WorldWideScience

Sample records for greenhouse construction basic

  1. Energy consumption for different greenhouse constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djevic, M.; Dimitrijevic, A. [Department for Agricultural Engineering, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11080 Belgrade (RS)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper the influence of greenhouse construction on energy efficiency in winter lettuce production was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in Serbia region. Plastic coverings were introduced in this region as a mean of making the plant production more energy efficient. Additionally, as a means of lowering energy consumption, tunnel structures were proposed. In order to see whether the greenhouse structure influences energy consumption, four different double plastic covered greenhouses. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58 m and 8 x 25 m, one gutter-connected structure and multi-span plastic covered greenhouse. The gutter-connected structure was 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long while the multi-span structure was 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. On the basis of lettuce production output and the energy input, specific energy input, energy output-input ratio and energy productivity were estimated. Results show that the lowest energy consumption was obtained for multi-span greenhouse, 9.76 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel, 9 x 58 m, 13.93 MJ/m{sup 2}. The highest value for output-input ratio was calculated for multi-span greenhouse (0.29), followed by gutter-connected greenhouse (0.21), tunnel 9 x 58 m (0.17) and tunnel, 8 x 25 m (0.15). Results also show that energy productivity can be higher if multi-span greenhouse structures are used. (author)

  2. Design, construction and maintenance of greenhouse structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaijenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a review is given about the effects of different parts of the solar radiation and its importance for plant growth in greenhouses. Besides the most important visible part of the light (PAR), ultraviolet (UV), near infrared (NIR) and far infrared (FIR) are discussed. The strength of the

  3. Greenhouse

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PurposeThe greenhouse at ERDC’s Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) is used for germination and root-growth studies to support basic and field...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  6. Experimental Investigation of Two Modified Energy-Saving Constructions of Solar Greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermuratskii, V; Oleschuk, V.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents outcomes of experimental evaluation of operation of two structures of sustainable greenhouse systems. Thermal performance of greenhouse with on-ground heat accumulator and movable internal heat reflectors, and of greenhouse with under-ground accumulator and movable heat (roof-b......-based) reflectors, has been analyzed. Metering of solar irradiation, and temperature and humidity inside greenhouses, has been executed for different seasons and regimes. Conclusions regarding basic peculiarities of operation of two topologies of greenhouses have been formulated....

  7. Accidents in the greenhouse-construction industry of SE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alonso, José; Carreño-Ortega, Angel; Vázquez-Cabrera, Fernando J; Callejón-Ferre, Angel Jesús

    2012-01-01

    This work analyses the labour accidents in the greenhouse-construction industry of SE Spain for the period 1999-2007 through a sample of 180 accident reports. The accidents were characterised by studying 5 variables in order to know the day of the week in which the accident occurred, the hour of the day of the accident, type of accident, the region of Spain in which the accident happened, and the resulting injury. The data characterising the accidents were submitted to a descriptive multiple-correspondence analysis. The incidence of accidents in the greenhouse-construction industry presented a high mean value of 15133.7 per 100,000 workers per year. The days with the greatest incidence of accidents were Thursday and Monday, while the period of greatest number of accidents occurred in the first 4h of the workday. No significant correspondence was found between the day of the week, the hour of the day, or any of the other 3 variables studied. The types of accidents with most frequency were: cuts, punctures, contact with hard or rough material, overexertion, and falls from one level to another. The most affected parts of the anatomy were the eyes, thorax, back, sides, lower legs, and feet. The most common types of injury were bone fractures, twists and sprains, distended muscles, contusions, and being crushed. The study calls attention to the high number of accidents at work, which needs to be corrected by fulfilment of safety regulations at work, on the part of the company. Finally, recommendations are made to correct this situation of high number of accidents at work. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. 27 CFR 53.95 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to influence the sale price, or (2) The sale is made pursuant to special arrangements between a... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive sale price... AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.95 Constructive sale price; basic rules...

  9. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  11. A Program Applying Professional Safety Basics in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entisar Kadhim Rasheed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When industrial and constructional renaissance started in the world, the great interest was going on towards the equipment’s, which was the first mean for production. After industry was settled the interest was going on towards the men ship which manpower on which the production depends. It was approved that it represents the basic part in all of the processes and the protection of those individuals against dangers of these equipment’s, industry and its accidents was the basic things which was studied in many researches until it crystallized in general principles for all industries and other take care in each industry. The professional safety is concerned as restrict which aims to take care of humanitarian and material principles also to raise the production of these principles, in the aspect of safety, health and providing the suitable healthy condition to the worker so he can feel safety, confidence and sociological settle, this will increase the production. So In order to maintain the manpower of business risks and to enable them to fulfill their role better to increase production and improve the quality and maintain the machine and supporting the national economy and keep pace with industrial developments and technological came the idea of research to focus on the importance of studying the subject of occupational safety by conducting a field survey to see the reality of professional safety in the relevant departments and work sites and through a questionnaire on the subject and conduct personal interviews with those concerned in this area and to prepare a program for the application of professional safety for each resource (labor, machines, materials, money in construction sites and departments concerned.

  12. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: gabriel.maltais-landry@umontreal.ca; Maranger, Roxane [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada)], E-mail: r.maranger@umontreal.ca; Brisson, Jacques [Departement des sciences biologiques, Universite de Montreal 90, rue Vincent-D' Indy, Montreal (Ciheam), H2V 2S9 (Canada); Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)], E-mail: jacques.brisson@umontreal.ca; Chazarenc, Florent [Institut de recherche en biologie vegetale, Universite de Montreal 4101, rue Sherbrooke Est, Montreal (Ciheam), H1X 2B2 (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH{sub 4} was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH{sub 4} fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH{sub 4} fluxes but favoured CO{sub 2} production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP < 15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties. - Methane is the main greenhouse gas produced in constructed wetlands and oxygen availability is the main factor controlling fluxes.

  13. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Kim, Eun Ka; Hong, Gye Won; Herr, Young Hoi; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, Myeong Han; Baik, Sang Youl; Choo, Yong Sun; Baik, Seung Je

    1989-02-01

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  14. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Estimating greenhouse gas fluxes from constructed wetlands used for water quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanda Chuersuwan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 , nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2 fluxes were evaluated from constructed wetlands (CWs used to improve domestic wastewater quality. Experiments employed subsurface flow (SF and free water surface flow (FWS CWs planted with Cyperus spp. Results showed seasonal fluctuations of greenhouse gas fluxes. Greenhouse gas fluxes from SF-CWs and FWS-CWS were significantly different (p<0.05 while pollutant removal efficiencies of both CWs were not significantly different. The average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes from SF-CWs were 2.9±3.5, 1.0±1.7, and 15.2±12.3 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, corresponding to the average global warming potential (GWP of 392 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. For FWS-CWs, the average CH4 , N2O and CO2 fluxes were 5.9±4.8, 1.8±1.0, and 29.6±20.2 mg/m2 /hr, respectively, having an average GWP of 698 mg CO2 equivalents/m2 /hr. Thus, FWS-CWs have a higher GWP than SF-CWs when they were used as a system for domestic water improvement.

  16. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-2 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... there is common control, whether or not such control is actually exercised to influence the sale price... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; basic rules. 48.4216(b... to Manufacturers Taxes § 48.4216(b)-2 Constructive sale price; basic rules. (a) In general. Section...

  17. Design and construction of a basic principle simulator: an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, O.; Galdoz, E.; Flury, C.; Fontanini, H.; Maciel, F.; Rovere, L.; Carpio, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes activities developed over design and building of a Basic Principle Simulator for nuclear power plants. This simulator has been developed in Process Control Division of Bariloche Atomic Center, Argentina. This project was sponsored jointly by CNEA and Atomic Energy International Organization, through the United Nations Program for Development. The paper specially emphasizes aspects like: architecture design methodology of real time simulators; graphic environment and interfaces design for users and instructor interaction, and for display information; test and validation of the used models; and human resources formation. Finally describes the actual implementation of the simulator to be used in Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  18. Some basic facts about climate change: global warming and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Q.

    1993-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most profound challenges facing humidity today, Growing awareness of the problems inspired a surge of research in the relevant fields. but most of it in the form of highly technical reports which are not always comprehensible to non specialists. As a results, they often lack the authoritative but accessible information that they really need to understand the whole issue of this climate change. In this article answers to some of the very basic questions arising in the minds of general reader regarding the climate change are given. (author)

  19. Spinal fusion-hardware construct: Basic concepts and imaging review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouh, Mohamed Ragab

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of spinal images fixed with metallic hardware forms an increasing bulk of daily practice in a busy imaging department. Radiologists are required to be familiar with the instrumentation and operative options used in spinal fixation and fusion procedures, especially in his or her institute. This is critical in evaluating the position of implants and potential complications associated with the operative approaches and spinal fixation devices used. Thus, the radiologist can play an important role in patient care and outcome. This review outlines the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used imaging methods and reports on the best yield for each modality and how to overcome the problematic issues associated with the presence of metallic hardware during imaging. Baseline radiographs are essential as they are the baseline point for evaluation of future studies should patients develop symptoms suggesting possible complications. They may justify further imaging workup with computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or nuclear medicine studies as the evaluation of a patient with a spinal implant involves a multi-modality approach. This review describes imaging features of potential complications associated with spinal fusion surgery as well as the instrumentation used. This basic knowledge aims to help radiologists approach everyday practice in clinical imaging. PMID:22761979

  20. Environmental impacts of construction materials. A report on the contribution of construction materials to greenhouse gas emissions of construction; Rakennusmateriaalien ympaeristoevaikutukset. Selvitys rakennusmateriaalien vaikutuksesta rakentamisen kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin, tiivistelmaeraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruuska, A.; Haekkinen, T.; Vares, S.; Korhonen, M.-R.; Myllymaa, T.

    2013-05-15

    As the energy performance of new construction improves and the related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions diminish the carbon footprint of construction materials becomes more important. One objective in the current government's programme is to take into account construction materials and products in the energy performance assessment of buildings. At the request of the Ministry of the Environment, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the Finnish Environment Institute analysed, through a case study, the significance of the environmental impacts of construction materials. The aim was to develop preliminary recommendations for guiding construction. The case study calculated the overall GHG emissions from the materials used in an apartment building over its life cycle and estimated the range of emissions. In addition, the amount of construction waste was assessed, as was the effects of waste management and waste utilisation processes on GHG emissions. This report presents a summary of the results. According to this case study, GHG emissions can vary in typical multi-storey residential buildings within the range of 1 to 2.2 or 1 to 3.9 when the site foundation work also taken into account. The study shows that the construction materials and related processes contribute significantly to the GHG emissions of a building over its life cycle. In fact the level of significance is of the same order as the heating of spaces in an A-class energy performance building. The efficient recycling of materials can contribute to reductions in GHG emissions. The study showed that the estimated benefit was 9 % of the total life-cycle emissions. In the future, specific assessments of different types of waste could look at opportunities for the recycling and reuse of critical materials. Plastics and wood are especially important waste components. Future research topics include improving the use of recycled materials, collecting information on user experiences and enhancing quality

  1. Basic national requirements for safe design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have to be save. Vendors and utilities operating such plants, are convinced that their plants meet this requirement. Who, however, is establishing the safety requirements to be met by those manufacturing and operating nuclear power plants. What are the mechanisms to control whether the features provided assure the required safety level. Who controls whether the required and planned safety features are really provided. Who is eventually responsible for assuring safety after commissioning of a nuclear power plant. These fundamental questions being raised in many discussions on safety and environmental protection are dealt with in the following sections: (1) Fundamental safety requirements on nuclear power plants, in which such items as risk, legal bases and licensing procedure are discussed, (2) Surveillance during construction, in which safety analysis report, siting, safety evaluation, document examination, quality assurance, and commissioning testing are dealt with, (3) Operating tests and conditions in which recurrent inspections, environmental protection during operation, investigation of abnormal occurences and backfitting requirements as reviewed, and (4) Safety philosophy and safety policy to conclude this presentation. The German approach to nuclear safety serves as an example for an effective way of assuring safe nuclear power. (orig.)

  2. On the issue of particularities of design and simulation of welded constructions of machine's basic parts

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaylov, V.; Porhynov, S.

    2010-01-01

    In current conditions of machine industry competitive strength of firms effectively to make the process equipment has an essential value. It predetermines the necessity of wide application of welded constructions of machine tools basic parts. The solution of this task involves development o technique permitting to calculate and optimize the basic parts of machine tools depending on conditions in each case. In the present paper the results of research of deflected mode of machine tool basic pa...

  3. Construction of basic match schedules for sports competitions by using graph theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Arjan; Schreuder, J.A.M.; Burke, Edmund; Carter, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Basic Match Schedules are important for constructing sports timetables. Firstly these schedules guarantee the fairness of the sports competitions and secondly they reduce the complexity of the problem. This paper presents an approach to the problem of finding Basic Match Schedules for sports

  4. Developing wood construction in France in order to enhance energy independence, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and develop employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    In France, forests represent a third of the surface of the whole country, whereas the national commercial balance on transformed wood shows a large deficit. A well designed development of wood production and transformation for the construction sector could induce many beneficial effects: diminution of greenhouse gas (CO_2) emissions related to the production of construction materials (cement, steel); substitution of a part of space heating fuels by wood collection and transformation by-products and wastes; and decrease of imports of hydrocarbons (through fuel substitution) and transformed woods (through a better transformation in France of timbers grown in French forests). Some recommendations concerning the development of the wood construction sector are given

  5. Pollutant swapping: greenhouse gas emissions from wetland systems constructed to mitigate agricultural pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse (non-point) water pollution from agricultural land continues to challenge water quality management, requiring the adoption of new land management practices. The use of constructed agricultural wetlands is one such practice, designed to trap multiple pollutants mobilised by rainfall prior to them reaching receiving water. Through capturing and storing pollutants in bottom sediments, it could be hypothesised that the abundance of nutrients stored in the anoxic conditions commonly found in these zones may lead to pollutant swapping. Under these circumstances, trapped material may undergo biogeochemical cycling to change chemical or physical form and thereby become more problematic or mobile within the environment. Thus, constructed agricultural wetlands designed to mitigate against one form of pollution may in fact offset the created benefits by 'swapping' this pollution into other forms and pathways, such as through release to the atmosphere. Pollutant swapping to the atmosphere has been noted in analogous wetland systems designed to treat municipal and industrial wastewaters, with significant fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O being recorded in some cases. However the small size, low level of engineering and variable nutrient/sediment inputs which are features of constructed agricultural wetlands, means that this knowledge is not directly transferable. Therefore, more information is required when assessing whether a wetland's potential to act as hotspot for pollution swapping outweighs its potential to act as a mitigation tool for surface water pollution. Here we present results from an on-going monitoring study at a trial agricultural wetland located in small a mixed-use catchment in Cumbria, UK. Estimates were made of CH4, CO2 and N2O flux from the wetland surface using adapted floating static chambers, which were then directly compared with fluxes from an undisturbed riparian zone. Results indicate that while greenhouse gas flux from the wetland may be

  6. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gases emissions in constructed wetlands: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Fenton, O.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Richards, K. G.

    2014-07-01

    The nitrogen (N) removal efficiency of constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and does not alone explain if the removed species are reduced by physical attenuation or if they are transformed to other reactive forms (pollution swapping). There are many pathways for the removed N to remain in the system: accumulation in the sediments, leaching to groundwater (nitrate-NO3- and ammonium-NH4+), emission to atmosphere via nitrous oxide- N2O and ammonia and/or conversion to N2 gas and adsorption to sediments. The kinetics of these pathways/processes varies with CWs management and therefore needs to be studied quantitatively for the sustainable use of CWs. For example, the quality of groundwater underlying CWs with regards to the reactive N (Nr) species is largely unknown. Equally, there is a dearth of information on the extent of Nr accumulation in soils and discharge to surface waters and air. Moreover, CWs are rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and produce substantial amounts of CO2 and CH4. These dissolved carbon (C) species drain out to ground and surface waters and emit to the atmosphere. The dynamics of dissolved N2O, CO2 and CH4 in CWs is a key "missing piece" in our understanding of global greenhouse gas budgets. In this review we provide an overview of the current knowledge and discussion about the dynamics of C and N in CWs and their likely impacts on aquatic and atmospheric environments. We suggest that the fate of various N species in CWs and their surface emissions and subsurface drainage fluxes need to be evaluated in a holistic way to better understand their potential for pollution swapping. Research on the process based N removal and balancing the end products into reactive and benign forms are critical to assess environmental impacts of CWs. Thus we strongly suggest that in situ N transformation and fate of the transformation products with regards to pollution swapping requires further detailed examination.

  7. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions in constructed wetlands treating wastewater: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, M. M. R.; Richards, K. G.; Healy, M. G.; Gill, L.; Müller, C.; Johnston, P.; Fenton, O.

    2016-01-01

    The removal efficiency of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in constructed wetlands (CWs) is very inconsistent and frequently does not reveal whether the removal processes are due to physical attenuation or whether the different species have been transformed to other reactive forms. Previous research on nutrient removal in CWs did not consider the dynamics of pollution swapping (the increase of one pollutant as a result of a measure introduced to reduce a different pollutant) driven by transformational processes within and around the system. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by reviewing the biogeochemical dynamics and fate of C and N in CWs and their potential impact on the environment, and by presenting novel ways in which these knowledge gaps may be eliminated. Nutrient removal in CWs varies with the type of CW, vegetation, climate, season, geographical region, and management practices. Horizontal flow CWs tend to have good nitrate (NO3-) removal, as they provide good conditions for denitrification, but cannot remove ammonium (NH4+) due to limited ability to nitrify NH4+. Vertical flow CWs have good NH4+ removal, but their denitrification ability is low. Surface flow CWs decrease nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions but increase methane (CH4) emissions; subsurface flow CWs increase N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but decrease CH4 emissions. Mixed species of vegetation perform better than monocultures in increasing C and N removal and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but empirical evidence is still scarce. Lower hydraulic loadings with higher hydraulic retention times enhance nutrient removal, but more empirical evidence is required to determine an optimum design. A conceptual model highlighting the current state of knowledge is presented and experimental work that should be undertaken to address knowledge gaps across CWs, vegetation and wastewater types, hydraulic loading rates and regimes, and retention times, is suggested. We recommend that

  9. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From an economic viewpoint, tomato is considered as the second most valuable crop after potato. It is also preceded by the potato in terms of per capita consumption in the world. In 2008, the cultivation area used for the tomato as equal to 163,539 hectares in Iran and the production of it was equal to 5,887,715 tons with an average production of 117,887 tons in 4352 hectares in the provinces, respectively. Having high production volume and quality, costly hybrid seeds are currently used for the major planting areas of vegetable in Iran. Most of the used transplanted seedlings are 83%. Since the seeds are expensive, the percentage of seedlings and healthy and disease-free seeds should be used for maximized germination and be transferred to the fields of open space. Preparing seedlings in transplanting trays is a technology to respond to this need. Trays are covered with a layer of Peat and Miculite fertilizers. Then, one seed is manually placed in each cell after gauging and preparing a suitable field. However, manually placing seeds is time-consuming and requires hard labor. Sixteen working labors per hour are required for 15 × 7 cell in order to have 10200 seedlings grown in 100 trays. Due to lack of adequate labor, production capacity of greenhouses is reduced, especially in the farming season when finding labor for planting vegetable sprouts is laborious. Therefore, mechanizing tray seeding operations is essential to increase the capacity of the growing industry of greenhouses in Iran. Materials and Methods: Initially, the tomato seeds were examined in the laboratory. The most important parameters of the study included size, shape, weight, the speed of getting out of the tank and the minimum carrying speed. Then, a vacuum-based single seed picking unit was prepared to investigate the factors influencing the design, so that a single tomato seed can be harvested from the masses. The most important factors considered in the

  10. Construction products performances and basic requirements for fire safety of facades in energy rehabilitation of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction product means any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works, or parts thereof, and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works. Safety in case of fire and Energy economy and heat retention represent two among seven basic requirements which building has to meet according to contemporary technical rules on planning and construction. Performances of external walls building materials (particularly reaction to fire could significantly affect to fire spread on the façade and other building parts. Therefore, façade shaping and materialization in building renewal process, has to meet the fire safety requirement, as well as the energy requirement. Brief survey of fire protection regulations development in Serbia is presented in the paper. Preventive measures for fire risk reduction in building façade energy renewal are proposed according to contemporary fire safety requirements.

  11. A comparative study of floor construction on sloping sites: an analysis of cumulative energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Ding

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to make environmentally aware decisions, there is growing interest in the comparative energy and greenhouse gas (GHG performance of competing construction methods. Little research has been done concerning competing ground floor construction methods, especially given different site variables, such as slope and soil type. A life cycle assessment approach was adopted to analyse environmental impacts, including cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions for detached housing construction in Australia. Data was drawn from 24 case study housing projects, including 12 reinforced concrete and 12 suspended timber floor projects. The data presented in the paper compares cumulative energy demand, GHG and the constituent parts of competing construction methods. The findings indicate that the timber floors use/create significantly less cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions than concrete floors—approximately 2.1 to 2.7 times less energy and 2.3 to 2.9 times less GHG. These findings are limited to the site slope and foundation soil types identified in the paper. The main application of the work is in guidance concerning the lowest environmental impact options for detached housing construction.

  12. Countries’ contributions to climate change: effect of accounting for all greenhouse gases, recent trends, basic needs and technological progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzen, M.J.; Olivier, J.J.; Hoehne, N.E.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of recent discussions at the UN climate negotiations we compared several ways of calculating historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and assessed the effect of these different approaches on countries’ relative contributions to cumulative global emissions. Elements not covered

  13. BASIC ACTUAL AND EFFECTIVENESS OF LEADERSHIP STYLES OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGERS IN SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Andi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Leading is one of the most important facets in managing construction projects, and behaving as an effective leader is a vital project manager’s responsibility to ensure that work efforts of other persons are directed toward the accomplishment of organizational objectives. This paper aims to determine basic and actual leadership styles of construction project managers in Surabaya. The effectiveness of the actual leadership style is also examined. To accomplish the objective, the paper first briefly reviews the ways in which leadership is approached. Data were then collected through an empirical survey to 46 project managers, taking Fiedler and Hersey-Blanchard’s models as the point of departure. The results indicate that the basic leadership of project managers in Surabaya falls slightly on task-oriented behavior. Meanwhile selling is the most common style used as actual leadership in practice. The paper discusses the effectiveness of the styles adopted and situational variables affecting.

  14. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid; Spinney, Mike; Heath, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/cooling purposes than thermally comparable houses employing alternative steel- or concrete-based building systems. Results for non-renewable energy consumption are essentially the same as those for total energy, reflecting the fact that most of the displaced energy is in fossil fuels. Over a 100-year period, net greenhouse gas emissions associated with wood-based houses are 20-50% lower than emissions associated with thermally comparable houses employing steel- or concrete-based building systems. Assuming 1.5 million single-family housing starts per year, the difference between wood and non-wood building systems represents about 9.6 Mt of CO 2 equivalents per year. The corresponding energy benefit associated with wood-based building materials is approximately 132 PJ year -1 . These estimates represent about 22% of embodied energy and 27% of embodied greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector of the US economy. The results of the analysis are very sensitive to assumptions and uncertainties regarding the fate of forestland that is taken out of wood production due to reduced demand for wood, the continued production of co-products where demand for wood products is reduced, and the rate at which carbon accumulates in forests

  15. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Energy Analysis of Passive House with Variable Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baďurová, Silvia; Ponechal, Radoslav; Ďurica, Pavol

    2013-11-01

    The term "passive house" refers to rigorous and voluntary standards for energy efficiency in a building, reducing its ecological footprint. There are many ways how to build a passive house successfully. These designs as well as construction techniques vary from ordinary timber constructions using packs of straw or constructions of clay. This paper aims to quantify environmental quality of external walls in a passive house, which are made of a timber frame, lightweight concrete blocks and sand-lime bricks in order to determine whether this constructional form provides improved environmental performance. Furthermore, this paper assesses potential benefit of energy savings at heating of houses in which their external walls are made of these three material alternatives. A two storey residential passive house, with floorage of 170.6 m2, was evaluated. Some measurements of air and surface temperatures were done as a calibration etalon for a method of simulation.

  16. Basic study for Joint Implementation Pipeline System Optimization Project including rehabilitation of gas pipeline in Ukraine for greenhouse gas reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a study was conducted of a project for repair/optimization of the Shebelinka, Dikanka-Kyiv, gas pipeline system in the Republic of Ukraine. As a result of the study, the following plans were proposed. The gas turbine compressor now in use has been used more than 30 years, and is needed to be changed due to the superannuation. Changes are needed of the equipment used for pipeline inspection, corrosion prevention equipment, damaged data collecting equipment, pressure detection automatic drive valve, etc. Further needed are a portable compressor by which repair work can be done without gas release into the atmospheric air. The investment required for repair/installation of these equipment totaled approximately 216 million dollars. This brings the reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions of 512,000 tons/year, and the energy conservation of 103,000 tons/year of crude oil or its equivalent. These are estimated at about 10 million dollars in greenhouse effect gas reduction and at 15 million dollars in energy conservation. (NEDO)

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from a constructed wetland - Plants as important sources of carbon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Picek, T.; Čížková, Hana; Dušek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, - (2007), s. 98-106 ISSN 0925-8574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/06/0276 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Constructed wetland * Carbon dioxine * Methane * Nitrous oxide * Ges emissions Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2007

  18. Java Series: Java Essentials I. what is Java. Basic Language Constructs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The tutorial will firstly give a very first general introduction of what is the JAVA programming language and an overview of what the Java Development environment consists of. It will briefly explain its relation to the Internet, Web browsers and Operating Systems and show how to access Java at CERN. Then, the tutorial will be centred on explaining the basic language constructs to create classes, instances, and implement inheritance, destroy objects, etc. It will show the usage of interfaces. The tutorial is open to everyone. Attendants are required to have a basic intuition on what Object Orientation is, or to have followed the previous tutorial on the Java Serires. Organiser(s): M.Marquina and R.Ramos /IT-User Support

  19. Construct and concurrent validity of a Nintendo Wii video game made for training basic laparoscopic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalink, M B; Goris, J; Heineman, E; Pierie, J P E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, H O

    2014-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) laparoscopic simulators have been around for more than 10 years and have proven to be cost- and time-effective in laparoscopic skills training. However, most simulators are, in our experience, considered less interesting by residents and are often poorly accessible. Consequently, these devices are rarely used in actual training. In an effort to make a low-cost and more attractive simulator, a custom-made Nintendo Wii game was developed. This game could ultimately be used to train the same basic skills as VR laparoscopic simulators ought to. Before such a video game can be implemented into a surgical training program, it has to be validated according to international standards. The main goal of this study was to test construct and concurrent validity of the controls of a prototype of the game. In this study, the basic laparoscopic skills of experts (surgeons, urologists, and gynecologists, n = 15) were compared to those of complete novices (internists, n = 15) using the Wii Laparoscopy (construct validity). Scores were also compared to the Fundamentals of Laparoscopy (FLS) Peg Transfer test, an already established assessment method for measuring basic laparoscopic skills (concurrent validity). Results showed that experts were 111 % faster (P = 0.001) on the Wii Laparoscopy task than novices. Also, scores of the FLS Peg Transfer test and the Wii Laparoscopy showed a significant, high correlation (r = 0.812, P < 0.001). The prototype setup of the Wii Laparoscopy possesses solid construct and concurrent validity.

