WorldWideScience

Sample records for green warning lights

  1. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  2. The design of the light-flash warning light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli

    2018-05-01

    In today's society, the warning light has been used widely in people's daily life and various industries and agricultures. It is important to protect people's life and security. Light-flashing warning light is a kind of warning light control equipment which can control warning light automatically open and work in the state of blinking after dark, and it can automatically shut down after the dawn. It can achieve the flashing light automatic control and dual function. At present, light-flashing warning lights are mainly used in the projects of municipal construction. It is helpful to warn people and vehicles that passed in the construction site and ensure personal safety through using light-flashing warning light. Its design is simple, its performance is stable and it is also very convince to use it.

  3. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  4. GreenLight Model 960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Richard; Carey, Conn; Hynes, James; Papkovsky, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    The importance of food safety has resulted in a demand for a more rapid, high-throughput method for total viable count (TVC). The industry standard for TVC determination (ISO 4833:2003) is widely used but presents users with some drawbacks. The method is materials- and labor-intensive, requiring multiple agar plates per sample. More importantly, the method is slow, with 72 h typically required for a definitive result. Luxcel Biosciences has developed the GreenLight Model 960, a microtiter plate-based assay providing a rapid high-throughput method of aerobic bacterial load assessment through analysis of microbial oxygen consumption. Results are generated in 1-12 h, depending on microbial load. The mix and measure procedure allows rapid detection of microbial oxygen consumption and equates oxygen consumption to microbial load (CFU/g), providing a simple, sensitive means of assessing the microbial contamination levels in foods (1). As bacteria in the test sample grow and respire, they deplete O2, which is detected as an increase in the GreenLight probe signal above the baseline level (2). The time required to reach this increase in signal can be used to calculate the CFU/g of the original sample, based on a predetermined calibration. The higher the initial microbial load, the earlier this threshold is reached (1).

  5. Improving the effectiveness of nighttime temporary traffic control warning devices, volume 2 : evaluation of nighttime mobile warning lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Vehicle-mounted warning lights for nighttime mobile highway operations provide critical protection to workers and the driving : public. Alerting the traveling public of the approaching work activity and providing guidance is vital to maintaining safe...

  6. Green Light for Nocturnally Migrating Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Poot

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments have shown the magnetic compass to be wavelength dependent: migratory birds require light from the blue-green part of the spectrum for magnetic compass orientation, whereas red light (visible long-wavelength disrupts magnetic orientation. We designed a field study to test if and how changing light color influenced migrating birds under field conditions. We found that nocturnally migrating birds were disoriented and attracted by red and white light (containing visible long-wavelength radiation, whereas they were clearly less disoriented by blue and green light (containing less or no visible long-wavelength radiation. This was especially the case on overcast nights. Our results clearly open perspective for the development of bird-friendly artificial lighting by manipulating wavelength characteristics. Preliminary results with an experimentally developed bird-friendly light source on an offshore platform are promising. What needs to be investigated is the impact of bird-friendly light on other organisms than birds.

  7. Proportional green time scheduling for traffic lights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kovacs; Le, T. (Tung); R. Núñez Queija (Rudesindo); Vu, H. (Hai); N. Walton

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the decentralized scheduling of a large number of urban traffic lights. We investigate factors determining system performance, in particular, the length of the traffic light cycle and the proportion of green time allocated to each junction. We study the effect of the length

  8. Yellow light for green scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2004-01-01

    The article asserts that there could be an investment boom for wind, hydro and bio power in a common Norwegian-Swedish market scheme for green certificates. The Swedish authorities are ready, and the Norwegian government is preparing a report to the Norwegian Parliament. What are the ambitions of Norway, and will hydro power be included? A green certificate market common to more countries have never before been established and requires the solution of many challenging problems. In Sweden, certificate support is expected to promote primarily bioenergy, wind power and small-scale hydro power. In Norway there is an evident potential for wind power, and more hydro power can be developed if desired

  9. Chinese aquaculture in light of green growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leilei Zou; Shuolin Huang

    2015-01-01

    Over China’s long history of aquaculture development, great achievements have been made by enhancing aquaculture as the major contributor to aquatic products supply, while lessons have also been learnt that aquaculture has been developing at the cost of environment. Priority is now given to the aquaculture development in the light of green growth, which attaches importance to both environment protection and high productivity. To sustain Chinese aquaculture in a green-growth manner, polices ch...

  10. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  11. Green light emitting curcumin dye in organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen, Mohammad; Deshmukh, Abhay D.; Dhoble, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    In this modern world, the demand for the white light emission has increased because of its wide applications in various display and lighting devices, sensors etc. This white light can be produced by mixing red, green and blue lights. Thus this green light can be produced from the plant extract i.e., Turmeric. Curcumin is the essential element present in turmeric to generate the green light. The Photoluminescence (PL) emission is observed at 540 nm at 380nm excitation. This method of generating green light is very simple, cost effective and efficient when compared to other methods.

  12. Green Lighting. Energy-efficient integrated lighting systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linhart, F.; Scartezzini, J.-L.

    2009-10-15

    The objective of the Green Lighting project was to develop a High Performance Integrated Lighting System, based on advanced technologies for day- and electric lighting, achieving a Lighting Power Density (LPD) that does not exceed 3 W/m{sup 2}. The project has revealed that Anidolic Daylighting Systems (ADS) are an ideal basis for High Performance Integrated Lighting Systems. Not only are they able to provide adequate illumination (i.e. sufficiently high illuminance) in office rooms during large fractions of normal office hours, under various sky conditions and over the entire year, but they are also highly appreciated by office occupants at the condition that glare control mechanisms are available. Complementary electric lighting is, however, still necessary to back up the ADS at times when there is insufficient daylight flux available. It was shown during this project, that the most interesting trade-offs between energy-efficiency and visual comfort are obtained by using a combination of ceiling-mounted directly emitting luminaires with very high optical efficiencies for ambient lighting and portable desk lamps for temporary task lighting. The most appropriate lamps for the ceiling-mounted luminaires are currently highly efficient fluorescent tubes, but white LED tubes can be considered a realistic option for the future. The most suitable light sources for desk lamps for temporary task lighting are Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and white LED light bulbs. Based on the above-mentioned technologies, a High Performance Integrated Lighting System with a very low LPD has been developed over the last three years. The system has been set up in an office room of the LESO solar experimental building located on the EPFL campus; it has been tested intensively during a Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) study involving twenty human subjects. This study has revealed that the subjects' performance and subjective visual comfort was improved by the new system, compared to

  13. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-01-01

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program

  14. China Green Lights Program: A Review and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    1999-06-10

    This report reviews the development of China's Green Lights Program in the last two years, and discusses the remaining barriers to the widespread adoption of efficient lighting technologies in China: chiefly quality, high initial costs, and lack of accurate information. A variety of policy options are recommended for the future expansion of China's Green Lights Program.

