in women with stroke than women without stroke as well as calorie intake from vegetables and fruit was lower in women with stroke. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable and fruits intake may be associated with decreased risk of stroke.

  11. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Junqian; Wang, Yuchun; Zhang, Dongfeng; Qu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to January 2014. Study-specific relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. Twenty prospective cohort studies were included, involving 16 981 stroke events among 760 629 participants. The multivariable relative risk (95% confidence intervals) of stroke for the highest versus lowest category of total fruits and vegetables consumption was 0.79 (0.75-0.84), and the effect was 0.77 (0.71-0.84) for fruits consumption and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for vegetables consumption. Subgroup and meta-regression showed that the inverse association of total fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke was consistent in subgroup analysis. Citrus fruits, apples/pears, and leafy vegetables might contribute to the protection. The linear dose-response relationship showed that the risk of stroke decreased by 32% (0.68 [0.56-0.82]) and 11% (0.89 [0.81-0.98]) for every 200 g per day increment in fruits consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.77) and vegetables consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.62), respectively. Fruits and vegetables consumption are inversely associated with the risk of stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Fruits, vegetables, and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana R; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Chan, Doris S M; Aune, Dagfinn; Abar, Leila; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause about half of all bladder cancer cases. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetables and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. We searched PubMed up to December 2013 for relevant prospective studies. We conducted highest compared with lowest meta-analyses and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and used restricted cubic splines to examine possible nonlinear associations. Fifteen prospective studies were included in the review. The summary RR for an increase of 1 serving/day (80 g) were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) I(2)  = 0%, eight studies for fruits and vegetables, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00, I(2)  = 10%, 10 studies) for vegetables and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I(2)  = 0%, 12 studies) for fruits. Results were similar in men and women and in current, former and nonsmokers. Amongst fruits and vegetables subgroups, for citrus fruits the summary RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76-0.99, I(2)  = 0%, eight studies) and for cruciferous vegetables there was evidence of a nonlinear relationship (P = 0.001). The current evidence from cohort studies is not consistent with a role for fruits and vegetables in preventing bladder cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Fruits and vegetables consumption and depressive symptoms: A population-based study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José A; Maguiña, Jorge L; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Among different factors, diet patterns seem to be related to depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the consumption of fruits and/or vegetables and depressive symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using information from a population-based survey from 25 regions from Peru. The outcome was the presence of depressive symptoms according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (cutoff ≥15 to define major depressive syndrome); whereas the exposure was the self-reported consumption of fruits and/or vegetables (in tertiles and using WHO recommendation ≥5 servings/day). The association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models controlling for the complex-sample survey design and potential confounders. Data from 25,901 participants were analyzed, mean age 44.2 (SD: 17.7) and 13,944 (54.0%) women. Only 910 (3.8%; 95%CI: 3.5%-4.2%) individuals reported consuming ≥5 servings of fruits and/or vegetables/day; whereas 819 (2.8%; 95%CI: 2.5%-3.1%) had depressive symptoms. Those in the lowest tertile of fruits and/or vegetables consumption had greater prevalence of depressive symptoms (PR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.39-2.55) than those in the highest tertile. This association was stronger with fruits (PR = 1.92; 95%CI: 1.46-2.53) than vegetables (PR = 1.42; 95%CI: 1.05-1.93) alone. An inverse relationship between consumption of fruits and/or vegetables and depressive symptoms is reported. Less than 5% of subjects reported consuming the amount of fruits and vegetables recommended by the WHO. There is a need to implement strategies to promote better diet patterns with potential impact on mental health.

  14. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren: efforts in middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Orito, Aya; Löwik, Marianne; Mclean, Catherine; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    To reverse the trend of rising child obesity rates in many middle-income countries, recommendations include increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Schools can positively impact children's eating behavior, and multicomponent interventions that include the curriculum, school food environments, and parental involvement are most effective. To find out how fruits and vegetables feature in the dietary guidelines provided to schools, what specific schemes are available for providing these foods, the extent to which nutrition education is included in the curriculum, and how vegetables and fruits are procured in primary schools. In 2008, a survey questionnaire previously validated and revised was sent electronically to national program managers and focal points for school feeding programs in 58 middle-income countries. The rationale was to obtain information relevant to the entire country from these key informants. The survey response rate was 46%. The information provided by 22 respondents in 18 countries was included in the current study. On average, respondents answered 88% of the questions analyzed in this paper. Of the respondents, 73% worked for the national authority responsible for school food programs, with 45% at the program coordinator or director level. Few countries have any special fruit and vegetable schemes; implementation constraints include cost and lack of storage facilities. Although 11 of 18 countries have both nutrient-based guidelines and school food guidelines for meals, fruits and vegetables are often not adequately specified. In some countries, nutrition education, special activities, school gardens, and parental participation are used to promote fruits and vegetables. Specific schemes are needed in some, together with school food guidelines that include fruits and vegetables.

  15. Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büchner, F.L.; Bueno de Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; Kampman, E.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research does not show an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. None of these studies investigated variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, which may capture different aspects of consumption. We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables

  16. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan , Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014-January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015-April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan's wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However , the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy.

  17. Experimental and feasibility assessment of biogas production by anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable waste from Joburg Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masebinu, S O; Akinlabi, E T; Muzenda, E; Aboyade, A O; Mbohwa, C

    2018-05-01

    Substrate-induced instability of anaerobic digestion from fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) results in low biogas yield. In this study, substrate management through fruit to vegetable mix ratio in a two-stage semi-continuous digester was investigated as a pathway for optimality of yield. The experiment conducted over 105 days with 62.52 kg of FVWs sourced from Joburg Market, South Africa showed that a stable process was achieved at a fruit to vegetable waste mix ratio of 2.2:2.8. At this ratio, optimal organic loading rate ranged between 2.68 and 2.97 kg VS/m 3 -d which resulted in a specific biogas yield of 0.87 Nm 3 /kg VS with 57.58% methane on average. The results of the experimental study were used as a feasibility assessment for a full-scale 45 tonnes/d plant for Joburg Market considering three energy pathways. The plant will produce 1,605,455 Nm 3 /y of biogas with the potential for offsetting 15.2% of the Joburg Market energy demand. Conversion of all biogas to biomethane was the most economically attractive energy pathway with a net present value of $2,428,021, an internal rate of return of 16.90% and a simple payback period of 6.17 years. This route avoided the greenhouse gas emission of 12,393 tonnes CO 2 , eq. The study shows that the anaerobic digestion of FVWs as sole substrate is possible with financial and environmental attractiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Osmotic Drying and Nutrient Infusion of Fruits and Vegetables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    .... Initially, six commercial fruit products were chosen for long-term storage. Two representative products, mango-flavored apple cubes and cherries, were then prepared with infused vitamins and minerals...

  19. Knowledge, barriers, and stage of change as correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among urban and mostly immigrant black men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Randi L; Lepore, Stephen J; Vandergrift, Jonathan L; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay; McGinty, Elizabeth; Pietrzak, Gabriel; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-08-01

    Daily fruit and vegetable consumption in black men is low and has remained relatively unchanged during the past 20 years. To examine awareness of fruit and vegetable recommendations promoted by federal agencies and correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among an urban and mostly immigrant population of adult black men. A cross-sectional study analyzing baseline data (n=490) from a randomized controlled trial. A large health care worker's union. Knowledge, perceived benefits, stage of readiness, perceived barriers, and daily servings of fruit and vegetable intake. One-way analysis of variance and t tests were used to compare fruit and vegetable intake across main study variables. Regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. Fruit and vegetable intake was low (mean was three servings/day). Ninety-four percent were not aware that men should consume at least nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily and 59.8% were not aware that eating a colorful variety is important. In contrast, over half (54.7%) were aware that a single serving is equal to about a handful; 94.1% correctly reported fruit and vegetables as an important source of fiber; 79.6% correctly reported vitamin pills were not a substitute for eating fruits and vegetables; and 94.5% recognized that there are health benefits to eating fruits and vegetables, although identification of specific benefits was minimal. In regression analysis, a greater level of fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly associated with greater knowledge of fruit and vegetable recommendations, lower perceived barriers, and a more advanced stage of change (action vs contemplation/preparation). Perceived health benefits were not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. There is a lack of awareness of the current fruit and vegetable recommendations. In addition, men reported fruit and vegetable intakes that were far below national recommendations. Greater efforts

  20. Uptake of caesium-137 from peat and compost mould by vegetables in a greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malm, J.; Uusi-Rauva, A.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the root uptake of 137 Cs by vegetables grown in peat and composite mould in a greenhouse. The 137 Cs in the growing media originated from Chernobyl fallout. The vegetables were cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Farbio VDP SF 76), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Var. Virosa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill var. Non plus ultra), radish (Raphanus Sativus L. var. Nondan) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Atraktion). The effect of adding potassium to the peat was also studied. The transfer factors (activity in plant dry weight/activity in soil dry weight) varied from 0.66 to 1.8 for peat and from 0.060 to 0.19 for compost mould. Addition of potassium did not have any clear effect on the transfer factors. (Author)

  1. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souverein, Olga W; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Freese, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C...... concentrations. Furthermore, a prediction model of fruit and vegetable intake based on these biomarkers and subject characteristics (i.e. age, sex, BMI and smoking status) was established. Data from twelve diet-controlled intervention studies were obtained to develop a prediction model for fruit and vegetable...... intake (including and excluding fruit and vegetable juices). The study population in the present individual participant data meta-analysis consisted of 526 men and women. Carotenoid, folate and vitamin C concentrations showed a positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake. Measures...

  2. Fruits, vegetables and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A R; Abar, L; Vingeliene, S; Chan, D S M; Aune, D; Navarro-Rosenblatt, D; Stevens, C; Greenwood, D; Norat, T

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death. Fruits and vegetables containing carotenoids and other antioxidants have been hypothesized to decrease lung cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. We searched PubMed and several databases up to December 2014 for prospective studies. We conducted meta-analyses comparing the highest and lowest intakes and dose-response meta-analyses to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and examine possible non-linear associations. We combined results from the Pooling Project with the studies we identified to increase the statistical power of our analysis. When comparing the highest with the lowest intakes, the summary RR estimates were 0.86 [95% CI 0.78-0.94; n (studies) = 18] for fruits and vegetables, 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.97; n = 25) for vegetables and 0.82 (95% CI 0.76-0.89; n = 29) for fruits. The association with fruit and vegetable intake was marginally significant in current smokers and inverse but not significant in former or never smokers. Significant inverse dose-response associations were observed for each 100 g/day increase: for fruits and vegetables [RR: 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, I(2) = 64%, n = 14, N (cases) = 9609], vegetables (RR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.98, I(2) = 48%, n = 20, N = 12 563) and fruits (RR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.89-0.95, I(2) = 57%, n = 23, N = 14 506). Our results were consistent among the different types of fruits and vegetables. The strength of the association differed across locations. There was evidence of a non-linear relationship (P fruit and vegetable intake and lung cancer risk showing that no further benefit is obtained when increasing consumption above ∼400 g per day. Eliminating tobacco smoking is the best strategy to prevent lung cancer. Although residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out, the current evidence from

  3. Changes in accessibility and preferences predict children's future fruit and vegetable intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bere Elling

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most children eat fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended. To be able to design effective interventions, understanding the aetiology of the behaviour is important. Accessibility and preferences have shown to be strong correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in several cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of future fruit and vegetable intake and to explore longitudinal patterns of interactions between accessibility and preferences. Methods Data presented are based on baseline (September 2001 and follow-up (May/June 2002 surveys of 20 control schools in the Norwegian intervention study Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks. A total of 816 pupils (77% completed both baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The average age of the sample at baseline was 11.8 years. The research instrument assessing potential predictor variables was guided by Social Cognitive Theory, and included Accessibility at home, Accessibility at school, Modelling, Intention, Preferences, Self-Efficacy and Awareness of the 5-a-day recommendations. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Results All independent variables (measured at baseline were significantly correlated to future fruit and vegetable intake (measured at follow-up. When reported fruit and vegetable intake at baseline (past intake was included in this model, the effect of the other independent variables diminished. Together with past intake, the observed change in the independent variables from baseline to follow-up explained 43% of the variance in the reported intake at follow-up. Past intake remained the strongest predictor, but changes in accessibility at home and at school, as well as changes in preferences for fruits and vegetables, also explained significant amounts of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake at follow-up. In addition, baseline accessibility was found to moderate the relationship between change in preferences and change in

  4. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  5. Correlates of healthy fruit and vegetable diet in students in low, middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among university students from 26 low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected in a cross-sectional survey from 17,789 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 82.8% of the university students consumed less than the recommended five servings of fruits and/or vegetables. The mean fruit and vegetable consumption varied by country, ranging from ≤ 2.5 mean daily servings in Jamaica, Philippines and Barbados to ≥ 3.9 mean daily servings in Mauritius, Tunisia and Ivory Coast. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, and behavioural factors (inadequate dietary behaviours, binge drinking and physical inactivity) were associated with low prevalence of fruit and vegetable intake. Findings stress the need for intervention programmes aiming at increased consumption of fruit and vegetables considering the identified sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors.

  6. [Principles and applications of hyperspectral imaging technique in quality and safety inspection of fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-Hua; Li, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Shu-Xiang; Huang, Wen-Qian; Zhang, Chi; Wang Qing-Yan; Xiao, Guang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    The quality and safety of fruits and vegetables are the most concerns of consumers. Chemical analytical methods are traditional inspection methods which are time-consuming and labor intensive destructive inspection techniques. With the rapid development of imaging technique and spectral technique, hyperspectral imaging technique has been widely used in the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables. Hyperspectral imaging integrates the advantages of traditional imaging and spectroscopy. It can obtain both spatial and spectral information of inspected objects. Therefore, it can be used in either external quality inspection as traditional imaging system, or internal quality or safety inspection as spectroscopy. In recent years, many research papers about the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables by using hyperspectral imaging have been published, and in order to introduce the principles of nondestructive inspection and track the latest research development of hyperspectral imaging in the nondestructive inspection of quality and safety of fruits and vegetables, this paper reviews the principles, developments and applications of hyperspectral imaging in the external quality, internal quality and safety inspection of fruits and vegetables. Additionally, the basic components, analytical methods, future trends and challenges are also reported or discussed in this paper.