  20. Preservice teacher knowledge of basic language constructs in Canada, England, New Zealand, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Erin K; Binks-Cantrell, Emily S; Joshi, R Malatesha; Martin-Chang, Sandra; Arrow, Alison

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined preservice teachers' (PSTs) knowledge of basic language constructs across four different English-speaking teacher preparations programs. A standardized survey was administered to participants from Canada (n = 80), England (n = 55), New Zealand (n = 26), and the USA (n = 118). All participants were enrolled in undergraduate university programs that led to teacher certification for general education in the primary grades. Our data reveal that preservice teachers from all four countries show patterns of relative strength in areas that were targeted to be crucial within their national initiatives. Nevertheless, in general, PSTs demonstrated a lack of knowledge of certain constructs needed to teach early reading skills. The results are discussed in relation to research reports and initiatives regarding beginning reading instruction from each of the four countries.

  1. Characteristic of Adaptability - one of basic categories of the social aspect of sustainable housing construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowski, Z.; Radziejowska, A.; Orłowski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In the article the authors consider one of the basic aspects of sustainable construction regarding the social utility of a building. According to standard PN-EN 16309+A1:2014-12 during evaluating the social aspect should be assessed six categories: accessibility, adaptability, comfort and health, neighborhood, maintenance, safety and security. The authors present the evaluation criteria witch should be taken into account in the assessment of the second of them. Adaptability has been divided into three categories: The buidling’s ability to accomodate the change of user requirements, The buidling’s ability to accomodate technical changes, The buidling’s ability to accomodate the change of use. Each subcategory has been further elaborated by the criteria for which authors present proposal for the scale of assessments. The authors present a part of a work to construct a method for assessing the social characteristics of the residential buildings.

  2. BASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Schmidt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    De sidste 10 år har vi været vidner til opkomsten af et nyt evidensbaseret policy paradigme, Behavioural Public Policy (BPP), der søger at integrere teoretiske og metodiske indsigter fra adfærdsvidenskaberne i offentlig politikudvikling. Arbejdet med BPP har dog båret præg af, at være usystematisk...... BPP. Tilgangen består dels af den overordnede proces-model BASIC og dels af et iboende framework, ABCD, der er en model for systematisk adfærdsanalyse, udvikling, test og implementering af adfærdsrettede løsningskoncepter. Den samlede model gør det muligt for forskere såvel som offentligt ansatte...

  3. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  4. Chinese EFL teachers' knowledge of basic language constructs and their self-perceived teaching abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Joshi, R Malatesha; Dixon, L Quentin; Huang, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the knowledge and skills of basic language constructs among elementary school teachers who were teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in China. Six hundred and thirty in-service teachers completed the adapted Reading Teacher Knowledge Survey. Survey results showed that English teachers' self-perceived ability to teach vocabulary was the highest and self-perceived ability to teach reading to struggling readers was the lowest. Morphological knowledge was positively correlated with teachers' self-perceived teaching abilities, and it contributed unique variance even after controlling for the effects of ultimate educational attainment and years of teaching. Findings suggest that elementary school EFL teachers in China, on average, were able to display implicit skills related to certain basic language constructs, but less able to demonstrate explicit knowledge of other skills, especially sub-lexical units (e.g., phonemic awareness and morphemes). The high self-perceived ability of teaching vocabulary and high scores on syllable counting reflected the focus on larger units in the English reading curriculum.

  5. On the Meaning of Feedback Parameter, Transient Climate Response, and the Greenhouse Effect: Basic Considerations and the Discussion of Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramm, Gerhard

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we discuss the meaning of feedback parameter, greenhouse effect and transient climate response usually related to the globally averaged energy balance model of Schneider and Mass. After scrutinizing this model and the corresponding planetary radiation balance we state that (a) the this globally averaged energy balance model is flawed by unsuitable physical considerations, (b) the planetary radiation balance for an Earth in the absence of an atmosphere is fraught by the inappropriate assumption of a uniform surface temperature, the so-called radiative equilibrium temperature of about 255 K, and (c) the effect of the radiative anthropogenic forcing, considered as a perturbation to the natural system, is much smaller than the uncertainty involved in the solution of the model of Schneider and Mass. This uncertainty is mainly related to the empirical constants suggested by various authors and used for predicting the emission of infrared radiation by the Earth's skin. Furthermore, after inserting the absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric constituents and the exchange of sensible and latent heat between the Earth and the atmosphere into the model of Schneider and Mass the surface temperatures become appreciably lesser than the radiative equilibrium temperature. Moreover, neither the model of Schneider and Mass nor the Dines-type two-layer energy balance model for the Earth-atmosphere system, both contain the planetary radiation balance for an Earth in the absence of an atmosphere as an asymptotic solution, do not provide evidence for the existence of the so-called atmospheric greenhouse effect if realistic empirical data are used.

  6. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  7. The methodic of calculation for the need of basic construction machines on construction site when developing organizational and technological documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadanovsky, Boris; Sinenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Economic indicators of construction work, particularly in high-rise construction, are directly related to the choice of optimal number of machines. The shortage of machinery makes it impossible to complete the construction & installation work on scheduled time. Rates of performance of construction & installation works and labor productivity during high-rise construction largely depend on the degree of provision of construction project with machines (level of work mechanization). During calculation of the need for machines in construction projects, it is necessary to ensure that work is completed on scheduled time, increased level of complex mechanization, increased productivity and reduction of manual work, and improved usage and maintenance of machine fleet. The selection of machines and determination of their numbers should be carried out by using formulas presented in this work.

  8. Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

  9. Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A. [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

  10. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Aaltje H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Methods: Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and

  11. An algorithm to construct the basic algebra of a skew group algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horobeţ, E.

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for the computation of the basic algebra Morita equivalent to a skew group algebra of a path algebra by obtaining formulas for the number of vertices and arrows of the new quiver Qb. We apply this algorithm to compute the basic algebra corresponding to all simple quaternion

  12. Attention and working memory: two basic mechanisms for constructing temporal experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Various kinds of observations show that the ability of human beings to both consciously relive past events – episodic memory – and conceive future events, entails an active process of construction. This construction process also underpins many other important aspects of conscious human life, such as perceptions, language, and conscious thinking. This article provides an explanation of what makes the constructive process possible and how it works. The process mainly relies on attentional activ...

  13. 41 CFR 102-76.10 - What basic design and construction policy governs Federal agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What basic design and... Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL... must be timely, efficient, and cost effective. (b) Use a distinguished architectural style and form in...

  14. Construction of Basic Evaluation Criteria for Candidate HLW Repository Sites (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun

    2009-08-01

    We constructed the preliminary site assessment system for selection of proper site as high level radioactive disposal repository with consideration of Korean geological characteristics and underground environments. And, site assessment factor and standard as a point of geologic aspect were suggested for decision of candidate radioactive disposal site in Korea. The results can be used to develop the geological information system for assessment of candidate disposal site

  15. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS AS A SUBSOIL AND MATERIAL FOR BASIC HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Wierzbicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of geotechnical parameters of the alluvial deposit (the areas of the Vistula and Warta river valleys with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (cone penetration test and DMT (flat dilatometer test methods, as well as by the vane test (VT. The article includes the analysis of overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 4 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne’s formula (1995 was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefulness of the alluvial deposit as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterized by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition. On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  16. Basic design and construction of a mobile hot cell for the conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Hongxiang; Fan Zhiwen; Al-Mughrabi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The conditioning of spent high activity radioactive sources is one important step in sealed radioactive sources management strategies. Based on the practice on the designing of the immobilized hot cell, the handling of the sealed radioactive sources, and the reference of the mobile hot cell constructed in South Africa, SHARS conditioning process and the basic design of a mobile hot cell is developed. The mobile hot cell has been constructed and the tests including the cold test of the SRS conditioning, the hot cell assemble and disassemble and SRS recovery were done. The shielding capacity were tested by 3.8 x 10 13 Bq cobalt-60 sources and the dose rate of the equipment surface, below 2 m, is less than 0.016 mSv/h. It is proved that the designing requirement is meet and the function of the equipment is good. (authors)

  17. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 % compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  18. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat; Chavalparit, Orathai; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2016-12-01

    This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs) and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 %) compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC) installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  19. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies.

  20. Collaborative diagramming during problem based learning in medical education: Do computerized diagrams support basic science knowledge construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leng, Bas; Gijlers, Hannie

    2015-05-01

    To examine how collaborative diagramming affects discussion and knowledge construction when learning complex basic science topics in medical education, including its effectiveness in the reformulation phase of problem-based learning. Opinions and perceptions of students (n = 70) and tutors (n = 4) who used collaborative diagramming in tutorial groups were collected with a questionnaire and focus group discussions. A framework derived from the analysis of discourse in computer-supported collaborative leaning was used to construct the questionnaire. Video observations were used during the focus group discussions. Both students and tutors felt that collaborative diagramming positively affected discussion and knowledge construction. Students particularly appreciated that diagrams helped them to structure knowledge, to develop an overview of topics, and stimulated them to find relationships between topics. Tutors emphasized that diagramming increased interaction and enhanced the focus and detail of the discussion. Favourable conditions were the following: working with a shared whiteboard, using a diagram format that facilitated distribution, and applying half filled-in diagrams for non-content expert tutors and\\or for heterogeneous groups with low achieving students. The empirical findings in this study support the findings of earlier more descriptive studies that diagramming in a collaborative setting is valuable for learning complex knowledge in medicine.

  1. Greener greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paksoy, Halime; Turgut, Bekir; Beyhan, Beyza; Dasgan, H. Yildiz; Evliya, Hunay; Abak, Kazim; Bozdag, Saziye

    2010-09-15

    Agricultural greenhouses are solution to the increased demand for higher production yields, facilitating off season cultivation and allowing the growth of certain varieties in areas where it was not possible earlier. Heating and/or cooling system, required to maintain the inside micro-climate in greenhouses mostly rely on fossil fuels and/or electricity. This paper aims to discuss the 'greener' solutions for heating and cooling systems of greenhouses based on different thermal energy storage concepts. Results from a greenhouse Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) application in Turkey producing tomatoes with zero fossil fuels and up to 40% higher yield are presented.

  2. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  3. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  4. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  5. FY 2000 report on the basic study/survey on the policy mix for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions; 2000 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugen no policy mix ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the survey on policies for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. For Japan to meet the emission reduction targets stated in the Kyoto Protocol, it is necessary to examine in detail what the most desirable policy measures should be for each sector. In this context, it is also essential to determine particular features of the various policies that may include action plans, environment taxes, and emission trading in addition to conventional regulations and subsidy measures, and to assess their anticipated effects and problems. After examining the policies adopted by various countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this study has attempted to identify the merits and demerits of the various emission reduction policies and to present a systematic account of progress achieved in Japan during basic investigations into this issue. This reports provides a systematic overview of the action plans adopted by the other major countries to prevent global warming and makes a comparative study of the contents of the policies that have been introduced by these countries; identifies the arguments raised in the overseas debates on the effects and problems of global warming prevention policies, and attempts to put the arguments into some systematic order; examines the statuses of the current progress made by various countries with regard to methane and N{sub 2}O emission reduction policies, and discusses the related problems; gives a systematic account of how the policy options are being scrutinized by the government as the base for studying the policy mix for Japan; and examines statuses of the current progress made by Japan with regard to methane and N{sub 2}O emission reduction policies. (NEDO)

  6. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  7. NEW DESIGN BASIC VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN THE CONTEXT OF CONSTRUCTING INNOVATION EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT OF THE UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Demidova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern educational standards, the basic professional educational programs should focus on the formation of basic research, innovative competence and initiative qualities of future highly qualified specialists.The new design is based on ideas OPOP interaction between education, science, innovation and involves a significant reorganization of the structure and content, the introduction of new forms of learning. The article explains the matrix model of project management as a condition for the establishment and implementation of a competitive basic professional educational program, reflecting the idea of complementarity and integration of education and science. The model assumes a new method of functioning of professional community and students. The provided format of the main professional educational programs allows to speak about new quality of training of competitive specialists according to challenges of the modern world.

  8. Formula Making Mathematical Visualization and Exercise Room and Construction Problems Using Microsoft Visual Basic Interactive 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Soraya; Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKom, MMSI

    2006-01-01

    In the current era of globalization developments in science, technology and information increasingly fast and sophisticated. Many all fields associated with a computer because with a variety of computer knowledge can be searched here. With the convenience to gain that knowledge then the authors are interested in creating applications using the mathematical formula set Ms Visual Basic 6.0. This application is made to meet the needs of the learning process for students because the authors saw ...

  9. Mathematical Formula Program Application Visualization and Exercise Room and Construction Problems Using Interactive Visual Basic 6.0

    OpenAIRE

    Putri Soraya; Yudi Irawan Chandra, SKom, MMSI

    2006-01-01

    In the current era of globalization developments in science, technology and information increasingly fast and sophisticated. Many all fields associated with the computer because with knowledge of various computer performance is sought here. With easy to obtain such knowledge, the authors are interested in creating a collection of mathematical applications using Visual Basic 6.0. This application is made to meet the learning needs of students bagiu because the author saw the students are still...

  10. A validated physical model of greenhouse climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the greenhouse model the momentaneous environmental crop growth factors are calculated as output, together with the physical behaviour of the crop. The boundary conditions for this model are the outside weather conditions; other inputs are the physical characteristics of the crop, of the greenhouse and of the control system. The greenhouse model is based on the energy, water vapour and CO 2 balances of the crop-greenhouse system. While the emphasis is on the dynamic behaviour of the greenhouse for implementation in continuous optimization, the state variables temperature, water vapour pressure and carbondioxide concentration in the relevant greenhouse parts crop, air, soil and cover are calculated from the balances over these parts. To do this in a proper way, the physical exchange processes between the system parts have to be quantified first. Therefore the greenhouse model is constructed from submodels describing these processes: a. Radiation transmission model for the modification of the outside to the inside global radiation. b. Ventilation model to describe the ventilation exchange between greenhouse and outside air. c. The description of the exchange of energy and mass between the crop and the greenhouse air. d. Calculation of the thermal radiation exchange between the various greenhouse parts. e. Quantification of the convective exchange processes between the greenhouse air and respectively the cover, the heating pipes and the soil surface and between the cover and the outside air. f. Determination of the heat conduction in the soil. The various submodels are validated first and then the complete greenhouse model is verified

  11. Greenhouse climate : from physical processes to a dynamic model

    OpenAIRE

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis greenhouse climate has been studied as the set of environmental conditions in a greenhouse in so far as they affect crop growth and development. In chapter 2 this set has been defined in terms of temperatures and vapour pressures. Moreover we have indicated which physical processes co-operate in the greenhouse. So the dependency of the greenhouse climate on the outside weather, the physical properties of the greenhouse construction and the way ventilation and heating is perform...

  12. An Analysis of Basic Construction Variables of Racing Wheelchairs Used in the 1984 International Games for the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherril L.; Kimura, Iris F.

    1987-01-01

    A photographic analysis of racing wheelchairs used by cerebral palsy class four athletes and amputee athletes at the 1984 International Games for the Disabled was undertaken in order to analyze seven wheelchair construction variables in relation to performance outcome, distance raced, and type of disability of the user. (Author/MT)

  13. Basic Study of Establishment of Quality Assurance Processes to Develop an Integrated Quality Assurance System for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Byungki; Moon, Byeongsuk; Lee, Jae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    An integrated quality assurance system has necessitated carrying out quality assurance programs in a systematic manner because the opportunities to expand business in overseas markets have increased since the export of a nuclear power plant to UAE in 2009. In this study, we use PDCA method to systematically analyze the quality assurance procedures that were used in previous projects for constructing nuclear power plants. We reached a classification system of quality assurance processes at each phase of nuclear power plant construction by integrating similar work related to quality such as planning, design, equipment manufacturing, construction and start-up. We also established a hierarchy of quality assurance processes to develop an integrated quality assurance system as a technology goal to be developed later. To obtain most updated quality assurance activities, a quality assurance process is structured by integrating similar works analyzed from quality assurance procedures through PDCA cycle method. At the implementation phase of Hierarchy of quality processes and sequence of processes for constructing nuclear power plant are established in this study. Integrated quality assurance system is to be developed by connecting organizations as well as stakeholders such as owners, Architect engineering, suppliers, contractors, and sub-contractors to carry out assigned work efficiently

  14. Basic Study of Establishment of Quality Assurance Processes to Develop an Integrated Quality Assurance System for Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Byungki; Moon, Byeongsuk; Lee, Jae Kyoung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An integrated quality assurance system has necessitated carrying out quality assurance programs in a systematic manner because the opportunities to expand business in overseas markets have increased since the export of a nuclear power plant to UAE in 2009. In this study, we use PDCA method to systematically analyze the quality assurance procedures that were used in previous projects for constructing nuclear power plants. We reached a classification system of quality assurance processes at each phase of nuclear power plant construction by integrating similar work related to quality such as planning, design, equipment manufacturing, construction and start-up. We also established a hierarchy of quality assurance processes to develop an integrated quality assurance system as a technology goal to be developed later. To obtain most updated quality assurance activities, a quality assurance process is structured by integrating similar works analyzed from quality assurance procedures through PDCA cycle method. At the implementation phase of Hierarchy of quality processes and sequence of processes for constructing nuclear power plant are established in this study. Integrated quality assurance system is to be developed by connecting organizations as well as stakeholders such as owners, Architect engineering, suppliers, contractors, and sub-contractors to carry out assigned work efficiently.

  15. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  16. Construction of an Interactive Mode between Teacher Education and Basic Education%教师教育与基础教育互动模式构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼秀丽

    2011-01-01

    系统学理论是教师教育与基础教育互动模式构建的理论基础。"伙伴合作+协议合作+中介合作"的教师教育与基础教育互动模式的构建,可促使两者深度互动,从全方位进行合作,真正实现共同发展的愿景。教师教育与基础教育互动模式的有效运行,需要建立双向互利的机制、融合互动的文化、完善互动的管理制度等作为保障。%System theory and basic education,teacher education is the interactive mode to build the theoretical basis.The construction of an interactive mode called "Partnership Cooperation + Agreement Cooperation + Intermediary Cooperation" between teacher education and basic education may bring about the profound interaction and the all-wave cooperation between these two,and it may indeed satisfy the mutual desire of collaborative development.In order to ensure the effective running of the interactive mode between teacher education and basic education,it needs to establish mechanisms for mutual benefit,the integration of cultural interaction,sound management systems to interact as a guarantee.

  17. Planning level assessment of greenhouse gas emissions for alternative transportation construction projects : carbon footprint estimator, phase II, volume I - GASCAP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The GASCAP model was developed to provide a software tool for analysis of the life-cycle GHG : emissions associated with the construction and maintenance of transportation projects. This phase : of development included techniques for estimating emiss...

  18. Basic Study on Data-Centric design information integration system framework development for adapting Nuclear Power Plant construction in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Byung Ki [KHNP, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study established the concept of data-centric design, which is the latest design technique, by analyzing the existing literature so that the data-centric design would be applied to the nuclear power plant projects in Korea and analyzed the status of data-centric design application by the advanced companies and the domestic design companies participating in the nuclear power plant projects. By analyzing the function of the 3D CAD commercial system and all design drawings used in the nuclear power plant projects in Korea, a data-centric design integrated system model has been developed. This study established the concept of data-centric design technology, analyzed the functions of the plant architect engineering (A/E) software being globally used in the plant field and the design process status of nuclear power plant projects in Korea. A design information integration system building model, which is capable of data-centric design, in the place of the existing document-centric system design such as P and ID and SLD, has been suggested through the investigation on the data-centric design cases of the advanced companies. The major functions of the suggested model required for the application to the domestic industry were drawn. The suggested framework builds the field design, which was performed in the 3D system of the constructor, as an owner's field design system, which can manage all design drawings generated from the field design and the related information in integrated way. An as-built full model integrated of plant architect engineering, supplier design and field design is built. It is handed over to the operation team at the O and M stage and utilized in the maintenance and repair. As a power plant full model of future construction project has been enabled, an improved design process has been suggested, in which only the design change information during the plant architect engineering (A/E) and the design change information during the field design

  19. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  20. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  1. GREENHOUSE BRITAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Haley

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We believe that the cultural landscape is largely formed by the dominant cultures of a place. “It is formed by a sometimes conflicted, sometimes consensual discourse or narrative from an array of stories, observations and intentions, first spoken by people of these dominant cultures and thereafter enacted on the ground. To our view, such a story has certain fluidity about it, and may change directions for any number of reasons. This work, Greenhouse Britain, is designed literally to express what the risingof waters would mean to the landscape of the island. It takes the 3 positions of defense, withdrawal and then defense, withdrawal to the high grounds. We suggest that the existing plans for greenhouse emissions control will be insufficient to keep temperature rise at 2° or less. In fact, we believe that the tipping point is past. In this context, the rising ocean becomes a form determinant. By “form determinant”, we mean, the rising ocean will determine many of the new forms that culture, industry and many other elements of civilization will have to take. There is another piece of this picture that we wish to give Voice to. That is up until this present rising of the world oceans, the creators of Western civilization have held and enacted the belief that all limitations in the physical world, particularly in the ecological world are there to be used and overcome. We think that the rising ocean is an opportunity for transformation, but it is exactly the reverse of a new frontier to overcome from civilization’s perspective. Now, from the ocean’s perspective, its boundary is perhaps a continuing, evolving transforming new frontier. Therefore, assuming a rapid rise of waters, even for a modest 5 meters in 100 years, there are apparently no models of precedence, no information, design, nor planning on the table, with the exception of ocean defenses and typical development models, albeit more energy efficient ones. It is the intention of

  2. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  3. Intergenerational modelling of the greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    1994-01-01

    A major implication of global climate change is that future generations will suffer severe damages while the current generation benefits. In this paper a model is developed to analyze the potential need for mitigating the adverse impacts of the greenhouse effect on efficiency grounds. The model characterises basic transfers, investigate the effect of greenhouse emissions, and analyze exogenous and endogenous uncertainty. The first (or current) generation faces the problem of dividing availabl...

  4. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  5. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  6. Application of the basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences 2012-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makyea Jamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: mental health is one of the health assessment topics in different communities which plays an important role in ensuring the dynamism and efficiency, especially in the students. Thus, the aim of this study is to application of basic constructs of social cognitive theory for predicting mental health in student of Bushehr University Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This cross– sectional study was conducted with using a systematic random sampling method in 428 students of Bushehr University Medical Sciences in 2012-13. Information was collected by using five standard questionnaires including academic self efficacy, academic stress, multidimensional social support, student outcome expectancy and Quality of life (SF-36 scales. After data collection, all data was analyzed by SPSS statistical software with using Pearson correlation coefficient test and multiple linear regressions. Results: In this study, mental health had a significant correlation with social support (P =0.000, r=0.37, academic stress (P= 0.000, r= -0.45 and academic self-efficacy (P =0.000 , r =0. 24. In the liner regression model, predictor factors of mental health were faculty type and curriculum counseling and noncurriculum counseling evaluation variables and self efficacy (P=0.031, B= 1.49, academic stress (P=0.000, B=- 4.35, and social support constructs (P=0.000, B =4.77. Also, gender, mother's education and father's job had indirect effects to mental health through social support and acceptance quota and curriculum counseling evaluation had indirect effects to mental health through self efficacy. Conclusion: Utilization of strategies to increase self- efficacy, creating social support environment and also stress reduction particularly with organization of curriculum and non-curriculum counseling sessions can promote mental health in students.

  7. Insights in public health: systems thinking: basic constructs, application challenges, misuse in health, and how public health leaders can pave the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canyon, Deon V

    2013-12-01

    The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World Health Organization, and the Institute of Medicine promote systems thinking as the only sensible means to respond to issues that greatly exceed the normal capacity of health and medical services. This paper agrees with the application of systems thinking but argues that health organizations have misunderstood and misapplied systems thinking to the extent that the term has become meaningless. This paper presents the basic constructs of systems thinking, explains why systems thinking has been misapplied, examines some misapplications of systems thinking in health, and suggests how the concept can be applied correctly to medicine and public health to achieve the reason it was adopted in the first place.

  8. Chapter 14. Greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin D.

    1998-01-01

    Greenhouse heating is one of the most common uses of geothermal resources. Because of the significant heating requirements of greenhouses and their ability to use very low- temperature fluids, they are a natural application. The evaluation of a particular greenhouse project involves consideration of the structure heating requirements, and the system to meet those requirements. This chapter is intended to provide information on each of these areas.

  9. Greening the greenhouse grower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staats, Henk; Jansen, Lilian; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Growing plants and flowers in greenhouses is a commercial activity that imposes a burden on the environment. Recently a system of registration, control, and licensing has been developed by the sector of greenhouse growers in the Netherlands, acknowledged by the state. The current study was executed...... to understand the achievements of the greenhouse growers within this system. We applied a social-cognitive model to understand intentions to reduce emissions and predict actual pesticide use. The social-cognitive concepts from the model were measured in a questionnaire that was completed by 743 greenhouse...

  10. Constructions, applications and the environment of greenhouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. ... This energy is absorbed and transformed into heat, which is then transported via ... in copper pipes to the water (heat) storage tanks or, if used, open fish tanks.