  15. Light sheet microscopy reveals more gradual light attenuation in light green versus dark green soybean leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light wavelengths preferentially absorbed by chlorophyll (chl) often display steep absorption gradients. This oversaturates photosynthesis in upper chloroplasts and deprives lower chloroplasts of blue and red light, causing a steep gradient in carbon fixation. Reducing chl content could create a mor...

  16. Interactive green street enhancement using light dependent sensors and actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Ivo; Chen, W.; Oorschot, van B.; Smeenk, W.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design of an interactive green street facility using light dependent sensors and actuators for enhancing the social cohesion of people. We show that electronics and green design can have positive effect on social interaction in a neighbourhood by a design example, called

  17. Pollution prevention initiatives at US EPA: 'Green Lights'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.; Kwartin, R.

    1991-01-01

    US EPA is initiating a pollution prevention approach to supplement its historic command-control, regulatory approach to environmental protection. EPA believes polllution prevention, where applicable and possible, represents a quicker, less expensive and even profitable strategy for environmental protection. Most clearly, energy-efficiency provides an opportunity to prevent significant amounts of pollution related to the inefficeint generation and use of electricity. EPA's first energy productivity and pollution prevention program is Green Lights. Beyond its own merits, Green Lights will also provide important experience to EPA as it develops its Green Machines program to accelerate the market for efficient appliances and equipment

  18. Green light drives leaf photosynthesis more efficiently than red light in strong white light: revisiting the enigmatic question of why leaves are green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Ichiro; Fujita, Takashi; Inoue, Takeshi; Chow, Wah Soon; Oguchi, Riichi

    2009-04-01

    The literature and our present examinations indicate that the intra-leaf light absorption profile is in most cases steeper than the photosynthetic capacity profile. In strong white light, therefore, the quantum yield of photosynthesis would be lower in the upper chloroplasts, located near the illuminated surface, than that in the lower chloroplasts. Because green light can penetrate further into the leaf than red or blue light, in strong white light, any additional green light absorbed by the lower chloroplasts would increase leaf photosynthesis to a greater extent than would additional red or blue light. Based on the assessment of effects of the additional monochromatic light on leaf photosynthesis, we developed the differential quantum yield method that quantifies efficiency of any monochromatic light in white light. Application of this method to sunflower leaves clearly showed that, in moderate to strong white light, green light drove photosynthesis more effectively than red light. The green leaf should have a considerable volume of chloroplasts to accommodate the inefficient carboxylation enzyme, Rubisco, and deliver appropriate light to all the chloroplasts. By using chlorophylls that absorb green light weakly, modifying mesophyll structure and adjusting the Rubisco/chlorophyll ratio, the leaf appears to satisfy two somewhat conflicting requirements: to increase the absorptance of photosynthetically active radiation, and to drive photosynthesis efficiently in all the chloroplasts. We also discuss some serious problems that are caused by neglecting these intra-leaf profiles when estimating whole leaf electron transport rates and assessing photoinhibition by fluorescence techniques.

  19. Laser warning receiver to identify the wavelength and angle of arrival of incident laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair; Michael B.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-03-23

    A laser warning receiver is disclosed which has up to hundreds of individual optical channels each optically oriented to receive laser light from a different angle of arrival. Each optical channel has an optical wedge to define the angle of arrival, and a lens to focus the laser light onto a multi-wavelength photodetector for that channel. Each multi-wavelength photodetector has a number of semiconductor layers which are located in a multi-dielectric stack that concentrates the laser light into one of the semiconductor layers according to wavelength. An electrical signal from the multi-wavelength photodetector can be processed to determine both the angle of arrival and the wavelength of the laser light.

  20. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Voigt

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  1. Adaptation of light-harvesting functions of unicellular green algae to different light qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Yoshifumi; Aikawa, Shimpei; Kondo, Akihiko; Akimoto, Seiji

    2018-05-28

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms perform photosynthesis efficiently by distributing captured light energy to photosystems (PSs) at an appropriate balance. Maintaining photosynthetic efficiency under changing light conditions requires modification of light-harvesting and energy-transfer processes. In the current study, we examined how green algae regulate their light-harvesting functions in response to different light qualities. We measured low-temperature time-resolved fluorescence spectra of unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella variabilis cells grown under different light qualities. By observing the delayed fluorescence spectra, we demonstrated that both types of green algae primarily modified the associations between light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes (LHCs) and PSs (PSII and PSI). Under blue light, Chlamydomonas transferred more energy from LHC to chlorophyll (Chl) located far from the PSII reaction center, while energy was transferred from LHC to PSI via different energy-transfer pathways in Chlorella. Under green light, both green algae exhibited enhanced energy transfer from LHCs to both PSs. Red light induced fluorescence quenching within PSs in Chlamydomonas and LHCs in Chlorella. In Chlorella, energy transfer from PSII to PSI appears to play an important role in balancing excitation between PSII and PSI.

  2. An early warning system to forecast the close of the spring burning window from satellite-observed greenness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickell, Paul D; Coops, Nicholas C; Ferster, Colin J; Bater, Christopher W; Blouin, Karen D; Flannigan, Mike D; Zhang, Jinkai

    2017-10-27

    Spring represents the peak of human-caused wildfire events in populated boreal forests, resulting in catastrophic loss of property and human life. Human-caused wildfire risk is anticipated to increase in northern forests as fuels become drier, on average, under warming climate scenarios and as population density increases within formerly remote regions. We investigated springtime human-caused wildfire risk derived from satellite-observed vegetation greenness in the early part of the growing season, a period of increased ignition and wildfire spread potential from snow melt to vegetation green-up with the aim of developing an early warning wildfire risk system. The initial system was developed for 392,856 km 2 of forested lands with satellite observations available prior to the start of the official wildfire season and predicted peak human-caused wildfire activity with 10-day accuracy for 76% of wildfire-protected lands by March 22. The early warning system could have significant utility as a cost-effective solution for wildfire managers to prioritize the deployment of wildfire protection resources in wildfire-prone landscapes across boreal-dominated ecosystems of North America, Europe, and Russia using open access Earth observations.

  3. Red light crossing, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhlenschlæger, Rasmus; Tønning, Charlotte; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    2018-01-01

    In order to increase mobility and promote modal shift to walking, intersections in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, have been equipped with intelligent management of green light for pedestrians. This allows adjustment of green time based on radar detection of pedestrians in the crossing...... and prolongation of the green time for the pedestrians if required. The effect is examined in a before/after study of a two-stage pedestrian crossing with a centre refuge island in an intersection of four-lane roads. The data consists of responses from an on-site questionnaire including 72+53 individuals and 266...