  7. Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesani, Azadeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Javadi, Maryam; Esfeh, Jabiz Modaresi; Fakhari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Nutrition plays a major role in physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between happiness and fruit and vegetable intake as well as eating breakfast in students. In this cross-sectional web-based study, all students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Iran who attended course classes were invited to participate in the study. Five hundred forty-one students filled out the web-based questionnaire which included questions related to measurement of happiness, breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption and socio-economic and demographic information. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relationship between happiness and breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption by adjustments for covariates. Measure of happiness was positively associated with eating breakfast, number of meals eaten daily and the amount of fruit and vegetable consumption (P values were breakfast every day, more than 8 servings of fruit and vegetables daily, and had 3 meals in addition to 1-2 snacks per day had the highest happiness score. Healthier behavior pattern was associated with higher happiness scores among medical students.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  9. [Barriers and facilitators to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables in six countries in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarría, Susana; Zacarías, Isabel

    2011-06-01

    Low intake of fruits and vegetables is among the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and some cancers. The countries have implemented policies to promote food consumption. Identifying the barriers perceived by people to consume it helps to recognize the resources that would be willing to exchange for benefits. The objectives of this study are to determine what factors are facilitators and barriers to increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in six countries in Latin America, and a possible relationship between the 5 a day program and the food based dietary guidelines. This is a qualitative and field study. Techniques used were group interviews with health professionals and the media, and interviews with experts in food policy. The outstanding facilitators were television advertising campaigns promoting their use, and the existence of fruits and vegetables markets in the neighborhoods. Highlighted those obstacles were lack of public policies of advertising regulations and trade hooks of food, of self-sustainability, of funding for related programs, and of sociological research of the topic. The main barrier to the consumption of fruits and vegetables in these countries was the lack of policy support and related public policy, being a good advertising campaign vital to the success of programs that encourage consumption. The main relationship between the Dietary Guidelines and the 5 A Day Program is to both promote the consumption of vegetables and fruits.

  10. Eating episode frequency and fruit and vegetable consumption among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, Andrea; Teleman, Adele Anna; Azzolini, Elena; de Waure, Chiara; Maged, Davide; Virdis, Andrea; Ricciardi, Walter; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2017-01-01

    To analyze breakfast consumption, regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption in the Italian university student population on a national level. Descriptive analysis evaluating data taken from the Sportello Salute Giovani (SSG) questionnaire. 12 000 university students who self-administered a confidential survey. 8292 questionnaires were analyzed. Age; sex; self-reported economic status; BMI; number of breakfast and portions of vegetables and portions of fruit usually consumed per week; number of eating episodes per day; intended weight loss. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Gender and age differences were tested by c2 and Mann-Whitney tests. 15.8% of males and 26.3% of females declared to consume at least one portion of fruit every day. Similar results were found for vegetable consumption. Age does not influence fruit or vegetables consumption, frequency of eating episodes or breakfast habit. Both a regular breakfast and a higher number of eating episodes are significantly associated both with a higher frequency of fruit and vegetables intake. This study underlines the need to promote nutritional education campaigns to increase adherence to nutritional guidelines.

  11. Increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables in the school cafeteria: the influence of active choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Sharon M; Meissen, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated a setting-level intervention designed to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables among low-socioeconomic status elementary and middle school students participating in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The NSLP provides students with access to fruits and vegetables; however, food served does not necessarily equal food consumed. High rates of waste, especially of fruits and vegetables, are well documented. The current, low-cost intervention altered the choice architecture of the cafeteria by introducing an active, forced choice into the school lunch service. Consumption was measured by observing (n=2,064) and weighing (n=84) student plate waste over two 10-day periods pre-intervention and during implementation. Results show an average daily 15% increase in consumption of both fruits and vegetables during the intervention period. These findings suggest that local schools can actively encourage students to take advantage of fruits and vegetables offered through the NSLP by implementing setting-level changes to the cafeteria environment.

  12. Explaining fruit and vegetable consumption: the theory of planned behaviour and misconception of personal intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, R P; Brug, J; van Assema, P; Dagnelie, P C

    2004-04-01

    The influence of individuals' misconceptions in assessing fruit and vegetable consumption on the ability of the theory of planned behaviour to explain variance in the consumption of these foods was studied. Dutch women (mean age 41, n=159) completed a questionnaire assessing the theory's constructs with regard to the daily consumption of at least two pieces of fruit and 200 gram of vegetables. Consumption was assessed using a self-rated measure and more objectively with a food-frequency questionnaire. Both measures were combined to classify participants according to the accuracy of their self-assessed intake levels ('realists' vs. 'overestimators'). The model explained variation in objective fruit and vegetable intake much better among realists (R2 = 45% for fruits and 39% for vegetables) than among overestimators (R2 = 18% and 5%, respectively). Perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor of intentions and behaviour. When plasma vitamin C and carotenoid concentrations were used as objective indicators for fruit and vegetable intake, the explanatory value of the model was lower, but again more variance was explained among realists than among overestimators. We conclude that awareness of personal behaviour should be taken into account when applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain dietary behaviours as well as to design health education interventions.

  13. Children's fruit and vegetable intake: associations with the neighbourhood food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Ball, Kylie; Roberts, Rebecca; Campbell, Karen; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Crawford, David

    2008-04-01

    To examine associations between availability of different types of food outlets and children's fruit and vegetable intake. Parents of 340 5-6 and 461 10-12 year-old Australian children reported how frequently their child ate 14 fruits and 13 vegetables in the last week in 2002/3. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine the availability of the following types of food outlets near home: greengrocers; supermarkets; convenience stores; fast food outlets; restaurants, cafés and takeaway outlets. Logistic regression analyses examined the likelihood of consuming fruit >or=2 times/day and vegetables >or=3 times/day, according to access to food outlets. Overall, 62.5% of children ate fruit >or=2 times/day and 46.4% ate vegetables >or=3 times/day. The more fast food outlets (OR=0.82, 95%CI=0.67-0.99) and convenience stores (OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.73-0.98) close to home, the lower the likelihood of consuming fruit >or=2 times/day. There was also an inverse association between density of convenience stores and the likelihood of consuming vegetables >or=3 times/day (OR=0.84, 95%CI=0.74-0.95). The likelihood of consuming vegetables >or=3 times/day was greater the farther children lived from a supermarket (OR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07-1.51) or a fast food outlet (OR=1.19, 95%CI=1.06-1.35). Availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores close to home may have a negative effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake.

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrazo-Antelo, Ana Marina; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Abal Arca, José; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer has multiple risk factors and tobacco is the main one. Diet plays a role, but no clear effect has been consistently observed for different fruit and vegetable consumption. We aim to assess the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk through a hospital-based case-control study in Spanish population. We recruited incident lung cancer cases in 2 Spanish hospitals from 2004 to 2008. Controls were individuals attending hospital for trivial surgery. Cases and controls were older than 30 and did not have a neoplasic history. We collected information on lifestyle with special emphases on tobacco and dietary habits. We included 371 cases and 496 controls. We found no protective effect for overall fruit consumption. For green leafy vegetables, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32-2.69), and for other vegetables the OR was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.40-1.48) for the categories compared. We observed a reduced risk for broccoli and pumpkin intake. Although fruit consumption does not seem to be associated with a lower lung cancer risk, only the frequent consumption of specific green leafy vegetables and other vegetables might be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer.

  15. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K; Kihira, T; Kobashi, G; Washio, M; Sasaki, S; Yokoyama, T; Miyake, Y; Sakamoto, N; Inaba, Y; Nagai, M

    2009-01-01

    There has been little interest in the role of nutrition in the prevention of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the relationship between dietary intake of vegetables, fruit, and antioxidants and the risk of ALS in Japan. Between 2000 and 2004, we recruited 153 ALS patients aged 18-81 years with disease duration of 3 years within the study period in accordance with El Escorial World Federation of Neurology criteria. Three hundred and six gender- and age-matched controls were randomly selected from the general population. Information on dietary factors was collected using a validated self-administered diet history questionnaire. A higher consumption of all fruits and vegetables and fruit alone in the highest quartiles was associated with a statistically significantly reduced risk of ALS. Although not statistically significant, a beneficial association between intake of all vegetables, green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables and ALS was found. No statistically significant dose-response relationship was observed between intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E and the risk of ALS. Our findings suggest that higher intake of food rich in antioxidants such as fruit and vegetables confer protection against the development of ALS.

  16. Presence of heavy metals in fruits and vegetables: Health risk implications in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nazma; Irfan, Nafis Md; Khan, Ishrat Nourin; Islam, Saiful; Islam, Md Saiful; Ahmed, Md Kawser

    2016-06-01

    The presence of toxic heavy metals such as As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn in nationally representative samples of highly consumed fruits and vegetables was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Their concentrations exceeded the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by FAO/WHO for Pb in mango and Cd in tomato among the analyzed fruits and vegetables. Pb content in mango was found to be six times higher than the safe limit at production level. Health risks associated with the intake of these metals were evaluated in terms of estimated daily intake (EDI), and carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks by target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI). EDI values of all the metals were found to be below the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI). The THQs of all metals were 1 through consumption of all vegetables, indicating significant health risks. HI was found to be fruits; however, it was >1 (3.727) for vegetable consumption, suggesting adverse health effects from vegetable consumption only. The total carcinogenic risk (CR) of As was below the threshold level (10(-6)) and 9.82E-05 for Pb, suggesting no potential CR from As consumption, but indicating the risk of Pb-induced carcinogenesis. The findings of this study reveal the health risks associated with the consumption of heavy metals through the intake of selected fruits and vegetables in adult population of Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of Radioactive Contaminations and heavy metal contents in vegetables and fruit from Lublin, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the level of some gamma radioactive elements and heavy metals in fruits, vegetables and plants from Lublin. Potassium 40 K isotope was most prevalent element in the examined samples. It concentrated mainly in aboveground parts of some vegetables, for example in parsley and carrots haulm and in leaves of red beet and leek (from 1135 to 1940 Bq/kg). considerably lower concentrations of this element were noticed in the roots of the vegetables, running from 210 to 448 Bq/kg of dry matter. In examined fruit, the 40 K contents ranged from 490 to 510 Bq/kg. Transfer factors of 40 K, from the soil to the vegetables and fruit, ranged from 0.3 to 2.9. The natural isotopes of uranium series account for 17% of total activity, whereas thorium series was 19-20% of its activity. In fact, in examined fruit (raspberry, red and black currants) and roots of vegetables caesium 137 Cs was not detected, whereas some amounts of it were noticed in green parts of vegetables, from 4.0 to 8.4 Bq/kg of dry matter. The transfer factor of 137 Cs from the soil to examined samples ranged from 0.03 to 0.4. in all studied samples examined on heavy metal contents no valid safety standards for these elements were exceeded. (author)

  18. Availability, Price, and Quality of Fruits and Vegetables in 12 Rural Montana Counties, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Ahmed, Selena; Smith, Teresa; Houghtaling, Bailey; Jenkins, Mica; Margetts, Miranda; Schultz, Daniel; Stephens, Lacy

    2015-08-13

    We assessed the consumer food environment in rural areas by using the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Stores (NEMS-S) to measure the availability, price, and quality of fruits and vegetables. We randomly selected 20 grocery stores (17 rural, 3 urban) in 12 Montana counties using the 2013 US Department of Agriculture's rural-urban continuum codes. We found significant differences in NEMS-S scores for quality of fruits and vegetables; of 6 possible points, the mean quality score was 4.5; of rural stores, the least rural stores had the highest mean quality scores (6.0). Intervention strategies should aim to increase fruit and vegetable quality in rural areas.

  19. A Review on the Effect of Drying on Antioxidant Potential of Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-07-29

    The role of antioxidants in human nutrition has gained increased interest, especially due to their associated health beneficial effects for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Fruits and vegetables are perishable and difficult to preserve as fresh products. Dried fruits and vegetables can be easily stored, transported at relatively low cost, have reduced packing costs, and their low water content delays microbial spoilage. Air-, freeze-, microwave- and sun-drying are among the most thoroughly studied drying methods. This review provides an overview of recent findings on the effects of different drying techniques on major antioxidants of fruits and vegetables. In particular, changes in ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity are discussed in detail.

  20. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  1. Increasing Access to Fruits and Vegetables: Perspectives From the New York City Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Stella S.; Nonas, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Broad recognition now exists that price, availability, and other structural factors are meaningful barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among low-income adults. Beginning in 2005, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene used the social–ecological model to develop a multifaceted effort to increase fruit and vegetable access citywide, with emphasis in low-income neighborhoods. Overall, the percentage of New York City adults who reported consuming no fruits and vegetables in the previous day decreased slightly over a 10-year period (2002: 14.3% [95% confidence interval = 13.4%, 15.2%]; 2012: 12.5% [95% confidence interval = 11.4%, 13.6%]; P for trend cultural preferences, increases consumer demand, and supports sustainable access to affordable produce. PMID:25790427

  2. Decreased sugar concentration in vegetable and fruit juices by growth of functional lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Nishida, Satoshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2017-03-22

    Leuconostoc carnosum #7-2, L. gelidum #4-2, and L. mesenteroides 8/11-3, which were isolated from fermented plant foods, are lactic acid bacteria. We previously reported that these bacteria are functional lactic acid bacteria whose innate immunity-stimulating activities are high based on a silkworm muscle contraction assay. The concentrations of these three lactic acid bacteria increased to more than 1 × 10 6 colony forming units (cfu)/mL in various vegetable and fruit juices when the pH values were appropriately adjusted. As the bacteria grew in the vegetable and fruit juices, the pH decreased and the concentrations of total sugars and glucose also decreased. These findings suggest that these functional lactic acid bacteria can be used to produce vegetable and fruit juices with reduced sugar levels, which is expected to be beneficial for human health.

  3. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica).

  4. Flavonoids in human urine as biomarkers for intake of fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Salka E.; Freese, R.; Kleemola, P.

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds ubiquitously found in human diets. We have studied the association between urinary excretion of flavonoids and the intake of fruits and vegetables to evaluate the usefulness of flavonoids as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake. Levels of 12 dietary...... relevant flavonoids were determined by LC-MS in urine samples collected prior to an intervention study, when the subjects were on their habitual diet (n = 94), and after they had participated in an intervention study with diets either high or low in fruits, berries, and vegetables (n = 77). Both flavonoid...... glycosides and aglycones were included in the assay, but only the flavonoid aglycones were detectable. Thus, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, and tamarixetin, the dihydrochalcone phloretin, and the flavanones naringenin and hesperetin were quantified in the enzymatically hydrolyzed urine...