  11. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  12. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  13. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  14. Grappling with greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A natural greenhouse effect keeps the Earth at a temperature suitable for life. Some of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect are increasing at an unprecedented rate because of human activity. These increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will strengthen the natural greenhouse effect, leading to an overall warming of the Earth's surface. Global warming resulting from the enhanced greenhouse effect is likely to be obscured by normal climatic fluctuations for another ten years or more. The extent of human-caused climate change will depend largely on future concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In turn, the composition of the atmosphere depends on the release of greenhouse gases. Releases are hard to predict, because they require an understanding of future human activity. The composition of the atmosphere also depends on the processes which remove greenhouse gases from it. This booklet is summarizing the latest research results in the form of climate change scenarios. The present scenarios of change are based on climate models, together with an understanding of how present-day climate, with its inherent natural variability, affects human activities. These scenarios present a coherent range of future possibilities for climate; they are not predictions but they serve as a useful starting point. It is estimated that human-caused climate change will affect all aspects of life in Australia, including our cities, agriculture, pests and diseases, fisheries and natural ecosystems. 15 figs., ills

  15. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the sustainable development, this paper presents the greenhouse effect and its impact on the climatic change, the world interest from Rio to Buenos Aires, the human activities producing the carbon dioxide and responsible of the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide emission decrease possibilities and shows the necessity of the electric power producers contribution. (A.L.B.)

  16. Towards the semiclosed greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    What can we do right now to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in the greenhouse sector? What technologies should we concentrate on in the future? Researchers, consultants and technology enterprises working with the greenhouse sector have tried to answer these questions in collaboration with the

  17. Report of year 2000 version on basic survey for promotion of joint execution. Study on reduction of greenhouse effect gas by means of rehabilitation of power generation systems of power plants in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A feasibility study investigation was performed to renew old power plants in the city of Shymkent in the Republic of Kazakhstan to achieve reduction in greenhouse effect gas emission. The Clean Development Mechanism will also participate in the consultation. One each cogeneration power plant using gas turbines of 20 MW class diverted from aircraft use will be introduced into the first and second power plants. The first power plant will also be introduced with one generator of simple cycle of the same type. The facility cost will amount to US$61,279 million for the first power plant, and US$33,590 million for the second power plant. Fuel conservation will amount to 2,386,000 toe/year, and in cumulative total of 25 years, 5,964,000 toeCO2. Electric power and heat prices provided by the Kazakhstan side were used to calculate the finance internal return rate of return on investment (FIRRROI). The net cash flow was found to be in negative figures for both of before and after tax throughout the whole operation period, indicating no economic benefit whatsoever. This is because the electric power and heat unit price set for the calculation is extremely low compared to the international price. If the unit price is raised to 1.5 times, and the total calculation amount is reduced by 20%, the FIRRROI after tax will be ub a positive figure. (NEDO)

  18. Reflections on greenhouse gas life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrell, J.; Phillips, B.; Pendergast, D.

    1999-01-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide equivalent greenhouse gas emitted per unit of electricity produced is an important consideration in the planning of future greenhouse gas reduced electricity supply systems. Useful estimates of emissions must also take into account the entire cradle to grave life cycle emissions of alternative systems. Thus emissions of greenhouse gases take into account all of the components of building operating, and decommissioning facilities. This requires an accounting of emissions from production of all materials used to build the plants, transportation of materials to the site as well as fuels used for their construction, operation, and decommissioning. The construction of facilities may also have effects which tend to affect greenhouse gas emissions through modification of the local environment. A notable example, often cited, is the evolution of methane from the decay of organic matter submerged by dams built to serve hydro power facilities. In the long term, we anticipate that some kind of cost will be associated with the release of greenhouse gases. In that event it may be argued that the modified economic system established by inclusion of this cost will naturally control the emission of greenhouse gases from competing means of electricity production. Greenhouse gas emissions from all stages involved in the birth and retirement of electricity producing plant could be suitably constrained as the least cost method of production is sought. Such an ideal system is far from in place. At this point in time the results of life cycle accounting of greenhouse gas emissions are a needed means of comparing emissions from alternative sources of electricity. Many life cycle studies have been undertaken in the past. Many of the estimates are based on past practice which does not take into account any possible need to limit the production of greenhouse gas during the design of the plant and operational processes. Sources of energy used to produce materials

  19. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  20. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plastic cover material used was mostly PE (79%) with inclusion of UV+IR. Heating of the greenhouses was only for frost protection purpose which adversely affected crop yields and quality. Only 2% of the greenhouses present in the area was constructed based on projects of engineering designs; the remaining were ...

  1. The greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, A.

    1991-01-01

    The greenhouse effect on earth can be defined as the long wave energy trapped in the atmosphere. Climate forcing and climate system response within which climate feedback mechanisms are contained are determined. Quantitative examples illustrate what could happen if the greenhouse effect is perturbed by human activities, in particular if CO2 atmospheric concentration would double in the future. Recent satellite measurements of the greenhouse effect are given. The net cooling effect of clouds and whether or not there will be less cooling by clouds as the planet warms are also discussed

  2. Through the greenhouse window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power is being promoted as the only answer to the greenhouse effect. However, power station emissions (from fossil-fuel powered stations) account for only a fraction of the total carbon dioxide emissions. And carbon dioxide accounts for only about a half of the global warming effect -the other gases which create the greenhouse effect must also be limited. Nuclear energy is neither a practical nor economic alternative. Energy efficiency and conservation is a far better answer to the greenhouse effect. (U.K.)

  3. Climate, greenhouse effect, energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    The book has sections on the sun as energy source, the earth climate and it's changes and factors influencing this, the greenhouse effect on earth and other planets, greenhouse gases and aerosols and their properties and importance, historic climate and paleoclimate, climatic models and their uses and limitations, future climate, consequences of climatic changes, uncertainties regarding the climate and measures for reducing the greenhouse effect. Finally there are sections on energy and energy resources, the use, sources such as fossil fuels, nuclear power, renewable resources, heat pumps, energy storage and environmental aspects and the earth magnetic field is briefly surveyed

  4. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  5. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  6. Solar greenhouse aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toever, W V

    1979-01-01

    Rainbow and Speckled Trout have been successfully hatched and reared in a recirculating aquaculture system. The system is integrated into the Ark greenhouse providing thermal mass for temperature regulation and supplying nutrient-rich water for plants. The system incorporates bacterial, algal and hydroponic water filtration. Various vegetable crops have been raised in the hydroponic troughs. A scaled-down system suitable for domestic solar greenhouse application is also under development.

  7. Regional greenhouse climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.; Rind, D.; Delgenio, A.; Lacis, A.; Lebedeff, S.; Prather, M.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss the impact of an increasing greenhouse effect on three aspects of regional climate: droughts, storms and temperature. A continuous of current growth rates of greenhouse gases causes an increase in the frequency and severity of droughts in their climate model simulations, with the greatest impacts in broad regions of the subtropics and middle latitudes. But the greenhouse effect enhances both ends of the hydrologic cycle in the model, that is, there is an increased frequency of extreme wet situations, as well as increased drought. Model results are shown to imply that increased greenhouse warming will lead to more intense thunderstorms, that is, deeper thunderstorms with greater rainfall. Emanual has shown that the model results also imply that the greenhouse warming leads to more destructive tropical cyclones. The authors present updated records of observed temperatures and show that the observations and model results, averaged over the globe and over the US, are generally consistent. The impacts of simulated climate changes on droughts, storms and temperature provide no evidence that there will be regional winners if greenhouse gases continue to increase rapidly

  8. Avaliação de estrutura de bambu como elemento construtivo para casa de vegetação Evaluation of the bamboo structure use as constructive element for greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Mary

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso da tecnologia do cultivo protegido no Brasil, para a produção de hortaliças e plantas ornamentais, passou por diversas fases de adaptação, visando a atender às necessidades de oferta e de qualidade dos produtos, com a preocupação de minimizar os custos de produção e os efeitos negativos do clima. A grande maioria dessas adaptações partiu da iniciativa dos próprios agricultores, utilizando-se de diferentes materiais e de outros artifícios para contornar problemas cotidianos. O experimento foi realizado na área da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola/UNICAMP, no período compreendido entre dezembro de 2002 e janeiro de 2003, com o objetivo de avaliar as deformações do sistema construtivo de estrutura de bambu para utilização em casa de vegetação, em diferentes espaçamentos entre colunas e sob diferentes esforços verticais de cargas. Testou-se o uso de vigas e colunas construídas com colmos de bambu da espécie Bambusa tuldoides Munro e estruturadas com espaçadores de plástico, especialmente projetados para facilitar e padronizar a construção, conferindo-lhe maior resistência e estabilidade. Foram avaliados três espaçamentos entre colunas (2,0; 2,5 e 3,0 m sob diferentes esforços de carga, dos quais o melhor resultado foi obtido com o espaçamento de 2,5 m.The use of technology to protect and produce vegetables and ornamental plants was developed over several adaptation phases that supported the demand for quality and amount of products. These developments also reduced production costs and climate damage to the crops. Many of these adaptations were carried out by farmers on their own initiative, using different materials and devices to solve their problems. This study was carried out at Agricultural Engineering College - Campinas University/UNICAMP, from December 2002 to January 2003, with the objective of evaluating the deformations of the constructive system of bamboo structure for greenhouses, submitted to

  9. Hygiene Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hygiene Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Hygiene Basics What's in this article? Oily Hair Sweat ... smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene basics — and learn how to deal with greasy ...

  10. Construct validity and inter-rater reliability of the Dutch activity measure for post-acute care "6-clicks" basic mobility form to assess the mobility of hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Sven Jacobus Gertruda; Valkenet, Karin; Veenhof, Cindy

    2018-05-12

    To evaluate the construct validity and the inter-rater reliability of the Dutch Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility short form measuring the patient's mobility in Dutch hospital care. First, the "6-clicks" was translated by using a forward-backward translation protocol. Next, 64 patients were assessed by the physiotherapist to determine the validity while being admitted to the Internal Medicine wards of a university medical center. Six hypotheses were tested regarding the construct "mobility" which showed that: Better "6-clicks" scores were related to less restrictive pre-admission living situations (p = 0.011), less restrictive discharge locations (p = 0.001), more independence in activities of daily living (p = 0.001) and less physiotherapy visits (p Dutch "6-clicks" shows a good construct validity and moderate-to-excellent inter-rater reliability when used to assess the mobility of hospitalized patients. Implications for Rehabilitation Even though various measurement tools have been developed, it appears the majority of physiotherapists working in a hospital currently do not use these tools as a standard part of their care. The Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility is the only tool which is designed to be short, easy to use within usual care and has been validated in the entire hospital population. This study shows that the Dutch version of the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care "6-clicks" Basic Mobility form is a valid, easy to use, quick tool to assess the basic mobility of Dutch hospitalized patients.

  11. Buying greenhouse insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manne, A.S.; Richels, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A growing concern that the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases will lead to undesirable changes in global climate has resulted in proposals, both in the United States and internationally, to set physical targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But what will these proposals cost? This book outlines a way to think about greenhouse-effect decisions under uncertainty. It describes an insightful model for determining the economic costs of limiting CO 2 emissions produced by burning fossil fuels and provides a solid analytical base for rethinking public policy on the far-reaching issue of global warming. It presents region-by-region estimates of the costs that would underlie an international agreement. Using a computer model known as Global 2100, they analyze the economic impacts of limiting CO 2 emissions under alternative supply and conservation scenarios. The results clearly indicate that a reduction in emissions is not the sole policy response to potential climate change. Following a summary of the greenhouse effect, its likely causes, and possible consequences, this book takes up issues that concern the public at large. They provide an overview of Global 2100, look at how the U.S. energy sector is likely to evolve under business-as-usual conditions and under carbon constraints, and describe the concept of greenhouse insurance. They consider possible global agreements, including an estimate of benefits that might result from trading in an international market in emission rights. They conclude with a technical description directed toward modeling specialists

  12. Development NGOs: Basic Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Aldashev, Gani; Navarra, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    This paper systematizes the results of the empirical literature on development non-governmental organizations (NGOs), drawing both from quantitative and qualitative analyses, and constructs a set of basic facts about these organizations. These basic facts concern the size of the development NGO sector and its evolution, the funding of NGOs, the allocation of NGO aid and projects across beneficiary countries, the relationship of NGOs with beneficiaries, and the phenomenon of globalization of d...

  13. Greenhouse effects on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Calculations that used Pioneer-Venus measurements of atmosphere composition, temperature profiles, and radiative heating predicted Venus' surface temperature ‘very precisely,’ says the Ames Research Center. The calculations predict not only Venus' surface temperature but agree with temperatures measured at various altitudes above the surface by the four Pioneer Venus atmosphere probe craft.Using Pioneer-Venus spacecraft data, a research team has virtually proved that the searing 482° C surface temperature of Venus is due to an atmospheric greenhouse effect. Until now the Venus greenhouse effect has been largely a theory.

  14. Harnessing greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, F.; Rivet, P.; Terrier, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    This book considers the energy and greenhouse effect questions in a global way. It presents the different methods of fight against the increase of the greenhouse effect (energy saving, carbon sinks, cogeneration,..), describes the main alternative energy sources to fossil fuels (biomass, wind power, solar, nuclear,..), and shows that, even worrying, the future is not so dark as it seems to be and that technical solutions exist which will allow to answer the worldwide growing up energy needs and to slow down the climatic drift. (J.S.)

  15. Greenhouse Warming Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    The changing greenhouse effect caused by natural and anthropogenic causes is explained and efforts to model the behavior of the near-surface constituents of the Earth's land, ocean and atmosphere are discussed. Emissions of various substances and other aspects of human activity influence...... the greenhouse warming, and the impacts of the warming may again impact the wellbeing of human societies. Thus physical modeling of the near-surface ocean-soil-atmosphere system cannot be carried out without an idea of the development of human activities, which is done by scenario analysis. The interactive...

  16. Basic electrotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Ashen, R A

    2013-01-01

    BASIC Electrotechnology discusses the applications of Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) in engineering, particularly in solving electrotechnology-related problems. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover several topics relevant to BASIC and electrotechnology. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to BASIC, and Chapter 2 talks about the use of complex numbers in a.c. circuit analysis. Chapter 3 covers linear circuit analysis with d.c. and sinusoidal a.c. supplies. The book also discusses the elementary magnetic circuit theory. The theory and performance of two windi

  17. CANDU reactors and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andseta, S.; Thompson, M.J.; Jarrell, J.P.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper was originally presented at the 11th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, Banff, Alberta, Canada, May 3-7, 1998. It has been updated to include additional lifecycle data on chemical releases from ore treatment and CANDU fuel fabrication. It is sometimes stated that nuclear power plants can supply electricity with zero emissions of greenhouse gases. In fact, consideration of the entire fuel cycle indicates that some greenhouse gases are generated during their construction and decommissioning and by the preparation of fuel and other materials required for their operation. This follows from the use of fossil fuels in the preparation of materials and during the construction and decommissioning of the plants. This paper reviews life cycle studies of several different kinds of power plants. Greenhouse gases generated by fossil fuels during the preparation of fuel and heavy water used by operating CANDU power plants are estimated. The total greenhouse gas emissions from CANDU nuclear plants, per unit of electricity ultimately produced, are very small in comparison with emissions from most other types of power plants. (author)

  18. CANDU reactors and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andseta, S.; Thompson, M.J.; Jarrell, J.P.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper was originally presented at the 11th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, Banff, Alberta, Canada, May 3-7, 1998. It has been updated to include additional lifecycle data on chemical releases from ore treatment and CANDU fuel fabrication. It is sometimes stated that nuclear power plants can supply electricity with zero emissions of greenhouse gases. In fact, consideration of the entire fuel cycle indicates that some greenhouse gases are generated during their construction and decommissioning and by the preparation of fuel and other materials required for their operation. This follows from the use of fossil fuels in the preparation of materials and during the construction and decommissioning of the plants. This paper reviews life cycle studies of several different kinds of power plants. Greenhouse gases generated by fossil fuels during the preparation of fuel and heavy water used by operating CANDU power plants are estimated. The total greenhouse gas emissions from CANDU nuclear plants, per unit of electricity ultimately produced, are very small in comparison with emissions from most other types of power plants. (author)

  19. Anesthesia Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia Basics What's in ... español Conceptos básicos sobre la anestesia What Is Anesthesia? No doubt about it, getting an operation can ...

  20. BASIC Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol Ann

    Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

  1. Smarter greenhouse climate control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhoff, E.M.; Houter, G.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse operators strive to be as economic as possible with energy. However, investing in fancy energy-saving equipment is often not cost-effective for smaller operations and in climate zones with mild winters. It is possible, though, for many growers to save energy without buying special

  2. Greenhouse cooling using a rainwater basin under the greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the technical and economical aspects of additional applications for a rainwater basin installed under a greenhouse. The installation for cooling the greenhouse can be placed under the greenhouse. Part of the installation consists of a short-term heat store

  3. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  4. Nuclear energy and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strub, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of nuclear power plants against the greenhouse effects is evaluated, not only nuclear energy is unable to fight greenhouse effect increase but long life wastes endanger environment. 8 refs

  5. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  6. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  7. Localized climate control in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, P.S.; Sijs, J.; Fransman, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Strategies for controlling the indoor climate in greenhouses are based on a few sensors and actuators in combination with an assumption that climate variables, such as temperature, are uniform throughout the greenhouse. While this is already an improper assumption for conventional greenhouses, it

  8. Basic Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of the basic measures of corporate financial strength, and the sources of the information is reported. Considered are: balance sheet, income statement, funds and cash flow, and financial ratios.

  9. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan; Meng, Lingkun; Niu, Ziyuan; Liang, Chen; Dong, Xinglong; Liu, Kang; Li, Guanghua; Li, Chunguang; Han, Yu; Feng, Shouhua

    2018-01-01

    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  10. Integration of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites for construction of a Cu MOF with rare chiral Oh type of cage for high performance of methane purification

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhan

    2018-01-18

    A Cu MOF [Cu4(PMTD)2(H2O)3]·20H2O, 1, (Where PMTD is (1,4-phenylenebis(5-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4-diyl)bis(5-carboxylato-3,1-phenylene)bis(hydroperoxymethanide) with rare chiral Oh type of cage and dual functionalities of open metal sites and Lewis basic sites based on a designed U-shaped ligand was synthesized by hydrothermal method. It exhibits high-capacity of CO2, C2 and C3 hydrocarbon storage capacity under atmospheric pressure as well as high H2 (1.96% wt) adsorption capacity at 77K. Methane purification capacity was tested and verified step by step. Isosteric heats (Qst) study reveals that CH4 has the weakest van der Waals host- guest interactions among the seven gases at 298K. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculation reveals that compound 1 is more selective toward CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 over CH4 in further calculating its separation capacity, as exemplified for CO2/CH4 (50:50, 5:95), C2H6/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) or C3H8/CH4 (50:50, 5:95) binary gas mixtures. Breakthrough experiments show that 1 has a significantly higher adsorption capacity for CO2, C2H6 and C3H8 than CH4. The selective adsorption properties of 1 make it a promising candidate for methane purification.

  11. The greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    At Kyoto, Australia was successful in gaining acceptance for a differentiated response to climate change which takes account of our special circumstances and allows for an 8% rise in emissions above 1990 levels by 2008 - 2012. This outcome is both environmentally effective but also responsible from the perspective of Australia's economic and trade interests. While our target is achievable it will require significant efforts on the part of industry, all levels of government and the wider community to move towards best practice in managing our greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time, it will provide an incentive for industry and businesses to further improve their efficiency and perhaps even to capture new opportunities that may present themselves. An outline of the National Greenhouse Strategy is given and some of the many implications for the minerals and energy sector are discussed

  12. Pragmatics in the greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, M.J.; Victor, D.G.; Hope, C.W. (Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (UK))

    1991-12-05

    Negotiations towards a global framework convention on climate change are hampered by the range of greenhouse gases, sources and sinks. The US government promotes a comprehensive approach to climate change which provides flexibility but faces obstacles arising from the different characteristics of the sources and sinks involved, and uncertainties in attempting to estimate and compare the radiative impacts of different gases. Relying on approximations to enable a comprehensive approach is unrealistic for two reasons: monitoring and revision. The comprehensive approach is a worthwhile goal but is not yet fully practicable. Two lists are suggested - a quantified list for CFCs and CO{sub 2} and a transition list. Frequent renegotiation would be necessary. With this approach an overall goal for controlling the magnitude and rate of change in greenhouse forcing is possible. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Greenhouse and Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaine, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The book is based on papers at the conference held at Macquarie University, Australia, in December 1989. The topics include energy aspects of the greenhouse effect, effects of reduction of carbon dioxide, methane emissions, sources of energy production, various aspects of electricity, liquid building, new technology, energy management and environmental and sociological aspects. Whilist the emphasis is on Australian conditions, the approaches are of relevance to other countries. Contains lists of referees and participants. Twenty-three papers have been separately indexed

  14. Greenhouse gas strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    Because the overall effects of climate change will likely be more pronounced in the North than in other parts of the country, the Government of the Northwest Territories considers it imperative to support global and local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Government support is manifested through a coordinating role played by senior government representatives in the development of the NWT Greenhouse Gas Strategy, and by participation on a multi-party working committee to identify and coordinate northern actions and to contribute a northern perspective to Canada's National Climate Change Implementation Strategy. This document outlines the NWT Government's goals and objectives regarding greenhouse gas emission reduction actions. These will include efforts to enhance awareness and understanding; demonstrate leadership by putting the Government's own house in order; encouraging action across sectors; promote technology development and innovation; invest in knowledge and building the foundation for informed future decisions. The strategy also outlines the challenges peculiar to the NWT, such as the high per person carbon dioxide emissions compared to the national average (30 tonnes per person per year as opposed to the national average of 21 tonnes per person per year) and the increasing economic activity in the Territories, most of which are resource-based and therefore energy-intensive. Appendices which form part of the greenhouse gas strategy document, provide details of the potential climate change impact in the NWT, a detailed explanation of the proposed measures, an emission forecast to 2004 from industrial processes, fuel combustion and incineration, and a statement of the official position of the Government of the NWT on climate change

  15. Ozone: The secret greenhouse gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntsen, Terje; Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric ozone not only protects against harmful ultraviolet radiation; it also contributes to the greenhouse effect. Ozone is one of the jokers to make it difficult to calculate the climatic effect of anthropogenic emissions. The greenhouse effect and the ozone layer should not be confused. The greenhouse effect creates problems when it becomes enhanced, so that the earth becomes warmer. The problem with the ozone layer, on the contrary, is that it becomes thinner and so more of the harmful ultraviolet radiation gets through to the earth. However, ozone is also a greenhouse gas and so the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer are connected

  16. Modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, Francisco; Guzmán, José Luis; Ramírez-Arias, Armando

    2015-01-01

    A discussion of challenges related to the modeling and control of greenhouse crop growth, this book presents state-of-the-art answers to those challenges. The authors model the subsystems involved in successful greenhouse control using different techniques and show how the models obtained can be exploited for simulation or control design; they suggest ideas for the development of physical and/or black-box models for this purpose. Strategies for the control of climate- and irrigation-related variables are brought forward. The uses of PID control and feedforward compensators, both widely used in commercial tools, are summarized. The benefits of advanced control techniques—event-based, robust, and predictive control, for example—are used to improve on the performance of those basic methods. A hierarchical control architecture is developed governed by a high-level multiobjective optimization approach rather than traditional constrained optimization and artificial intelligence techniques.  Reference trajector...

  17. Construction mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Virdi, Surinder; Virdi, Narinder Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Construction Mathematics is an introductory level mathematics text, written specifically for students of construction and related disciplines. Learn by tackling exercises based on real-life construction maths. Examples include: costing calculations, labour costs, cost of materials and setting out of building components. Suitable for beginners and easy to follow throughout. Learn the essential basic theory along with the practical necessities. The second edition of this popular textbook is fully updated to match new curricula, and expanded to include even more learning exercises. End of chapter exercises cover a range of theoretical as well as practical problems commonly found in construction practice, and three detailed assignments based on practical tasks give students the opportunity to apply all the knowledge they have gained. Construction Mathematics addresses all the mathematical requirements of Level 2 construction NVQs from City & Guilds/CITB and Edexcel courses, including the BTEC First Diploma in...

  18. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  19. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  20. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... learn more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Veer, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com.

  1. Basic Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered

  2. Basic Thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  3. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. The Target Characteristics and Basic Ideas of Modern Tax Culture Construction%现代税务文化建设的目标特征与基本思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海生; 战炤磊

    2013-01-01

    long period of time in our country. The four target features con-struct the basic framework to explore our country tax culture construction as the basic thought.

  5. Day-to-night heat storage in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seginer, Ido; Straten, van Gerrit; Beveren, van Peter J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Day-to-night heat storage in water tanks (buffers) is common practice in cold-climate greenhouses, where gas is burned during the day for carbon dioxide enrichment. In Part 1 of this study, an optimal control approach was outlined for such a system, the basic idea being that the virtual value

  6. Wavelet basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Y T

    1995-01-01

    Since the study of wavelets is a relatively new area, much of the research coming from mathematicians, most of the literature uses terminology, concepts and proofs that may, at times, be difficult and intimidating for the engineer. Wavelet Basics has therefore been written as an introductory book for scientists and engineers. The mathematical presentation has been kept simple, the concepts being presented in elaborate detail in a terminology that engineers will find familiar. Difficult ideas are illustrated with examples which will also aid in the development of an intuitive insight. Chapter 1 reviews the basics of signal transformation and discusses the concepts of duals and frames. Chapter 2 introduces the wavelet transform, contrasts it with the short-time Fourier transform and clarifies the names of the different types of wavelet transforms. Chapter 3 links multiresolution analysis, orthonormal wavelets and the design of digital filters. Chapter 4 gives a tour d'horizon of topics of current interest: wave...