  4. Road crossing behavior under traffic light conflict: Modulating effects of green light duration and signal congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Haiduk, Michael; Boos, Moritz; Tinschert, Peter; Schwarze, Anke; Eggert, Frank

    2016-10-01

    A large number of pedestrians and cyclists regularly ignore the traffic lights to cross the road illegally. In a recent analysis, illegal road crossing behavior has been shown to be enhanced in the presence of incongruent stimulus configurations. Pedestrians and cyclists are more likely to cross against a red light when exposed to an irrelevant conflicting green light. Here, we present experimental and observational data on the factors moderating the risk associated with incongruent traffic lights. In an observational study, we demonstrated that the conflict-related increase in illegal crossing rates is reduced when pedestrian and cyclist green light periods are long. In a laboratory experiment, we manipulated the color of the irrelevant signals to expose participants to different degrees of incongruency. Results revealed that individuals' performance gradually varied as a function of incongruency, suggesting that the negative impact of a conflicting green light can be reduced by slightly adjusting its color. Our findings highlight that the observation of real-world behavior at intersections and the experimental analysis of psychological processes under controlled laboratory conditions can complement each other in identifying risk factors of risky road crossing behavior. Based on this combination, our study elaborates on promising measures to improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Luminescence from potassium feldspars stimulated by infrared and green light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experiments are reported which investigate stimulated luminescence from potassium feldspar. The aim is to provide a basic phenomenological description of the response of the material to stimulation by heat, infrared radiation (875 DELTA 80 nm) and a green light wavelength band from 5 15...... to 560 nm. Two conclusions are drawn: firstly it is suggested that the majority of the trapped charge responsible for the infrared stimulated luminescence signal does not give rise to a thermoluminescence signal, and secondly that a large traction of the two optically stimulated luminescence signals...

  6. OPTIMALISASI EDITING GREEN SCREEN MENGGUNAKAN TEKNIK LIGHTING PADA CHROMA KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arin Yuli Astuti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the film world greenscreen or bluescreen is already widely in use as a background making technology . Utilization of this technology is very great because filmmakers can imagine changing the background to the shape or the desired atmosphere without having to perform image capture directly to the location . Chroma key is a technique for combining two images made with a video camera as well , in which a background color of an image to remove (made transparent , was replaced by another image behind it. Deficiencies that exist in the chroma key is that at the time of editing of the hair . Here the author tries to do research on how to minimize the weaknesses mengilangkan edge portion of hair at the time of editing green screen by optimizing lighting / lighting .

  7. Green light may improve diagnostic accuracy of nailfold capillaroscopy with a simple digital videomicroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekenstroo, Harm H A; Cornelissen, Bart M W; Bernelot Moens, Hein J

    2015-06-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive and safe technique for the analysis of microangiopathologies. Imaging quality of widely used simple videomicroscopes is poor. The use of green illumination instead of the commonly used white light may improve contrast. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of green illumination with white illumination, regarding capillary density, the number of microangiopathologies, and sensitivity and specificity for systemic sclerosis. Five rheumatologists have evaluated 80 images; 40 images acquired with green light, and 40 images acquired with white light. A larger number of microangiopathologies were found in images acquired with green light than in images acquired with white light. This results in slightly higher sensitivity with green light in comparison with white light, without reducing the specificity. These findings suggest that green instead of white illumination may facilitate evaluation of capillaroscopic images obtained with a low-cost digital videomicroscope.

  8. Effect of audio in-vehicle red light-running warning message on driving behavior based on a driving simulator experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Yang; Xu, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    Drivers' incorrect decisions of crossing signalized intersections at the onset of the yellow change may lead to red light running (RLR), and RLR crashes result in substantial numbers of severe injuries and property damage. In recent years, some Intelligent Transport System (ITS) concepts have focused on reducing RLR by alerting drivers that they are about to violate the signal. The objective of this study is to conduct an experimental investigation on the effectiveness of the red light violation warning system using a voice message. In this study, the prototype concept of the RLR audio warning system was modeled and tested in a high-fidelity driving simulator. According to the concept, when a vehicle is approaching an intersection at the onset of yellow and the time to the intersection is longer than the yellow interval, the in-vehicle warning system can activate the following audio message "The red light is impending. Please decelerate!" The intent of the warning design is to encourage drivers who cannot clear an intersection during the yellow change interval to stop at the intersection. The experimental results showed that the warning message could decrease red light running violations by 84.3 percent. Based on the logistic regression analyses, drivers without a warning were about 86 times more likely to make go decisions at the onset of yellow and about 15 times more likely to run red lights than those with a warning. Additionally, it was found that the audio warning message could significantly reduce RLR severity because the RLR drivers' red-entry times without a warning were longer than those with a warning. This driving simulator study showed a promising effect of the audio in-vehicle warning message on reducing RLR violations and crashes. It is worthwhile to further develop the proposed technology in field applications.

  9. Green Fluorescent Organic Light Emitting Device with High Luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we fabricated the small molecule green fluorescent bottom-emission organic light emitting device (OLED with the configuration of glass substrate/indium tin oxide (ITO/Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc 25 nm/ N,N’-di(naphthalen-1-yl-N,N’-diphenyl-benzidine (NPB 45 nm/ tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3 60 nm/ Lithium fluoride (LiF 1 nm/Aluminum (Al 100 nm where CuPc and NPB are the hole injection layer and the hole transport layer, respectively. CuPc is introduced in this device to improve carrier injection and efficiency. The experimental results indicated that the turn-on voltage is 2.8 V with a maximum luminance of 23510 cd/m2 at 12 V. The maximum current efficiency and power efficiency are 4.8 cd/A at 100 cd/m2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3 V, respectively. The peak of electroluminance (EL spectrum locates at 530 nm which is typical emission peak of green light. In contrast, the maximum current efficiency and power efficiency of the device without CuPc are only 4.0 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2 and 4.2 lm/W at 3.6 V, respectively.

  10. Efficiency optimization of green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Soo; Jeon, Woo Sik; Yu, Jae Hyung [Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pode, Ramchandra, E-mail: rbpode@khu.ac.k [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jang Hyuk, E-mail: jhkwon@khu.ac.k [Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-01

    Using a narrow band gap host of bis[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-pyridine]beryllium (Bepp{sub 2}) and green phosphorescent Ir(ppy){sub 3} [fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium III] guest concentration as low as 2%, high efficiency phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (PHOLED) is realized. Current and power efficiencies of 62.5 cd/A (max.), 51.0 lm/W (max.), and external quantum efficiency (max.) of 19.8% are reported in this green PHOLED. A low current efficiency roll-off value of 10% over the brightness of 10,000 cd/m{sup 2} is noticed in this Bepp{sub 2} single host device. Such a high efficiency is obtained by the optimization of the doping concentration with the knowledge of the hole trapping and the emission zone situations in this host-guest system. It is suggested that the reported device performance is suitable for applications in high brightness displays and lighting.