  5. Factors associated with consumption of fruits and vegetables among Community Kitchens customers in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Garcés, Flavia A; Vargas-Matos, Iván; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Trujillo, Antonio J; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Community Kitchens (CKs) are one of the main food providers to low-income families in Peru and may encourage healthier diets. We aimed to determine the prevalence of fruit and vegetable consumption and associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors among CKs customers. A cross-sectional study enrolling customers of 48 CKs in two areas of Lima, Peru, was performed. The self-reported amount of fruits and vegetables consumed (customers reported consuming ≥ 5 servings of fruits and vegetables daily. This pattern was 4-fold more likely among those with higher levels of education (≥ 12 vs. customers that does not appear to be dependent on familial income. The profiles reported in this study can inform appropriate strategies to increase healthier eating in this population.

  6. The role of curriculum dose for the promotion of fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Rasmussen, Mette; Aarestrup, Anne Kristine

    2015-01-01

    - and student data on curriculum dose delivered and received were aggregated to the school-level and class-level (only possible for student data). We analysed the association between curriculum dose and students' (n 995) self-reported fruit and vegetable intake (24-h recall questionnaire) after finalization....... There is a need for knowledge on the role of dose for behaviour change and for assessment of intervention dose to avoid conclusions that intervention components which are not implemented are ineffective. This study aimed to examine 1) the association between dose of a class curriculum and adolescents' fruit...... and vegetable intake in a school-based multi-component intervention, 2) if gender and socioeconomic position modify this association. METHODS: We carried out secondary analysis of data from intervention schools in the cluster-randomized Boost study targeting 13-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake. Teacher...

  7. A Review of the Anaerobic Digestion of Fruit and Vegetable Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chao; Kong, Chui-Xue; Mei, Zi-Li; Li, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Fruit and vegetable waste is an ever-growing global question. Anaerobic digestion techniques have been developed that facilitate turning such waste into possible sources for energy and fertilizer, simultaneously helping to reduce environmental pollution. However, various problems are encountered in applying these techniques. The purpose of this study is to review local and overseas studies, which focus on the use of anaerobic digestion to dispose fruit and vegetable wastes, discuss the acidification problems and solutions in applying anaerobic digestion for fruit and vegetable wastes and investigate the reactor design (comparing single phase with two phase) and the thermal pre-treatment for processing raw wastes. Furthermore, it analyses the dominant microorganisms involved at different stages of digestion and suggests a focus for future studies.

  8. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-06-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Here we describe an improved methodology for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs. The method includes washing procedures, sonication, and, for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, immunomagnetic separation. Identification is by immunofluorescence (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) or brightfield microscopy (Ascaris). Recovery efficiencies from lettuce, Chinese leaves, and strawberries were found to be approximately 67% for Giardia, 42% for Cryptosporidium, and 72% for Ascaris. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts tended to be more variable and lower. This could be due to material removed with the parasites during the washing procedures, which, in turn, appeared related to the age of the bean sprouts. It is therefore recommended that fruit and vegetables should be as fresh as possible when analyzed for parasites.

  9. Fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents: SES and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    backgrounds. Methods Data from the Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (n = 6,034) were supplemented with geocoded information regarding supermarkets and fast food outlets, 300 meters from each school (n = 80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine the relationship between infrequent...... fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratifying by levels of family social class. Results Examining supermarket exposure alone, children from low social class backgrounds had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.50; CI: 1.03-2.20) and fruit (OR = 1.......43;CI: 1.06-1.93) intake, attending schools with low concentration of supermarkets. Children from low social class families attending schools with high fast food outlet and low supermarket concentration had the greatest odds of infrequent vegetable (OR = 1.79;CI: 0.99-3.21) and fruit (OR = 1.59; CI: 1...

  10. Application of airborne ultrasound in the convective drying of fruits and vegetables: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2017-11-01

    The application of airborne ultrasound is a promising technology in the drying of foods, particularly to fruits and vegetables. In this paper, designs of dryers using ultrasound to combine the convective drying process are described. The main factors affecting the drying kinetics with the ultrasound application are discussed. The results show that the ultrasound application accelerated the drying kinetics. Ultrasound application during the convective drying of fruits and vegetables shorten the drying time. Ultrasound application can produce an increase of the effective moisture diffusivity and the mass transfer coefficient. The influence of ultrasound on physical and chemical parameters evaluating the product quality is reviewed. Ultrasound application can decrease the total color change, reveal a low water activity and reduce the loss of some nutrient elements. Meanwhile, ultrasound application can also better preserve the microstructure of fruits and vegetables in comparison to convective drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of vegetable cultivation years on microbial biodiversity and abundance of nitrogen cycling in greenhouse soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Zeng, Xi-Bai; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Bai, Ling-Yu; Su, Shi-Ming; Wu, Cui-Xia; Li, Lian-Fang; Duan, Ran

    2014-04-01

    The effects of facility vegetable cultivation years (three, nine, fourteen or seventeen years) on biodiversity and abundance of soil microorganisms, such as bacteria, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nirK type denitrifying bacteria, in the greenhouse soils in Wuwei of Gansu Province, China were determined by the combined analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that the dominant population structure and abundance of bacteria, AOB, nirK type denitrifying bacteria in the soils were significantly different from those in the farmland fields. The dominant population also changed with the cultivation years. With the increase of vegetable cultivation years, the abundance of 16S rRNA and nirK gene in the 0-20 cm soil layer first increased and then decreased, with the maximum values of 9.67 x 10(9) and 2.30 x 10(7) copies x g(-1) soil at year 14 and year 9, being as 1.51 and 1.52 times of that of the 3-year, respectively. However, the abundance of amoA gene showed an opposite trend. The amoA gene copy number in the 14-year sample was 3.28 x 10(7) copies x g(-1) soil, which was only 45.7% of that of the 3-year. These results illustrated that the ecological adaptation mechanisms of the different functional microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycling had significant differences in the facility vegetable soils, and provided a base for further researches on exploring and explaining the characteristics and adaptation mechanisms of microorganisms in greenhouse soil.

  12. The Association between Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), hs-Crp and body composition were measured in a fasting state. RESULTS: ... Tehrani healthy adults, whereas fruit intake is only associated with lower visceral fat rating. KEYWORDS: AST .... The device calculated body fat percentage, fat mass and fat free mass (FFM),.

  13. Parents' qualitative perspectives on child asking for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 year old child asking for fruit and vege...

  14. [Structural equation model analysis of risk factors for low back pain among greenhouse vegetable-planting farmers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hong-yun; Yang, Xi-wei; Yu, Sujang

    2013-05-01

    To explore the risk factors of low back pain (LBP) among greenhouse vegetable planting farmers and estimate the level of the effects. A self-made questionnaire based on the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the Nordic Questionnaire was conducted to 639 greenhouse vegetable planting farmers and then structural equation model was used to analyze the risk factors of LBP in SmartPLS software. The coefficient of determination of the model was 0.827, and the structural coefficients of dynamic loads, static loads, force exertion, ergonomic environment and repetitive loads on LBP were 0.21, 0.43,0.27, 0.045 and 0.034 respectively, and the total effects of the above latent variables on LBP were 0.21, 0.43,0.27, 0.33 and 0.034 respectively. The main risk factors of LBP among greenhouse vegetable planting farmers were static loads, ergonomic environment, force exertion and dynamic loads.

  15. Evaluating advertising strategies for fruits and vegetables and the implications for obesity in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Liaukonyte, Jura; Rickard, Bradley J.; Kaiser, Harry M.; Richards, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate consumer response to various types of advertising for fruits and vegetables—a food category which health officials uniformly agree is significantly underconsumed in the United States. Using an adult, non-student subject pool of participants in the experiment, consumers’ response to different broad-based (not used currently in the United States) and commodity-specific (widely used in the United States) advertising campaigns for various fruits and vegetables is empirically measur...

  16. Association Between Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Qiwen; Zhong, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lifu; Sun, Yunwei; Yv, Lifen; Yuan, Yaozong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There have been contradictory results about the association of fruits and vegetables intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, the precursor lesion of colorectal cancer. Herein, we have conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to have a clear understanding about this association. Eligible studies up to November 30, 2014, were identified and retrieved by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with the manual review of the reference list of the retrieved studies. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, and random-effects model was used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 22 studies involving 11,696 CRA subjects were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest versus the lowest intake of vegetables alone was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80–1.02, Pheterogeneity = 0.025), whereas for vegetables and fruits combined, it was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75–0.91, Pheterogeneity = 0.369), and for fruits alone, it was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71–0.88, Pheterogeneity = 0.111). In addition, linear dose–response analysis also showed similar results, for example, for per 100 g/d increment of fruits, the SRR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92–0.97) and for vegetables it was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96–1.01). Nonlinear association was only observed for vegetables (Pnonlinearity = 0.024), but not for fruits (Pnonlinearity = 0.583). Thus, this meta-analysis suggested that fruits consumption have a significant protective effect on CRA risk, but not vegetables. Moreover, we recommend additional studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders to further validate the overall results. PMID:26496264

  17. Fruits and vegetables intake differentially affects estrogen receptor negative and positive breast cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Thomsen, Birthe L; Loft, Steffen; Stripp, Connie; Overvad, Kim; Møller, Susanne; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2003-07-01

    Despite intensive research, the evidence for a protective effect of fruits and vegetables on breast cancer risk remains inconclusive. Other risk factors for breast cancer seem to vary with the estrogen receptor status of the breast tumor, and it is thus possible that the inconsistent results regarding a preventive effect of fruits and vegetables are due to lack of controlling for estrogen receptor status. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fruit and vegetable intake on postmenopausal breast cancer and explore whether the estrogen receptor status of the tumor modifies this relation. Postmenopausal women (n = 23,798; aged 50-64 y) provided information about diet and established risk factors for breast cancer in the cohort "Diet, Cancer and Health." During follow-up, 425 cases were diagnosed with breast cancer. Associations between intake of fruits and vegetables and the breast cancer rate were analyzed using Cox's regression model. The association for all breast cancers was an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.98-1.06) per 100 g/d increment of total intake of fruits, vegetables and juice. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer, a borderline significant increase in the rate was seen, IRR: 1.05 (95% CI, 1.00-1.10), whereas a preventive effect was seen for estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) breast cancers, IRR: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-0.99). In conclusion, we did not find the overall breast cancer rate to be associated with the intake of fruits and vegetables, but there seemed to be different effects for ER(+) and ER(-) breast cancer.

  18. Not enough fruit and vegetables or too many cookies, candies, salty snacks, and soft drinks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A; Sturm, Roland; Scott, Molly; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    There are many contributors to obesity, including excess consumption of "discretionary calories" (foods high in sugar and fat and low in essential nutrients), lack of fruit/vegetable consumption, and insufficient physical activity. This study contrasted physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and discretionary calorie consumption from selected foods relative to the 2005 dietary guidelines. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 228 urban census tracts in Los Angeles County (LAC) and Southern Louisiana (SL) and estimated calories in the past 24 hours from fruit, vegetables, cookies, candy, salty snacks, sweetened soda, and alcohol among 2,767 participants. The population-weighted mean daily intake of calories from candy, cookies, salty snacks, soda, and alcohol was 438 in LAC and 617 in SL. Alcohol comprised a small portion of the calories consumed. Reported discretionary calorie consumption from a small set of items exceeded guidelines by more than 60% in LAC and 120% in SL. In contrast, the mean consumption of fruit and vegetables fell 10% short in LAC and 20% in SL. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of cookies, candy, salty snacks, and soda across income, gender, and race. The overconsumption of discretionary calories was much greater than the underconsumption of fruit and vegetables. This finding suggests that unless the excessive consumption of salty snacks, cookies, candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages is curtailed, other interventions focusing on increasing physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption will have a limited impact on obesity control. It may be politically more expedient to promote an increase in consumption of healthy items rather than a decrease in consumption of unhealthy items, but it may be far less effective.

  19. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption: success of the Western Australian Go for 2&5 campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M; Miller, Margaret R; Daly, Alison M; Crouchley, Kathy E; O'Donoghue, Kathy J; Lang, Anthea J; Binns, Colin W

    2008-03-01

    The Western Australian Health Department's Go for 2&5 campaign aimed to increase adults' awareness of the need to eat more fruit and vegetables and encourage increased consumption of one serving over five years. The multi-strategy fruit and vegetable social marketing campaign, conducted from 2002 to 2005, included mass media advertising (television, radio, press and point-of-sale), public relations events, publications, a website (www.gofor2and5.com), and school and community activities. Campaign development and the evaluation framework were designed using health promotion theory, and assessed values, beliefs, knowledge and behaviour. Two independent telephone surveys evaluated the campaign: the Campaign Tracking Survey interviewed 5032 adults monitoring fruit and vegetable attitudes, beliefs and consumption prior to, during and 12 months after the campaign; and the Health & Wellbeing Surveillance System surveyed 17,993 adults between 2001 and 2006, continuously monitoring consumption. Population public health intervention-social marketing campaign in Western Australia, population of 2,010,113 in 2005. Adults in the Perth metropolitan area. The campaign reached the target audience, increasing awareness of the recommended servings of fruit and vegetables. There was a population net increase of 0.8 in the mean number of servings of fruit and vegetables per day over three years (0.2 for fruit (1.6 in 2002 to 1.8 in 2005) and 0.6 for vegetables (2.6 in 2002 to 3.2 in 2005), significant at P social marketing is effective in improving nutrition knowledge, attitudes and consumption behaviour. The Go for 2&5 campaign provides guidance to future nutrition promotion through social marketing.