  7. Education: The Basics. The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Everyone knows that education is important, we are confronted daily by discussion of it in the media and by politicians, but how much do we really know about education? "Education: The Basics" is a lively and engaging introduction to education as an academic subject, taking into account both theory and practice. Covering the schooling system, the…

  8. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  9. Greenhouse effect: Myth or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper debates on greenhouse effect controversy. Natural greenhouse effect is beneficent but additional greenhouse effect, in relation with human activities, can present a major risk for humanity. However an international agreement is difficult owing to the enormous costs which could not be endured by South economies. A tax on carbon dioxide emissions would have for consequence a wave of industrial delocalizations without precedent with important unemployment in Europe and no impact on additional greenhouse effect because it is a radiative effect and it is not a classic local chemical pollution. 11 refs., 10 figs

  10. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  11. Competitive strategy to provide technology and basic designs for the construction of new refineries premium of the PETROBRAS; Estrategia competitiva para prover tecnologias e projetos basicos para a construcao de novas refinarias premium da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudia, Baptista M.L.A.; Adalberto, Barbalho S [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays, there are major incentives for the construction of new refineries in Brazil: the increase of the local market and the discovery of huge oil reserves in the southeastern Atlantic coast of Brazil. In this scenario, PETROBRAS decided to construct two new refineries, Premium I and II, with a total refining capacity of 900.000 BPSD. The refineries will be designed to process a mix of Brazilian national crudes. The main objects of this ambitious project are to produce high quality diesel and jet fuel from an elevated nitrogen content feedstock, minimizing capital expenditure and schedule. Both refineries will have the same flow scheme with a target to maximize Middle distillate production for the European and local markets. In order to assure that the refinery scheme and the technologies selected will provide the best Net Present Value (NPV), it was decided to perform a Design Competition process to select the company to provide the basic design for all Premium refineries. As the concepts behind a Design Competition were new for PETROBRAS a rigorous process was developed and followed, which entailed contracting three benchmark companies with outstanding knowledge and experience in hydroprocessing to provide independent conceptual studies for a 300.000 BPSD refinery called Premium II. The vision was to utilize the same refinery scheme in the construction of the Premium I refinery which will have two identical trains processing 300.000 BPD. The awarded company was selected based on technical and economic evaluations, supported by state of the art hydroprocessing technologies, block flow diagram optimization and heat integration. This strategy allowed PETROBRAS to acquire the best refinery scheme and process designs for the PREMIUM refineries. The present paper discusses the design competition process, the refinery scheme adopted and the results achieved. (author)

  12. Backpack Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness or weakness in your arms or legs, talk to your doctor. Tips for Choosing and Using Backpacks Here are a few tips that will help make your backpack work for you, not against you: Consider the construction. Before you grab that new bag off the rack, make sure it's got two ...

  13. Basic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)

  14. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  15. About greenhouse effect origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrhenius, S.; Chamberlin, Th.; Croll, J.; Fourier, J.; Pouillet, C.; Tyndall, J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand and decipher the ecological crisis in progress, an historical prospect of its origins and evolution at the worldwide scale is necessary. This book gathers seven founder articles (including 4 original translations), harbingers of the present day climate change. Written during the 19. century by famous scientists like Joseph Fourier, Claude Pouillet, James Croll, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius and Thomas Chamberlin, they relate a century of major progress in the domain of Earth's sciences in praise of these scientists. This book allows to (re)discover these texts: discovery of the greenhouse effect principle (Fourier), determination of solar radiation absorption by the atmosphere (Pouillet), rivalry between the astronomical theory of glacial cycles (Croll) and the carbon dioxide climatic theory (Tyndall), influence of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on the global warming (Arrhenius), and confirmation of the major role of CO 2 in the Earth's temperature regulation (Chamberlin). (J.S.)

  16. Greenhouse effect and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Model calculations with different marginal conditions and different physical processes do, on the basis of realistic assumptions, result in a temperature rise of 3 ± 1.5degC at doubling carbon dioxide concentrations. Temperatures are increasing even more due to the presence of trace gases contributing to the greenhouse effect. They are assumed to be having a share of 100% in the carbon dioxide effect (additive) in 30-40 years from now. According to the model calculations the CO 2 increase from about 280 ppm around 1850 to 345 ppm (1985) is equal to a globally averaged temperature rise of 0.5-0.7degC. As the data obtained before 1900 were incomplete and little representative climatic analyses cannot be considered to have been effective but after that time. However, considering the additional influence of other climatic effects such as vulcanism the temperature rise satisfactorily corresponds to the values obtained since 1900. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Holistic greenhouse gas management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, P. [Dept. of Applied and International Economics, Massey Univ. (New Zealand); Parshotam, A. [Inst. of Fundamental Sciences, Massey Univ. (New Zealand)

    2005-07-01

    A holistic greenhouse gas management strategy is described. The first stage is the growth of a large-scale global bio-energy market with world trade in bio-fuels and with a strategic stock of biomass raw material in new plantation forests. Later stages, more costly - as needs may be in response to possible future precursors of abrupt climate change - would involve linking CO2 capture and sequestration to bio-energy, yielding a negative emissions energy system. Illustrative calculations point to the feasibility of a return to pre-industrial CO{sub 2} levels before mid-century. This result is subject to significant caveats, but, prima facie, the first stage can provide several environmental and socio-economic side-benefits while yielding a positive financial return if oil prices remain above 35$/bbl. The vision is that the polluter pays principle can be turned to a greening of the earth. (orig.)

  18. Greenhouse gas trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drazilov, P. [Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Natsource-Tullett Emissions Brokerage is a market leader in natural gas, electricity, coal, and weather, emissions with a total of more than $2 billion by volume in emissions transactions in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. This power point presentation addressed issues dealing with global warming, the Kyoto Protocol, and explained where we are in terms of reaching commitments for the first compliance period between 2008-2012. The paper focused on international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM) and explained how greenhouse gases are traded. Emissions trading refers to the trade of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, perfluoro-carbons, hydrofluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluorides. The motivational drivers for trading were outlined in terms of liability for buyers and assets for sellers. To date, trading activity is nearly 120 transactions with nearly 70 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. tabs., figs.

  19. Design, implementation and evalution of a central unit for controlling climatic conditions in the greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Gh. Zarei; A. Azizi

    2016-01-01

    In greenhouse culture, in addition to increasing the quantity and quality of crop production in comparison with traditional methods, the agricultural inputs are saved, too. Recently, using new methods, designs and materials, and higher automation in greenhouses, better management has become possible for enhancing yield and improving the quality of greenhouse crops. The constructed and evaluated central controller unit (CCU) is a central controller system and computerized monitoring unit for g...

  20. Energy conserving dehumidification of greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    2014-01-01

    As greenhouses become better insulated and increasingly airtight, the humidity of the inside air rises easily and may become unfavourably high. Therefore, most greenhouses frequently open their vents to remove the moisture excess. When heated, opening the vents will increase the energy consumption.

  1. Has your greenhouse gone virtual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtual Grower is a free decision-support software program available from USDA-ARS that allows growers to build a virtual greenhouse. It was initially designed to help greenhouse growers estimate heating costs and conduct simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved. Featu...

  2. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  3. Modelling and Simulation for Energy Production Parametric Dependence in Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses crops in Italy are made by using prefabricated structures, leaving out the preliminary study of optical and thermal exchanges between the external environment and the greenhouse, dealing with heating and cooling and the effects of air conditioning needed for plant growth. This involves rather significant costs that directs the interest of designers, builders, and farmers in order to seek constructive solutions to optimize the system of such emissions. This work was done by building a model of gases using TRNSYS software, and these gases then have been checked for compliance. The model was constructed considering an example of a prefabricated greenhouse, located in central of Italy. Aspects of the structural components, and thermal and optical properties are analyzed in order to achieve a representation of reality.

  4. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  5. Structural analysis and functional characteristics of greenhouses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... Information about types, material and construction properties, placement and .... Figure 1. Location of the Mediterranean region in Turkey. ... depends on wind angle, greenhouse shape and size, and .... ground. Moreover, the effect of aerodynamically created pressure differences induced by the shape of ...

  6. Inflation Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2014-03-01

    inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  7. Inflation Basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Dan

    2014-01-01

    waves imprinted on the CMB. These would be a ''smoking gun'' for inflation since metrical fluctuations, both scalar and tensor, are also produced in inflationary models. Thus, the time appears to be appropriate for a very basic and simple exposition of the inflationary model written from a particle physics perspective. Only the simplest scalar model will be explored because it is easy to understand and contains all the basic elements of the inflationary model.

  8. Politics in the greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberthuer, S.

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 1 gives an introduction into the problems surrounding the man-made greenhouse effect, the emphasis being on those features that were significant for the course for the international talks. Chapter 2 describes the course of the talks, giving particular attention to the standpoints of the different protagonists. Further the outcome of the talks is presented. Factors that exerted on influence on the standpoints of the protagonists and on the course of the climate talks are examined in Chapter 3 with special consideration to the interests of the individual protagonists and the international constellation of interests, the values supported by the protagonists and the institutional conditions bearing on the course of the talks. Chapter 4 attempts to explain the process of coming to terms about the international climate convention and the results of this process. This is followed in Chapter 5 by a discussion of the room for manoeuvre and possible tendencies of development of the international alliance for climate protection created by the convention. (HSCH) [de

  9. Climate - Greenhouse effect - Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, Thormod; Kanestroem, Ingolf

    2001-01-01

    This book explains what is understood by climate systems and the concept of greenhouse effect. It also gives a survey of the world's energy consumption, energy reserves and renewable energy sources. Today, 75 - 80 per cent of the world's energy consumption involves fossil fuel. These are the sources that cause the CO 2 emissions. What are the possibilities of reducing the emissions? The world's population is increasing, and to provide food and a worthy life for everybody we have to use more energy. Where do we get this energy from without causing great climate changes and environmental changes? Should gas power plants be built in Norway? Should Swedish nuclear power plants be shut down, or is it advisable to concentrate on nuclear power, worldwide, this century, to reduce the CO 2 emissions until the renewable energy sources have been developed and can take over once the petroleum sources have been depleted? The book also discusses the global magnetic field, which protects against particle radiation from space and which gives rise to the aurora borealis. The book is aimed at students taking environmental courses in universities and colleges, but is also of interest for anybody concerned about climate questions, energy sources and living standard

  10. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  11. Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, B.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

  12. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  13. Reusable frame greenhouse that saves money and erection time and reduces waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Ott, D.T.

    1977-01-01

    An improved greenhouse design has been proposed and tested for use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory for containing radioactive materials during decontamination, maintenance, and remodeling operations in nuclear facilities. The advantages of the greenhouse design include a reusable frame that is free standing and self-supporting and a plastic enclosure that is easily erected and attached to the frame. Manpower requirements appear to be about half that of the conventional greenhouse, the construction costs are approximately 20 to 40% lower, and the waste generated from the greenhouse is approximately 60% lower

  14. Experimental study of an air conditioning system to control a greenhouse microclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, I.; Naili, N.; Khalifa, N.; Hazami, M.; Lazaar, M.; Farhat, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Contribution in the control of the greenhouse microclimate for pepper cultivation. • The energy storing in the ground and in the water ensure the greenhouse heating. • The circulation of the cold water in the exchangers ensures the greenhouse cooling. • The system makes the greenhouse appropriate for the pepper cultivation whole year. - Abstract: In this papper, a thermal model is developed to investigate the possibility to use the ground thermal energy for the greenhouse heating or cooling. A control system of the ground heat storing is integrated in a chapel greenhouse located in the premises of the Technology and Research Energy Center, Tunis, Tunisia. Polypropylene capillary heat exchangers, suspended in the air and buried into the ground of the greenhouse, are used to store or destore solar energy excess. During the day, the air-suspended exchangers recuperate the solar energy in excess. This recuperated energy is then stored into the ground through the buried exchangers. At night the stored thermal energy is brought back by the suspended exchangers to heat the greenhouse air. The purpose of this study is to contribute in the greenhouse microclimate control. In order to maintain the greenhouse air temperature at 20 °C, suitable for a defined agriculture, the solar energy and the cold water are respectively used for heating and cooling the greenhouse inside air. The design and construction of a chapel greenhouse equipped with the control system is carried out. The studied system is used, at the same time for; heating, cooling the greenhouse air and storing the solar energy in excess. Experiments were conducted during the years 2012–2013, to evaluate the effectiveness of the control system achieved. The measured values of the greenhouse air temperatures with and without the control system are discussed

  15. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    /2006 S 4,00. Printed in Uganda. All rights reserved O2006, African Crop Science Society. SHORT COMMINICATION. EFFECT OF GIBBERRELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND FRUIT YIELD OF. GREENHOUSE-GROWN CAPE GOOSEBERRY.

  16. Transit Greenhouse Gas Management Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    This Compendium provides a framework for identifying greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunities while highlighting specific examples of effective GHG reduction practices. The GHG savings benefits of public transit are first described. GHG saving op...

  17. Quotation systems for greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2000-01-01

    The article surveys recommendations from a Norwegian committee for implementing at a national level, the Kyoto protocol aims for reducing the total emissions of greenhouse gases from the industrial countries through quotation systems

  18. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  19. Climate Leadership webinar on Greenhouse Gas Management Resources for Small Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small businesses can calculate their carbon footprint and construct a greenhouse gas inventory to help track progress towards reaching emissions reduction goals. One strategy for this is EPA's Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator.

  20. The Greenhouse Effect Does Exist!

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    In particular, without the greenhouse effect, essential features of the atmospheric temperature profile as a function of height cannot be described, i.e., the existence of the tropopause above which we see an almost isothermal temperature curve, whereas beneath it the temperature curve is nearly adiabatic. The relationship between the greenhouse effect and observed temperature curve is explained and the paper by Gerlich and Tscheuschner [arXiv:0707.1161] critically analyzed. Gerlich and Tsche...

  1. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  2. Study of greenhouse gases emission factor for nuclear power chain of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhonghai; Pan Ziqiang; Xie Jianlun; Xiu Binglin

    2001-01-01

    The Greenhouse Gases Emission Factor (GGEF) for nuclear power chain of China is calculated based on Life Cycle Analysis method and the definition of full energy chain. There is no greenhouse gases released directly from nuclear power plant. The greenhouse gases emission from nuclear power plant is mainly from coal-fired electricity supply to nuclear power plant for its normal operation and the production of construction materials those are used in the nuclear power plant. The total GGEF of nuclear power chain in China is 13.71 g-co 2 /kWh. It is necessary to regulate un-rational power source mix and to use the energy sources in rational way for reducing the greenhouse gas effect. Nuclear power for electricity generation is one of effective ways to reduce greenhouse gases emission and retard the greenhouse effect

  3. Biomass combustion for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Yves; Lefsrud, Mark; Orsat, Valerie; Filion, Francis; Bouchard, Julien; Nguyen, Quoc; Dion, Louis-Martin; Glover, Antony; Madadian, Edris; Lee, Camilo Perez

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouses in northern climates have a significant heat requirement that is mainly supplied by non-renewable fuels such as heating oil and natural gas. This project's goal was the development of an improved biomass furnace able to recover the heat and the CO 2 available in the flue gas and use them in the greenhouse. A flue gas purification system was designed, constructed and installed on the chimney of a wood pellet furnace (SBI Caddy Alterna). The purification system consists of a rigid box air filter (MERV rating 14, 0.3 μm pores) followed by two sets of heating elements and a catalytic converter. The air filter removes the particulates present in the flue gas while the heating elements and catalysers transform the noxious gases into less harmful gases. Gas analysis was sampled at different locations in the system using a TESTO 335 flue gas analyzer. The purification system reduces CO concentrations from 1100 cm 3  m −3 to less than 1 cm 3  m −3 NO x from 70 to 5.5 cm 3  m −3 SO 2 from 19 cm 3  m −3 to less than 1 cm 3  m −3 and trapped particulates down to 0.3 μm with an efficiency greater than 95%. These results are satisfactory since they ensure human and plant safety after dilution into the ambient air of the greenhouse. The recuperation of the flue gas has several obvious benefits since it increases the heat usability per unit biomass and it greatly improves the CO 2 recovery of biomass heating systems for the benefit of greenhouse grown plants. - Highlights: • Biomass furnace shows high potential for greenhouse carbon dioxide enrichment. • Flue gas recuperation significantly increases the thermal efficiency of a furnace. • Catalytic converter can reduce CO and NOx below humans and plants exposure limit. • Particulates control is essential to maintain the efficiency of the catalytic conversion. • CO 2 recovery from biomass heating systems reduces farmer's reliance on fossil fuel

  4. Simple model of photo acoustic system for greenhouse effect

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2010-01-01

    The green house effect is caused by the gases which absorb infrared ray (IR) emitted by the earth. It is worthwhile if we can adjudicate on which gas causes the greenhouse effect in our class. For this purpose, one of our authors, Kaneko has designed an educational tool for testing greenhouse effect \\cite{Kaneko}. This system (hereafter abbreviated PAS) is constructed based on photo acoustic effect. Without difficulty and high cost, we can build PAS and check the IR absorption of gas. In this...

  5. Using geothermal water for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On construction with dimensions 15 x 5 x 2 m, conditions of temperature transmission and vegetables growth are examined. We have been cultivating pepper, cucumber, small cucumber, tomato, and lattice. Over ground heating has been used, consisting of one bent pipe with radius of 10 mm, in the shape of hairpin along the both sides of the construction. Underground heating consists of six pipes with radius of 20 mm on the depth of 350-400 mm. There have been measured the temperature inside construction, the temperature outside construction, the waterflow, and water temperature flowing into and out of the construction. The approximate heating flow factor K is determined by both the equation: heating balance equation and basic equation for temperature transmition. Vegetable growth has been watching during the period of time from March to November 2005.

  6. Energy efficiency and fuel switching in Canadian industry under greenhouse gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolick, M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of financial instruments to greenhouse gas control, particularly a greenhouse gas tax, is discussed. As of June 1991, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway have imposed taxes on greenhouse gas emissions, while taxes are imminent in Denmark and Germany. A study has been carried out to model the effects of such taxes on greenhouse gas emissions in Canada, using the Intra-Sectoral Technology Use Model (ISTUM) and an end-use energy demand computer model. Only carbon dioxide and methane were considered. The limitations of the ISTUM model are discussed. Industry results are presented by sector, including an overview of greenhouse gas-producing processes, emission reduction measures possible, energy and greenhouse emissions, and results of taxes at varying levels. Different basic physical and chemical processes among industries would cause widely varying responses to a greenhouse gas tax. Issues which bear directly on greenhouse gas emissions include the burning of biomass fuels in the pulp and paper industry, strategic choices between existing and new technologies in the iron and steel sector, the possibility of a nearly greenhouse gas-free aluminum smelting sector, and the advent of reformulated gasoline requirements and declining crude oil quantity in the petroleum refining sector. 15 refs., 6 figs

  7. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  8. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  9. On Construction Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kunxue

    2005-01-01

    Constructionist approach with its brand-new perspective has begun to demonstrate its dynamic power. This paper attempts to review the basic ideas, achievements and comparison with generative grammar of Construction Grammar and generalize some problems and future research prospects.

  10. Sourcebook on the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, E.; Devine, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect Sourcebook contains information for anyone interested in the environment and the present changes which are taking place. It can be used to trace organisations, technical literature or reports. Much of the information relates to the environment in general. The sourcebook contains:- A list of Greenhouse Effect Information useful sources of information under a variety of headings:-Abstracts and indexes, books, conferences, directories, journals, official publications, online databases, (produces and hosts) and organisations, -The Greenhouse Effect References contains over 250 abstracts and details of recently published material, on a variety of environmental subjects from acid rain and aerosols to weather forecasting and wildlife. There is an author index for the references and a keyword index. (author)

  11. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  12. Greenhouse effect: analysis, incertitudes, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, A.

    1991-01-01

    A general presentation of climatic changes due to greenhouse effect with their consequences is analysed. After a schematic description of this effect a simplified atmospheric model (box model) is proposed. This model integrates the main feedback effects and quantifies them. The effects of astronomic and atmospheric factors on climatic changes are analyzed and compared with classical paleoclimatic results. This study shows the need of good global modelization to evaluate long term quantification of climatic greenhouse effects according to the main time lag of the several biospheric boxes. An overview of biologic and agronomic consequences is given to promote new research subjects and to orientate protecting and conservative biospheric actions [fr

  13. Emission of carbon. A most important component for greenhouse effect in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milaev, V.B.; Kopp, I.Z.; Yasenski, A.N. [Scientific Research Inst. of Atmospheric Air Protection, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Greenhouse effect is most often defined as the probabilities of atmospheric air quasiequilibrium temperature increase as a result of air pollution due to emission of anthropogenic gaseous substances which are usually called `greenhouse gases`. Among greenhouse gases are primarily considered several gaseous substances which contain carbon atoms: carbon oxide, carbon dioxide and methane (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons (freons) spectra of which are transparent to solar radiation, but absorb and reradiate longwave radiation causing disturbance of quasistationary thermal regieme of the atmosphere. Qualitative estimates of the income and relative roles of different substances in occurrence of greenhouse effect differ considerable. At the modern state of knowledge the problem of greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases is considered in several aspects. The most widespread and investigated is climatic or meteorological aspect, it is discussed in a number of international works. Rather pressing is thermal physics aspect of the problem of estimating greenhouse effect, which consists in correct construction of a calculation model and usage of the most representative experimental data, since analytical methods require many assumptions, introduction of which may lead to results which differ very much. Bearing these uncertainties in mind the UNEP/WMO/ICSU conference has included into the number of the most urgent tasks in the study of greenhouse effect, the problem of determining the priority of factors which cause greenhouse effect, which in its turn predetermines the necessity to substantiate the methods of selection and criterion of comparative evaluation of such factors. (author)

  14. Emission of carbon. A most important component for greenhouse effect in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milaev, V B; Kopp, I Z; Yasenski, A N [Scientific Research Inst. of Atmospheric Air Protection, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Greenhouse effect is most often defined as the probabilities of atmospheric air quasiequilibrium temperature increase as a result of air pollution due to emission of anthropogenic gaseous substances which are usually called `greenhouse gases`. Among greenhouse gases are primarily considered several gaseous substances which contain carbon atoms: carbon oxide, carbon dioxide and methane (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), and chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons (freons) spectra of which are transparent to solar radiation, but absorb and reradiate longwave radiation causing disturbance of quasistationary thermal regieme of the atmosphere. Qualitative estimates of the income and relative roles of different substances in occurrence of greenhouse effect differ considerable. At the modern state of knowledge the problem of greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases is considered in several aspects. The most widespread and investigated is climatic or meteorological aspect, it is discussed in a number of international works. Rather pressing is thermal physics aspect of the problem of estimating greenhouse effect, which consists in correct construction of a calculation model and usage of the most representative experimental data, since analytical methods require many assumptions, introduction of which may lead to results which differ very much. Bearing these uncertainties in mind the UNEP/WMO/ICSU conference has included into the number of the most urgent tasks in the study of greenhouse effect, the problem of determining the priority of factors which cause greenhouse effect, which in its turn predetermines the necessity to substantiate the methods of selection and criterion of comparative evaluation of such factors. (author)

  15. Greenhouse heating with a fresh water floating collector solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.; Sokolov, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fresh water floating collector solar pond was investigated both experimentally and theoretically in a previous work, and it is now matched, by simulation, with the heat load requirements of a greenhouse. Results of the simulation indicate that such a pond is a potential energy source for greenhouse heating. This is especially true when the material properties are such that solar absorption and storage are enhanced. This paper reports that to demonstrate this point, three sets of collectors constructed with materials of different physical (radiation) properties were tested. One set is constructed of common materials which are readily available and are normally used as covers for greenhouses. The second set made of improved materials which are also available but have a smaller long-wave transmittance. The last set made of ideal material which additionally possesses selective radiation absorption properties. Collectors made of ideal materials make a superior solar pond; thus, manufacturing films with improved properties should become a worthwhile challenge for the agricultural polyethylene-films industry. Preliminary economic studies indicate that even with the low oil (<$20/Bbl) prices which exist between 1986-1989, the fresh water floating collectors solar pond provides an economically attractive alternative to the conventional oil-burning heating system. This is especially true in mild climate areas and when the large initial investment is justified by long-term greenhouse utilization planning

  16. Steps toward a cooler greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    In April a committee of the National Academies of Science and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine urged the Bush Administration and Congress to begin cutting emissions of greenhouse gases immediately. The risk of delay is great, and the cost of insurance against disastrous climate warming is cheap. Now the committee's panel on mitigation has issued a 500-page report describing just how cheap that hedge against a climate calamity could be. The panel found that it would not be unreasonable to expect that a 25% reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions might be achieved at a cost of less than $10 per ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. In more familiar terms, that considerable reduction in greenhouse emissions would cost about $4.75 for each barrel of oil burned or $0.11 per gallon of gasoline. The most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions, are increasing the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings and activities, vehicles, and industrial processes that use electricity

  17. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  18. The Living Rainforest Sustainable Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.; Hansen, K.; Logan, A.; Witte Groenholland, H.

    2008-01-01

    The Living Rainforest (www.livingrainforest.org) is an educational charity that uses rainforest ecology as a metaphor for communicating general sustainability issues to the public. Its greenhouses and office buildings are to be renovated using the most sustainable methods currently available. This

  19. A need for greenhouse geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaak, F

    1991-12-01

    As regards the greenhouse issue, research has reached the frontiers of present-day scientific knowledge and understanding. Earth scientists, especially geologists could provide extra input, for example from studies of the sun's energy activity; by providing data on CO{sub 2} storage in the oceans and coral reefs; and on the climatic effect of volcanic activity.

  20. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  1. Does the Swedish consumer's choice of food influence greenhouse gas emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, Anna; Brandt, Nils; Wennersten, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Consumer's choice of food can influence the environment. In Sweden, in common with many other countries, consumers need to be given information so they can make environmentally informed shopping choices. However, what is the most advantageous dietary choice to lower greenhouse emissions? This study investigates the greenhouse gas emissions associated with food production for food consumed in Sweden annually. Specifically, this study compares greenhouse gas emissions associated with a nutritionally and environmentally sustainable diet with the average consumption of food in Sweden 1999. The study concludes that the change in energy use and greenhouse gas emission associated with this change of diet is negligible. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions by changing food production processes results in more profound changes than teaching consumers to make environmentally correct choices. There is a basic need for a reduction or a replacement of the use of fossil fuels to produce and distribute our food in order to reach any significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. Swedish agricultural policy does not provide ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In Sweden therefore there is an immediate need to design policy instruments with the primary aim of reducing the greenhouse effect

  2. Global Education Greenhouse: Constructing and Organizing Online Global Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kaun (Kaun); P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEducation, and the knowledge it generates, is seen as a means to effective participation in societies and economies that are affected by globalization (UNESCO). The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2015) was declared by a Resolution of the General

  3. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  4. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  5. Removal of phosphate from greenhouse wastewater using hydrated lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunets, C Siobhan; Zheng, Youbin

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate (P) contamination in nutrient-laden wastewater is currently a major topic of discussion in the North American greenhouse industry. Precipitation of P as calcium phosphate minerals using hydrated lime could provide a simple, inexpensive method for retrieval. A combination of batch experiments and chemical equilibrium modelling was used to confirm the viability of this P removal method and determine lime addition rates and pH requirements for greenhouse wastewater of varying nutrient compositions. Lime: P ratio (molar ratio of CaMg(OH)₄: PO₄‒P) provided a consistent parameter for estimating lime addition requirements regardless of initial P concentration, with a ratio of 1.5 providing around 99% removal of dissolved P. Optimal P removal occurred when lime addition increased the pH from 8.6 to 9.0, suggesting that pH monitoring during the P removal process could provide a simple method for ensuring consistent adherence to P removal standards. A Visual MINTEQ model, validated using experimental data, provided a means of predicting lime addition and pH requirements as influenced by changes in other parameters of the lime-wastewater system (e.g. calcium concentration, temperature, and initial wastewater pH). Hydrated lime addition did not contribute to the removal of macronutrient elements such as nitrate and ammonium, but did decrease the concentration of some micronutrients. This study provides basic guidance for greenhouse operators to use hydrated lime for phosphate removal from greenhouse wastewater.