  11. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangqu; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila larvae innately show light avoidance behavior. Compared with robust blue-light avoidance, larvae exhibit relatively weaker green-light responses. In our previous screening for genes involved in larval light avoidance, compared with control w(1118) larvae, larvae with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (Ggt-1) knockdown or Ggt-1 mutation were found to exhibit higher percentage of green-light avoidance which was mediated by Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) photoreceptors. However, their responses to blue light did not change significantly. By adjusting the expression level of Ggt-1 in different tissues, we found that Ggt-1 in malpighian tubules was both necessary and sufficient for green-light avoidance. Our results showed that glutamate levels were lower in Ggt-1 null mutants compared with controls. Feeding Ggt-1 null mutants glutamate can normalize green-light avoidance, indicating that high glutamate concentrations suppressed larval green-light avoidance. However, rather than directly, glutamate affected green-light avoidance indirectly through GABA, the level of which was also lower in Ggt-1 mutants compared with controls. Mutants in glutamate decarboxylase 1, which encodes GABA synthase, and knockdown lines of the GABAA receptor, both exhibit elevated levels of green-light avoidance. Thus, our results elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms mediating green-light avoidance, which was inhibited in wild-type larvae. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Islam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Western Pacific Regional Green Light Committee (rGLC WPR was established in 2011 to promote the rational scale-up of programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (PMDT. We reflect on its achievements, consider the challenges faced, and explore its potential future role. Achievements include the supervision and support of national PMDT action plans, increased local ownership, contextualized guidance, and a strong focus on regional capacity building, as well as a greater awareness of regional challenges. Future rGLC activities should include (1 advocacy for high-level political commitment; (2 monitoring, evaluation, and supervision; (3 technical support and contextualized guidance; and (4 training, capacity building, and operational research. Regional activities require close collaboration with both national and global efforts, and should be an important component of the new Global Drug-resistant TB Initiative.

  13. Structural studies on serum albumins under green light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comorosan, Sorin; Polosan, Silviu; Popescu, Irinel; Ionescu, Elena; Mitrica, Radu; Cristache, Ligia; State, Alina Elena

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents two new experimental results: the protective effect of green light (GL) on ultraviolet (UV) denaturation of proteins, and the effect of GL on protein macromolecular structures. The protective effect of GL was revealed on two serum albumins, bovine (BSA) and human (HSA), and recorded by electrophoresis, absorption, and circular dichroism spectra. The effect of GL irradiation on protein structure was recorded by using fluorescence spectroscopy and electrophoresis. These new effects were modeled by quantum-chemistry computation using Gaussian 03 W, leading to good fit between theoretical and experimental absorption and circular dichroism spectra. A mechanism for these phenomena is suggested, based on a double-photon absorption process. This nonlinear effect may lead to generation of long-lived Rydberg macromolecular systems, capable of long-range interactions. These newly suggested systems, with macroscopic quantum coherence behaviors, may block the UV denaturation processes.

  14. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  15. Bright green light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN69400161

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knickerbocker Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bright white light has been successfully used for the treatment of depression. There is interest in identifying which spectral colors of light are the most efficient in the treatment of depression. It is theorized that green light could decrease the intensity duration of exposure needed. Late Wake Treatment (LWT, sleep deprivation for the last half of one night, is associated with rapid mood improvement which has been sustained by light treatment. Because spectral responsiveness may differ by age, we examined whether green light would provide efficient antidepressant treatment in an elder age group. Methods We contrasted one hour of bright green light (1,200 Lux and one hour of dim red light placebo ( Results The protocol was completed by 33 subjects who were 59 to 80 years old. Mood improved on average 23% for all subjects, but there were no significant statistical differences between treatment and placebo groups. There were negligible adverse reactions to the bright green light, which was well tolerated. Conclusion Bright green light was not shown to have an antidepressant effect in the age group of this study, but a larger trial with brighter green light might be of value.

  16. Electroluminescence dependence of the simplified green light organic light emitting diodes on in situ thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Haichuan, E-mail: hcmu@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Rao, Lu [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li, Weiling; Wei, Bin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Applications, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Shanghai University, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • In-situ thermal treating the organic tri-layer (CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi) of the green light PHOLED under various temperatures during the organic materials evaporation. • Investigating the effect of in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the green light PHOLED with tri-layer structures. • Provide an easy and practical way to improve the EL performance of the OLEDs without major modification of the organic materials and OLEDs structures required. - Abstract: Simplified multilayer green light phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes (PHOLED) with the structure of ITO/MoO{sub 3}(1 nm)/CBP(20 nm)/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} (1 wt%) (15 nm)/TPBi(60 nm)/LiF(0.5 nm)/Al were fabricated via thermal evaporation and in situ thermal treatment (heating the OLED substrates to certain temperatures during the thermal evaporation of the organic materials) was performed. The effect of the in situ thermal treatment on the electroluminescence (EL) performance of the PHOLED was investigated. It was found that the OLED exhibited strong EL dependence on the thermal treatment temperatures, and their current efficiency was improved with the increasing temperature from room temperature (RT) to 69 °C and deteriorated with the further increasing temperature to 105 °C. At the brightness of 1000 cd/m{sup 2}, over 80% improvement of the current efficiency at the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C (64 cd/A) was demonstrated compared to that at RT (35 cd/A). Meanwhile, the tremendous influences of the in situ thermal treatment on the morphology of the multilayer CBP/CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3}/TPBi were also observed. At the optimal thermal treatment temperature of 69 °C, the improvement of the EL performance could be ascribed to the enhancement of the electron and hole transporting in the CBP:Ir(ppy){sub 3} emitting layer, which suppressed the triplets self-quenching interactions and promoted the charge balance and excitons formation. The

  17. Resonant scattering of green light enabled by Ag@TiO2 and its application in a green light projection screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yiyang; Chen, Tupei; Zhen, Juyuan; Xu, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Li, Huakai

    2018-02-01

    The ability to selectively scatter green light is essential for an RGB transparent projection display, and this can be achieved by a silver-core, titania-shell nanostructure (Ag@TiO 2 ), based on the metallic nanoparticle's localized surface plasmon resonance. The ability to selectively scatter green light is shown in a theoretical design, in which structural optimization is included, and is then experimentally verified by characterization of a transparent film produced by dispersing such nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. A visual assessesment indicates that a high-quality green image can be clearly displayed on the transparent film. For completeness, a theoretical design for selective scattering of red light based on Ag@TiO 2 is also shown.

  18. Green light from the government to boost nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The British government backs the project of building about 10 new nuclear power plants. The main reason is that renewable energies appear to be insufficiently advanced, in technical terms, to rely solely on them for the production of electricity. The British government has warned that the operators will have to pay entirely the dismantlement costs of these new nuclear plants and a fair part of the cost of the management of radioactive wastes they generate. (A.C.)