  20. Mothers' involvement in a school-based fruit and vegetable promotion intervention is associated with increased fruit and vegetable intakes – The Pro Children study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut-Inge

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several school-based fruit and vegetable interventions include activities to involve parents, but not much is know about the effectiveness of such a family component on child and parent intake levels. The current study evaluated the effects of the multi-component school-based intervention, 'the Pro Children Study', on mothers' intake levels. Furthermore, associations between level of involvement in the project and improvement in the mothers' intake levels were assessed. Methods Effect was evaluated in a cluster randomized controlled trial in Spain, Norway and the Netherlands among mothers of 11-year-olds. Of the 1253 mothers with complete data at baseline, 754 and 476 had complete data at first and second follow-up respectively. Fruit and vegetable intake, level of involvement and demographic variables were assessed by a parental questionnaire. Data was analyzed using multilevel regression analyses. Results Results showed no effect of the intervention on mothers' fruit and vegetable intake after one year and two year follow-up. Participation rate for the different activities varied by activity and by country, e.g. 3.7–9.4% visited the website, while 26.4–72.6% of the mothers participated in the home work assignments. Results further showed that higher involvement levels were associated with higher intake at follow-up. Conclusion The Pro Children Intervention could not increase the fruit and vegetable consumption of the mothers of participating pupils, which might be explained by the low involvement in the project. More research is needed to increase mothers' involvement in school-based interventions.

  1. Interactions among vegetation, climate, and herbivory control greenhouse gas fluxes in a subarctic coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, K.C.; Leffler, A.J.; Beard, K.H.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Choi, R.T.; Welker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are experiencing the most rapid climate changes globally, and in many areas these changes are concurrent with shifts in patterns of herbivory. Individually, climate and herbivory are known to influence biosphere-atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange; however, the interactive effects of climate and herbivory in driving GHG fluxes have been poorly quantified, especially in coastal systems that support large populations of migratory waterfowl. We investigated the magnitude and the climatic and physical controls of GHG exchange within the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska across four distinct vegetation communities formed by herbivory and local microtopography. Net CO2 flux was greatest in the ungrazed Carex meadow community (3.97 ± 0.58 [SE] µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), but CH4 flux was greatest in the grazed community (14.00 ± 6.56 nmol CH4 m−2 s−1). The grazed community is also the only vegetation type where CH4 was a larger contributor than CO2 to overall GHG forcing. We found that vegetation community was an important predictor of CO2 and CH4 exchange, demonstrating that variation in regional gas exchange is best explained when the effect of grazing, determined by the difference between grazed and ungrazed communities, is included. Further, we identified an interaction between temperature and vegetation community, indicating that grazed regions could experience the greatest increases in CH4 emissions with warming. These results suggest that future GHG fluxes could be influenced by both climate and by changes in herbivore population dynamics that expand or contract the vegetation community most responsive to future temperature change.

  2. The French, German, and Spanish sound of eating fresh fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Ana M; Arce-Lopera, Carlos

    2017-12-01

    A set of onomatopoeic expressions for eating fruits and vegetables is compared across subjects whose native language is Spanish, French, or German. Subjects chose the onomatopoeia that best represented the sound of eating a fruit or vegetable (celery, banana, strawberry, passion fruit, mango, apple, orange, and tomato). Results show there are onomatopoeias that have a higher frequency of response in one language compared to the others. Thus, it is possible to assume that depending on the language there is a better way to express haptic and auditory information associated to fruit and vegetable consumption. Moreover, and considering the three languages, results show there are three categories of responses based on the relative strength of the material (strong and medium strength, and soft). Thus, there is some consistency in the onomatopoeias that represent the sound of eating a fruit or a vegetable. To conclude, results differ by language, but they are consistent within a category of sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of optimal daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, root growth and fruit yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in solar-greenhouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshu Liang

    Full Text Available Inappropriate and excessive irrigation and fertilization have led to the predominant decline of crop yields, and water and fertilizer use efficiency in intensive vegetable production systems in China. For many vegetables, fertigation can be applied daily according to the actual water and nutrient requirement of crops. A greenhouse study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of daily fertigation on migration of water and salt in soil, and root growth and fruit yield of cucumber. The treatments included conventional interval fertigation, optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation. Generally, although soil under the treatment optimal interval fertigation received much lower fertilizers than soil under conventional interval fertigation, the treatment optimal interval fertigation did not statistically decrease the economic yield and fruit nutrition quality of cucumber when compare to conventional interval fertigation. In addition, the treatment optimal interval fertigation effectively avoided inorganic nitrogen accumulation in soil and significantly (P<0.05 increased the partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 88% and 209% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to conventional interval fertigation. Although soils under the treatments optimal interval fertigation and optimal daily fertigation received the same amount of fertilizers, the treatment optimal daily fertigation maintained the relatively stable water, electrical conductivity and mineral nitrogen levels in surface soils, promoted fine root (<1.5 mm diameter growth of cucumber, and eventually increased cucumber economic yield by 6.2% and 8.3% and partial factor productivity of applied nitrogen by 55% and 75% in the early-spring and autumn-winter seasons, respectively, when compared to the treatment optimal interval fertigation. These results suggested that optimal daily fertigation is a beneficial practice for improving

  4. Analysis of factors influencing organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraman, Yasemin; Unakitan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influences on the purchasing decisions of fruit and vegetable consumers and presents findings from a survey conducted with 385 respondents living in urban areas in Istanbul, Turkey. It uses a binary logistic model to estimate factor effects in organic fruit and vegetable purchasing in Turkey. The results indicate that concern for human health and safety is a key factor that influences consumer preferences for organic food. Findings will help organic product suppliers understand the key factors influencing consumer purchasing and consumption behaviors.

  5. The role of wild fruits and vegetables in delivering a balanced and healthy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bvenura, Callistus; Sivakumar, Dharini

    2017-09-01

    Without a doubt, fruits and vegetables are important components of a balanced and healthy diet. However, their consumption is very low in the world, with the lowest figures being reported in sub-Saharan Africa. The low consumption of fruits and vegetables means unbalanced and unhealthy diets, which has been linked to various diseases and conditions associated with increased mortality rates in worst cases. Poverty is the major contributor to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables in the majority of cases. However, the world, including sub-Saharan Africa, is endowed with numerous wild fruit and vegetable species which can be exploited and incorporated into the diets and help solve some nutrition related concerns. Therefore, in this review, we explore literature on wild fruits and vegetables with a special emphasis on some of the poorest regions of the world and where the lowest consumption figures are reported; their nutritional compositions; the status of their consumption and their role in the diet with a view to uncover their possible role in delivering a healthy and balanced diet as well as helping lower food and nutrition insecurity. A total of 396 articles were downloaded and analysed but only 213 were considered for this review. The results of the search indicate that wild fruits and vegetables are nutritionally rich and high in phytochemicals, especially antioxidants and therefore can possibly play a significant and positive role in delivering a healthy and balanced diet. However, the major challenge is the acceptability, accessibility as well as a lack of interest in wild fruits and vegetables and sheer neglect. People need to be educated using various forms of media on the nutritional and health benefits of these wild food plants with a view to bring them from the forest to the plate. Researchers need to channel more efforts towards domesticating them for ease of access, among other reasons. Governments need to incentivise the subsistence or

  6. Children have a say when the family goes shopping for food, especially for fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Maria Kümpel; Stacey, Julia; Jørgensen, Betina

    2006-01-01

    Many Danish children eat too much unhealthy food such as sweets and cakes, and the consumption of fruit and vegetables is too low in many Danish families with young children. Eating much unhealthy food can cause obesity and lifestyle-related illnesses at an early age.......Many Danish children eat too much unhealthy food such as sweets and cakes, and the consumption of fruit and vegetables is too low in many Danish families with young children. Eating much unhealthy food can cause obesity and lifestyle-related illnesses at an early age....

  7. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on total antioxidant capacity of fasting and postprandial plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.; Pedersen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are known to protect against cancer and heart disease. This is often ascribed to their high content of antioxidants. We have therefore tested whether a daily intake of fruits and vegetables corresponding to the recommended 600 g had any effect on the antioxidant activity...... of fasting and postprandial plasma samples. Antioxidant activity was determined by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay, which have been reported to be affected by the presence of dietary antioxidants....

  8. Uranium-series radionuclides in native fruits and vegetables of northern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, B.; Martin, P.; Iles, M.

    2005-01-01

    Wild fruits and vegetables play an important part in a traditional Aboriginal diet in northern Australia. Radionuclide uptake by these foods is important for radiological impact assessment of uranium mining operations in the region, particularly after minesite rehabilitation. Data are presented for concentrations in several fruits and root vegetables, and associated soils. In terms of radiological dose, 210 Po, 226 Ra and, to a lesser extent, 210 Pb were found to be of greater importance than the uranium and thorium isotopes. Other important factors that have emerged include food preparation and consumption habits of Aboriginal people which could potentially affect radionuclide intake estimates. (author)

  9. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  10. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  11. Sociodemographic factors and attitudes toward food affordability and health are associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in a low-income French population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihan, Hélène; Castetbon, Katia; Mejean, Caroline; Peneau, Sandrine; Pelabon, Laetitia; Jellouli, Fatima; Le Clesiau, Hervé; Hercberg, Serge

    2010-04-01

    Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption, including affordability and attitudes, have been poorly investigated, especially in European deprived populations. Our objective was to analyze various determinants of low consumption of fruits and vegetables in disadvantaged participants. Our participants were randomized into 2 groups, 1 which received nutritional advice alone and 1 that also received vouchers that were exchangeable for fruits and vegetables during a 12-mo period. Socioeconomic characteristics, food insufficiency, affordability, and motivation for eating fruits and vegetables were assessed. A short FFQ was administered. Determinants of consumption of vegetable/d were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 295 participants were included (mean age 44.8 y; 133 men, 162 women). At baseline, mean daily consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.13 +/- 1.57 times/d. Nearly 30% of the sample did not eat fruits and vegetables every day. Determinants of low fruit and vegetable consumption were: age younger than 55 y, education level lower than tertiary, and absence of financial means for buying fruits and vegetables daily. Other determinants were affordability (whether fruits and vegetables are affordable, lack of money in preventing healthy diet) and attitudes (whether one's own diet is healthy, whether or not fruits and vegetables improve health, whether eating fruits and vegetables is a pleasure). Thus, determinants of inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables in this deprived French population are numerous. The impact of financial difficulties is crucial, as is the perception of affordability of fruits and vegetables.

  12. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Trends of fruit and vegetable availability in neighbourhoods in Albany, NY, USA, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S; Kammer, Jamie R

    2015-02-01

    To investigate a 9-year trend of fresh fruit and vegetable availability and factors associated with the net availability change in two contrasting neighbourhoods. Longitudinal design. Data were collected in 2003, 2009 and 2012 through in-store observations. Fresh fruit and vegetable availability was presented by weight-adjusted counts of stores having designated varieties per 10 000 population. A low-income minority neighbourhood and an adjacent middle-income racially mixed neighbourhood in Albany, NY, USA. These neighbourhoods became sites of fresh produce interventions after baseline data were collected. A total of 111, 128 and 146 eligible food stores in respective years. Fresh fruit availability (two or more varieties) increased in both neighbourhoods. Inventory expansion of existing stores and the convenience store intervention contributed to the significant increase (P for trend=0·04) of fresh fruit availability in the minority neighbourhood. Although not statistically significant (P>0·05), the availability of two or more dark-coloured fresh vegetables also increased in the mixed neighbourhood, but declined slightly in the minority neighbourhood. The secular (non-intervention) fresh vegetable availability rate ratio by neighbourhood reached 3·0 in 2012 (Pconvenience store intervention to address the fresh vegetable disparity.

  14. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Selected Local Markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tamirat; Biruksew, Abdissa; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Eshetu, Teferi

    2014-01-01

    Background. A study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from local markets in Jimma Town, Ethiopia, was conducted between April and May 2013. Methods. A total of 360 samples of fruits and vegetables were examined by sedimentation concentration after washing using normal saline. Results. The overall prevalence of parasitic contamination was 57.8%. Strongyloides like parasite (21.9%) was the most frequent parasitic contaminant followed by Toxocara Spp (14.7%), Cryptosporidium Spp (12.8%), H. nana (8.3%), G. lamblia (7.5%), A. lumbricoides (6.7%), E. histolytica/dispar (5.3%), Cyclospora spp (5.0%), and H. diminuta (1.4%). Washing of the fruits and vegetables before display for selling was significantly associated with decreased parasitic contamination (P vegetables are potential sources of transmission for intestinal parasites in the study area, consumers should always avoid acquiring parasitic infection from contaminated fruits and vegetables supplied in Jimma Town through proper cleaning and cooking.

  15. Contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with geohelmints eggs on organic farms in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Borecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with zoonotic parasite eggs on organic and conventional farms in south-eastern Poland. To evaluate the contamination with eggs of zoonotic parasites, examinations were conducted on 8 conventional and 11 organic farms in south-eastern Poland from May-October in 2008 and 2009. The following fruit and vegetables were selected for the experiment: strawberry, leek, onion, carrot, zucchini, beetroot, parsley, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, pumpkin, young beetroot leaves, cauliflower, French beans, turnip, fennel and sorrel. A total of 187 samples of vegetables, fruits and soil were examined by means of a modified flotation method according to Quinn et al. (1980). Contamination with Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara eggs was found, with a higher number of positive samples revealed on conventional (34.7%), compared to organic farms (18.9%). The level of contamination in soil samples from conventional farms was higher (88.5% positive samples), than of those from organic farms (32.8%). Of the 15 geohelmints eggs, positive samples were found in vegetables: 9 Toxocara eggs, 4 Ascaris eggs and 2 Trichuris eggs. No geohelmints eggs were observed in the strawberry samples. The consumption of vegetables and fruits contaminated with the eggs of parasites may be the cause of parasitoses in humans. Stricter sanitary standards on farms of all types may limit the incidence of parasitic zoonoses.

  16. Fruit and vegetable intake and pre-diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safabakhsh, Maryam; Koohdani, Fariba; Bagheri, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoun; Khajehnasiri, Farahnaz; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2017-12-04

    Few studies have evaluated the association of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and pre-diabetes. However, these studies are very limited and incomplete. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare FV consumption and their subgroups between pre-diabetic and control subjects. This case-control study included 300 individuals, 150 subjects with normal fasting blood glucose (FBG), and 150 pre-diabetic subjects who were matched for sex and age. We collected the participants' anthropometric and physical activity data and measured their blood glucose level. A 168 items semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for estimating the FV intake. After adjustment for confounding variables, participants in the lower quartiles of FV and total fruit intake were more likely to experience pre-diabetes compared with those in the higher quartiles (p trend < 0.007). In addition, cruciferous vegetables, other vegetables, and berries were inversely associated with pre-diabetes (p < 0.05), although a distinct dose-response relationship was not found. Unexpectedly, higher intake of dark yellow vegetables was significantly associated with a higher chance of pre-diabetes (p trend = 0.006). Other vegetable and fruit subgroups did not show any significant relationship with this disorder. Our findings suggest that higher intake of total FV and total fruits might be associated with lower odds ratio of pre-diabetes.