  6. Wall Construction; Carpentry: 901892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The curriculum guide outlines a course designed to provide instruction in floor and wall layout, and in the diverse methods and construction of walls. Upon completion of this course the students should have acquired a knowledge of construction plans and structural foundations in addition to a basic knowledge of mathematics. The course consists of…

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  8. Optimal Control Design for a Solar Greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteghem, van R.J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: An optimal climate control has been designed for a solar greenhouse to achieve optimal crop production with sustainable instead of fossil energy. The solar greenhouse extends a conventional greenhouse with an improved roof cover, ventilation with heat recovery, a heat pump, a heat

  9. Optimal control design for a solar greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteghem, van R.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The research of this thesis was part of a larger project aiming at the design of a greenhouse and an associated climate control that achieves optimal crop production with sustainable instead of fossil energy. This so called solar greenhouse design extends a conventional greenhouse with an improved

  10. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  11. Crossing the chasm in Dutch greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, J.S.; Smit, P.X.

    2016-01-01

    Dutch greenhouse horticulture has an innovation and development programme called 'Kas als Energiebron' (Greenhouse as Energy Producer). The objective of this programme is reducing the carbon footprint and improving the energy efficiency of greenhouse horticulture, and developing a climate neutral

  12. Using waste oil to heat a greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    During the winter of 1990, Northwoods Nursery (Elk River, ID) purchased a wood-burning system to heat the current greenhouses. This system burned slabs of wood to heat water that was then pumped into the greenhouses. The winter of 1990 was extremely harsh, requiring non-stop operation of the heating system. In order to keep seedlings in the greenhouse from freezing,...

  13. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... Basics » Stem Cell Basics I. Back to top Stem Cell Basics I. Introduction: What are stem cells, and ...

  14. Imperfect construction of microclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E.; Zhou, K.; Gilbert, G.; Weinstein, Y. S.

    2014-01-01

    Microclusters are the basic building blocks used to construct cluster states capable of supporting fault-tolerant quantum computation. In this paper, we explore the consequences of errors on microcluster construction using two error models. To quantify the effect of the errors we calculate the fidelity of the constructed microclusters and the fidelity with which two such microclusters can be fused together. Such simulations are vital for gauging the capability of an experimental system to achieve fault tolerance.

  15. VE of construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  16. VE of construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  17. 75 FR 57669 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the Final Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to require reporters... Numbers GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HFC...

  18. Organic fertigation for greenhouse crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Bhaniswor

    2017-01-01

    productivity is suboptimal nutrient management resulting from poor synchronization between crop nutrient demand and nutrient release from organic fertilizers, affecting the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the root zone environment, and thus plant growth and productivity. Compared to solid...... organic fertilizers, the application of liquid organic fertilizers potentially more accurately addresses the nutrient demand, because nutrients are readily available and different fertilizers are easily mixed. This PhD work explores the possibilities and challenges related to the application of liquid...... organic fertilizers in organic greenhouse crop production. Four greenhouse experiments were designed where different liquid organic fertilizers were prepared: acidic extraction or anaerobic digestion of red clover and white mustard silage, water extraction of composted chicken manure and flushing...

  19. Greenhouse effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortuin, J.P.F.; Wauben, W.M.F.; Dorland, R. van; Kelder, H.

    1996-01-01

    Ranges for direct and indirect greenhouse effects due to present day aircraft emissions are quantified for northern midlatitudes, using the concept of fixed temperature (FT) radiative forcing as calculated with a radiative transfer model. The direct greenhouse effects considered here are from emissions of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrogen dioxide. To calculate the concentration increases of carbon dioxide and stratospheric water vapor, an analytical expression is developed based on a linear approximation of global fuel burn versus time. Unlike the expressions currently used in the literature, the authors' expression does not account for emission rates only, but also for a loss term--hence making it more suitable for shorter lived emittants. For midlatitude summer conditions, a total radiative forcing ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 Wm -2 is calculated for the direct greenhouse effects, whereas for midlatitude winter the range is 0.07 to 0.26 Wm -2 . The indirect greenhouse effects considered here are sulfate aerosol formation from sulfur dioxide emissions, contrail formation from emitted water vapor and condensation nuclei, and ozone formation from NO x emissions. The total radiative forcing coming from these indirect effects range from -0.67 to 0.25 Wm -2 in summer a/nd from -0.36 to 0.21 Wm -2 in winter. Further, the global distribution of NO x and ozone increases from aircraft emissions world-wide are simulated with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model for January and July. The geographical distribution of the radiative forcing associated with the simulated ozone increases is also calculated for these months

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Tropical Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinguelli Rosa, L.; Aurelio dos Santos, M.; Oliveira dos Santos, E.; Matvienko, B.; Sikar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses emissions by power-dams in the tropics. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical power-dams are produced underwater through biomass decomposition by bacteria. The gases produced in these dams are mainly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. A methodology was established for measuring greenhouse gases emitted by various power-dams in Brazil. Experimental measurements of gas emissions by dams were made to determine accurately their emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases through bubbles formed on the lake bottom by decomposing organic matter, as well as rising up the lake gradient by molecular diffusion. The main source of gas in power-dams reservoirs is the bacterial decomposition (aerobic and anaerobic) of autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter that basically produces CO2 and CH4. The types and modes of gas production and release in the tropics are reviewed

  1. Greenhouse effect: doubts and unknowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabarelli, D.

    1992-01-01

    There are few doubts today in the scientific world that atmospheric carbon dioxide traps in heat and therefore contributes to global warming; however, it is yet uncertain as to whether the presence of this gas in the upper atmosphere is the only cause of the greenhouse effect, and the scientific theories defining the effect and its causes present a few obvious and significant gaps. This paper cites the fact that most greenhouse effect models only marginally, if at all, consider the mechanisms governing the formation and absorption of carbon dioxide by the earth's oceans; yet oceanic CO 2 concentration levels are about 60 times greater than those found in the atmosphere, and they depend on complex interactions, in seawater, among such factors as currents, carbon oxygenation, and vegetative activity. Another area of weakness in greenhouse effect modelling stems from the complexity and uncertainty introduced by the fact that, in addition to trapping heat, clouds reflect it, thus giving rise to an opposite cooling effect. In addition, it is pointed out that the current models are limited to predicting global and not regional or local effects

  2. Fiscal 1999 basic study for promotion of joint implementation. Study of greenhouse gas reduction by modifying the power generation system of a power station in the Republic of Kazakhstan; 1999 nendo Kazakhstan ni okeru hatsudensho no hatsuden system kaishu ni yoru onshitsu koka gas sakugen ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A feasibility study is conducted aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by refurbishing obsolete power stations in Shymkent City, the Republic of Kazakhstan. The clean development mechanism is also discussed. Aircraft engine-derived 20MW-class gas turbine cogenerators will be introduced, one each into a 1st and 2nd power stations. A simple-cycle model of the same will also be introduced into the 1st power station. The facility costs will be US$61.279 million for the 1st power station and US$33.590 million for the 2nd power station. The amount of fuel to be saved will be 238.6-thousand tons/year in terms of oil, totalling 5,964-thousand tons in a 25-year period. As for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, there will be a 737.9-thousand tons/year reduction in terms of CO2, meaning a total reduction of 18.448-thousand ton in a 25-year period. An FIRRROI (Financial Internal Rate of Return on Investment) is tentatively calculated using power and heat prices presented by the other party. The result of calculation shows that the net cash flow before and after tax stays negative throughout the whole operating period, which means a total lack of cost effectiveness. This is attributed to the low power and heat unit prices set by the other party, extremely lower than the internationally accepted prices. The FIRRROI after tax will turn positive when the unit prices are 1.5 times higher and the total investment is reduced by 20%. (NEDO)

  3. Risk Assessment from Radon Gas in the Greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, N.M.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Abd El-Zaher, M

    2009-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas found in varying amounts in all soils. Therefore, it is very important to study radon emanation from different soils in different circumstances; especially, in green houses which widely used to propagate and cultivate of plants. In greenhouses radon comes from either soil or the substances which make suitable flooring in the greenhouse. Radon and its progeny are accumulated in the air and on the plants themselves, which causes hazard for workers and customers in a later stage. Radon gas is measured in two kinds of greenhouses, one of them is constructed from plastic sheet and the other from glass (Agriculture Research Center - Horticulture Research Institute) using CR-39 NTDs as a passive technique. It based on the production of track in the detector due to alpha-particles emitted from radon and its progeny. The observed track densities are then converted to annual radon dose to be 12.36 mSv and 8.3 mSv for the plastic and glass greenhouses under investigation, respectively. It is also found that the workers have been subject to regulatory control

  4. The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term (∼ 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), environmental (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse warming. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse warming for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately

  5. Basic photovoltaic principles and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hersch, P.; Zweibel, K.

    1982-02-01

    This book presents a nonmathematical explanation of the theory and design of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and systems. The basic elements of PV are introduced: the photovoltaic effect, physical aspects of solar cell efficiency, the typical single-crystal silicon solar cell, advances in single-crystal silicon solar cells. This is followed by the designs of systems constructed from individual cells, including possible constructions for putting cells together and the equipment needed for a practical producer of electrical energy. The future of PV is then discussed. (LEW)

  6. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This second horticulture guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Leadership, (2) Supervised Occupational Experience, (3) Plant Propagation, (4) Soil and Plant Growth Media, (5) Fertilizers, (6) Greenhouse, (7) Plant…

  7. Kansas Vocational Agriculture Education. Basic Core Curriculum Project, Horticulture III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    This secondary horticulture curriculum guide is one of a set of three designated as the basic core of instruction for horticulture programs in Kansas. Units of instruction are presented in eight sections: (1) Human Relations, (2) Business Operations, (3) Greenhouse, (4) Retail Flowershop Operation, (5) Landscape Nursery, (6) Lawn Maintenance, (7)…

  8. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidler Conrad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the next 10 to 20 years humankind will return to the Moon and/or travel to Mars. It is likely that astronauts will eventually build permanent settlements there, as a base for long-term crew tended research tasks. It is obvious that the crew of such settlements will need food to survive. With current mission architectures the provision of food for longduration missions away from Earth requires a significant number of resupply flights. Furthermore, it would be infeasible to provide the crew with continuous access to fresh produce, specifically crops with high water content such as tomatoes and peppers, on account of their limited shelf life. A greenhouse as an integrated part of a planetary surface base would be one solution to solve this challenge for long-duration missions. Astronauts could grow their own fresh fruit and vegetables in-situ to be more independent from supply from Earth. This paper presents the results of the design project for such a greenhouse, which was carried out by DLR and its partners within the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program. The consortium performed an extensive system analysis followed by a definition of system and subsystem requirements for greenhouse modules. Over 270 requirements were defined in this process. Afterwards the consortium performed an in-depth analysis of illumination strategies, potential growth accommodations and shapes for the external structure. Five different options for the outer shape were investigated, each of them with a set of possible internal configurations. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the different concept options were evaluated and ranked against each other. The design option with the highest ranking was an inflatable outer structure with a rigid inner core, in which the subsystems are mounted. The inflatable shell is wrapped around the core during launch and transit to the lunar surface. The paper provides an overview of the

  9. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  10. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  11. Greenhouse effect: there are solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A review of solutions that may be undertaken in order to reduce the greenhouse effect gas emissions is presented: clean energy generation through municipal, agricultural and industrial waste processing, reducing energy consumption through public transportation promotion, clean fuel buses and vehicles, or using energy efficient boilers, reduction of carbon dioxide emission from industry through process optimization, waste recycling, energy substitution and conservation, diminution of CO 2 emissions in commercial and residential sectors through space heating and air conditioning retrofitting, lighting substitution. Pollution abatement potentials are evaluated in each case, notably in France

  12. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  13. Greenhouse effect: the right questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the point of view of the National Council of French engineers and scientists (CNSIF) after the recent publication of a report about the greenhouse effect by the French Academy of Sciences. The CNSIF agrees with the conclusions of this report and gives to non-specialists additional informations about the definition, causes, divergences of opinions about long-term consequences of this effect, and also about the remedial solutions proposed, their delay of efficiency and the socio-economical and political difficulties encountered for their application. (J.S.)

  14. Fiscal 1999 basic survey report for promotion of joint implementation. Feasibility study for rehabilitation and optimization of pipelines for reduction of greenhouse gas emission; 1999 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugen no tame no pipeline no rihabiri, saitekika no tame no F/S chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey is conducted of the actual state of leaks from natural gas pipelines and of the energy-saving and greenhouse gas-reducing effects of pipeline rehabilitation, with the clean development mechanism (CDM) borne in mind. Comilla and Chittagong are the areas that are covered by the survey. Natural gas leaks from the main pipelines BC and BD are calculated to be 5,300 and 5,600 tons/year, respectively. Total leakage across the country is estimated at 85,000 tons/year. Approximately 41% of the imbalance is explained by leakage while the rest is attributable to errors in gas flow measurement etc. The total leakage from branch pipelines is approximately three times larger than that from main pipelines, and some measures need to be taken to remedy the situation. For the densely populated city of Dhaka which finds itself in a network of branch pipelines, in particular, rehabilitation and optimization of its accessory power stations etc. are quite important. Measures for leakage if properly implemented will not only reduce the amount of leakage but also prevent ignition or explosion for the minimization of economic loss and for the assurance of safety. Error-free gas flow measurement if realized will strengthen the foundation on which sales are performed. (NEDO)

  15. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  16. Economic approaches to greenhouse warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Global environmental problems raise a host of major policy questions. They are all scientifically complex and controversial, and no scientific consensus is likely to emerge until irreversible decisions have been made. The costs and benefits of these changes transcend national boundaries, and nations, which cannot appropriate the global costs and benefits of such changes, are unlikely to be able or willing to make efficient decisions on how to combat these global externalities. In addition, these concerns sometimes have impacts over hundreds of years and thereby strain political decision making, which often functions effectively only when the crisis is at hand. This chapter considers some of the economic issues involved in deciding how to react to the threat of global warming. The author first reviews the theory and evidence on the greenhouse effect. He then presents evidence on the impacts of greenhouse warming, the costs of stabilizing climate, and the kinds of adaptations that might be available. In the final section, he reviews the policy initiatives that nations might follow in the near term

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  18. Greenhouse gases and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Dudek, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

  19. A Note on Fourier and the Greenhouse Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Joseph Fourier's discovery of the greenhouse effect is discussed and is compared to the modern conception of the greenhouse effect. It is confirmed that what Fourier discovered is analogous to the modern concept of the greenhouse effect. However, the modern concept of the greenhouse effect is found to be based on a paradoxical analogy to Fourier's greenhouse work and so either Fourier's greenhouse work, the modern conception of the greenhouse effect, or the modern definition of heat is incorr...

  20. The coal industry and its greenhouse challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Australian coal industry is actively involved in greenhouse gas emission management and abatement issues. An Australian Coal Association (ACA) position paper on greenhouse in November 1989, recommended a number of strategies to minimise the greenhouse effect, including the enhancement of energy utilisation efficiency, improved energy conversion efficiency at coal-fired power stations, expanded use of solar heating, and improved recycling. All of the strategies have been implemented to various degrees. The management and abatement of greenhouse gas emissions within the coal industry has been approached from an individual operational level, and a 'higher' industry level

  1. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  2. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  3. The greenhouse advantage of natural gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombe, N.

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle report prepared recently by Energetics for the AGA, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas, demonstrates clearly the greenhouse advantage natural gas has over coal in generating electricity. This study also goes one step further in applying this life cycle approach to the use of space and water heating within the home. The study shows the significant green-house advantage that natural gas appliances have over electric appliances. Findings from other studies also support this claim. The natural gas suppliers are encouraged to take advantage of the marketing opportunity that these studies provide, offering the householders the fuel that will significantly reduce their contribution to greenhouse emission

  4. The greenhouse effect: Its causes, possible impacts, and associated uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.H.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth's climate changes. The climatic effects of having polluted the atmosphere with gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) may already be felt. There is no doubt that the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has been rising. CO2 tends to trap heat near the Earth's surface. This is known as the greenhouse effect, and its existence and basic mechanisms are not questioned by atmospheric scientists. What is questioned is the precise amount of warming and the regional pattern of climatic change that can be expected on the Earth from the anthropogenic increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. It is the regional patterns of changes in temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture that will determine what impact the greenhouse effect will have on natural ecosystems, agriculture, and water supplies. These possible effects are discussed in detail. It is concluded, however, that a detailed assessment of the climatic, biological, and societal changes that are evolving and should continue to occur into the next century cannot reliably be made with available scientific capabilities. Nevertheless, enough is known to suggest a range of plausible futures with attendant impacts, both positive and negative, on natural resources and human well being

  5. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  6. Fiscal 1997 research report. Basic research project on improving energy consumption efficiency in developing countries (Database construction); 1998 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo hokokusho. Database kochiku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) in fiscal 1993 started a database construction project, which involves energy conservation related primary information on the 11 countries concerned, for encouraging 11 Asian countries, namely, Japan, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Pakistan, to promote their energy conservation endeavors. As part of the database construction effort under this research project, the so-far accomplished collection of and analysis into energy related information about the countries, surveys of the utilization and popularization of databases, and development of database systems are taken into consideration. On the basis of these efforts to improve on the database systems for enhanced operability, a program is formulated for database diffusion under which data are collected and updated for storage in databases. Also exerted under the program are endeavors to make use of the above-said database systems and to disseminate the constructed databases into the 11 countries for effective utilization. In the future, it is desired that the NEDO database will win popularity in the 11 countries and be utilized in their formulation of domestic energy conservation policies. (NEDO)

  7. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  8. Evaluation of an earth heat storage system in a solar energy greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Langrell, J.; Boris, R. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Biosystems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Greenhouses store solar energy in the walls and floors during the daytime and release the stored energy back to the greenhouse at night. In this study, an earth heat storage system was constructed and tested in a solar energy greenhouse in order to enhance energy storage. The system consisted of a network of perforated pipes buried in the soil at depths from 0.3 to 1 m. The warm air near the greenhouse ceiling was drawn to the buried pipes. Soil and air temperatures were recorded at various locations by a network of thermocouples. The energy balance was analyzed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the earth heat storage system. The temperature profiles in the soil were used to determine the summer recharge and winter energy depletion behaviour of the system.

  9. Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop's surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

  10. Wireless Sensor Network-Based Greenhouse Environment Monitoring and Automatic Control System for Dew Condensation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop’s surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control. PMID:22163813

  11. Geothermal heat potential - the source for heating greenhouses in Southestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancl Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economically evaluated solutions for heating greenhouses with geothermal potential, if the same greenhouse is placed in two different locations in Southeastern Europe, one in Slovenia and the other in Serbia. The direct geothermal water exploitation using heat exchangers is presented and the remaining heat potential of already used geothermal water is exploited using high temperature heat pumps. Energy demands for heating greenhouses are calculated considering climatic parameters of both locations. Furthermore, different constructions materials are taken into account, and energy demands are evaluated if the same greenhouse is made of 4 mm toughened single glass, double insulated glass or polycarbonate plates. The results show that the geothermal energy usage is economically feasible in both locations, because payback periods are in range from two to almost eight years for different scenarios.

  12. Construction technique for a chemical plant (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book deals with design and construction for a chemical plant which includes design and building of steel structure for a chemical plant with types, basic regulation, plan, shop fabrication for steel structure and field construction. It explains design and construction of making building for a chemical construction with measurement, types of building and basic rule of the building, design of the building, constructing plumbing for a chemical plant with plan, management of material, checking for construction, construction of electrical installation on plan, know-how to construction and maintenance.

  13. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  14. Strategic planning and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corderoy, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    During former years of high load growth in New South Wales and elsewhere, the challenge for generation planners was to develop power station sites and associated transmission infrasture at a rage rapid enough to meet escalating community requirements for electricity. This challenge was met. The planners of today face a situation of far less certainty - load growth is fragile and at a lower level while the community expects that measures adopted will maintain accepted standards of reliability, be at a minimum level of financial risk and increasingly be environmentally benign. One particular environmental challenge is that posed by the greenhouse effect for which there is a further need to develop a much wider range of strategies. This involves better performance for existing plant, looking at different types of generating systems but also looking to the other side of the energy equation, demand site energy efficiency programs. These issues are briefly discussed

  15. Synthetic greenhouse gases under control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, B.; Karlaganis, G.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses new Swiss regulations on the use of synthetic materials that posses a considerable greenhouse-warming potential. Synthetic materials such as hydro-chlorofluorocarbons HCFCs, perfluoride-hydrocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride have, in recent years, replaced chlorofluorocarbons CFCs, which were banned on account of their ozone depletion characteristics. The use of these persistent substances is now being limited to applications where more environment-friendly alternatives are not available. The measures decreed in the legislation, which include a general ban on HCFCs as of 2004 and a ban on the export of installations and equipment that use ozone-depleting refrigerants are described. Details on the legislation's effects on the Swiss refrigeration industry are listed and discussed

  16. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, A.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roos, I.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO 2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO 2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO 2 , SO 2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

  17. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  18. Analysis of politics about greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetouani, L.; Tournier, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the greenhouse effect which brings about increasing temperatures. It is based upon documents such as interviews, conferences, political speeches, newspaper articles and so on. After the problem of the greenhouse effect has been exposed, a lexicometric study is carried out. The analysis of all the texts that have been studied finally leads to semiologic interpretations. (TEC). 2 tabs

  19. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  20. Optimal control of a solar greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooteghem, van R.J.C.; Stigter, J.D.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Straten, van G.

    2003-01-01

    A solar greenhouse has been designed that maximizes solar energy use and minimizes fossil energy consumption. It is based on a conventional greenhouse extended with a heat pump, a heat exchanger, an aquifer and ventilation with heat recovery. The aim is to minimize fossil energy consumption, while

  1. Greenhouse engineering: New technologies and approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero, J.I.; Henten, van E.J.; Son, J.E.; Castilla, N.

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, this article discusses the greenhouse engineering situation in three geographic areas which are relevant in the field of protected cultivation: Northern Asia, The Netherlands and the Mediterranean. For each area, the prevailing greenhouse type and equipment is briefly described. Secondly,

  2. Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in the Atmosphere Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by ...

  3. Seasonal variation of heat consumption in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.F.; Amsen, M.G.; Strøm, J.S.

    The concept of dynamic variation is introduced as a method to visualize the dynamic fluctuations of heat consumption and thermal climate in greenhouses. The feasibility of the concept is illustrated by describing effects of different greenhouse designs. Engineering data on design heat consumption...

  4. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-12

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  5. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  6. Greenhouse effect economic simulation and public decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.

    2002-03-01

    As the other countries, engaged in the greenhouse effect fight, the France has to evaluate the greenhouse gases emissions and the corrective actions. Meanwhile the today models are not enough impressive. The economic tools authorize today a better evaluation. The technical working Group, presided by Pierre-Noel Giraud, proposes to use them largely and provides four main recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinides, Christakis

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a rapidly developing field in basic applied science and clinical practice. Research efforts in this area have already been recognized with five Nobel prizes awarded to seven Nobel laureates in the past 70 years. Based on courses taught at The Johns Hopkins University, Magnetic Resonance Imaging: The Basics provides a solid introduction to this powerful technology. The book begins with a general description of the phenomenon of magnetic resonance and a brief summary of Fourier transformations in two dimensions. It examines the fundamental principles of physics for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal formation and image construction and provides a detailed explanation of the mathematical formulation of MRI. Numerous image quantitative indices are discussed, including (among others) signal, noise, signal-to-noise, contrast, and resolution. The second part of the book examines the hardware and electronics of an MRI scanner and the typical measurements and simulations of m...

  8. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, Atyah; Hasan, Afif

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 deg. C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse

  9. Modeling of greenhouse with PCM energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najjar, Atyah [Computation Science, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS); Hasan, Afif [Mechanical Engineering Department, Birzeit University, Birzeit (PS)

    2008-11-15

    Greenhouses provide a controlled environment that is suitable for plants growth and cultivation. In this paper the maximum temperature change inside the greenhouse is to be reduced by the use of energy storage in a phase change material PCM. A mathematical model is developed for the storage material and for the greenhouse. The coupled models are solved using numerical methods and Java code program. The effect of different parameters on the inside greenhouse temperature is investigated. The temperature swing between maximum and minimum values during 24 h can be reduced by 3-5 C using the PCM storage. This can be improved further by enhancing the heat transfer between the PCM storage and the air inside the greenhouse. (author)

  10. Nuclear energy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The extent and nature of the greenhouse effect are examined and placed in an environmental and historical context. The effect of energy policies on the greenhouse effect are discussed and the offending countries are identified. What energy policies would mitigate the greenhouse effect, and yet make good sense whether or not the effect proves to be real? Conservation is a desirable though not completely understood strategy. Conservation may not be a better bet in every instance than is increase in supply. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be real, nuclear energy can be one of the supply options that we turn to. If the greenhouse effect turns out to be false, and acceptable, economic nuclear option is surely better than one that does nothing but create strife and dissension. Let us remember that nuclear energy is the only large-scale non-fossil source other than hydropower that has been demonstrated to be practical. (author)

  11. Scientific perspectives on greenhouse problem. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrow, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Seitz, F.