  19. Rational Design of a Green-Light-Mediated Unimolecular Platform for Fast Switchable Acidic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyun; Zou, Qi; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Linjun; Zhu, Liangliang

    2018-02-01

    A controllable sensing ability strongly connects to complex and precise events in diagnosis and treatment. However, imposing visible light into the molecular-scale mediation of sensing processes is restricted by the lack of structural relevance. To address this critical challenge, we present the rational design, synthesis, and in vitro studies of a novel cyanostyryl-modified azulene system for green-light-mediated fast switchable acidic sensing. The advantageous features of the design include a highly efficient green-light-driven Z/E-isomerization (a quantum yield up to 61.3%) for fast erasing chromatic and luminescent expressions and a superior compatibility with control of ratiometric protonation. Significantly, these merits of the design enable the development of a microfluidic system to perform a green-light-mediated reusable sensing function toward a gastric acid analyte in a miniaturized platform. The results may provide new insights for building future integrated green materials.

  20. Sensitivity of Seven Diverse Species to Blue and Green Light: Interactions with Photon Flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chase Snowden

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, the effects of spectral quality on plant growth, and development are not well understood. Much of our current understanding comes from studies with daily integrated light levels that are less than 10% of summer sunlight thus making it difficult to characterize interactions between light quality and quantity. Several studies have reported that growth is increased under fluorescent lamps compared to mixtures of wavelengths from LEDs. Conclusions regarding the effect of green light fraction range from detrimental to beneficial. Here we report the effects of eight blue and green light fractions at two photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF; 200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1; with a daily light integral of 11.5 and 29 mol m-2 d-1 on growth (dry mass, leaf expansion, stem and petiole elongation, and whole-plant net assimilation of seven diverse plant species. The treatments included cool, neutral, and warm white LEDs, and combinations of blue, green and/or red LEDs. At the higher PPF (500, increasing blue light in increments from 11 to 28% reduced growth in tomato, cucumber, and pepper by 22, 26, and 14% respectively, but there was no statistically significant effect on radish, soybean, lettuce or wheat. At the lower PPF (200, increasing blue light reduced growth only in tomato (41%. The effects of blue light on growth were mediated by changes in leaf area and radiation capture, with minimal effects on whole-plant net-assimilation. In contrast to the significant effects of blue light, increasing green light in increments from 0 to 30% had a relatively small effect on growth, leaf area and net assimilation at either low or high PPF. Surprisingly, growth of three of the seven species was not reduced by a treatment with 93% green light compared to the broad spectrum treatments. Collectively, these results are consistent with a shade avoidance response associated with either low blue or high green light fractions.

  1. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bright green light treatment of depression for older adults [ISRCTN69400161

    OpenAIRE

    Loving, Richard T; Kripke, Daniel F; Knickerbocker, Nancy C; Grandner, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Bright white light has been successfully used for the treatment of depression. There is interest in identifying which spectral colors of light are the most efficient in the treatment of depression. It is theorized that green light could decrease the intensity duration of exposure needed. Late Wake Treatment (LWT), sleep deprivation for the last half of one night, is associated with rapid mood improvement which has been sustained by light treatment. Because spectral respons...

  3. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  4. Driving-Simulator-Based Test on the Effectiveness of Auditory Red-Light Running Vehicle Warning System Based on Time-To-Collision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The collision avoidance warning system is an emerging technology designed to assist drivers in avoiding red-light running (RLR collisions at intersections. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of auditory warning information on collision avoidance behaviors in the RLR pre-crash scenarios and further to examine the casual relationships among the relevant factors. A driving-simulator-based experiment was designed and conducted with 50 participants. The data from the experiments were analyzed by approaches of ANOVA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The collisions avoidance related variables were measured in terms of brake reaction time (BRT, maximum deceleration and lane deviation in this study. It was found that the collision avoidance warning system can result in smaller collision rates compared to the without-warning condition and lead to shorter reaction times, larger maximum deceleration and less lane deviation. Furthermore, the SEM analysis illustrate that the audio warning information in fact has both direct and indirect effect on occurrence of collisions, and the indirect effect plays a more important role on collision avoidance than the direct effect. Essentially, the auditory warning information can assist drivers in detecting the RLR vehicles in a timely manner, thus providing drivers more adequate time and space to decelerate to avoid collisions with the conflicting vehicles.

  5. Cherenkov light as a source of photochemical reactions in irradiated solutions of nitrile of malachite green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuglik, Z; Grodkowski, J

    1986-10-01

    Experimental data on photochemical activity of Cherenkov light are presented. Malachite green leucocyanide was used to detect the photochemical effects. The G value of Cherenkov light from the region 200-330 nm (number of quanta formed per 100 eV absorbed energy of ionizing radiation) in ethanol was estimated to be in the range of 0.0027-0.049. 14 references.

  6. Cherenkov light as a source of photochemical reactions in irradiated solutions of nitrile of malachite green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.; Grodkowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data on photochemical activity of Cherenkov light are presented. Malachite green leucocyanide was used to detect the photochemical effects. The G value of Cherenkov light from the region 200-330 nm (number of quanta formed per 100 eV absorbed energy of ionizing radiation) in ethanol was estimated to be in the range of 0.0027-0.049. (author)

  7. Blue and Green Light-Induced Phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana and Lactuca sativa L. Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinitz, Benjamin; Ren, Zhangling; Poff, Kenneth L.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure time-response curves for blue and green light-induced phototropic bending in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and Lactuca sativa L. seedlings are presented. These seedlings show significant phototropic sensitivity up to 540 to 550 nanometers. Since wave-lengths longer than 560 nanometers do not induce phototropic bending, it is suggested that the response to 510 to 550 nanometers light is mediated by the specific blue light photoreceptor of phototropism. We advise care in the use of green `safelights' for studies of phototropism. PMID:16664021

  8. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S

    2017-07-01

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (Phatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  9. Lethal photosensitization of wound-associated microbes using indocyanine green and near-infrared light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Ghada Said Mohammed; Wilson, Michael; Nair, Sean P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The increase in resistance to antibiotics among disease-causing bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches such as the use of light-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs). Light of an appropriate wavelength activates the LAAA to produce cytotoxic...... of the bacteria. Conclusion: These findings imply that indocyanine green in combination with light from a nearinfrared laser may be an effective means of eradicating bacteria from wounds and burns....

  10. Impact of front-of-pack nutrition information and label design on children's choice of two snack foods: Comparison of warnings and the traffic-light system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúa, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Rey, Natalia; Barreto, Patricia; Golovchenko, Nadya; Sellanes, Andrea; Velazco, Guillermo; Winokur, Medy; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    Research on the relative influence of package features on children's perception of food products is still necessary to aid policy design and development. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relative influence of two front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling schemes, the traffic light system and Chilean warning system, and label design on children's choice of two popular snack foods in Uruguay, wafer cookies and orange juice. A total of 442 children in grades 4 to 6 from 12 primary schools in Montevideo (Uruguay) participated in the study. They were asked to complete a choice-conjoint task with wafer cookies and orange juice labels, varying in label design and the inclusion of FOP nutrition information. Half of the children completed the task with labels featuring the traffic-light system (n = 217) and the other half with labels featuring the Chilean warning system (n = 225). Children's choices of wafer cookies and juice labels was significantly influenced by both label design and FOP nutritional labels. The relative impact of FOP nutritional labelling on children's choices was higher for the warning system compared to the traffic-light system. Results from the present work stress the need to regulate the design of packages and the inclusion of nutrient claims, and provide preliminary evidence of the potential of warnings to discourage children's choice of unhealthful products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectral effects of light-emitting diodes on plant growth and development: The importance of green and blue light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, K. R.; Bugbee, B.