  17. Determination of Lutein from Fruit and Vegetables Through an Alkaline Hydrolysis Extraction Method and HPLC Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Mignogna, Rossella; Niro, Serena; Panfili, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method for the determination of lutein content, successfully used for cereal matrices, was evaluated in fruit and vegetables. The method involved the determination of lutein after an alkaline hydrolysis of the sample matrix, followed by extraction with solvents and analysis by normal phase HPLC. The optimized method was simple, precise, and accurate and it was characterized by few steps that could prevent loss of lutein and its degradation. The optimized method was used to evaluate the lutein amounts in several fruit and vegetables. Rich sources of lutein were confirmed to be green vegetables such as parsley, spinach, chicory, chard, broccoli, courgette, and peas, even if in a range of variability. Taking into account the suggested reference values these vegetables can be stated as good sources of lutein. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee-Ebrahim-Saraee, Khadijeh; Fard, Mehdi Rezvani; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content of commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow C. annuum (Yellow bell pepper), and red C. annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 and March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results: The results of INAA showed that the concentrations of aluminum, bromine, cobalt, rubidium and strontium of these vegetables were varied from 7.2 to 28.4 mg/kg, 0.6–11.7 mg/kg, 0.1–0.5 mg/kg, 4.2–8.4 mg/kg, and 12.0–141.0 mg/kg, respectively. The trace mineral concentrations of As, Cr, Cs, Sc, Th, and U in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable upper intake level. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:26605243

  19. Geohelminth contamination of fruits and vegetables cultivated on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) was the most contaminated 65 (41.1%) and the least was Solanum macrocarpon (garden egg) 4 (2.5%). The samples were to some extent contaminated with either helminth ova, larvae or both, with the vegetables being more contaminated ...

  20. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Sarah P; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea D

    2017-07-01

    Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was assessed. The between-participants design consisted of four conditions. A generic health message served as a control condition; personalisation was applied using the recipient's first name, feedback was given on the personal state, or the message was adapted to the recipient's value. The study consisted of a pre-test questionnaire (measuring fruit and vegetable intake and perceived difficulty of performing these behaviours, indicating self-efficacy), exposure to the auditory message and a follow-up questionnaire measuring fruit and vegetable intake two weeks after message exposure (n = 112). ANCOVAs showed no main effect of condition on either fruit or vegetable intake, but a moderation was found on vegetable intake: When self-efficacy was low, vegetable intake was higher after listening to the personalisation message. No significant differences between the conditions were found when self-efficacy was high. Individuals with low self-efficacy seemed to benefit from incorporating personalisation, but only regarding vegetable consumption. This finding warrants further investigation in tailoring research.

  1. Increased intake of vegetables, but not fruit, reduces risk for hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Dan; Feng, Na; Chen, Guochong; Liu, Jianjiang; Chen, Guiping; Zhu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    The anti-cancer effects of vegetables and fruit have been investigated extensively, but the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been quantified. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to clarify the association. We identified eligible studies, published from 1956 through May 31, 2014, by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and dose-response analyses were conducted to quantify associations. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics. A total of 19 studies involving 1,290,045 participants and 3912 cases of HCC were included in the meta-analysis. The summary RR for HCC was 0.72 for individuals with high intake vs low intake of vegetables (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63-0.83) and 0.92 with a daily increase in vegetable intake (100 g/d) (95% CI: 0.88-0.95). Subgroup analyses showed that this inverse association did not change regardless of history of hepatitis, alcohol drinking, smoking, or energy intake. The summary RR for HCC among individuals with high vs low intake of fruit was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.09), and 0.99 with a daily increase in fruit intake (100 g/d) (95% CI: 0.94-1.05). Based on a meta-analysis, increased intake of vegetables, but not fruit, is associated with lower risk for HCC. The risk of HCC decreases by 8% for every 100 g/d increase in vegetable intake. The findings should be confirmed by future studies with validated questionnaires and strict control of confounders. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Feifei [Key Laboratory of Plant-soil Interactions of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition of Minstry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Furong District, Changsha 410128 (China); Jiang Rongfeng; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo [Key Laboratory of Plant-soil Interactions of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition of Minstry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China); Su Fang, E-mail: sufang@cau.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Plant-soil Interactions of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition of Minstry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2009-05-15

    Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used. N{sub 2}O emissions occurred intermittently in the growing season, strongly correlating with N fertilization and irrigation. No peak emissions were observed after fertilization in the late Autumn season due to low soil temperature. 57-94% of the seasonal N{sub 2}O emissions came from the initial growth stage, corresponding to the rewetting process in the soil. The annual N{sub 2}O emissions ranged from 2.6 to 8.8 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, accounting for 0.27-0.30% of the annual nitrogen input. Compared with conventional N management, site-specific N management reduced N fertilization rate by 69% in 2004 and by 76% in 2005, and consequently reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 51% in 2004 and 27% in 2005, respectively. - High N{sub 2}O emissions coming from the initial growth stage can be attributed to the rewetting process in the greenhouse soil.

  3. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program participation in elementary schools in the United States and availability of fruits and vegetables in school lunch meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-06-01

    Dietary intake among children in the United States falls short of national recommendations. Schools can play an important role in improving children's preferences and food consumption patterns. The US Department of Agriculture's Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) aims to improve children's nutrient intake patterns by offering fresh fruits and vegetables as snacks outside the reimbursable meals programs in elementary schools that serve large numbers of low-income children. Using a nationally representative sample of public elementary schools, this cross-sectional study investigated FFVP participation patterns among schools by demographic and school characteristics. Further, the study investigated the association between FFVP participation and availability of fresh fruits, salads, and vegetables at lunch as reported by school administrators and foodservice staff. Data collected via a mail-back survey from 620 public elementary schools participating in the National School Lunch Program during 2009-2010 were analyzed. Almost 70% of the FFVP-participating schools had a majority of students (>50%) eligible for free and reduced-cost meals. Participating in US Department of Agriculture Team Nutrition Program and having a registered dietitian or a nutritionist on staff were significantly associated with FFVP participation. Based on the results from logistic regression analyses schools participating in the FFVP were significantly more likely (odds ratio 2.07; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.53) to serve fresh fruit during lunch meals. Slightly >25% of public elementary schools across the United States participated in the FFVP, and participation was associated with healthier food availability in school lunches. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intention to Consume Fruits and Vegetables Is Not a Proxy for Intake in Low-Income Women from Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara; Wall, Denise; Gromis, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Intention as an outcome measure for fruit and vegetable nutrition education interventions in low-income women was assessed through dietary assessment 3 weeks after a fruit and vegetable intervention in a federally funded program. Amount and variety of intake were compared to intentions expressed immediately following intervention. Findings…

  5. No effect of 600 grams fruit and vegetables per day on oxidative DNA damage and repair in healthy nonsmokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Pedersen, A.

    2003-01-01

    consumed. Our results show that after 24 days of complete depletion of fruits and vegetables, or daily ingestion of 600 g of fruit and vegetables, or the corresponding amount of vitamins and minerals, the level of oxidative DNA damage was unchanged. This suggests that the inherent antioxidant defense...

  6. Correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among 11-year-old Belgian-Flemish and Dutch schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marianne; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; te Velde, Saskia J

    2006-01-01

    To determine factors associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium-Flanders and the Netherlands.......To determine factors associated with the consumption of fruit and vegetables among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Belgium-Flanders and the Netherlands....

  7. Consumption of vegetables and fruits and risk of ovarian carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. To the authors' knowledge, only a few prospective studies to date have investigated the correlation between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of ovarian carcinoma and their results have been inconclusive. METHODS. Vegetable and fruit intake was assessed in relation to ovarian

  8. Prediction of fruit and vegetable intake from biomarkers using individual participant data of diet-controlled intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Freese, R.; Watzl, B.; Bub, A.; Miller, E.R., III; Castenmiller, J.J.M.; Pasman, W.J.; Hof, K. van het; Chopra, M.; Karlsen, A.; Dragsted, L.O.; Winkels, R.; Itsiopoulos, C.; Brazionis, L.; O'Dea, K.; Loo-Bouwman, C.A. van; Naber, T.H.J.; Voet, H. van der; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption produces changes in several biomarkers in blood. The present study aimed to examine the dose-response curve between fruit and vegetable consumption and carotenoid (α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin), folate and vitamin C

  9. The Influence of Cartoon Character Advertising on Fruit and Vegetable Preferences of 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezbaruah, Nandita; Brunt, Ardith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of cartoon characters in preferences of fruit and vegetables among children. Methods: A 10-item survey was used in this cross-sectional study to determine the factors that influence a child's likelihood of eating fruits and vegetables. Seven factors influencing consumption of…

  10. Season plays a role in variability in vitamin C content of fresh fruits and vegetables in a local retail market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation of vitamin C in fresh fruits and vegetables is not reflected in food composition database average values, yet many factors influence content and retention. Fresh fruits and vegetables were sampled on three occasions in each season, from the same local retail outlets, for one or tw...

  11. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. 101.30 Section 101.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION... purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) This section applies to any food that...

  12. SKATE: Recognition, experience, willingness and intake of fruit and vegetable snacks in rural school aged children at risk for obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Kids Access to Treats to Eat (SKATE) was a fruit and vegetable snack feeding study that assessed food recognition, food experience, and willingness to try specific fruits and vegetables of 186 elementary school children in grades 4-6 at high risk for obesity. This rural school had a 100% free...

  13. Creating action plans in a serious video game increases and maintains child fruit-vegetable intake: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child fruit and vegetable intake is below recommended levels, increasing risk for chronic disease. Interventions to influence fruit and vegetable intake among youth have had mixed effects. Innovative, theory-driven interventions are needed. Goal setting, enhanced by implementation intentions (i.e., ...

  14. The Effect of Education plus Access on Perceived Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Rural African American Community Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnidge, E. K.; Baker, E. A.; Schootman, M.; Motton, F.; Sawicki, M.; Rose, F.

    2015-01-01

    African Americans have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease partly due to low fruit and vegetable consumption. This article reports the results of an intervention to provide nutrition education and access to fruits and vegetables through community gardens to change dietary behaviors among African Americans in rural Missouri. Cross-sectional…

  15. Skin and plasma carotenoid response to a provided intervention diet high in vegetables and fruit: uptake and depletion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Objective biomarkers are needed to assess adherence to vegetable and fruit intervention trials. Blood carotenoids are considered the best biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake but collecting blood is invasive and the analyses are relatively expensive for population studies. Resonance ...

  16. Low-income consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards access, availability and motivation to eat fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibsdall, L.A.; Lambert, N.; Bobbin, R.F.; Frewer, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    To determine low-income consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards fruit and vegetables, in particular issues of access to, affordability of and motivation to eat fruit and vegetables. Design and setting: Questionnaire survey mailed to homes owned by a large UK housing association. Participants:

  17. Alternative fruit and vegetables consumption for 1-3 year old Indonesian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:World Health Organization merekomendasikan konsumsi sayur dan buah paling sedikit 400 gr atau 5 (lima porsi sayur dan buah sehari. Penelitian ini untuk menentukan alternatif jumlah dan jenis anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah dan kecukupan vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, asam folat dan serat yang dapat dipenuhi untuk kelompok umur 1-3 tahun anak Indonesia. Metode:Penelitian menggunakan data konsumsi sayur dan buah dari data Riskesdas tahun 2010. Analisis data menggunakan analisis linier programming untuk memperoleh lima alternatif jumlah dan jenis sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun.Hasil:Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lima jenis buah yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah pisang, jeruk, pepaya, apel dan semangka. Lima jenis sayur yang paling banyak dikonsumsi anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah sayur bayam, sayur sop, sayur kangkung, sayur daun singkong, dan sayur asam. Jumlah anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram sayuran dan 150-200 gram buah Kesimpulan: Alternatif anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk anak usia 1-3 tahun adalah 100-200 gram (1-2 mangkok sayuran dan 150-200 gram (3-4 potong buah. (Health Science Indones 2013;2:74-7Kata kunci: anjuran, konsumsi, sayur, buah, anak usia 1-3 tahunAbstractBackground: WHO recommends the daily consumption of fruit and vegetables at least 400 grams or 5 servings. Based on national health survey Indonesia in 2007, means of daily portion of fruit and vegetable for Indonesian was less than 5 portion. This study was conducted to assess consumption of fruit and vegetables in 1-3 year old Indonesian children, and adequacy of daily requirement of vitamin A, vitamin C, potasium, folic acid and fiber. Methods: The study used consumption data from 2010 National Health Survey Indonesia. Using linier programming, we then could present 5 alternatives of combination of fruits and vegetables. Result:  The  study  found  five  kind  of

  18. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: results from the Netherlands cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that

  19. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: Results from the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, B.A.C. van; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption is generally inversely associated with various cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Netherlands cohort study on diet and cancer (NLCS) consists of 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, who filled out a self-administered questionnaire that

  20. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  1. Habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables: associations with human rectal glutathione S-transferase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Peters, W.H.M.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kampman, E.; Kok, F.J.; Veer, P. van 't

    2004-01-01

    The glutathione (GSH)/glutathione S-transferase (GST) system is an important detoxification system in the gastrointestinal tract. A high activity of this system may benefit cancer prevention. The aim of the study was to assess whether habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, especially citrus

  2. Fruit and vegetables consumption is directly associated to survival after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborelli, Martina; Polesel, Jerry; Parpinel, Maria; Stocco, Carmen; Birri, Silvia; Serraino, Diego; Zucchetto, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    Since the evidence on the role of diet on prostate cancer (PCa) prognosis is still controversial, we evaluated the long-term effects of fruit and vegetables consumption on survival after PCa. A retrospective cohort study included 777 men with PCa diagnosed between 1995 and 2002 in north-eastern Italy and followed up to 2013. A validated food frequency questionnaire assessed the usual diet in the 2 years before PCa diagnosis, including detailed fruit and vegetables consumption. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of death with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Fine-Gray models. PCa patients with a consumption of both fruit and vegetables above the median showed a higher 15-year overall survival probability than those with lower intakes (71% versus 58%, p = 0.04; HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.47-0.93). Consumption of foods rich in fiber (HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.41-0.86) and proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.40-0.82) were inversely associated with overall mortality. Interestingly, proanthocyanidins (HR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.27-0.98) and flavonols (HR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.84) were inversely associated also with PCa-specific mortality. High consumption of fruit and vegetables offers an advantage in survival among the rising number of men living after a PCa diagnosis, possibly through the epigenetic effect of some nutrients. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Training the teachers for improving primary schoolchildren's fruit and vegetables intake: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panunzio, M F; Caporizzi, R; Antoniciello, A; Cela, E P; D'Ambrosio, P; Ferguson, L R; Ruggeri, S; Ugolini, G; Carella, F; Lagravinese, D

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness comparison of different school-based nutrition education interventions to improve fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in schoolchildren not yet well researched. We evaluated the effectiveness of two school-based interventions promoting fruit and vegetable intake among Italian schoolchildren. In this randomized intervention trials, the first intervention was conducted by schoolteachers who attended a nutritionist-led training course (group-1), the second intervention conducted by schoolteachers who performed a self-training course (group-2). Thirty-two second to fifth-grade elementary classes enrolling 96 schoolteachers and 813 schoolchildren were randomized, and assigned to the two different nutrition education interventions. 804 students completed the study. By the end of the study, the group-1 (n = 409) followed by the teachers who attended a nutritionist-led course successfully increased the consumption of fruit and vegetables: in 183 (44.7%) and 157 (38.3%) schoolchildren respectively; the group-2 (n = 395) with teachers who performed a self-training course reported an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables in 81 (20.5%) and 76 (19.2%), respectively. This study indicates that a school-based nutrition education conducted by teachers who attended a nutritionist-led training course has a significant impact on primary school-age children's F&V intake.