    1992-01-01

    The spectre of major climate change caused by the greenhouse effect has generated intensive research, heated scientific debate and a concerted international effort to draft agreements for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This report of Scientific Perspectives on the greenhouse problem explains the technical issues in the debate in language readily understandable to the non-specialist. The inherent complexities of attempts to simulate the earth's climate are explained, particularly with regard to the effects of clouds and the circulation of the oceans, which together represent the largest factors of uncertainty in current global warming forecasts. Results of the search for the 'greenhouse signal' in existing climate records aredescribed in chapter 3 (part two). Chapter 5 (part two) develops a projection of 21st-century warming based on relatively firm evidence of the earth's actual response to known increases in greenhouse gas emissions during the last 100 years

  12. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  13. Computer control of the greenhouse climate - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreasson, I; Stroem, K

    1983-01-01

    A typical greenhouse has, compared to other kinds of buildings, a rather low thermal mass, rather bad insulation and it acts as a solar collector during a hot day. The dynamical behaviour of the greenhouse, when it is heated, is influenced by that kind of heating system which is in use, i.e. hot air heating compared to water pipe heating. In the water pipe system a lot of heat is stored in the pipes. The ventilation rate is strongly dependent on the wind speed and the direction of the wind. This causes problems with regard to the control of the ventilation windows. The introduction of computers for controlling the greenhouse environment raises possibilities of a totally new development in this field. In the computer several functions, earlier separated, can be integrated, i.e. heating, ventilation, water, CO/sub 2/-enrichment, shading, light a.s.o. More complicated control algorithms can be used as the software is easy to modify. The capability of the computer to process information makes it possible, at least to some degree, to optimize the crop yield depending on how much resources that are consumed, i.e. energy. Intense research all over the world opens new areas, due to new sensor constructions. An interesting field is the hydropond growing of plants.

  14. The french forest and the increasing greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossy, Anne; Bouhot, Laurence; Barthod, Ch.; Delduc, P.; Pelissie, D.

    1994-01-01

    As a follow up to the Global Convention on Climatic Change, submitted for signature to the Heads of State and Government during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in dune 1992, the French Government, on March 24, 1993, adopted the first parts of a national plan to control the greenhouse effect, which gave considerable emphasis to forests and timber. The proposals that were adopted seek to increase attention to the adaptation of species in forest research stations, increase work on afforestation of agricultural lands and increase the use of timber as a source of energy and construction. These proposals recognised that an investment of 500 francs sufficed to avoid the emission of, or to store, a ton of carbon. This is the threshold adopted by the Commission of European Communities in its study on the possible levy of an 'eco-tax'. Further, when devising strategies on controlling the greenhouse effect, it may be possible to adopt the Anglo-saxon concept set out in the 'no regrets policy'. Thus despite the uncertainties concerning the consequences of increasing the level of gases with a greenhouse effect, in the atmosphere, uncertainties that could change the scientific vantage point, the justification for the measures being advocated should not be challenged. (authors)

  15. A space parasol as a countermeasure against the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested that the deployment of a 'space parasol' at the L1 Langrangian point of the earth-sun system would serve to intercept some desired fraction of the solar radiant energy, thereby lessening the impact of the greenhouse effect. The parasol satellites are described and possible orbit configurations are discussed. Orbital possibilities include Low Earth Orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, and L1 which appears to be the best option. Structural strength, control, and use of extraterrestrial material in the construction of the parasol are discussed.

  16. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases....

  17. Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse Warming (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse warming are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity warming (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-warming term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (warm-season daytime) local warming, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in warm climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With warming of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of warming gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.

  18. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  19. FY 1997 basic survey project (database construction project) for enhancing energy consumption efficiency in developing countries; 1997 nendo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa jigyo. Database kochiku jigyo hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    NEDO is promoting a database construction project to collect and supply various technical/systematical information on energy related data and energy effective utilization. In FY 1997, about the Philippines, Indonesia and China, the data collected in a year were renewed, and seminar/workshop were held as a part of the promotion activities. About Thailand, Malaysia, Korea, Taiwan and Japan, Japan has independently been collecting the data. Also in FY 1997, Japan arranged the existing data and arranged/collected the data. About Vietnam, India, Myanmer and Pakistan, which became the objects for the project newly in FY 1996, the state of data arrangement was confirmed and the data were collected. Moreover, functional improvement of the system was made so that each country can use the database more easily and maintain the data independently. (NEDO)

  20. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  1. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  2. Hydromechanics - basic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Tak; Lee, Je Geun

    1987-03-01

    This book tells of hydromechanics, which is about basic properties of hydromechanics such as conception, definition, mass, power and weight, and perfect fluid and perfect gas, hydrostatics with summary, basic equation of hydrostatics, relative balance of hydrostatics, and kinematics of hydromechanics, description method of floating, hydromechanics about basic knowledge, equation of moment, energy equation and application of Bernoulli equation, application of momentum theory, inviscid flow and fluid measuring.

  3. Basic molecular spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Gorry, PA

    1985-01-01

    BASIC Molecular Spectroscopy discusses the utilization of the Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) programming language in molecular spectroscopy. The book is comprised of five chapters that provide an introduction to molecular spectroscopy through programs written in BASIC. The coverage of the text includes rotational spectra, vibrational spectra, and Raman and electronic spectra. The book will be of great use to students who are currently taking a course in molecular spectroscopy.

  4. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  5. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  7. Greenhouse effect of NO{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammel, G; Grassl, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Through various processes the nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) interact with trace gases in the troposphere and stratosphere which do absorb in the spectral range relevant to the greenhouse effect (infrared wavelengths). The net effect is an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The catalytic role of NO{sub x} in the production of tropospheric ozone provides the most prominent contribution. The global waming potential is estimated as GWP (NO{sub x}) = 30-33 and 7-10 for the respective time horizons of 20 and 100 years, and is thereby comparable to that of methane. NO{sub x} emissions in rural areas of anthropogenically influenced regions, or those in the vicinity of the tropopause caused by air traffic, cause the greenhouse effectivity to be substantially more intense. We estimate an additional 5-23% for Germany`s contribution to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect as a result of the indirect greenhouse effects stemming from NO{sub x}. Furthermore, a small and still inaccurately defined amount of the deposited NO{sub x} which has primarily been converted into nitrates is again released from the soil into the atmosphere in the form of the long-lived greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub i}O). Thus, anthropogenically induced NO{sub x} emissions contribute to enhanced greenhouse effect and to stratospheric ozone depletion in the time scale of more than a century. (orig.)

  8. Household scale of greenhouse design in Merauke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahudin, Muchlis; Widarnati, Indah; Luh Sri Suryaningsih, Ni

    2018-05-01

    Merauke is one of the areas that still use conventional methods in agriculture, The agricultural business does not run the maximum during the year because agricultural products quite difficult to obtain in the market. In the rainy season, the intensity of rain is very high, the water condition is abundant and hard to be channeled due to topography/soil contour conditions average, otherwise in the dry season the water is quite difficult to obtain. The purpose of this research is to compare the thermal conditions between greenhouse with auvplastic and plastic bottle roof.This research is experimental, measurement of thermal conditions in Greenhouse using measuring weather station.Greenhouse design with Quonset type with area of 24 m2The result of this research are greenhouse with paranet + UV plastic roof has an average temperature of 28.7 °C, 70.4% humidity and 0.5 m/s wind speed, while the greenhouse with paranet + plastic bottle roof has an average temperature of 26, 2 °C, humidity 66.4% and wind speed 0.9 m/s. Conclusion is Greenhouse with paranet + plastic bottle roof more thermally comfortable than greenhouse with paranet + UV plastic roof.

  9. The greenhouse effect of planetary atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyev, K.Ya.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of the atmosphere is the main factor of possible climate changes of anthropogenic origin. The growing pollution of the atmosphere leads to an increase of the concentration of various gaseous components. Of great importance is also the consideration of the aerosols. All the gaseous components, as well as aerosols, have the absorption bands in the IR spectral range. The traditional attention to the problem of the CO 2 contribution to the greenhouse effect has somewhat overshadowed the significance of the different components. The data characterizing the significance of the different components of the greenhouse effect are considered. The results of studying the absorption spectra of methane, nitrous oxides, sulphuric gas, ammonia, nitric-acid vapours and other components are discussed. The assessments of their contribution to the greenhouse effect are given. The important role of the small-size fraction of the atmospheric aerosols as a factor of the greenhouse effect is discussed. Both the analysis of the causes of the Earth's climate variability and the relevant investigation of the atmospheric greenhouse effect determine the expediency of analysing the conditions of the greenhouse effect formation on other planets. Laboratory studies of the IR absorption spectra of synthetic CO 2 atmospheres were carried out. Some results from these studies are discussed. (author)

  10. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  11. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. The Effect of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation on Drought Impacts in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we present a methodology for analyzing the economic benefits in the U.S. of changes in drought frequency and severity due to global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. We construct reduced-form models of the effect of drought on agriculture and reservoir recreation i...

  13. Watergy: Infrastructure for Process Control in a Closed Greenhouse in Semi-arid Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.J.J.; Gieling, T.H.; Speetjens, S.L.; Stigter, J.D.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A novel solar humid-air-collector system for combined water treatment, space-cooling and ¿heating has been designed in an EU framework-5 financed project called Watergy. The design consists of a construction of two prototypes for applications in architecture and greenhouse horticulture: a

  14. Cosmopolitan egalitarianism and greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosseries, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I look at the way in which a maximin egalitarian theory of justice should deal with the greenhouse effect and its consequences. I adopt both a cosmopolitan and a 'local' approach (in Elster's sense). The paper concentrates on three dimensions of a Kyoto-type international regime raising issues of justice: the determination of a global cap on emissions for a given period, the way in which emission quotas should be distributed among countries for each period, and the questions arising from the tradability of such quotas. Regarding the cap issue, it is subject to both inter-generational and intra-generational constraints of justice. I show that a weak intra-generational principle of compensation is likely to lead to radically demanding implications. As to the initial allocation issue, I look at five possible reasons why egalitarians may want to depart from a population-based allocation among countries. Special attention is devoted to three of them: grand-fathering, the disadvantageous geographical specificities of some countries and historical emissions. I specify the extent to which such a departure from a population-based mode of allocation can be justified on egalitarian grounds. Finally, I look at possible objections to the tradability of such quotas, concluding that they are not sufficient to shift toward non-tradable quotas. (author)

  15. Cost functions of greenhouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    2000-01-01

    The benchmark is equal to the cost (D) caused by an increase in temperature since the middle of the nineteenth century (T) of nearly 2.5 deg. C. According to mainstream economists, the benchmark is 1-2% of GDP, but very different estimates can also be found. Even though there appears to be agreement among a number of economists that the benchmark is 1-2% of GDP, major differences exist when it comes to estimating D for different sectors. One of the main problems is how to estimate non-market activities. Normally, the benchmark is the best guess, but due to the possibility of catastrophic events this can be considerable smaller than the mean. Certainly, the cost function is skewed to the right. The benchmark is just one point on the cost curve. To a great extent, cost functions are alike in greenhouse models (D = α ''.T'' λ). Cost functions are region and sector dependent in several models. In any case, both α (benchmark) and λ are rough estimates. Besides being dependent on α and λ, the marginal emission cost depends on the discount rate. In fact, because emissions have effects continuing for many years, the discount rate is clearly the most important parameter. (au) (au)

  16. The earth in a greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, T.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive article discusses climate change as a challenge for the 21 st century. The effects of the burning of fossil fuels and the resulting emissions of greenhouse gases are reviewed and the increase in average temperatures resulting from these emissions is commented on. The mechanisms involved are briefly described. The gulf stream's function as a 'heat-pump' in the transport of heat and the bipolar swing noted in the statistics for atmospheric temperature given by the analysis of air trapped in ice in the Arctic and Antarctic are commented on. When the 'heat-pump' stutters, abrupt changes in climatic conditions can occur. Details are shown in graphics and curves. The author also introduces a mathematical model for these temperature variations. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is looked at and its influence on the 'heat-pump' is discussed. Probable frequency distribution for summer temperatures in Europe are looked at. Popular short-term recipes for tackling the problem such as ocean-dumping of exhaust gases or reforestation are considered by the author as being practically useless. Only long-term measures such as increasing resource efficiencies and gradual reduction of emissions are considered to be effective

  17. The storage of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Kaarstad, O.; Eliasson, B

    2000-01-01

    Since 1850, that is to say the beginning of the industrial era,the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, this increase is mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Today fossil fuels represent 85% of all the energy used in the world. Fearing progressive climatic changes, more and more governments become aware of the necessity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. A more efficient use of energy and the promoting of renewable energies and of the nuclear energy are the most evident solutions but they appear to be insufficient. A third solution is the storage of carbon dioxide in geological layers. This technique has been put into use since 1996 in Norway. An off-shore natural gas platform injects carbon dioxide in a geological reservoir situated 1000 meters below the ocean bed. The injection of CO 2 could be used in oil fields in order to facilitate the extraction of petroleum. Far more large and efficient reservoirs would be the oceans, they already hold up 40000 10 9 tons of dissolved CO 2 . Even if the double of the carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere since 1850 were injected, the concentration of carbon in sea waters would rise by less than 2%. The safety of CO 2 storage and the impact on the environment of ocean injection sites are being studied. (A.C.)

  18. Development of greenhouse solar systems for bulk tobacco curing and plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.K.; Bowers, C.G. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    Among many farm crops, bright leaf tobacco is the most energy- and labor-intensive crop. The greenhouse solar system (solar bulk-curing/greenhouse system, or solar barn) was developed to provide multiple-use facilities for year-round solar energy utilization to save fossil fuels in tobacco curing and plant production and to facilitate the total mechanization of tobacco culture. Two types of full-size greenhouse solar systems, the load-supporting wall design and the shell design, both utilizing the thermal envelope concept, were designed and constructed for solar bulk-curing of tobacco, growing transplants and horticultural crops under controlled environment, and aiding automation of transplanting operations. Full-scale field tests of solar bulk curing showed that the fuel savings were consistantly improved from 37% in 1975 to 51% in 1978 for this solar bulk-curing system as compared with a conventional bulk-curing barn as a control. The feasibility of the system to save energy by using solar energy as a first priority source was significantly demonstrated. Three-year greenhouse and field tests showed that high germination rate of 95-97% with excellent emergence frequency was obtained for tobacco seeds under the controlled environment provided by the greenhouse solar system. In general, the containerized transplants from greenhouse solar system significantly exceeded the conventional bare-root transplants in growth, leaf-quality and yield. 9 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  19. Global greenhouse and energy situation and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.W.; Clively, S.R.; Tilley, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Fossil fuels provide the basis for world energy usage and, in the absence of fundamental policy changes, are expected to continue to do so for the next few decades. However, the prospect of global warming due to the greenhouse effect will have profound implications for the use of energy. This paper outlines the current situation and trends in world energy use, with a focus on energy requirements by region and fuel. Implications for greenhouse gas emissions and greenhouse policy challenges are also discussed. 8 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  20. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  1. Finding Basic Writing's Place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan-Rabideau, Mary P.; Brossell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Posits that basic writing serves a vital function by providing writing support for at-risk students and serves the needs of a growing student population that universities accept yet feel needs additional writing instruction. Concludes that the basic writing classroom is the most effective educational support for at-risk students and their writing.…

  2. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  3. Wind Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and

  4. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  5. Learning Visual Basic NET

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Learning Visual Basic .NET is a complete introduction to VB.NET and object-oriented programming. By using hundreds of examples, this book demonstrates how to develop various kinds of applications--including those that work with databases--and web services. Learning Visual Basic .NET will help you build a solid foundation in .NET.

  6. Health Insurance Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Health Insurance Basics KidsHealth / For Teens / Health Insurance Basics What's ... thought advanced calculus was confusing. What Exactly Is Health Insurance? Health insurance is a plan that people buy ...

  7. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Basics articles explain just how each body system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ... Teeth Skin, Hair, and Nails Spleen and Lymphatic System ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  8. Application of dynamic model to predict some inside environment variables in a semi-solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mohammadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses are one of the most effective cultivation methods with a yield per cultivated area up to 10 times more than free land cultivation but the use of fossil fuels in this production field is very high. The greenhouse environment is an uncertain nonlinear system which classical modeling methods have some problems to solve it. There are many control methods, such as adaptive, feedback and intelligent control and they require a precise model. Therefore, many modeling methods have been proposed for this purpose; including physical, transfer function and black-box modeling. The objective of this paper is to modeling and experimental validation of some inside environment variables in an innovative greenhouse structure (semi-solar greenhouse. For this propose, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed at the North-West of Iran in Azerbaijan Province (38°10′N and 46°18′E with elevation of 1364 m above the sea level. The main inside environment factors include inside air temperature (Ta and inside soil temperature (Ts were collected as the experimental data samples. The dynamic heat transfer model used to estimate the temperature in two different points of semi-solar greenhouse with initial values. The results showed that dynamic model can predict the inside temperatures in two different points (Ta and Ts with RMSE, MAPE and EF about 5.3 °C, 10.2% and 0.78% and 3.45 °C, 7.7% and 0.86%, respectively. Keywords: Semi-solar greenhouse, Dynamic model, Commercial greenhouse

  9. Greenhouse irrigation control system design based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Yang, Qiliang; Liu, Kenan; Li, Peiqing; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Qijian

    In order to achieve the water demand information accurately detect of the greenhouse crop and its precision irrigation automatic control, this article has designed a set of the irrigated control system based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID technology, which composed by the soil water potential sensor, CC2530F256 wireless microprocessor, IAR Embedded Workbench software development platform. And the time of Irrigation as the output .while the amount of soil water potential and crop growth cycle as the input. The article depended on Greenhouse-grown Jatropha to verify the object, the results show that the system can irrigate timely and appropriately according to the soil water potential and water demend of the different stages of Jatropha growth , which basically meet the design requirements. Therefore, the system has broad application prospects in the amount of greenhouse crop of fine control irrigation.

  10. Automatically Maintain Climatic Conditions inside Agricultural Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jasim Ramadhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a novel system is designed to remote monitor / automatic control of the temperature, humidity and soil moisture of the agricultural greenhouses. In the proposed system, the author used the mentioned sensors for monitoring the climatic conditions of the agricultural greenhouses; and the system makes a controlling process to fix the required parameters for plant growth by running / stopping the fan, air exchanger and irrigation devices when any changes happened in these parameters. The presented system is based on XBee protocol in the implemented wireless sensor star topology network (WSN to monitor the agricultural greenhouses in real time, and used the GSM and Internet technologies to monitor the agricultural greenhouses from anywhere.

  11. Greenhouse intelligent control system based on microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congwei

    2018-04-01

    As one of the hallmarks of agricultural modernization, intelligent greenhouse has the advantages of high yield, excellent quality, no pollution and continuous planting. Taking AT89S52 microcontroller as the main controller, the greenhouse intelligent control system uses soil moisture sensor, temperature and humidity sensors, light intensity sensor and CO2 concentration sensor to collect measurements and display them on the 12864 LCD screen real-time. Meantime, climate parameter values can be manually set online. The collected measured values are compared with the set standard values, and then the lighting, ventilation fans, warming lamps, water pumps and other facilities automatically start to adjust the climate such as light intensity, CO2 concentration, temperature, air humidity and soil moisture of the greenhouse parameter. So, the state of the environment in the greenhouse Stabilizes and the crop grows in a suitable environment.

  12. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  13. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  14. (ajst) effects of ground insulation and greenhouse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    and quality of biogas generation from dairy cattle dung. The effects ... Therefore ground insulation of plastic biogas digester under greenhouse conditions significantly enhances ..... The low values obtained did not suggest failure of the system ...

  15. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  16. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  18. Greenhouse gases - observed tendencies contra scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2006-01-01

    The article presents a study of the increase in greenhouse gases and concludes that it will be necessary to substantially reduce the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere in order to avoid serious climatic changes

  19. Nuclear power and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D; Tolland, H.; Grimston, M.

    1990-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is first explained. The evidence is shown in global warming and changing weather patterns which are generally believed to be due to the emission of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide. Serious consequences are predicted if emission of the greenhouse gases is not reduced. Sources of these gases are identified - agriculture, carbon fluorocarbons, coal-fired power stations, vehicle exhausts. The need is to use energy more efficiently but such measures as combined heat and power stations, more fuel efficient cars and better thermal insulation in homes is advocated. The expansion of renewable energy sources such as wind and water power is also suggested. Nuclear power is promoted as it reduces the carbon dioxide emissions and in both the short and long-term will reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. (author)

  20. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    their radiative properties are similar to the glass used in a green- house. Greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere absorb 90% of the radiation emitted .... and wind speed and direction in each box is calculated using the physical laws gov-.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study quantifies greenhouse gas emissions from Kenya's energy activities. It is organised in four major sections, namely, an overview of the energy sector; data sources and methodology of analysis; results and recommendations for future climate change mitigation

  2. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  3. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  4. Towards an adaptive model for greenhouse control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speetjens, S.L.; Stigter, J.D.; Straten, van G.

    2009-01-01

    Application of advanced controllers in horticultural practice requires detailed models. Even highly sophisticated models require regular attention from the user due to changing circumstances like plant growth, changing material properties and modifications in greenhouse design and layout. Moreover,

  5. Computational fluid dynamics in greenhouses: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... reduce environmental impact while enhancing crop qua- lity and yields .... within a mild climate, appropriate design and control of ventilation are required .... crucial parameter in the pattern of internal greenhouse temperatures ...

  6. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Jinjie Song; Yuan Wang; Jianping Tang

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth?s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (G a and G s) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effec...

  7. Automated Greenhouse : Temperature and soil moisture control

    OpenAIRE

    Attalla, Daniela; Tannfelt Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an automated greenhouse was built with the purpose of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures can be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two different sensors, a soil moisture sensor and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to change the temperature and the pump is ...

  8. The nuclear energy and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.; Legrand, V.

    2003-01-01

    This article tackles the problem of greenhouse effect and asks the question to know if the development of nuclear energy constitutes the answer to this problem. It appears that the nuclear energy cannot solve in itself the problem of greenhouse effect. Others actions on energy demand, on transport ( that is a big consumer of petroleum and that represents 25% of world emissions) have to studied and need a real policy will. (N.C.)

  9. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  10. From basic needs to basic rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facio, A

    1995-06-01

    After arriving at an understanding that basic rights refer to all human needs, it is clear that a recognition of the basic needs of female humans must precede the realization of their rights. The old Women in Development (WID) framework only understood women's needs from an androcentric perspective which was limited to practical interests. Instead, women's primary need is to be free from their subordination to men. Such an understanding places all of women's immediate needs in a new light. A human rights approach to development would see women not as beneficiaries but as people entitled to enjoy the benefits of development. Discussion of what equality before the law should mean to women began at the Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi where the issue of violence against women was first linked to development. While debate continues about the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social, and cultural rights, the realities of women's lives do not permit such a distinction. The concept of the universality of human rights did not become codified until the UN proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The declaration has been criticized by feminists because the view of human rights it embodies has been too strongly influenced by a liberal Western philosophy which stresses individual rights and because it is ambiguous on the distinction between human rights and the rights of a citizen. The protection of rights afforded by the Declaration, however, should not be viewed as a final achievement but as an ongoing struggle. International conferences have led to an analysis of the human-rights approach to sustainable development which concludes that women continue to face the routine denial of their rights. Each human right must be redefined from the perspective of women's needs, which must also be redefined. Women must forego challenging the concept of the universality of human rights in order to overcome the argument of cultural

  11. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  12. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti-Watel, P.; Hammer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  13. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  14. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  15. Agriculture and the greenhouse gas emissions: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulmala, A.; Esala, M.

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture contributes to the greenhouse effect by increasing carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane emissions. This literature review examines agricultural sources and sinks of greenhouse gases as well as factors affecting emissions. Options for mitigating emissions are presented as well the results of greenhouse gas emission measurements on Finnish agricultural soils. In addition, some basic information is given about Finnish agriculture, and the estimation of emissions using the IPCC Guidelines is described. Carbon dioxide sources include decomposition of soil organic matter, combustion and liming. The agricultural sector can mitigate CO 2 emissions by increasing carbon stocks in soils and vegetation, reducing fossil fuel consumption, and increasing the production of bioenergy. There is little opportunity to decrease the amount of liming in Finland. The main nitrous oxide sources are nitrification and denitrification. N 2 O emissions can be reduced by enhancing plants' ability to compete for soil nitrogen and by keeping the rate of emission processes as low and the duration of emissions as short as possible. Special attention should be paid to manure management because manure contains abundant nitrogen that can be lost as N 2 O. Improvements in the protein feeding of livestock could also reduce potential N 2 O emissions from manure. Methane is emitted, for example, in the course of enteric fermentation and the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in manure. The emission of CH 4 from soils depends on the relative amounts of methane production and consumption. Cattle with high productivity emit less methane per unit of milk or meat than do animals with low productivity. The number of breeding animals could be reduced by improving animal reproduction efficiency. Methane emitted from manure should be utilized as an energy source, or the formation of it should be prevented by keeping manure under aerobic conditions

  16. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  17. Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A. van 't; Henten, E.J. van; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Bot, G.P.A.; Dekker, E.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The

  18. The solar greenhouse: a survey of energy saving methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saye, A.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Bot, G.P.A.; Zwart, de H.F.

    2000-01-01

    The solar greenhouse project is aimed at the development of a greenhouse concept for the Netherlands with zero-fossil energy consumption. The solar greenhouse is formulated as a combination of a low energy demand greenhouse, an energy recovery installation and an energy storage facility. In this

  19. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects...

  20. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  1. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  2. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  3. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  4. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of ... injury? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  5. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  6. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD Kristine Cichowski, MS Read Bio Founding ...

  7. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  8. Basics of SCI Rehabilitation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  9. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  10. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  11. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  12. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  13. Ship construction and welding

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Nisith R

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses various aspects of ship construction, from ship types and construction materials, to welding technologies and accuracy control. The contents of the book are logically organized and divided into twenty-one chapters. The book covers structural arrangement with longitudinal and transverse framing systems based on the service load, and explains basic structural elements like hatch side girders, hatch end beams, stringers, etc. along with structural subassemblies like floors, bulkheads, inner bottom, decks and shells. It presents in detail double bottom construction, wing tanks & duct keels, fore & aft end structures, etc., together with necessary illustrations. The midship sections of various ship types are introduced, together with structural continuity and alignment in ship structures. With regard to construction materials, the book discusses steel, aluminum alloys and fiber reinforced composites. Various methods of steel material preparation are discussed, and plate cutting and form...

  14. Environmental economics. Five basic key notions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroui, F.; Benhaim, J.; Baron, R.; Helioui, K.; Glachant, M.; Corbaz, C.