    2011-12-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an emerging technology for plant growth lighting. Due to their narrow spectral output, colored LEDs provide many options for studying the spectral effects of light on plants. Early on, efficient red LEDs were the primary focus of photobiological research; however, subsequent studies have shown that normal plant growth and development cannot be achieved under red light without blue light supplementation. More recent studies have shown that red and blue (RB) LEDs supplemented with green light increase plant dry mass. This is because green light transmits more effectively through the leaf canopy than red and blue light, thus illuminating lower plant leaves and increasing whole-plant photosynthesis. Red, green and blue (RGB) light can be provided by either a conventional white light source (such as fluorescent lights), a combination of RGB LEDs, or from recently developed white LEDs. White LEDs exceed the efficiency of fluorescent lights and have a comparable broad spectrum. As such, they have the potential to replace fluorescent lighting for growth-chamber-based crop production both on Earth and in space. Here we report the results of studies on the effects of three white LED types (warm, neutral and cool) on plant growth and development compared to combinations of RB and RGB LEDs. Plants were grown under two constant light intensities (200 and 500 μmol m-2 s-1). Temperature, environmental conditions and root-zone environment were uniformly maintained across treatments. Phytochrome photoequilbria and red/far-red ratios were similar among treatments and were comparable to conventional fluorescent lights. Blue light had a significant effect on both plant growth (dry mass gain) and development (dry mass partitioning). An increase in the absolute amount (μmol m-2 s-1) of blue light from 0-80 μmol m-2 s-1 resulted in a decrease in stem elongation, independent of the light intensity. However, an increase in the relative amount (%) of blue

  12. Effect of Interface Nanotexture on Light Extraction of InGaN-Based Green Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao-Bo, Pan; Sheng-Li, Qi; Hao, Fang; Guo-Yi, Zhang; Mao-Sheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    We report the enhancement of the light extraction of InGaN-based green light emitting diodes (LEDs) via the interface nanotexturing. The texture consists of high-density nanocraters on the surface of a sapphire substrate with an in situ etching. The width of nanocraters is about 0.5 μm and the depth is around 0.1 μm. It is demonstrated that the LEDs with interface texture exhibit about a 27% improvement in luminance intensity, compared with standard LEDs. High power InGaN-based green LEDs are obtained by using the interface nanotexture. An optical ray-tracing simulation is performed to investigate the effect of interface nanotexture on light extraction. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Speckle noise reduction on a laser projection display via a broadband green light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan Ei; Choi, Ju Won; Kang, Heejong; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Fu, Shih-Hao; Liou, Jiun-Wei; Kung, Andy H; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik; Peng, Lung-Han

    2014-02-10

    A broadband green light source was demonstrated using a tandem-poled lithium niobate (TPLN) crystal. The measured wavelength and temperature bandwidth were 6.5 nm and 100 °C, respectively, spectral bandwidth was 36 times broader than the periodically poled case. Although the conversion efficiency was smaller than in the periodic case, the TPLN device had a good figure of merit owing to the extremely large bandwidth for wavelength and temperature. The developed broadband green light source exhibited speckle noise approximately one-seventh of that in the conventional approach for a laser projection display.

  14. Adult Tea Green Leafhoppers, Empoasca onukii (Matsuda), Change Behaviors under Varying Light Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Longqing; Vasseur, Liette; Huang, Huoshui; Zeng, Zhaohua; Hu, Guiping; Liu, Xin; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-01

    Insect behaviors are often influenced by light conditions including photoperiod, light intensity, and wavelength. Understanding pest insect responses to changing light conditions may help with developing alternative strategies for pest control. Little is known about the behavioral responses of leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to light conditions. The behavior of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda, was examined when exposed to different light photoperiods or wavelengths. Observations included the frequency of locomotion and cleaning activities, and the duration of time spent searching. The results suggested that under normal photoperiod both female and male adults were generally more active in darkness (i.e., at night) than in light. In continuous darkness (DD), the locomotion and cleaning events in Period 1 (7:00-19:00) were significantly increased, when compared to the leafhoppers under normal photoperiod (LD). Leafhoppers, especially females, changed their behavioral patterns to a two day cycle under DD. Under continuous illumination (continuous quartz lamp light, yellow light at night, and green light at night), the activities of locomotion, cleaning, and searching were significantly suppressed during the night (19:00-7:00) and locomotion activities of both females and males were significantly increased during the day (7:00-19:00), suggesting a shift in circadian rhythm. Our work suggests that changes in light conditions, including photoperiod and wavelength, can influence behavioral activities of leafhoppers, potentially affecting other life history traits such as reproduction and development, and may serve as a method for leafhopper behavioral control.

  15. High-luminosity blue and blue-green gallium nitride light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkoç, H; Mohammad, S N

    1995-01-06

    Compact and efficient sources of blue light for full color display applications and lighting eluded and tantalized researchers for many years. Semiconductor light sources are attractive owing to their reliability and amenability to mass manufacture. However, large band gaps are required to achieve blue color. A class of compound semiconductors formed by metal nitrides, GaN and its allied compounds AIGaN and InGaN, exhibits properties well suited for not only blue and blue-green emitters, but also for ultraviolet emitters and detectors. What thwarted engineers and scientists from fabricating useful devices from these materials in the past was the poor quality of material and lack of p-type doping. Both of these obstacles have recently been overcome to the point where highluminosity blue and blue-green light-emitting diodes are now available in the marketplace.

  16. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m"2). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H_2O_2 and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H_2O_2) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  17. Effect of green light spectra on the reduction of retinal damage and stress in goldfish, Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jin Ah; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Cheol Young, E-mail: choic@kmou.ac.kr

    2016-07-22

    We investigated the effect of light spectra on retinal damage and stress in goldfish using green (530 nm) and red (620 nm) light emitting diodes (LEDs) at three intensities each (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 W/m{sup 2}). We measured the change in the levels of plasma cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and expression and levels of caspase-3. The apoptotic response of green and red LED spectra was assessed using the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Stress indicator (cortisol and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3) decreased in green light, but increased in red light with higher light intensities over time. The TUNEL assay revealed that more apoptotic cells were detected in outer nuclear layers after exposure to red LED over time with the increase in light intensity, than the other spectra. These results indicate that green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress, whereas red light induces it. Therefore, red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. -- Highlights: •Green light efficiently reduces retinal damage and stress. •Green spectra reduce caspase production and apoptosis. •Red light-induced retina damage may induce apoptosis in goldfish retina. •The retina of goldfish recognizes green spectra as a stable environment.