  4. 21 CFR 101.42 - Nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition labeling of raw fruit, vegetables, and fish. 101.42 Section 101.42 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Nutrition Labeling Requirements and...

  5. 21 CFR Appendix C to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Raw Fruits and Vegetables C Appendix C to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. C Appendix C to Part 101—Nutrition Facts...

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Dietary Patterns of Preadolescents Attending Schools in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J.; Chai, Weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study examined dietary intake of fruit and vegetables and dietary patterns of preadolescents attending schools in the Midwest. Methods: A total of 506 students (11.2 ± 1.3 years) from four public and private schools in Nebraska completed a validated 41-item Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess their dietary intake.…

  7. Partnering with School Nutrition Professionals to Promote Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Taste-Testing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirignano, Sherri M.; Hughes, Luanne J.; Wu-Jung, Corey J.; Morgan, Kathleen; Grenci, Alexandra; Savoca, LeeAnne

    2013-01-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010 sets new nutrition standards for schools, requiring them to serve a greater variety and quantity of fruits and vegetables. Extension educators in New Jersey partnered with school nutrition professionals to implement a school wellness initiative that included taste-testing activities to support…

  8. Introducing Preschool Children to Novel Fruits and Vegetables: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tande, D. L.; Niemeier, B. S.; Hwang, J. H.; Stastny, S.; Bezbaruah, N.; Hektner, J. M.; Habedank, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare changes in preschool children's identification, preferences, and beliefs related to fruits and vegetables introduced to a child care center's menu before and after a nutrition education and food exposure intervention. The study also sought to determine how these changes were…

  9. A Review on the Effect of Drying on Antioxidant Potential of Fruits and Vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The role of antioxidants in human nutrition has gained increased interest, especially due to their associated health beneficial effects for a number of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Fruits and vegetables are perishable and difficult to preserve

  10. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Jansen, M.C.F.; Klerk, M.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. Design: We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of

  11. Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of processing on phenolic antioxidants of fruits, vegetables, and grains--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Liu, Rui Hai; Tang, Juming

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of processing operations such as drying/dehydration, canning, extrusion, high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ohmic heating on the phytochemicals of fruits, vegetables, and grains is important in retaining the health benefiting properties of these antioxidative compounds in processed food products. Most of the previous investigations in the literature on the antioxidants of fruits, vegetables, and grains have shown that food-processing operations reduced the antioxidants of the processed foods, which is also the usual consumer perception. However, in the last decade some articles in the literature reported that the evaluation of nutritional quality of processed fruits and vegetables not only depend on the quantity of vitamin C but should include analyses of other antioxidant phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. Thermal processing increased the total antioxidant activity of tomato and sweet corn. Most importantly, analysis also depends on the condition, type, and mechanism of antioxidant assays used. This review aims to provide concise information on the influence of various thermal and nonthermal food-processing operations on the stability and kinetics of health beneficial phenolic antioxidants of fruits, vegetables, and grains.

  13. Behavioural Effects of a Short School-Based Fruit and Vegetable Promotion Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittmann, Silke; Austel, Anja; Ellrott, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the Cancer Society of Lower Saxony's school-based nutrition education programme "5-a-day for kids", designed to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption. Intervention: the programme included three parts (each 45 minutes): education-based classroom session;…

  14. Validity of a Competing Food Choice Construct regarding Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Urban College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…

  15. Allocation of Decision Rights in Fruit and Vegetable Contracts in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Hu (Yamei); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe empirically examine the determinants of the allocation of decision rights in the context of fruit and vegetable contracting. The main conclusion is that under contract farming, many decision rights are shifted from farmers to firms. Quality, reputation and specific investments by

  16. Five-a-Day, Fruit and Vegetables Portions, and the Food Environment: The Italian Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Bimbo, F.; Castellari, E.; Skokai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Italy has one of the largest per-capita consumption rates of fruits and vegetables (FV) among European Union countries. However, the number of adult Italians consuming the recommended daily amounts of FV is declining, especially in regions where the food retail industry’s expansion is lagging. In

  17. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  18. Increasing Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Preschoolers: Evaluation of "Color Me Healthy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kendra E.; Dunn, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether "Color Me Healthy" (CMH), an interactive nutrition and physical activity program for preschool children, increases fruit and vegetable consumption. Design: Intervention study. Data were collected at baseline, 1 week post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Setting: Child care centers. Participants: Preschool…

  19. Microstructure characterisation of processed fruits and vegetables by complementary imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voda, A.; Nijsse, J.; Dalen, van G.; As, van H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of the microstructural impact of processing on fruits and vegetables is a prerequisite for understanding the relation between processing and textural quality. By combining complementary imaging techniques, one can obtain a multi scale and real-time structural view on the impact of

  20. Levels of selected heavy metals in fruits and vegetables sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc in some fruits and vegetables sold in major markets in Kogi State, North Central Nigeria. The levels of metals were obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn obtained were ...

  1. Eat Your Fruit and Vegetables (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-07

    Getting kids to eat their fruits and vegetables is a common problem for many parents, but it’s a battle worth fighting. This podcast discusses the importance of developing good eating habits during childhood.  Created: 8/7/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/7/2014.

  2. Social Norms and the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables across New York City Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Donglan; Pagán, José A

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower risk of developing many chronic health conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day are recommended, only 50 % of New York City (NYC) residents consume two or more servings per day. In addition, there is wide variation in dietary behaviors across different neighborhoods in NYC. Using a validated agent-based model and data from 34 NYC neighborhoods, we simulate how a mass media and nutrition education campaign strengthening positive social norms about food consumption may potentially increase the proportion of the population who consume two or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day in NYC. We found that the proposed intervention results in substantial increases in daily fruit and vegetable consumption, but the campaign may be less effective in neighborhoods with relatively low education levels or a relatively high proportion of male residents. A well-designed, validated agent-based model has the potential to provide insights on the impact of an intervention targeting social norms before it is implemented and shed light on the important neighborhood factors that may affect the efficacy of the intervention.

  3. 77 FR 43234 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Agriculture (USDA), and the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), are sponsoring a public meeting on August 30... and AMS recognize the importance of providing interested parties the opportunity to obtain background... Session of the CCFFV Contact: Dorian Lafond, Agricultural Marketing Service, Fruits and Vegetables...

  4. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The open sun drying method caused the greatest β-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables.

  5. An Inverse Correlation between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and BMI among College Female and Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chick F.; Xi, Emily; Chan, Vanessa; Gouzoubachian, Ayla

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of fruits and vegetables for the prevention of diseases has long been known because their phytochemicals and antioxidant nutrients provide protective benefits and defensive roles against oxidative damages that lead to human diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and others. This study is geared at observing…

  6. Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L.E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Poppel, G. van; Sturmans, F.; Hermus, R.J.J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal

  7. Quantity and Variety of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Cancer Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bas Bueno de Mesquita, H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138

  8. Finding uncontested markets for European Fruit and Vegetables through applying the Blue Ocean Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubben, E.F.M.; Düsseldorf, S.; Batterink, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discover an uncontested market space in the European fruit and vegetables industry (EFVI), and thereby assess the ex-ante applicability of the Blue Ocean Strategy of Kim and Mauborgne. Design/methodology/approach – The search for an untapped market space

  9. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Minority and Non-Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Rodgers, Rachel F.; Roehrig, James P.; Hoffman, Jessica A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Inadequate fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption signals a need for identifying predictors and correlates of intake, particularly in diverse adolescents. Design: Participants completed an on-line assessment in early 2010. Setting: Computer classrooms in 4 high schools. Participants: One hundred twenty-two Caucasian and 125 minority…

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PLANTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CONCENTRATED PASTES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Developed a new system for producing concentrated semi-finished products in the form of pastes for the food industry. Currently, an important task of the food industry is the creation of new products with the aim of improving the structure of the range, saving scarce raw materials, as well as reduce sugar intake; development of product functionality and products with extended shelf life. The use of local non-traditional types of plant materials can contribute to solving existing problems. Fruit and vegetable pastes are a valuable food products which can be used as a semifinished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry. Fruit and vegetable purees have a distinct structurally viscous or pseudo-plastic properties and concentration form a very viscous mass. Already in the beginning of the process of concentration, i.e. at a relatively low degree of evaporation that leads to a rapid increase in the viscosity of the concentrate mass and reduce evaporation. With increasing temperature is the burning mass, and also change its color and flavor. Therefore, for the concentration of fruit and vegetable purees, you must use equipment whose design takes into account the possible rheological and thermal problems. The analysis of literary data structures evaporators and studies, we developed a system for producing concentrated pastes of fruit and vegetable raw materials. Developed installation can increase the quality of the finished product due to the intensification of the process of concentration, to reduce material and energy resources, increase productivity.

  11. Innovative hyperspectral imaging-based techniques for quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, non-destructive sensing techniques for fast and more effective quality assessment of fruits and vegetables are needed to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand for better, more consistent and safer food products. Over the past 15 years, hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a new generation of...

  12. Influence of behavioral theory on fruit and vegetable intervention effectiveness among children: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that interventions clearly based on theory, multiple theories, or a formal intervention planning process will be more effective in changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children than interventions with no behavioral theoretical foundati...

  13. Translating Government Policy into Recipes for Success! Nutrition Criteria Promoting Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina M.; Nicolson, Clemency; Pulker, Claire E.; Binns, Colin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop nutrition criteria consistent with Australian dietary guidelines encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption for branding recipes with the "Go for 2&5" campaign message. Design: Dietary policies, guidelines, food selection guides, nutrient targets, existing consumer education programs' nutrition criteria, food…

  14. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  15. Stability of vitamin C in frozen raw fruit and vegetable homogenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retention of vitamin C in homogenized raw fruits and vegetables stored under laboratory conditions prior to analysis was investigated. Raw collard greens, clementines, and potatoes were chosen, to be representative of food matrices to be sampled in USDA’s National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program...

  16. Religiosity and Spirituality and the Intake of Fruit, Vegetable, and Fat: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Min Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review articles investigating the relationship between religion and spirituality (R/S and fruit, vegetable, and fat intake. Methods. PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for studies published in English prior to March 2013. The studies were divided into two categories: denominational studies and degree of R/S studies. The degree of R/S studies was further analyzed to (1 determine the categories of R/S measures and their relationship with fruit, vegetable, and fat intake, (2 evaluate the quality of the R/S measures and the research design, and (3 determine the categories of reported relationship. Results. Thirty-nine studies were identified. There were 14 denominational studies and 21 degree of R/S studies, and 4 studies were a combination of both. Only 20% of the studies reported validity and 52% reported reliability of the R/S measures used. All studies were cross-sectional, and only one attempted mediation analysis. Most studies showed a positive association with fruit and vegetable intake and a mixed association with fat intake. Conclusion. The positive association between R/S and fruit and vegetable intake may be one possible link between R/S and positive health outcome. However, the association with fat intake was mixed, and recommendations for future research are made.

  17. Executive functions and consumption of fruits/ vegetables and high saturated fat foods in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbers, Christine A; Young, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Executive functions play a critical role in regulating eating behaviors and have been shown to be associated with overeating which over time can result in overweight and obesity. There has been a paucity of research examining the associations among healthy dietary behaviors and executive functions utilizing behavioral rating scales of executive functioning. The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations among fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of foods high in saturated fat, and executive functions using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version. A total of 240 university students completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning-Adult Version, the 26-Item Eating Attitudes Test, and the Diet subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with two separate models in which fruit and vegetable consumption and saturated fat intake were the outcomes. Demographic variables, body mass index, and eating styles were controlled for in the analysis. Better initiation skills were associated with greater intake of fruits and vegetables in the last 7 days (standardized beta = -0.17; p Executive functions that predict fruit and vegetable consumption are distinct from those that predict avoidance of foods high in saturated fat. Future research should investigate whether continued skill enhancement in initiation and inhibition following standard behavioral interventions improves long-term maintenance of weight loss. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Status of conservation of the indigenous leaf vegetables and fruits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diversity of indigenous leaf vegetables and fruits of Africa is being seriously eroded as a result of multiplicity of environmental, political and socio-economic factors. This paper discusses some new development-related and crises factors that have interacted in concert to amplify the spate of loss of the indigenous leaf ...