    1994-12-01

    The greenhouse effect is a good example of the uncertainty inherent to environmental economics. Given the physical and factual uncertainties, the last thing we need is uncertainty in the words we use. Unfortunately, the semantics of environmental economics are sometimes too vague; and this vagueness can sometimes lead to conceptual errors. It is obvious that the concepts must be explicated and the relations which link them must be clarified if we are to use them without any risk of semantic Al confusion. This view, shared by all the participants, provided the theme of the SEO 1994 'Environmental Economics' seminar; its goal was to define and discuss some basic concepts. Jacques Benhaim gives a thorough discussion of the rate of discount. The rate of discount is an important item when it comes to a dynamic analysis in environmental economics. Richard Baron discusses modelling in its relation with the long-term assessment of greenhouse gases. In this context, he provides a 'catalogue raisonne' of the available models, then raises some interesting methodological issues involved in top-down modelling. His critique stresses the need of integrative models. Voluntary agreements constitute an alternative to taxation. Manhieu Glachant gives an overview of existing cases in 11 OECD countries; he then focuses on assessing their efficiency. Catherine Corbaz chose the much debated carbon tax. After giving some data on the greenhouse effect, she focuses on its economic aspects. After discussing uncertainty and technical progress, attention is paid to the reach of the tax: should it be global, or national and coordinated? Khalid Helioui was asked to elaborate on Catherine Corbaz by providing a more theoretical analysis of an optimal taxation on carbon. He proposes a two-goods dynamic model including the possibility of a backstop technique, which allows him to discuss an optimal carbon tax and to give a stimulating interpretation of the usage cost of the atmosphere

  15. Collapse simulation of building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekrest'yanov Viktor Nikolaevich

    Full Text Available The physical reasons for building structures destruction are both the forces arising at stress-strain state of construction elements and external influences arising at emergency situations, as well as their moments, impulses and periodic impulses with the frequencies close to of fluctuations frequencies of construction elements. We shall call the mathematical calculation models for the parameters-reasons of destructions the basic models. The basic models of destruction of building structures elements allow not only providing necessary level of reliability and survivability of the elements and the construction as a whole already at the stage of their design, but also giving the chance, at their corresponding completion, to provide rational decisions on the general need of recovery works and their volume depending on destruction level. Especially important for rational design decisions development, which ensure the demanded constructional safety of building structures, is library creation of the basic mathematical models of standard processes of bearing elements destructions for standard construction designs for the purpose of the further forecast (assessment of the level and probabilities of standard destructions. Some basic mathematical models of destructions processes of the standard elements of building structures are presented in the present article. A model of accounting for construction defects and a model of obtaining requirements to probabilities of partial destructions of a construction are given. Both of these models are probabilistic.

  16. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  17. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...

  18. Energy Efficiency of a Greenhouse for the Conservation of Forestry Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biodiversity conservation is one of the most interesting and crucial problems in forestry world. Currently, the conservation methods are based on two phases: the conservation of seeds at low temperatures and the multiplication of vegetable material. This latter operation can be successfully developed in properly designed greenhouses. The aim of this paper is to define a type of greenhouse which is particularly suitable for plant material propagation in order to preserve forest biodiversity in the area of the Central Italy. Some general parameters were first defined for a correct planning of the structure, such as: the shape of the section, volume, cover material, systems for heating and cooling, and those for the control of the internal microclimate parameters (light, air temperature, and relative humidity. Considering the construction characteristics and the climatic conditions of the place, the internal microclimatic conditions have been later determined by the useful implementation in TRNSYS in order to analyse the energy efficiency of the greenhouse.

  19. Stabilising the global greenhouse. A simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic implications of a comprehensive approach to greenhouse policies that strives to stabilise the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases at an ecolocially determined threshold level. In a theoretical optimisation model conditions for an efficient allocation of abatement effort among pollutants and over time are derived. The model is empirically specified and adapted to a dynamic Gams-algorithm. By various simulation runs for the period of 1990 to 2110, the economics of greenhouse gas accumulation are explored. In particular, the long-run cost associated with the above stabilisation target are evaluated for three different policy scenarios: i) A comprehensive approach that covers all major greenhouse gases simultaneously, ii) a piecemeal approach that is limited to reducing CO 2 emissions, and iii) a ten-year moratorium that postpones abatement effort until new scientific evidence on the greenhouse effect will become available. Comparing the simulation results suggests that a piecemeal approach would considerably increase total cost, whereas a ten-year moratorium might be reasonable even if the probability of 'good news' is comparatively small. (orig.)

  20. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  1. Basic principles of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, M.

    1977-01-01

    After a brief review of the origin of the 'quality concept' and the historical development of quality assurance, questions such as 'what is QA' and 'why is QA so important in nuclear technology' as well as definitions and main requirements of relevant QA codes and standards are presented and discussed. By means of a project realization schematic, tasks, duties, responsibilities, and possible QA organigrammes as well as QA programme and manual requirements are explained and compared. From a QA point of view, it is shown that no basic difference exists between design and production or construction control activities. Special emphasis is layed upon active owner's participation in the implementation of QA programmes for NPP and the advantages offered are described and illustrated by typical examples. (RW) [de

  2. Basic Electromagnetism and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, André

    2007-01-01

    Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...

  3. Static Linear Fresnel Lenses as LCPV System in a Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneveld, P. J.; Swinkels, G. L. A. M.; van Tuijl, B. A. J.; Janssen, H. J. J.; de Zwart, H. F.

    2011-12-01

    A low concentrating PV system with water cooling (LCPVT system) will result in electrical and thermal energy output from the solar energy excess entering a building or greenhouse. All the direct radiation could be converted, which corresponds to 75% of the incoming solar energy. This will significantly reduce the demand of cooling of the building. For an optimal performance it is beneficial to construct asymmetric roof elements with a steep inclination at the north side (the exact angle of course depends on the latitude of the building site). The Fresnel lens structure is oriented in upwards direction. In the current design, two of them are placed between an AR-coated double glass structure to prevent pollution and condensation on the lenses. Compared with a previous system, the number of lenses is reduced from 3 to 2 lenses, which reduces the costs of the system by limiting the number of receivers. By the upward facing of the lens structure, the focus quality is preserved over a much broader range of angles of incidence compared to a lens with downward facing structures. Each PMMA lens with a size of 1.20 m×1.60 m is composed of 12 `tiles' for easy production. The focal distance of the lens is 1,875 m and the concentration factor 50x. In most cases the focus line is thinner than 3 cm and the transmission is above 80%. The performance of these lenses with respect of the shape of the focal area and the position of the focal line has been analyzed with ray tracing techniques. From this analyses it was concluded that tracking of the receiver module is possible with two motors. One motor controls the distance between lens and receiver and one motor controls the translocation of the receivers parallel to the lens. The second conclusion was that the positions of the focal line are within the bounds of the greenhouse construction for almost the whole year. Only in winter, the focal line will be unreachable from time to time. A 480 m2 greenhouse with the LCPVT system

  4. Basic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Landsberg, PT

    2013-01-01

    Since Volume 1 was published in 1982, the centres of interest in the basic physics of semiconductors have shifted. Volume 1 was called Band Theory and Transport Properties in the first edition, but the subject has broadened to such an extent that Basic Properties is now a more suitable title. Seven chapters have been rewritten by the original authors. However, twelve chapters are essentially new, with the bulk of this work being devoted to important current topics which give this volume an almost encyclopaedic form. The first three chapters discuss various aspects of modern band theory and the

  5. Basic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Azriel

    2002-01-01

    An advanced-level treatment of the basics of set theory, this text offers students a firm foundation, stopping just short of the areas employing model-theoretic methods. Geared toward upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, it consists of two parts: the first covers pure set theory, including the basic motions, order and well-foundedness, cardinal numbers, the ordinals, and the axiom of choice and some of it consequences; the second deals with applications and advanced topics such as point set topology, real spaces, Boolean algebras, and infinite combinatorics and large cardinals. An

  6. Comprehensive basic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Veena, GR

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features As per II PUC Basic Mathematics syllabus of Karnataka. Provides an introduction to various basic mathematical techniques and the situations where these could be usefully employed. The language is simple and the material is self-explanatory with a large number of illustrations. Assists the reader in gaining proficiency to solve diverse variety of problems. A special capsule containing a gist and list of formulae titled ''REMEMBER! Additional chapterwise arranged question bank and 3 model papers in a separate section---''EXAMINATION CORNER''.

  7. Ecology and basic laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The author sketches the critical relation between ecology and basic law - critical in more than one sense. He points out the incompatibility of constitutional states and atomic states which is due to constitutional order being jeopardised by nuclear policy. He traces back the continuously rising awareness of pollution and the modern youth movement to their common root i.e. the awakening, the youth movement of the turn of the century. Eventually, he considers an economical, political, and social decentralization as a feasible alternative which would considerably relieve our basic living conditions from the threatening forms of civilization prevailing. (HSCH) [de

  8. Construction technique for a chemical plant (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This book mentions the order of plant construction, building plant and related regulations, basic engineering design data, provide of equipment, plan and management on building plant, quality control, the budget and contract for building plant, public works for building chemical plant like road construction, basic plan and building for a chemical plant, introduction and principle on foundation improvement method, including pile foundation and design for footing, construction and installation for a chemical plant and a rotary machine for a chemical plant.

  9. Greenhouse cooling and heat recovery using fine wire heat exchangers in a closed pot plant greenhouse: design of an energy producing greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.C.; Zwart, de H.F.; Campen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    A greenhouse cooling system with heat storage for completely closed greenhouses has been designed, based on the use of a fine wire heat exchanger. The performance of the fine wire heat exchangers was tested under laboratory conditions and in a small greenhouse compartment. The effects of the system

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  11. Greenhouse effect in double-skin facade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, E.; Herde, A. de [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Architecture et Climat, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2007-02-15

    In these last years, a great deal of interest has been devoted to double-skin facades due to the advantages claimed by this technology (in terms of energy saving in the cold season, high-tech image, protection from external noise and wind loads). One of the great characteristics of the double-skin facade is the greenhouse effect. We identify the factors that influence the greenhouse effect. The identified parameters are solar radiation level, orientation and shading devices use, opaque wall/window proportion of the interior facade, wind speed, colour of shading devices and of interior facade, depth of the cavity of the double-skin, glazing type in the interior facade and openings in the double-skin. We analyze the impact of these parameters on the mean air temperature evolution in the cavity. After that analyse, the article answers the question: is greenhouse effect favourable? The answer is moderate according to the double-skin orientation. (author)

  12. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  13. Nuclear power and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion accounts for about 40% of the global warming due to the 'greenhouse effect'. Thus national energy policies of the fuels used to generate electricity can have a significant effect on the levels of gas emissions which contribute to the 'greenhouse effect'. The more efficient use of energy is the first way of controlling the increase in gas emissions. The use of natural gas instead of coal or oil would also be beneficial but the reserves of natural gas are limited. The use of nuclear-generated electricity has already reduced the level of global warming by 3% but could have a greater effect in the future. Ways in which the government could reduce 'greenhouse' gas emissions are listed. These include the more extensive use of nuclear power for generating electricity not only for domestic but industrial uses. (U.K.)

  14. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time......-consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution...

  15. Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalensee, R.

    1993-01-01

    In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to ratios of discounted marginal contributions to radiative forcing, where the discount rate is the difference between the discount rate relevant to climate-related damages and the rate of growth of marginal climate-related damages over time. If there are important gas-specific costs or benefits not tied to radiative forcing, however, such as direct effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth, there is in general no shortcut around explicit comparison of discounted net marginal damages. 16 refs

  16. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  17. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for Australia's States and Territories. Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 amounted to 564.7 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 158.7 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 158.5 Mt; Victoria: 123.0 Mt; Western Australia: 68.5 Mt; South Australia: 27.6 Mt; Northern Territory: 15.6 Mt; Tasmania: 10.7 Mt; ACT: 1.2 Mt. The summary of State and Territory inventories presented in this document reports estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for each State and Territory for the period 1990 to 2004. It is the first time that a complete annual time-series has been reported

  18. Financial management of the construction company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosova, Karolina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper informs about the financial management in the construction company. The work describes problems of the management, its tasks, goals, dependencies on the size of the construction company and progress in the construction production and also introduce topic of the risks in the construction business. Also controlling and reporting in the construction company together with basic tools are described in example of Metrostav a.s. in this work.

  19. Basic information about development and construction of a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    1.0) Plant layout of a PWR; 2.0) principle design of a PWR and the reactor coolant system; 3.0) reactor auxiliary and ancillary systems; 3.1) volume control system; 3.2) boric acid control and chemical feeding system; 3.3) coolant purification and degassing system; 3.4) coolant storage and treatment system; 3.5) nuclear component cooling system; 3.6) liquid waste processing system; 3.7) gaseous waste processing system; 4.0) residual heat removal system; 5.0) emergency feedwater system; 6.0) containment design; 7.0) fuel handling, storage and transport system in a PWR. (orig.) [de

  20. Basic architecture and design of storage simulation construction set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, A.; Volz, R.

    1999-02-01

    Regular practice these days has been to build a simulation prototype of an actual entity needing to be built prior to building an actual physical model. Computer simulation and modeling techniques aid greatly in this practice. In a critical system such as a fissile material storage system, various issues such as safety, security, and automation of handling processes can be assessed through virtual environments, thereby creating a safe atmosphere for research versus hands-on experimentation and possible worker exposures. By utilizing the approaches presented in this study, the concepts can be applied for rapid virtual prototyping of other systems, as this type of system is not limited to the storage of nuclear materials

  1. Basic information about development and construction of a BRW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattern, J.

    1977-01-01

    The presentation comprises three parts. In the 1st chapter total plant information such as thermal process data, standard sizes data and a typical site plan are given. The 2nd part comprises balance of plant information such as turbine generator, feedwater system and other supply systems. The 3rd and main part of the report deals with the nuclear steam supply system of the BWR including containment description. Development of the present design is shown and also indications are given for further development efforts. (orig.) [de

  2. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, P.; Rubin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs

  3. Greenhouse effect increase and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.F.; Mahfouf, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Observations on the evolution of the atmospheric composition concerning trace gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , NO 2 , CFC) are first described. Then the fundamental role played by these gases in the radiative equilibrium of the earth through the greenhouse effect is examined. Numerical models have been developed to forecast the consequences of an increase of the greenhouse effect. The importance of the feedback mechanism, where the oceans and the clouds have the central part, but not well estimated by the models, is explained. Climatic changes generally accepted are reviewed. In conclusion the need to improve our knowledge of the global climatic system to forecast future modifications is underlined

  4. Greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benndorf, Rosemarie; Bernicke, Maja; Bertram, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In order to answer the question how a greenhouse gas neutral Germany would look like an interdisciplinary process was started by the Federal Environmental Agency. It was clear from the beginning of this work that a sustainable regenerative energy supply could not be sufficient. Therefore all relevant emission sources were included into the studies: traffic, industry, waste and waste water, agriculture, land usage, land usage changes and forestry. The necessary transformation paths to reach the aim of a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050, economic considerations and political instruments were not part of this study.

  5. Selection of appropriate greenhouse gas mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1999-10-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation options help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions so as to avoid the adverse environmental impacts due to global warming/climate change. They have different characteristics when evaluated using different criteria. For example, some options may be very cost effective, while some may have an additional advantage of reducing local pollution. Hence, selection of these options, for consideration by a national government or by a funding agency, has to incorporate multiple criteria. In this paper, some important criteria relevant to the selection are discussed, and a multi-criteria methodology is suggested for making appropriate selection. The methodology, called the Analytic Hierarchy Process, is described using two illustrations. (author)

  6. Wood and combating the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochu, Serge

    2004-01-01

    The article begins by recalling a number of definitions connected with the greenhouse effect and the involvement of trees and forests. Timber's direct role in carbon storage and the reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide is then described. The results of modelling studies and the indirect effects of timber as a means for economising fossil energy are discussed. While the direct and indirect effects of timber products on the greenhouse phenomenon are clearly positive, actually increasing the share of timber in the market and thereby intensifying its contribution is another matter that relies on consumer behaviour. In this area, large-scale campaigns must continue. (authors)

  7. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  8. Basic Tuberculosis Facts

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-12

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses basic TB prevention, testing, and treatment information.  Created: 3/12/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/12/2012.

  9. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  10. Basic SPSS tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Matthijssen, A.C.B.

    2015-01-01

    This supplementary book for the social, behavioral, and health sciences helps readers with no prior knowledge of IBM® SPSS® Statistics, statistics, or mathematics learn the basics of SPSS. Designed to reduce fear and build confidence, the book guides readers through point-and-click sequences using

  11. Basic Skills Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Alexander C.; Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    After surveying 1,827 students in their final year at eighty randomly selected two-year and four-year public and private institutions, American Institutes for Research (2006) reported that approximately 30 percent of students in two-year institutions and nearly 20 percent of students in four-year institutions have only basic quantitative…

  12. Basic physics for all

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, B N

    2012-01-01

    This is a simple, concise book for both student and non-physics students, presenting basic facts in straightforward form and conveying fundamental principles and theories of physics. This book will be helpful as a supplement to class teaching and to aid those who have difficulty in mastering concepts and principles.

  13. Basic pharmaceutical technology

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra; Drakalska, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The lecture deals with basics of pharmaceutical technology as applied discipline of pharmaceutical science, whose main subject of study is formulation and manufacture of drugs. In a broad sense, pharmaceutical technology is science of formulation, preparation, stabilization and determination of the quality of medicines prepared in the pharmacy or in pharmaceutical industry

  14. Basic radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyzadeoglu, M. M.; Ebruli, C.

    2008-01-01

    Basic Radiation Oncology is an all-in-one book. It is an up-to-date bedside oriented book integrating the radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical radiation oncology. It includes the essentials of all aspects of radiation oncology with more than 300 practical illustrations, black and white and color figures. The layout and presentation is very practical and enriched with many pearl boxes. Key studies particularly randomized ones are also included at the end of each clinical chapter. Basic knowledge of all high-tech radiation teletherapy units such as tomotherapy, cyberknife, and proton therapy are also given. The first 2 sections review concepts that are crucial in radiation physics and radiobiology. The remaining 11 chapters describe treatment regimens for main cancer sites and tumor types. Basic Radiation Oncology will greatly help meeting the needs for a practical and bedside oriented oncology book for residents, fellows, and clinicians of Radiation, Medical and Surgical Oncology as well as medical students, physicians and medical physicists interested in Clinical Oncology. English Edition of the book Temel Radyasyon Onkolojisi is being published by Springer Heidelberg this year with updated 2009 AJCC Staging as Basic Radiation Oncology

  15. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  16. Monte Carlo: Basics

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, K. P. N.

    2001-01-01

    An introduction to the basics of Monte Carlo is given. The topics covered include, sample space, events, probabilities, random variables, mean, variance, covariance, characteristic function, chebyshev inequality, law of large numbers, central limit theorem (stable distribution, Levy distribution), random numbers (generation and testing), random sampling techniques (inversion, rejection, sampling from a Gaussian, Metropolis sampling), analogue Monte Carlo and Importance sampling (exponential b...

  17. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  18. Basic Soils. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Dept. of Agricultural and Industrial Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in teaching a course in basic soils that is intended for college freshmen. Addressed in the individual lessons of the unit are the following topics: the way in which soil is formed, the physical properties of soil, the chemical properties of soil, the biotic properties of soil, plant-soil-water…

  19. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  20. The global greenhouse effect and the advanced nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byong Whi Lee

    1998-01-01

    In spite of future uncertainty, Korea is very much committed to nuclear energy as a major source of electric power expansion, because of its lack of domestic energy resources. A long term nuclear power program has resulted in 11 nuclear power plants of 9.6 GWe in operation, 2 units under construction and 7 planned. This means that the share of nuclear power in Korean electricity production would be about 38% in 2006. Many other countries were faced with the problem of global warming which is related to carbondioxide emission from the use of fossil fuels. According to Korean experience, it could be concluded that substitution of fossil fuels would be the most efficient and economic means of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to nuclear and hydropower, the most promising other non-fossil sources are geothermal energy, biomass, solar thermal energy, photovoltaic systems, wind power, tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal electric conversion

  1. ISE and Chemfet sensors in greenhouse cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, T.H.; Straten, van G.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Wouters, H.

    2005-01-01

    The development and market introduction of ion-specific sensors, like the ion selective electrode (ISE) and ion selective field effect transistor (ISFET) sensor, has paved the way for completely new systems for application of fertilisers to crops in greenhouses. This paper illustrates the usefulness

  2. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1996-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol form corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large non-linearities in carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs

  3. Pest management in organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The management of pests is one of the major challenges in organic greenhouse cropping systems. In this paper, I summarize the currently most problematic and persistent, as well as the newly emerging pest species in organic tomato, sweet pepper, cucumber and aubergine crops in Europe. Furthermore, I

  4. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  5. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  6. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.-Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products “from cradle to grave”: from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  7. The greenhouse effect and extreme weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern; Kvamstoe, Nils Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    The article asserts that an anthropogenic global warming is occurring. This greenhouse effect is expected to cause more occurrences of extreme weather. It is extremely difficult, however, to relate specific weather catastrophes to global warming with certainty, since such extreme weather conditions are rare historically. The subject is controversial. The article also discusses the public debate and the risk of floods

  8. Increased greenhouse effect substantiated through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skartveit, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on the greenhouse effect which substantiates the results from satellite measurements during the period 1970 - 1997. These show an increased effect due to increase in the concentration of the climatic gases CO 2 , methane, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere

  9. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Enteric Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Tedeschi, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock directly contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. For cost and practicality reasons, quantification of GHG has been through development of various types of mathematical models. This chapter addresses the utility and

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from Savanna ( Miombo ) woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural vegetation represents an important sink for greenhouse gases (GHGs); however, there is relatively little information available on emissions from southern African savannas. The effects of clearing savanna woodlands for crop production on soil fluxes of N2O, CO2 and CH4 were studied on clay (Chromic luvisol) and ...

  11. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  12. Technologies for a greenhouse-constrained society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliasha, M.A.; Zucker, A.; Ballew, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    This conference explored how three technologies might help society adjust to life in a greenhouse-constrained environment. Technology experts and policy makers from around the world met June 11--13, 1991, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to address questions about how energy efficiency, biomass, and nuclear technologies can mitigate the greenhouse effect and to explore energy production and use in countries in various stages of development. The conference was organized by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Energy efficiency biomass, and nuclear energy are potential substitutes for fossil fuels that might help slow or even reverse the global warming changes that may result from mankind's thirst for energy. Many other conferences have questioned whether the greenhouse effect is real and what reductions in greenhouse gas emissions might be necessary to avoid serious ecological consequences; this conference studied how these reductions might actually be achieved. For these conference proceedings, individuals papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  13. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  14. Greenhouse effect: a much debate question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, Y.

    1992-01-01

    After a two year inquiry, a french research worker has denounced the official thesis of a growth of greenhouse effect. This paper gives the point of view of the author on climatic change and opens the debate with two another experts

  15. Can rubber help against the greenhouse effect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Car traffic has a significant share in worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. ­Despite many improvements in the past there is still a big potential for further reductions of the CO2 emissions. Many parts of a car can be replaced by thermoplastics or elastomers in order to reduce weight. In addition,

  16. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  17. Mechanically controlled moisture removal from greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to design and test a system capable of dehumidifying air in a greenhouse when a thermal screen is in use. Dehumidification is required to reduce the risk of fungal diseases and prevent physiological disorders. The most common procedure used to remove moisture from a

  18. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach...

  19. A validated physical model of greenhouse climate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, G.P.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the greenhouse model the momentaneous environmental crop growth factors are calculated as output, together with the physical behaviour of the crop. The boundary conditions for this model are the outside weather conditions; other inputs are the physical characteristics of the crop, of the

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation with scarce land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, A; Olesen, Jørgen E; Prochnow, A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural lands have been identified to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions primarily by production of energy crops and substituting fossil energy resources and through carbon sequestration in soils. Increased fertilizer input resulting in increased yields may reduce the area needed for crop...

  1. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  3. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Blanchard, M.; Chadwick, D.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure...

  4. Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms

  5. Greenhouse warming and changes in sea level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is likely that the anticipated warming due to the effect of increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases will lead to a further and faster rise in world mean sea level. There are many processes in the climate system controlling sea level, but the most important

  6. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides.

  7. Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

    1994-01-01

    A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyanjui, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study considers greenhouse gas emissions stemming from industrial activities such as cement production; limestone use and lime production. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1995a) methodology for industrial sector was applied for the three components selected. Limitations hindering the handling of other industrial process are listed as budgetary and time. Data sources and recommendations are listed

  9. Pakistan: Preliminary National Greenhouse Gas Inventory | KHAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The gases covered in the inventory are the direct greenhouse gases (carbon ... Industrial processes, Agriculture, Land?use change and forestry and Waste (guided by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. Global comparison of three greenhouse climate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bavel, van C.H.M.; Takakura, T.; Bot, G.P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three dynamic simulation models for calculating the greenhouse climate and its energy requirements for both heating and cooling were compared by making detailed computations for each of seven sets of data. The data sets ranged from a cold winter day, requiring heating, to a hot summer day, requiring

  11. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  12. Nuclear power and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Tolland, H.G.

    1989-05-01

    Global levels of the ''Greenhouse'' gases - carbon dioxide, the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, nitrous oxide and tropospheric ozone are increasing as a result of man's activities. This increase is widely expected to bring about a rise in global temperature with concomitant environmental impacts. Global warming has been observed over the last century, and the last decade has seen seven of the warmest years on record. There has also been increased variability in the weather (an expected consequence of global warming). However, these possible manifestations of the Greenhouse Effect are within natural variations and proof must await more definitive indications. A brief outline of current views on the Greenhouse Effect is given. This report addresses the energy sector using CO 2 emissions as a measure of its ''Greenhouse'' contribution. This approach understates the energy sector contribution. However, the difference is within the error band. It seems likely that the warming effect of non-energy related emissions will remain the same and there will be more pressure to reduce the emissions from the energy sector. To assess policy options the pattern of future energy demand is estimated. Two scenarios have been adopted to provide alternative frameworks. Both assume low energy growth projections based on increased energy efficiency. The role of nuclear power in reducing carbon dioxide emissions is considered. (author)

  13. Greenhouse gas abatement strategies for animal husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.; Bannink, A.; Chadwick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Agriculture contributes significantly to the anthropogenic emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. In this paper, a review is presented of the agriculture related sources of methane and nitrous oxide, and of the main strategies for mitigation. The rumen is the most important

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available of CO2. These gases included 350 Tg CO2 (65.6% of the effect), 183 Tg CH4 (34.2%) and 1.2 Tg N2O (0.2%). The mining and burning of coal contributed more than 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions from South African territory....