  18. Using Pre-TMIn Treatment to Improve the Optical Properties of Green Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of pre-TMIn treatment on the optical properties of green light emitting diodes (LEDs. Although pre-TMIn treatment did not affect the epitaxial structure of quantum wells, it significantly improved the quality of the surface morphology relative to that of the untreated sample. Indium cluster can be seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, which is the explanation for the red-shift of photoluminescence (PL. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicated that the sample prepared with pre-TMIn treatment had a shorter radiative decay time. As a result, the light output power of the treated green LED was higher than that of the conventional untreated one. Thus, pre-TMIn treatment appears to be a simple and efficient means of improving the performance of green LEDs.

  19. Growth and maturation of Penaeus indicus under blue and green light

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth of the penaeid prawn Penaeus indicus was tested by comparing dim green ... light quantity and quality. tank size and/or handling stress. It was decided to ... Three circular, temperature-controlled 8000 e (2,8 m diameter) glass ... of eggs and nauplii in the water. Occasional ..... Penaeus vannamei Boone. J. expo mar.

  20. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  1. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-25

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Techniques and training with GreenLight HPS120-W laser therapy of the prostate: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, Gordon; Gomez Sancha, Fernando; Bachmann, Alexander; Choi, Benjamin; Collins, Edward; de la Rosette, Jean; Reich, Oliver; Tabatabaei, Shahin; Woo, Henry

    2008-01-01

    We report the technical recommendations of the International GreenLight User Group on photoselective vaporization of the prostate in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia using the GreenLight HPS system (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minnesota, USA). This high-power system employs a 120-W

  3. Does front-of-pack nutrition information improve consumer ability to make healthful choices? Performance of warnings and the traffic light system in a simulated shopping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machín, Leandro; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2018-02-01

    The inclusion of more attention-grabbing and easily interpretable front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition information is one of the public policies that can be implemented to empower consumers to identify unhealthful food products and to make more informed food choices. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of two FOP nutrition labelling schemes - the traffic light labelling and the warning scheme - on consumer food purchases when facing a health goal. The study was conducted with 1182 people from Montevideo (Uruguay), recruited using a Facebook advertisement. Participants were randomly allocated to one of three between-subjects experimental conditions: (i) a control condition with no FOP nutrition information, (ii) FOP nutrition information using a modified version of the traffic light system including information about calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content per portion, and (iii) FOP nutrition information using the Chilean warning system including separate signs for high calorie, saturated fat, sugars and sodium content. Respondents were asked to imagine that they had to purchase food in order to prepare a healthy dinner for themselves and their family, using the website of an online grocery store. Results showed that FOP nutrition information effectively improved the average healthfulness of participants' choices compared to the control condition, both in terms of the average nutritional composition of the purchased products and expenditure in specific product categories. No relevant differences between the effect of the traffic light and the warning system were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Light reflection from crystal platelets in iridophores determines green or brown skin coloration in Takydromus lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Takeo; Esashi, Jyunko; Hasegawa, Masami

    2017-04-01

    Brown and green are the most commonly imitated colors in prey animals because both colors occur in a range of habitats. Many researchers have evaluated survival with respect to background color matching, but the pigment cell mechanisms underlying such coloration are not known. Dorsal coloration of East Asian Takydromus lizards has shifted from green to brown or from brown to green on multiple occasions during the diversification of the genus, thus giving us an opportunity to examine the cellular mechanisms of background color matching. Brown and green skin were found to differ with respect to the morphological characteristics of iridophores, with different thicknesses of the reflecting platelets and the cytoplasmic spacing between platelets, despite a shared vertical arrangement of pigment cells, i.e., xanthophores in the upper layer, iridophores in the middle layer, and melanophores at the bottom of the dermal layer, among the different Takydromus lizards. Iridophores of brown skin reflected longer wavelengths of light than those of green skin, which may be attributed to the thicker platelets and longer distances between platelets in brown skin. We discuss the potential role of genetic and intracellular mechanisms explaining the thickness and orientation of the light-reflecting platelets of iridophores in Takydromus lizards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The retardation by gamma irradiation of greening in potatoes exposed to fluorescent lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1981-01-01

    The optimum gamma irradiation treatments for the inhibition of greening of unwashed Up-to-Date potatoes exposed to continuous fluorescent lighting were 0,15 and 0,20 kGy. The 0,15 and 0,20 kGy treated potatoes took 8,7 and 10,3 d longer respectively than the controls for 50% of the potatoes to turn green. The results were verified by chlorophyll determinations. The solanine content of the γ-irradiated potatoes did not differ significantly from that of the controls during the period of exposure. Gamma irradiated tubers which were removed from continuous fluorescent lighting after 7 d to 'household' conditions of daylight and fluorescent light alternated with darkness maintained the quality of day 7 for at least another 16 d. Factors such as washing, packaging, display temperature, post-irradiation pre-illumination storage and cultivar differences did not detract from the effectiveness of γ-irradiation in retarding the greening of potatoes. A comparison of γ-irradiation with dipping inedible oil showed the latter treatment to be more effective than irradiation in inhibiting greening but the treatment caused serious rotting. No difference in the taste or colour of irradiated and nonirradiated potatoes cooked in various ways could be detected [af

  6. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  7. Improvement of quantum efficiency in green light-emitting diodes with pre-TMIn flow treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ya-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ching; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of pre-trimethlyindium (TMIn) flow on the improved electrical characteristics and highly stable temperature properties of InGaN green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are discussed. For the LED sample with a pre-TMIn flow treatment, the tunnelling of injected carriers associated with threading defects is significantly reduced, which promotes the diffusion-recombination of injected carriers, as well as the overall emission efficiency of the LED. In addition, the pre-TMIn flow treatment evidently reduces the dependence of external quantum efficiency on temperature and efficiency droop of green LEDs. As a result, we conclude that the pre-TMIn flow treatment is a promising scheme for the improvement of output performance of InGaN-based green LEDs.

  8. Triphenylsilane-substituted arenes as host materials for use in green phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jwajin; Lee, Kum Hee; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Hyun Woo [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Won [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kwan, E-mail: kimyk@hongik.ac.kr [Department of Information Display, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Soo, E-mail: ssyoon@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    We demonstrated triphenylsilane-substituted arenes (1–4) as host materials for green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes. Particularly, a device using 9,9-dimethyl-2-(triphenylsilyl)-7-[4-(triphenylsilyl)phenyl]-9H-fluorene (compound 4) as the host material with the green phosphorescence dopant bis[2-(1,1′,2′,1′′-terphen-3-yl)pyridinato-C,N]iridium(III) (acetylacetonate) showed the efficient green emission with an external quantum efficiency of 4.64%, a power efficiency of 7.2 lm/W and luminous efficiency of 16.6 cd/A at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively, with the Commission International de L’Eclairage chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.59) at 8.0 V.