  19. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Diet Deterioration and Food Retail Structure: Why Are Italians Eating Less Fruits and Vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Castellari, E.; Sckokay, P.; Bimbo, F.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of Italy presenting one of the largest consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) among EU Countries, the number of adult Italians consuming the recommended daily amounts of FV is declining, especially in the South of the country, were the expansion of the food retail industry has been

  1. Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption among preschoolers: evaluation of color me healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kendra E; Dunn, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Determine whether Color Me Healthy (CMH), an interactive nutrition and physical activity program for preschool children, increases fruit and vegetable consumption. Intervention study. Data were collected at baseline, 1 week post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Child care centers. Preschool children (n = 263) in 17 child care centers. Child care centers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions; children (n = 165) in 10 centers received the CMH curriculum, and children (n = 98) in 7 centers acted as comparisons and did not receive the curriculum. Process and outcome evaluation. Consumption of fruit and vegetable snacks. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modeling. Children who received CMH significantly increased their consumption of fruit snacks by approximately 20.8% and vegetable snacks by approximately 33.1% between baseline assessment and the assessment conducted 3 months after the completion of the CMH program. Hierarchical linear modeling determined that group assignment (ie, CMH or control) was the only significant predictor of fruit and vegetable consumption. Findings suggest that CMH may be used in child care settings for developing healthful eating habits. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food environment of fruits and vegetables in the territory of the Health Academy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza

    2015-11-01

    This study provides a spatial analysis of distribution and access to commercial fruit and vegetable establishments within the territory of a representative sample of public fitness facilities known as the Health Academy Program (HAP) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study evaluated commercial food establishments within a buffer area based on a radius of 1,600 meters around each of 18 randomly selected fitness facilities. Quality of access to fruits and vegetables was assessed by the Healthy Food Store Index (HFSI), consisting of the variables availability, variety, and advertising of fruits, vegetables and ultra-processed foods. The analysis was based on calculation of the Kernel intensity estimator, nearest neighbor method, and Ripley K-function. Of the 336 food establishments, 61.3% were green grocers and open-air markets, with a median HFSI of 11 (5 to 16). In only 17% of the territories, the majority of the "hot area" establishments displayed better access to healthy foods, and only three areas showed a clustering pattern. The study showed limited access to commercial establishments supplying healthy fruits and vegetables within the territory of the public fitness program.

  3. The Fruit & Vegetable Screener in the 2000 California Health Interview Survey: Scoring Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoring procedures were developed to convert the individual respondent's screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for servings of fruits and vegetables using USDA's 1994-96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII 94-96) dietary recall data.

  4. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Cho, Yang-Hee; Park, Juyeon; Shin, Hye-Rim; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data for health policy creation by estimating phytonutrient intake and identifying major food sources of phytonutrients. Dietary recall data collected in the 2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and phytonutrient database of the Korea National Academy of Agricultural Science were used in this study. The proportions of the population satisfying recommended dietary guidelines for fruits and vegetables were estimated, and phytonutrient intake was compared between populations who consumed the recommended intake and those who did not. The study found that 5.3% of subjects satisfied the recommended fruit and vegetable intake. In particular, the proportions of adolescents (13 to 18 years of age) and young adults (19 to 39 years of age) meeting the recommended fruit and vegetable intake were lower than other age groups (Pvegetable consumption compared with those who did not. Carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, tomatoes, and watermelons were found to be major sources of carotenoids. Flavonoids were mainly obtained from persimmons, mandarins, apples, grapes, onions, soybeans, and chestnuts. However, one or two food items contributed to nearly all intake of each phytonutrient, suggesting a lack of variety. In conclusion, the Korean population needs to consume a larger quantity and variety of fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among in-school adolescents in seven African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2010-12-01

    To present data on fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among African in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 17,656) of school children aged 13-15 years in seven African countries. Thirty-six percent (36%) and 23% of 13-15-year-old boys and 32.6 and 22.3% of the 13-15-year-old girls had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumption (less than once per day). In multivariate analysis, inadequate fruits consumption was associated with distal factors such as going without food (OR = 1.50, P = .001), being male (OR = 1.23, P = .012) and higher education (OR = 1.56, P = .001), proximal factors including lack of care giver connectedness (OR = 1.41, P = .000), and smoking (OR = 1.52, P = .004), and inadequate vegetables consumption was associated with lack of care giver supervision (OR = 1.57, P = .000), no close friends (OR = 1.55, P = .000) and having less education (OR = 0.73, P = .002). The results stress the need for intervention programmes aimed at increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, targeting proximal factors such as the family environment, distal factors by aiming at reaching adolescents from lower socio-economic groups and integrating other risk factors such as substance use and mental distress into health promotion among adolescents.

  6. Fruit and vegetable attitudes, norms, and intake in low-income youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) attitudes and norms have been shown to influence intake in youth; yet research with low-income youth and studies supplementing self-report with objective measures of intake are lacking. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated FV intake, FV attitudes, and FV norms were coll...

  7. The Influence of Social Involvement, Neighborhood Aesthetics, and Community Garden Participation on Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobader, Mah-J.; Turbin, Mark S.; Hale, James W.; Buchenau, Michael; Marshall, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We considered the relationship between an urban adult population's fruit and vegetable consumption and several selected social and psychological processes, beneficial aesthetic experiences, and garden participation. Methods. We conducted a population-based survey representing 436 residents across 58 block groups in Denver, Colorado, from 2006 to 2007. We used multilevel statistical models to evaluate the survey data. Results. Neighborhood aesthetics, social involvement, and community garden participation were significantly associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Community gardeners consumed fruits and vegetables 5.7 times per day, compared with home gardeners (4.6 times per day) and nongardeners (3.9 times per day). Moreover, 56% of community gardeners met national recommendations to consume fruits and vegetables at least 5 times per day, compared with 37% of home gardeners and 25% of nongardeners. Conclusions. Our study results shed light on neighborhood processes that affect food-related behaviors and provides insights about the potential of community gardens to affect these behaviors. The qualities intrinsic to community gardens make them a unique intervention that can narrow the divide between people and the places where food is grown and increase local opportunities to eat better. PMID:21680931

  8. Tissue Printing to Visualize Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase in Vegetables, Fruits, and Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melberg, Amanda R.; Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    A simple tissue-printing procedure to determine the tissue location of the endogenous enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms is described. In tissue printing, cell contents from the surface of a cut section of the tissue are transferred to an adsorptive surface, commonly a nitrocellulose…

  9. Functional Applications of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes in the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toushik, Sazzad Hossen; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Lee, Jin-Sung; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2017-03-01

    Cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin (carbohydrate), and lignin (noncarbohydrate) polymers are the main substrates of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. They are present in large amounts in the primary cell wall and dietary fibers of major fruits and vegetables. During processing of fruits and vegetables to the corresponding final food products, lignocellulosic substrates are hydrolyzed by different lignocellulolytic enzymes. Currently, lignocellulolytic enzymes such as cellulases, xylanases, pectinases, and laccases are extensively used during the processing of fruits and vegetables, in applications like texturizing and flavoring of products in the food industries. The present article provides an updated overview of functional applications of lignocellulolytic enzymes in the juice processing, oil extraction, and alcoholic beverage processing industries. Extensive use of lignocellulolytic enzymes in different food processing industries not only accelerates the production rates but also improves product quality. It is also possible to ensure the efficient use of fruits and vegetables globally by employing lignocellulolytic enzymes in the corresponding processing industries to convert them into food commodities, which will not only raise their economic value in the global market but also increase food availability, which will help mitigate nutritional problems worldwide. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Development of a Handmade Conductivity Measurement Apparatus and Application to Vegetables and Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Seng; Kita, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple handmade conductivity measurement apparatus based on a Kohlrausch bridge with inexpensive materials. We have examined the reliability of this apparatus with standard solutions and then measured juices of vegetables and fruits as well as a sports drink. Comparisons to total alkali content as…

  11. Quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption and cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Streppel, M.T.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2004-01-01

    The recommendation for fruit and vegetable intake includes eating a certain quantity as well as a variety. The evidence for eating a variety is limited. We examined the association with cancer in a prospective cohort study among 730 Dutch men aged 65-84 yr followed for 10 years, resulting in 138

  12. Low fruit and vegetable intake and its associated factors in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (age, sex, location, income, education), those in rural area of residence ate ≥5 servings of fruits and vegetable [OR and (95% CI) [2.77 (1.60, 4.80)] than ... within the same countries based on income status, residence area of people and other .... 2017;31(Special Issue). Internet File Streaming System (IFSS) software. IFSS.

  13. Increasing Primary School Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: A Review of the Food Dudes Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charlotte; Upton, Penney; Upton, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence base of the Food Dudes healthy eating programme, specifically the short- and long-term effectiveness of the intervention for consumption of fruit and vegetables both at school and at home and displacement of unhealthy snack consumption. Design/Methodology/Approach: Articles were…

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption among community dwelling elderly in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M Sabzghabaee

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Most elderly people consumed less than the recom-mended levels of fruits and vegetables. From the point of view of prevention of chronic disease, health education programs which targeted elderly people particularly for those at the risk of low consumption are needed and recommended.

  15. When Fruits and Vegetables Are Optional, Elementary School Children Choose Processed over Whole Offerings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Sarah A.; Yon, Bethany A.; Taylor, Jennifer C.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Increasing children's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is an important goal for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). In 2012 the NSLP began requiring students to select a FV. The objective of this study was to compare children's FV choices in two school cafeteria environments a year before these new USDA regulations…

  16. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of overall mortality and gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are considered a major part of a healthy diet, because consumption increases satiety and reduces total energy intake by replacing more energy dense foods. In addition, they contain dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals and thousands of naturally occurring biologically active

  17. Order of 6 Jan 1988 on the treatment by ionizing radiation of dried fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Order specifies the conditions required for authorizing possession with a view to sale or putting on sale dried vegetables and dried fruit which have been irradiated for purposes of insect control through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation or to electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 million electron-volts [fr

  18. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age-

  19. Monitoring and Optimization of the Process of Drying Fruits and Vegetables Using Computer Vision: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Raponi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given regarding the most recent use of non-destructive techniques during drying used to monitor quality changes in fruits and vegetables. Quality changes were commonly investigated in order to improve the sensory properties (i.e., appearance, texture, flavor and aroma, nutritive values, chemical constituents and mechanical properties of drying products. The application of single-point spectroscopy coupled with drying was discussed by virtue of its potentiality to improve the overall efficiency of the process. With a similar purpose, the implementation of a machine vision (MV system used to inspect foods during drying was investigated; MV, indeed, can easily monitor physical changes (e.g., color, size, texture and shape in fruits and vegetables during the drying process. Hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy is a sophisticated technology since it is able to combine the advantages of spectroscopy and machine vision. As a consequence, its application to drying of fruits and vegetables was reviewed. Finally, attention was focused on the implementation of sensors in an on-line process based on the technologies mentioned above. This is a necessary step in order to turn the conventional dryer into a smart dryer, which is a more sustainable way to produce high quality dried fruits and vegetables.

  20. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Special School Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, W K; Ling, T K

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the fruit and vegetable consumption intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong by the application of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. 50 students with mild intellectual disability (30 male and 20 female), ranging in age from 15 to 38 years, were participated in this study. By means of face-to-face interviews, demographic data, Food Preference and variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control were measured. 20%, 28% and 10% students with mild intellectual disability were rated to be overweight, obese and severely obese respectively. The rest of 10% were classified to be underweight. Regarding the daily intake of fruit and vegetable, 96% students with mild intellectual disability failed to consume sufficient amount. The variables of Theory of Planned Behaviour explained 47.7% of fruit and vegetable consumption intention with significant factors of Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control. Food Preference was found to be a useful construct and further improve the prediction by about 7% after incorporating into the model. Results of this study indicated that Theory of Planned Behaviour is a useful model to predict dietary intention of students with mild intellectual disability in Hong Kong. Food Preference was a significant predictor to model the intention of fruit and vegetable consumption among students other than Attitude, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioural Control.

  1. Study on E. coli and Salmonella biofilms from fresh fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, Balagopal; Sundar, Kothandapani; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2017-04-01

    Foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables are on the rise worldwide. Biofilm formation is one of the important traits of pathogens making them strongly attached to substrates as well as express virulence phenotypes. Present study investigates the biofilm forming ability of E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables. A total of 53 strains, including 35 E. coli and 18 Salmonella sp. isolated from different fruit and vegetable samples were taken into account for the study. Initial screening for biofilm formation was done using Congo Red agar plate test. Results revealed that 22.8% E. coli and 22.2% Salmonella sp. were potential biofilm formers. However, the MTP (Micro-Titre Plate) assay suggested more isolates of both E. coli and Salmonella sp. were moderate to strong biofilm producers. Agar plate diffusion assay with Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL-4 showed the production of quorum signaling molecules (AHLs) by three isolates of E. coli and one Salmonella sp. Two E. coli isolates showed a significant amount of EPS production indicating higher biofilm forming potential. The Presence of LUX R homologue gene ( sdi A) in two of the Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR which demonstrated their potential pathogenicity. Results of the work underline the biofilm forming and potentially virulent capacities of isolates from the surface of fruits and vegetables.

  2. Implementation of strategies to increase adolescents' access to fruit and vegetables at school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Anne Kristine; Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Access to fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with adolescents' FV consumption. However, little is known about implementation of strategies to increase access to FV at schools. We examined the implementation of two environmental components designed to increase access to FV at Danish...

  3. Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

  4. Validity of a competing food choice construct regarding fruit and vegetable consumption among urban college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. An urban public college with a large, diverse student population. A convenience sample of 408 college freshmen. A "competing food choice" construct and fruit and vegetable intake. Factor analysis, Cronbach α, and correlation coefficients were used to determine the reliability and validity of the construct. Three factors were produced from the factor analysis of the 11-item competing food choice construct: "competitive food" barriers (Cronbach alpha = 0.73), fruit and vegetable-related "time" barriers (Cronbach alpha = 0.67), and "quality" barriers (Cronbach alpha = 0.64). Construct validity assessments revealed significant inverse correlations between fruit and vegetable consumption and competitive food barriers (r = -0.15, P food choice" construct demonstrated satisfactory reliability and construct validity among college freshmen. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a peer modelling and rewards-based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, C F; Horne, P J; Tapper, K; Bowdery, M; Egerton, C

    2004-03-01

    To measure children's consumption of, and liking for, fruit and vegetables and how these are altered by a peer modelling and rewards-based intervention. In this initial evaluation of the programme, children's consumption of fruit and vegetables were compared within and across baseline and intervention phases. Three primary schools in England and Wales. In total, 402 children, aged from 4 to 11 y. Over 16 days, children watched six video adventures featuring heroic peers (the Food Dudes) who enjoy eating fruit and vegetables, and received small rewards for eating these foods themselves. Fruit and vegetable consumption was measured (i) in school at lunchtime and snacktime using a five-point observation scale, with inter-rated reliability and weighed validation tests; and (ii) at home using parental recall. A questionnaire measured children's liking for fruit and vegetables before and after the intervention. Consumption during the intervention was significantly higher than during baseline at lunchtime and at snacktime (PTesco and Birds Eye Wall's.