  15. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  16. Australian greenhouse governance; the twilight zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    Australia is committed to limit greenhouse gas emissions in nine years' time to no more than 8% higher than an uncertain 1990 baseline. This will require a cut of 25 % points or some 100 millions tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent from the Business-as-Usual expected growth by 2010. Meeting the target will directly reduce global warming in about 50 years time by 0.001 degrees Celsius, at an opportunity cost estimated by ABARE as about 1% of GDP unless an emissions trading scheme is established. The author indicates that, if one accepts the Kyoto commitment, emissions trading and other flexibility mechanisms should be set up to minimise but not eliminate its negative impacts, while other beneficial returns from greenhouse governance, such as increased energy efficiency and improved technologies, must be developed driven in part by public enthusiasms for 'greenhouse' but mostly by economic returns. Even so, Australia with a greenhouse limit and already world-leader in efficiency in many areas, is faced by international competitors without such limits or efficiencies, so investments in energy-intensive value-adding industries may move offshore even though global emissions will increase. Australia may thus revert to a 'quarry' economy unless it can minimise the impacts of Kyoto and offset emissions against substantial new carbon 'sinks', and be given credit by way of emissions trading and other flexibility mechanisms. Australia cannot make a sensible decision about ratification without a comprehensive National Interest Analysis

  17. Misperception and mismanagement of the greenhouse effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatlebakk, M.; Moxnes, E.

    1992-12-01

    We present a stochastic simulation model of the world economy, useful for the analysis of climate policy. The model will also be used in an experiment to investigate the ability of policy makers to tackle the greenhouse problem. Preliminary simulations are conducted to find an optimal stationary tax rate. 30 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Construction Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, James F.

    This article provides a detailed discussion of a team approach to building that involves a construction manager, an architect, and a contractor. Bidding methods are outlined; the major components in construction management -- value engineering and fast track scheduling -- and the use of performance specifications are discussed. The construction…

  19. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  20. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  1. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  2. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  3. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  4. Basics of statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W

    2013-01-01

    Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...

  5. Emulsion Science Basic Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.

  6. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  7. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  8. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  9. Basic nucleonics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book is oriented mainly towards professionals who are not physicists or experts in nuclear sciences, physicians planning to specialize in nuclear medicine or radiotherapy and technicians involved in nuclear applications. The book covers the fundamental concepts of nuclear science and technology in a simple and ordered fashion. Theory is illustrated with appropriate exercises and answers. With 17 chapters plus 3 appendices on mathematics, basic concepts are covered in: nuclear science, radioactivity, radiation and matter, nuclear reactions, X rays, shielding and radioprotection

  10. Basic of Neutron NDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The objectives of this presentation are to introduce the basic physics of neutron production, interactions and detection; identify the processes that generate neutrons; explain the most common neutron mechanism, spontaneous and induced fission and (a,n) reactions; describe the properties of neutron from different sources; recognize advantages of neutron measurements techniques; recognize common neutrons interactions; explain neutron cross section measurements; describe the fundamental of 3He detector function and designs; and differentiate between passive and active assay techniques.

  11. Shoulder arthroscopy: the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kevin W; Wright, Thomas W

    2015-04-01

    Shoulder arthroscopy is a commonly performed and accepted procedure for a wide variety of pathologies. Surgeon experience, patient positioning, knowledge of surgical anatomy, proper portal placement, and proper use of instrumentation can improve technical success and minimize complication risks. This article details the surgical anatomy, indications, patient positioning, portal placement, instrumentation, and complications for basic shoulder arthroscopy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Basic accelerator optics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    1985-01-01

    A complete derivation, from first principles, of the concepts and methods applied in linear accelerator and beamline optics will be presented. Particle motion and beam motion in systems composed of linear magnets, as well as weak and strong focusing and special insertions are treated in mathematically simple terms, and design examples for magnets and systems are given. This series of five lectures is intended to provide all the basic tools required for the design and operation of beam optical systems.

  13. Basic concepts in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)

  14. Basic Financial Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, Karsten

    This textbook on Basic Financial Accounting is targeted students in the economics studies at universities and business colleges having an introductory subject in the external dimension of the company's economic reporting, including bookkeeping, etc. The book includes the following subjects......: business entities, the transformation process, types of businesses, stakeholders, legislation, the annual report, the VAT system, double-entry bookkeeping, inventories, and year-end cast flow analysis....

  15. Preparing for the regulation of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekiel, R.; Wilson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth is warming, and this belief is shared by the leading scientists that sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, where it is expected that the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit between 1990 and 2100. It is felt that the main culprit is greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1992 with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to specified targets below 1990 levels by 2012. For Canada, this commitment is a reduction to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. To avoid penalizing a country that adopts greenhouse gas regulations where the neighbouring country does not follow, negotiations are being held at the international level in an attempt to keep everyone on a level playing field. The United States recently decided not to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions, which could seriously jeopardize the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors examined what the future looks like, in terms of policy options and market-based instruments. In the next section, they discussed the preparations for the regulation of greenhouse gases. The topics reviewed were carbon taxes, command and control regulation, emissions trading, contracts and baseline protection. Canada's baseline protection initiative (BPI) process was closely examined, and identified what reductions are eligible and touched upon ownership issues. The authors concluded that it might be prudent for emitters in Canada to prepare for a variety of regulatory scenarios, as there are a number of uncertainties remaining. Emissions trading must be carefully documented

  16. Australian public perception of the greenhouse issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson-Sellers, A [Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia)

    1990-08-01

    During 1987 and 1988 in Australia there have been two national meetings on the greenhouse effect and a campaign designed to increase public awareness. A study of the backgrounds, level of comprehension and attitudes of attendees at two state Greenhouse-88 meetings has been undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey and a set of personal interviews. Two crucial caveats pertain: some of the questions reflect the prejudices of the author who is an atmospheric scientist, and the respondents comprise a small, self-selected group. All the ensuing results should be viewed in the context of these caveats. Over 97% of the respondents believe that action should be taken now to alleviate the effects of increased greenhouse gases. Despite the fact that the majority of the 321 respondents are professional people (73%) and that over 53% have tertiary level educational qualifications, there was a failure to grasp some fundamental issues. On the other hand, the respondents generally demanded a relatively low level of confidence (50-70%) about the greenhouse issue from scientists before action is taken. Sixty-four percent believe that life will be worse for them and/or their children in Australia in 'Greenhouse 2025' with the youngest age range being the second most pessimistic group about the future. Relatively little interest was shown in the possibility of obtaining more information on topics that interest climatic scientists but more information was desired on the social and economic implication and on the scientific background to the issues. Overall, teachers are perceived as trying to increase understanding; whereas politicians, multinational corporations, the media and some extreme environmentalists are perceived as often attempting to deceive intentionally. Scientists are seen as neither especially malevolent nor benign. 15 figs., 39 refs.

  17. International policies to address the greenhouse effect. Encouraging developing country participation in global greenhouse control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Hischenmoller, M.; Vellinga, P.; Van der Wurff, R.; Junne, G.

    1995-01-01

    The conditions under which developing country governments are likely to feel motivated to take real action in addressing the greenhouse gas problem and the international mechanisms that are likely to succeed are briefly outlined

  18. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe, Biokraftstoffe, Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  19. Basic data biogas Germany. Solid fuels, biofuels, biogas; Basisdaten Bioenergie Deutschland. Festbrennstoffe - Biokraftstoffe - Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The brochure ''Basic data biogas Germany'' gives statistical information about (a) renewable energies: primary energy consumption, power generation, energy supply, avoidance of greenhouse gases; (b) Solid fuels: energetic utilization, wood pellets, energy consumption, comparison to heating oil; (c) Biofuels: consumption, bioethanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils; (d) Biogas: biogas power plants, energy content, production, legal aspects.

  20. The Impact of Basic Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Malcangi, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The research explores the impact of the shape, construction type, materials and components of buildings and users' scenarios – on buildings' key energy loads (heating, cooling and lighting) in Copenhagen's climate. Applying a genetic algorithm, a search space consisting of over 408,000 simulated ...... by proper basic design choices based on energy simulation coupled with genetic optimization. The Impact of Basic Architectural Design. Thinking beyond BR10 and Passivhaus Standard Prescriptions with the Use of Genetic Optimization (PDF Download Available). Available from: https......://www.researchgate.net/publication/287994281_The_Impact_of_Basic_Architectural_Design_Thinking_beyond_BR10_and_Passivhaus_Standard_Prescriptions_with_the_Use_of_Genetic_Optimization [accessed Jan 21, 2016]....

  1. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  2. Aschersonia aleyrodis as a microbial control agent of greenhouse whitefly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects of the development of the entomopathogenic fungus Aschersoniaaleyrodis as a control agent of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodesvaporariorum , were investigated. For control of greenhouse whitefly in tomato

  3. Per capita emissions of greenhouse gases and international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karman, D.; Baptiste, S.

    1994-01-01

    The role played by international trade in Canada's emissions of greenhouse gases is investigated. Data used in the study include Environment Canada greenhouse gas emission estimates for 1990, a Statistics Canada input-output model linking greenhouse gas emissions to economic activity in different sectors, and monetary statistics on imports and exports. Subject to some simplifying assumptions, it is estimated that nearly 20% of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the production of commodities destined for export to other countries. If the same greenhouse gas emission intensities are assumed for Canada's imports, the greenhouse gas emissions due to Canada's net trade is nearly 7% of the 660 megatonnes of CO 2 equivalent emissions for 1990. Commodities from natural resource exploitation head the list of greenhouse gas emissions attributed to international trade, as expected from their large export volumes and large greenhouse gas emission intensities. 4 refs., 1 fig

  4. Future forecast for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of LNG and city gas 13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohito; Furukawa, Michinobu; Ishitani, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the most up-to-date data available on total greenhouse-gas emissions of a LNG fuel supply chain and life-cycle of city gas 13A based on surveys of the LNG projects delivering to Japan, which should provide useful basic-data for conducting life-cycle analyses of other product systems as well as future alternative energy systems, because of highly reliable data qualified in terms of its source and representativeness. In addition, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 were also predicted, taking into account not only the improvement of technologies, but also the change of composition of LNG projects. As a result of this analysis, the total amount of greenhouse-gas emissions of the whole city-gas 13A chain at present was calculated to be 61.91 g-CO 2 /MJ, and the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 could be expected to decrease by about 1.1% of the current emissions

  5. Computer graphics from basic to application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hyeong; Mun, Sung Min

    1998-04-01

    This book mentions conception of computer graphics, background history, necessity and applied field like construction design, image processing, auto mobile design, fashion design and TV broadcast, basic principle of computer, computer graphics hardware, computer graphics software such as adobe illustrator tool box and adobe photo shop, quarkXpress like introduction, application and operating circumstance, 3D graphics with summary, difference of versions of 3D studio and system, and Auto CAD application.

  6. The basic concept for the geological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    1998-01-01

    Before the construction of high level radioactive waste repository, the implementing entity will go through three siting stages for the repository. In each of those three stages, the implementing entity will carry out geological surveys. In this report, the concept for the geological surveys is described, on the basic of 'The policies for the high level radioactive waste disposal (a tentative draft)' issued by the Atomic Energy Commission in July, 1997. (author)

  7. Computer graphics from basic to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Hyeong; Mun, Sung Min

    1998-04-15

    This book mentions conception of computer graphics, background history, necessity and applied field like construction design, image processing, auto mobile design, fashion design and TV broadcast, basic principle of computer, computer graphics hardware, computer graphics software such as adobe illustrator tool box and adobe photo shop, quarkXpress like introduction, application and operating circumstance, 3D graphics with summary, difference of versions of 3D studio and system, and Auto CAD application.

  8. The use of artificial wetlands to treat greenhouse effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Lévesque, Vicky; Dorais, Martine; Gravel, Valérie; Ménard, Claudine; Antoun, Hani; Rochette, Philippe; Roy, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Untreated greenhouse effluents or leak solution constitute a major environmental burden because their nitrate and phosphate concentrations may induce eutrophication. Artificial wetlands may offer a low cost alternative treatment of greenhouse effluents and consequently improve the sustainability of greenhouse growing systems. The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize the efficiency of different types of wetland to reduce ion content of greenhouse tomato effluent, and 2) improve the...

  9. Basic gerbe over non simply connected compact groups

    OpenAIRE

    Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Reis, Nuno

    2003-01-01

    We present an explicit construction of the basic bundle gerbes with connection over all connected compact simple Lie groups. These are geometric objects that appear naturally in the Lagrangian approach to the WZW conformal field theories. Our work extends the recent construction of E. Meinrenken \\cite{Meinr} restricted to the case of simply connected groups.

  10. 6.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Austria, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have increased by about 10 % between 1990 and 2001. This means that already in 2001 the emissions reached the level projected with current measures for 2010. Thus Austria is far from complying with the 13 % reduction required under the Kyoto Protocol, meaning that GHG emissions will have to be reduce annually by 1.4 million tons of CO 2 -equivalents to fulfill its protocol obligation. It is shown that 2001 GHG emissions had increased by 9.6 % since the base year 1990, the main reason for this increase is the growing use of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in CO 2 emissions. The highest growth rates can be observed in the transport sector by almost half (+ 49 %). Basically, greenhouse gas emission trends depend on a number of factors, about two thirds of them are caused by energy production, so the most important parameters affecting GHG are the trends of energy consumption, the energy mix and the following factors: population growth, economic growth, outdoor temperature and the resulting heating requirements, improvement of energy efficiency, the proportion of renewable energy sources such as electricity generation in hydroelectric power stations (which influences the need for supplementary power production in thermal power plants), the mix of fossil fuels, for example in caloric power plants (natural gas combustion produces about 40 % less CO 2 per energy unit than coal combustion), the structure and price effects of energy market liberalization, which influence the use of various fuels in electricity production and the import of electricity, world market prices for energy, structural changes in the economy and in the behavior of consumers. Changes in important driving forces and in GHG emissions, sector emissions trends and Austrian, European and global emissions projections are provided. (nevyjel)

  11. Construction Management of Electromechanical Engineering Project in Petrochemical Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Tao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industry as a basic industry, occupies a pivotal position in the national economy, with the continuous development of science and technology, electromechanical automation in the petrochemical industry has been widely used to save a lot of labor but also greatly improve the oil Chemical industry production efficiency. Therefore, in the construction of petrochemical industry, mechanical and electrical engineering as part of it. It plays a vital role. Petrochemical industry with the production of high temperature and high pressure and flammable and explosive gas, can strengthen the construction of mechanical and electrical engineering specialization and construction management of scientific, has become the relationship between the smooth development of mechanical and electrical engineering and engineering quality of the key, A direct impact on the petrochemical construction of the overall construction quality. To this end, it is necessary for the construction of petrochemical construction of electromechanical engineering construction management to promote the construction of mechanical and electrical engineering management level gradually increased. This article on the machine Electric engineering project construction management were discussed with a view to the petrochemical construction in the relevant aspects of the need to provide reference for reference.

  12. An innovation in the teaching of greenhouse effect in chemistry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The teaching of greenhouse effect is difficult and is done in abstraction. This paper suggests a new instrument, called Improvised Greenhouse Effect Apparatus (IGHA) for the teaching of Greenhouse effect. 100 students were randomly selected from the Department of Chemistry, Cross River State College of Education, ...

  13. Structural analysis and functional characteristics of greenhouses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... resulting from loads acting on beams of each greenhouse, were analyzed by SAP2000 program. Also, the stretch ratios as per whether greenhouse types and covering materials have a statistically significant effect were examined. According to the obtained data, it was found that all of the selected greenhouses could not

  14. Effects of ground insulation and greenhouse microenvironment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at Egerton University, Njoro, Kenya to establish the potential of plastic digester to produce biogas under natural and greenhouse microenvironment. The specific objectives were to evaluate the effects of greenhouse and ground insulation on the rate and quality of biogas generation. A greenhouse ...

  15. 75 FR 66433 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 86 and 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...; FRL-9213-5] RIN 2060-A079 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting rule to correct certain technical and editorial errors that have been...

  16. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 229 / Tuesday... 98 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9493-9] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial errors...

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  18. 75 FR 33949 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 86 and 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...; FRL-9158-6] RIN 2060-A079 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Final Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting rule (2009 Final MRR) to correct certain technical and...

  19. 75 FR 48743 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases...-AQ33 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule Hotline at telephone number: (877) 444-1188; or e-mail: [email protected] . To...

  20. 75 FR 18455 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule amendment. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to amend the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Rule, to require.... The Mandatory GHG Reporting Rule requires greenhouse gas emitting facilities and suppliers of fuels...

  1. 76 FR 47391 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 150 / Thursday...-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9443-1] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... provisions in the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial...

  2. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone.

  3. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasting, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone

  4. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  5. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Suyenty

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently Indonesia is the world largest palm oil producer with production volume reaching 16 million tones per annum. The high crude oil and ethylene prices in the last 3 – 4 years contribute to the healthy demand growth for basic oleochemicals: fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Oleochemicals are starting to replace crude oil derived products in various applications. As widely practiced in petrochemical industry, catalyst plays a very important role in the production of basic oleochemicals. Catalytic reactions are abound in the production of oleochemicals: Nickel based catalysts are used in the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids; sodium methylate catalyst in the transesterification of triglycerides; sulfonic based polystyrene resin catalyst in esterification of fatty acids; and copper chromite/copper zinc catalyst in the high pressure hydrogenation of methyl esters or fatty acids to produce fatty alcohols. To maintain long catalyst life, it is crucial to ensure the absence of catalyst poisons and inhibitors in the feed. The preparation methods of nickel and copper chromite catalysts are as follows: precipitation, filtration, drying, and calcinations. Sodium methylate is derived from direct reaction of sodium metal and methanol under inert gas. The sulfonic based polystyrene resin is derived from sulfonation of polystyrene crosslinked with di-vinyl-benzene. © 2007 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.[Presented at Symposium and Congress of MKICS 2007, 18-19 April 2007, Semarang, Indonesia][How to Cite: E. Suyenty, H. Sentosa, M. Agustine, S. Anwar, A. Lie, E. Sutanto. (2007. Catalyst in Basic Oleochemicals. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 2 (2-3: 22-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31][How to Link/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.2.2-3.6.22-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/6

  6. Empirical links between the local runaway greenhouse, super-greenhouse, and deep convection in Earth's tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, M. C.; Goldblatt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Energy balance requires that energy absorbed and emitted at the top of the atmosphere equal; this is maintained via the Planck feedback whereby outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) increases as surface temperature increases. There are two cases where this breaks down: the runaway greenhouse (known from planetary sciences theory) characterized by an asymptotic limit on OLR from moist atmospheres, and the super-greenhouse (known from tropical meteorology observations) where OLR decreases with surface temperature when the atmosphere is moist aloft. Here we show that the runaway greenhouse limit can be empirically observed and constrained in Earth's tropics, that the runaway and super-greenhouse occur as part of the same physical phenomenon, and that the transition through the super-greenhouse to a local runaway greenhouse is intimately linked to the onset of deep convection. A runaway greenhouse occurs when water vapour causes the troposphere to become optically thick to thermal radiation from the surface and a limit on OLR emerges as thermal emission is from a constant temperature level aloft. This limit is modelled as 282 W/m/m [Goldblatt et al, 2013]. Using satellite data from Earth's tropics, we find an empirical value of this limit of 280 W/m/m, in excellent agreement with the model.A column transitioning to a runaway greenhouse typically overshoots the runaway limit and then OLR decreases with increasing surface temperature until the runaway limit is reached after which OLR remains constant. The term super-greenhouse effect (SGE) has been used to describe OLR decreasing with surface warming, observed in these satellite measurements. We show the SGE is one and the same as the transition to a local runaway greenhouse, and represents a fundamental shift in the radiation response of the earth system, rather than simply an extension of water vapour feedback. This transition via SGE from an optically thin to optically thick troposphere is facilitated by enhanced

  7. Uranium: a basic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crull, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    All energy sources and technologies, including uranium and the nuclear industry, are needed to provide power. Public misunderstanding of the nature of uranium and how it works as a fuel may jeopardize nuclear energy as a major option. Basic chemical facts about uranium ore and uranium fuel technology are presented. Some of the major policy decisions that must be made include the enrichment, stockpiling, and pricing of uranium. Investigations and lawsuits pertaining to uranium markets are reviewed, and the point is made that oil companies will probably have to divest their non-oil energy activities. Recommendations for nuclear policies that have been made by the General Accounting Office are discussed briefly

  8. C# Database Basics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmalz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Working with data and databases in C# certainly can be daunting if you're coming from VB6, VBA, or Access. With this hands-on guide, you'll shorten the learning curve considerably as you master accessing, adding, updating, and deleting data with C#-basic skills you need if you intend to program with this language. No previous knowledge of C# is necessary. By following the examples in this book, you'll learn how to tackle several database tasks in C#, such as working with SQL Server, building data entry forms, and using data in a web service. The book's code samples will help you get started

  9. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  10. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  11. Basic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, D H

    2013-01-01

    Basic Heat Transfer aims to help readers use a computer to solve heat transfer problems and to promote greater understanding by changing data values and observing the effects, which are necessary in design and optimization calculations.The book is concerned with applications including insulation and heating in buildings and pipes, temperature distributions in solids for steady state and transient conditions, the determination of surface heat transfer coefficients for convection in various situations, radiation heat transfer in grey body problems, the use of finned surfaces, and simple heat exc

  12. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  13. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  14. Basic bladder neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, J Quentin

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of normal lower urinary tract function is a complex process that requires coordination between the central nervous system and the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system. This article provides an overview of the basic principles that are recognized to regulate normal urine storage and micturition, including bladder biomechanics, relevant neuroanatomy, neural control of lower urinary tract function, and the pharmacologic processes that translate the neural signals into functional results. Finally, the emerging role of the urothelium as a sensory structure is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.

    1999-01-01

    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  16. Basic research projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The research programs under the cognizance of the Office of Energy Research (OER) are directed toward discovery of natural laws and new knowledge, and to improved understanding of the physical and biological sciences as related to the development, use, and control of energy. The ultimate goal is to develop a scientific underlay for the overall DOE effort and the fundamental principles of natural phenomena so that these phenomena may be understood, and new principles, formulated. The DOE-OER outlay activities include three major programs: High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics, and Basic Energy Sciences. Taken together, these programs represent some 30 percent of the Nation's Federal support of basic research in the energy sciences. The research activities of OER involve more than 6,000 scientists and engineers working in some 17 major Federal Research Centers and at more than 135 different universities and industrial firms throughout the United States. Contract holders in the areas of high-energy physics, nuclear physics, materials sciences, nuclear science, chemical sciences, engineering, mathematics geosciences, advanced energy projects, and biological energy research are listed. Funding trends for recent years are outlined

  17. Basic scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    This series of lectures on basic scattering theory were given as part of a course for postgraduate high energy physicists and were designed to acquaint the student with some of the basic language and formalism used for the phenomenological description of nuclear reactions and decay processes used for the study of elementary particle interactions. Well established and model independent aspects of scattering theory, which are the basis of S-matrix theory, are considered. The subject is considered under the following headings; the S-matrix, cross sections and decay rates, phase space, relativistic kinematics, the Mandelstam variables, the flux factor, two-body phase space, Dalitz plots, other kinematic plots, two-particle reactions, unitarity, the partial-wave expansion, resonances (single-channel case), multi-channel resonances, analyticity and crossing, dispersion relations, the one-particle exchange model, the density matrix, mathematical properties of the density matrix, the density matrix in scattering processes, the density matrix in decay processes, and the helicity formalism. Some exercises for the students are included. (U.K.)

  18. Basic and clinical immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Javier; Shearer, William T.

    2003-01-01

    Progress in immunology continues to grow exponentially every year. New applications of this knowledge are being developed for a broad range of clinical conditions. Conversely, the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies is helping to elucidate the intricate mechanisms of the immune system. We have selected a few of the most significant contributions to the fields of basic and clinical immunology published between October 2001 and October 2002. Our choice of topics in basic immunology included the description of T-bet as a determinant factor for T(H)1 differentiation, the role of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase gene in B-cell development, the characterization of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, and the use of dynamic imaging to study MHC class II transport and T-cell and dendritic cell membrane interactions. Articles related to clinical immunology that were selected for review include the description of immunodeficiency caused by caspase 8 deficiency; a case series report on X-linked agammaglobulinemia; the mechanism of action, efficacy, and complications of intravenous immunoglobulin; mechanisms of autoimmunity diseases; and advances in HIV pathogenesis and vaccine development. We also reviewed two articles that explore the possible alterations of the immune system caused by spaceflights, a new field with increasing importance as human space expeditions become a reality in the 21st century.

  19. A meteorologist's view of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillman, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is a natural process in the atmosphere which keeps the earth's surface warm enough for human life There are theoretical and observational reasons for believing that increasing atmospheric concentrations of the trace gases responsible for this surface warmth are leading to enhanced warming and other changes of global and regional climate By modifying the meteorological models used for routine numerical weather prediction to incorporate the influences that are believed to be of most importance on decade to century and longer time scales, the climate research community are able to explore the possible impacts on global and regional climate of a range of possible future greenhouse gas emissions and concentrations. Despite many uncertainties, these provide the principal scientific basis for intergovernmental negotiation on the development of global strategies for averting or minimising adverse human impacts on climate and assisting national communities in planning to live with natural climate variability and possible future human-induced change

  20. Exergy outcomes associated with the greenhouse effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, A.; Arauzo, I.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the effect on the exergy of the Earth's fossil fuels if natural environmental conditions are changed due to the greenhouse effect is studied. The change considered here is a temperature rise produced as a result of increased CO 2 concentration. The temperature change due to the increase in CO 2 concentration is modeled in accordance with the most recent studies on the greenhouse effect. The result is that the ''average fossil fuel'', based on estimates of proven reserves, will lose 0.3% of its exergy if the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 doubles. Assuming that CO 2 concentration will double over the next hundred years, this 0.3% exergy loss of proven reserves means that we will lose as much capacity to produce work as primary energy was consumed in USA and Canada during 1988