  6. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2005-01-01

    season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... to fruits and vegetables in pollen-sensitized adults, but also a discrepancy between the prevalence of sensitization to fruits and vegetables and the clinical relevance in different pollen-sensitized groups with symptoms in the pollen season as a significant factor....

  7. Farmers’ market use is associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse southern rural communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While farmers’ markets are a potential strategy to increase access to fruits and vegetables in rural areas, more information is needed regarding use of farmers’ markets among rural residents. Thus, this study’s purpose was to examine (1) socio-demographic characteristics of participants; (2) barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping in southern rural communities; and (3) associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with a purposive sample of farmers’ market customers and a representative sample of primary household food shoppers in eastern North Carolina (NC) and the Appalachian region of Kentucky (KY). Customers were interviewed using an intercept survey instrument at farmers’ markets. Representative samples of primary food shoppers were identified via random digit dial (RDD) cellular phone and landline methods in counties that had at least one farmers’ market. All questionnaires assessed socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, barriers to and facilitators of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported height and weight. The main outcome measures were fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI. Descriptive statistics were used to examine socio-demographic characteristics, food shopping patterns, and barriers and facilitators to farmers’ market shopping. Linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between farmers’ market use with fruit and vegetable consumption and BMI, controlling for age, race, education, and gender. Results Among farmers’ market customers, 44% and 55% (NC and KY customers, respectively) reported shopping at a farmers’ market at least weekly, compared to 16% and 18% of NC and KY RDD respondents. Frequently reported barriers to farmers’ market shopping were market days and hours, “only come when I need something”, extreme

  8. Review: computer vision applied to the inspection and quality control of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Saldaña

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the current existing literature concerning the inspection of fruits and vegetables with the application of computer vision, where the techniques most used to estimate various properties related to quality are analyzed. The objectives of the typical applications of such systems include the classification, quality estimation according to the internal and external characteristics, supervision of fruit processes during storage or the evaluation of experimental treatments. In general, computer vision systems do not only replace manual inspection, but can also improve their skills. In conclusion, computer vision systems are powerful tools for the automatic inspection of fruits and vegetables. In addition, the development of such systems adapted to the food industry is fundamental to achieve competitive advantages.

  9. The evaluation of trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee, Khadijeh; Rezvani Fard, Mehdi; Khorsandi, Jamshid; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements play a significant role in biological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trace elements of interest in kidney disease in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucamber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow Capsicum annuum (Yellow bell pepper) and red Capsicum annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 to March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of INAA showed that, the concentrations of Fe (Iron), Mn (Manganese) and Zn (Zinc) were varied from <10-50.0 mgkg-1, 6.8-15.0 mgkg-1 and 10.0-23.0 mgkg-1, respectively. The elemental concentration of Fe, Mn and Zn in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable Upper Intake Level (UIL). The results of this study revealed that, considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:25340168

  10. Vegetable and fruit intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Goto, Atsushi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kato, Masayuki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-02-28

    Vegetable and fruit intake has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and CVD, but its relationship to the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between vegetable and fruit intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 21,269 men and 27,168 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no history of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Intake of vegetables and fruit was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years was estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 896 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intake of vegetables and fruit combined or fruit only was not associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, there was an approximately 20%, albeit not statistically significant, risk reduction associated with vegetables (men only), green leafy vegetables (men and women) and cruciferous vegetables (men only). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among obese or smoking men than non-obese or non-smoking men. In conclusion, although a small beneficial effect of vegetables, especially green leafy and cruciferous vegetables, cannot be excluded, vegetable and fruit intake may not be appreciably associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes for Japanese adults.

  11. Limited percentages of adults in Washington State meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended intakes of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Myduc L; VanEenwyk, Juliet; Bensley, Lillian

    2012-05-01

    Nutritious diets that include sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce risk for chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend four to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables daily for energy intake levels of 1,000 to 3,200 kcal, including seven to 13 servings for 1,600 to 3,000 kcal/day as recommended for adults aged ≥25 years. The 2006-2007 Washington Adult Health Survey, a cross-sectional study designed to measure risk factors for cardiovascular disease among a representative sample of Washington State residents aged ≥25 years, included a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The FFQ included approximately 120 food items and summary questions for fruits and vegetables that were used to compute energy intake and two measures of fruit and vegetable intake. Measure 1 was computed as the sum of intake of individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items; Measure 2 combined the summary questions with selected individual FFQ fruit and vegetable items. Depending on the measure used, approximately 14% to 22% of 519 participants with complete information met the guidelines for fruits, 11% to 15% for vegetables, and 5% to 6% for both fruits and vegetables. Participants aged ≥65 years and women were more likely to meet recommendations, compared with younger participants and men. Despite decades of public health attention, the vast majority of Washington State residents do not consume the recommended amount of fruits or vegetables daily. These findings underscore the need for developing and evaluating new approaches to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  13. Types of fruits and vegetables used in commercial baby foods and their contribution to sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ada Lizbeth; McLean, Kimberley; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-10-01

    Fruits and vegetables (F&V) are often featured in names of commercial baby foods (CBFs). We aimed to survey all available CBFs in the UK market with F&V included in the food name in order to describe the amount and types of F&V used in CBF and their contribution to total sugar content. Food labels were used to identify F&V and total sugar content. Fruits were more common than vegetables in names of the 329 CBFs identified. The six most common F&V in the names were all relatively sweet: apple, banana, tomato, mango, carrot and sweet potato. The percentage of F&V in the foods ranged from a median of 94% for sweet-spoonable to 13% for dry-savoury products. Fruit content of sweet foods (n = 177) was higher than vegetable content of savoury foods (n = 152) with a median (IQR) of 64.0 g/100 g (33.0-100.0) vs. 46.0 g/100 g (33-56.7). Fruit juice was added to 18% of products. The proportion of F&V in CBF correlated significantly with sugar content for all the food types except dry-savoury food (sweet-spoonable r = 0.24, P = 0.006; savoury-spoonable r = 0.65, P fruits and relatively sweet vegetables which are unlikely to encourage preferences for bitter-tasting vegetables or other non-sweet foods. F&V contribute significantly to the total sugar content, particularly of savoury foods. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Review of antidiabetic fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices commonly consumed in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidokhti, Maliheh Najari; Jäger, Anna K

    2017-04-06

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and its prevalence is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Modifications of lifestyle such as suitable diet and exercise programs along with pharmacotherapy and education of patients are beneficial therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes. The ethnopharmacological use of herbal medicines, many of them part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits, has been developed for the treatment of diabetes due to inexpensiveness, easy availability and few side effects. Our aim is to present a review for researchers who are interested in the biologically active dietary plants traditionally utilized in the treatment of diabetes. Information was obtained from a literature search of electronic databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, Sci Finder and Cochrane. Common and scientific name of the fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and the words 'antidiabetic', 'hypoglycemic', 'anti-hyperglycemic', 'type 2 diabetes' were used as keywords for search. Certain fruits and vegetables are functional foods and their consumption reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemic effects of fruits and vegetables may be due to their inducing nature on pancreatic β-cells for insulin secretion, or bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids and anthocyanins, which act as insulin-like molecules or insulin secretagogues. This write-up covers hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic activities of some dietary fruits, vegetables, beverages, oils and spices and their active hypoglycemic constituents. Including such plant species in the diet might improve management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Curricular activities and change in determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thea Suldrup; Rasmussen, Mette; Jørgensen, Sanne Ellegaard

    2017-01-01

    ) schools at follow-up; and 2) associations between curriculum dose received and delivered (student and teacher data aggregated to school- and class-level) and these determinants among students at intervention schools only. At follow-up, more students from intervention than control schools knew......-component school-based intervention (2010 - 2011) on key determinants of adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake and 2) if dose of curricular activities was positively associated with change in these determinants. Using multi-level linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by gender and socioeconomic...... the recommendation for vegetable intake (OR 1.56, CI:1.18, 2.06) and number of fruits liked (taste preferences) increased by 0.22 (CI:0.04, 0.41). At class-level, curriculum dose received was positively associated with proportion of students knowing the recommendation for vegetable intake (OR 1.06, CI:1.002, 1...

  16. Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruit and vegetables from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Larsen, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    contaminated soils and in a reference soil, whereas fruits were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated private gardens. The results showed elevated levels of several trace elements and PAHs in the vegetables from contaminated soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCF values), based on dry weight, were below......The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of seven trace elements and five PAHs in crop plants in order to establish advice regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables grown in soils contaminated by trace elements and PAHs. In a field experiment, vegetables were grown in two...... 1, except for those of Cd in lettuce and carrot with peel from uncontaminated soil. In most cases, BCF values were decreasing with increasing concentrations in soil. From the heavily contaminated soil, BCF values for Pb in lettuce, potato, and carrot with peel were 0.001, 0.002, and 0...

  17. Seasonal changes in quality of wastewater from fruit and vegetable industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchlik, Monika; Ignatowicz, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The paper aimed at evaluating the seasonal changes in quality of wastewater from facilities producing fruit and vegetable juices, processed and frozen products, and vegetable concentrates. The study revealed that wastewater from fruit and vegetable industry contain large amounts of organic substances expressed as BOD5 (minimum - 500 mgO2/dm3, maximum - 6 100 mgO2/dm3) and COD (minimum - 806 mg O2/dm3, maximum - 7 732 mg O2/dm3), while is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Considerable seasonal oscillations in sewage load disposed by industry to sewerage, were observed. An increase of 50%-60% wastewater concentrations was found between June and October in 2013-2016 as compared to the remaining months.

  18. Investigation the possibility of Aggregation fruits and nuts, vegetables, Beans and vegetable products: Using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables, legumes and vegetable products, including commodity baskets with high proportion of nutritive value, are of great importance for policymakers of the agricultural sector. Therefore, the study of the conditions and factors affecting the demand for these goods can be predisposing advice to control the market and other factors affecting their use. But when it comes to the country at macro level of household demand, the aggregate commodity group beomes important. In cases where it is necessary to apply the fruits or vegetables as a function of household aggregation of a group of goods to be estimated, it is necessary a group of products with the scientific method to get aggregate and form a group variable as fruits or vegetables are included in the econometric model. Therefore, due to problems such as lack of access to information on each product separately, the high cost of collecting the data, missing observations, multicollinearity problem and limited degrees of freedom, we have to use grouping and composite commodities. But it is important that the correct grouping and consistent is made because of incorrect Aggregation, as specified in the error term appears on demand system estimated and Lead to biased estimation of the values of parameters and elasticity's, Which results in an incorrect picture of consumer behavior. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Because mostly, access to disaggregate of the goods is not possible, and other problems such as multicollinearity occurs by examining the separation in the econometrics model. Study of composite conditions of Agricultural commodities, as an important topic in economics, had been considered. Due to its importance in the study, condition of Aggregation fruit and nuts, all kinds of vegetables and Bean (legumes are using Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT

  19. Consumption of vegetables, fruit, and antioxidants during pregnancy and wheeze and eczema in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Y; Sasaki, S; Tanaka, K; Hirota, Y

    2010-06-01

    Two previous cohort studies showed inverse relationships between maternal vitamin E and zinc intake during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and/or asthma in the offspring. We investigated the association between maternal intake of vegetables, fruit, and selected antioxidants during pregnancy and the risk of wheeze and eczema in the offspring aged 16-24 months. Subjects were 763 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed with a diet history questionnaire. Data on symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Higher maternal intake of green and yellow vegetables, citrus fruit, and beta-carotene during pregnancy was significantly associated with a reduced risk of eczema, but not wheeze, in the offspring {adjusted odds ratios (ORs) between extreme quartiles [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] = 0.41 (0.24-0.71), 0.53 (0.30-0.93), and 0.52 (0.30-0.89), respectively}. Maternal vitamin E consumption during pregnancy was significantly inversely related to the risk of infantile wheeze, but not eczema [adjusted OR (95% CI) = 0.54 (0.32-0.90)]. No statistically significant exposure-response associations were observed between maternal intake of total vegetables, vegetables other than green and yellow vegetables, total fruit, apples, alpha-carotene, vitamin C, or zinc and the risk of wheeze or eczema in the children. Higher maternal consumption of green and yellow vegetables, citrus fruit, and beta-carotene during pregnancy may be protective against the development of eczema in the offspring. Higher maternal vitamin E intake during pregnancy may reduce the risk of infantile wheeze.

  20. Discounts on fruit and vegetables combined with a space management intervention increased sales in supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, U; Winkler, L L; Mikkelsen, B E; Bloch, P; Glümer, C

    2017-04-01

    To examine the effects of two interventions on consumer purchases of fruits and vegetables (F&V) on the Danish island of Bornholm: a 20% discount on F&V combined with improved shelf-space allocation, and improved shelf-space allocation alone. A space management intervention to promote F&V sales was performed in two large discount supermarkets on Bornholm in Denmark for 3 months (September-November 2012). In addition, a 20% discount on F&V was introduced for 3 months in one of the supermarkets ('space + price'). The effect was evaluated using sales data from the two intervention supermarkets and three control supermarkets from the same supermarket chain but in Odsherred, Denmark (control area). Both the effect on sales of fresh F&V and potential unhealthy substitution effects were evaluated using multi-level regression analyses. During the price intervention period, the index number for sales of fresh vegetables increased by 22.2% (P=0.001) in the 'space + price' intervention supermarket compared with the control supermarkets. Furthermore, the index number for the sale of organic fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 12.1% (P=0.04) and the sale of the total amount of fruit and vegetables (fresh, frozen, dried and canned) increased by 15.3% (P=0.01) compared with the control supermarkets. In the 'space only' intervention supermarket no significant increase in the sale of fruit and vegetables was found. No unhealthy substitution effects were found. In conclusion, a 20% price reduction on F&V significantly increased sales of F&V. The effect was most pronounced on vegetables and no negative/unhealthy substitution effects were found.