  9. Green synthetic strategy of BCNO nanostructure and phosphor-based light – Emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yue [The Quartermaster Research Institute of General Logistics Department, Beijing 100010 (China); Yuan, Bo [Chemical Defense Institute of China, Beijing 100010 (China); Zhang, Dongjiu [Key Laboratory of Space Launching Site Reliability Technology, Hainan 570100 (China); Ma, Tian; Huang, Xiancong [The Quartermaster Research Institute of General Logistics Department, Beijing 100010 (China); Chu, Zengyong [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Lai, Kan [The Quartermaster Research Institute of General Logistics Department, Beijing 100010 (China)

    2016-11-15

    BCNO phosphor has been paid much attention due to their unique physical, electronic and optical properties. Here we have successfully obtained BCNO nano-particle phosphor by microwave treating from boric acid, urea, and glucose at low temperatures and in short reaction time. Glucose decomposed into graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which facilitated the formation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Through our method, GQDs domains were uniformly incorporated into h-BN, leading to the formation of BCNO and decrease of bandgap. BCNO demonstrated excellent performance in light emitting diodes (LEDs) with green and blue light. We envision that this BCNO phosphor will enable the next generation blue and green LED devices due to the easiness of large scale fabrication at an economic cost.

  10. The optoelectronic chameleon - GaN-based light emitters from the UV to green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissl, Michael [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Group III-nitrides have evolved into one of the most versatile and important semiconductor materials for optoelectronic devices. GaN-based blue, green and white light emitting diodes have already entered many parts of everyday life and violet lasers are expected to be following soon. However, considering the extraordinary electronic properties and the wide spectral range that is accessible through nitride materials, it appears that it we have just touched the tip of the iceberg. We discuss some of the new fields of research for InAlGaN materials and devices and review progress in the development of near and deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes, as well as growth and optical properties of InN and indium rich InGaN alloys for emitter in the blue-green spectral range and beyond.

  11. Green synthetic strategy of BCNO nanostructure and phosphor-based light – Emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yue; Yuan, Bo; Zhang, Dongjiu; Ma, Tian; Huang, Xiancong; Chu, Zengyong; Lai, Kan

    2016-01-01

    BCNO phosphor has been paid much attention due to their unique physical, electronic and optical properties. Here we have successfully obtained BCNO nano-particle phosphor by microwave treating from boric acid, urea, and glucose at low temperatures and in short reaction time. Glucose decomposed into graphene quantum dots (GQDs), which facilitated the formation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Through our method, GQDs domains were uniformly incorporated into h-BN, leading to the formation of BCNO and decrease of bandgap. BCNO demonstrated excellent performance in light emitting diodes (LEDs) with green and blue light. We envision that this BCNO phosphor will enable the next generation blue and green LED devices due to the easiness of large scale fabrication at an economic cost.

  12. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  13. GREEN LIGHT EMITTING TRICOMPONENT LUMINOPHORS OF 2-NAPHTHOL FOR CONSTRUCTION OF ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    K. G. MANE , P. B. NAGORE , DR. S. R. PUJARI

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a previous study and incredible progress in basic theoretical modeling, and working for organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) including preparation and characteristic studies of Organo- Luminescent Materials by conventional solid state reaction technique.

  14. Lethal photosensitization of wound-associated microbes using indocyanine green and near-infrared light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in resistance to antibiotics among disease-causing bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial approaches such as the use of light-activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs. Light of an appropriate wavelength activates the LAAA to produce cytotoxic species which can then cause bacterial cell death via loss of membrane integrity, lipid peroxidation, the inactivation of essential enzymes, and/or exertion of mutagenic effects due to DNA modification. In this study, the effect of the LAAA indocyanine green excited with high or low intensity light (808 nm from a near-infrared laser (NIR on the viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Results All species were susceptible to killing by the LAAA, the bactericidal effect being dependent on both the concentration of indocyanine green and the light dose. Indocyanine green photosensitization using both high (1.37 W cm-2 and low (0.048 W cm-2 intensity NIR laser light was able to achieve reductions of 5.6 log10 (>99.99% and 6.8 log10 (>99.99% in the viable counts of Staph. aureus and Strep. pyogenes (using starting concentrations of 106–107 CFU ml-1. Kills of 99.99% were obtained for P. aeruginosa (initial concentration 108–109 CFU ml-1 photosensitized by the high intensity light (1.37 W cm-2; while a kill of 80% was achieved using low intensity irradiation (0.07 W cm-2. The effects of L-tryptophan (a singlet oxygen scavenger and deuterium oxide (as an enhancer of the life span of singlet oxygen on the survival of Staph. aureus was also studied. L-tryptophan reduced the proportion of Staph. aureus killed; whereas deuterium oxide increased the proportion killed suggesting that singlet oxygen was involved in the killing of the bacteria. Conclusion These findings imply that indocyanine green in combination with light from a near-infrared laser may be an effective means of eradicating bacteria

  15. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of yellow and green light emitting novel polymers containing carbazole and electroactive moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydın, Aysel; Kaya, İsmet

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The homopolymer of 1,5-bis(3,6-di(thiophen-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)pentane and the copolymer with EDOT of 1,2-bis(2-(3,6-di(thiophen-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethoxy)ethane were synthesized via electrochemical reaction on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate. The obtained polymeric compounds were investigated as fluorescence properties in solution form. The synthesized polymers showed good fluorescence property indicating tunable light emission with green and yellow colors. This shows that these polymers could be used in production of new polymeric light emitting diodes (PLED)s for green and yellow color emissions. - Abstract: The compounds 1,5-bis(3,6-di(thiophen-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)pentane (B1) and 1,2-bis(2-(3,6-di(thiophen-3-yl)-9H-carbazol-9-yl)ethoxy)ethane (B2) were synthesized via Ullmann and Suzuki couplings. Additionally, the homopolymers and copolymers of these compounds with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and thiophene (Th) were synthesized and coated onto an ITO-glass surface via electrochemical oxidative polymerization. The spectroelectrochemical and electrochromic properties of these compounds were also investigated. The switching ability of these polymers was measured as the percent transmittance (%T) at their point of maximum contrast. The solid state electrical conductivities of the polymeric films coated onto the ITO-glass surface were measured via the four point probe technique using an electrometer. The compounds were characterized by FT-IR and NMR, and their thermal stabilities were determined via TG measurements. Fluorescence measurements were performed using DMSO solutions, and the synthesized polymers emitted both green and yellow colors based on the tuning of the excitation wavelength, which indicates that these polymers could be used to produce new polymeric light emitting diodes (PLEDs) with green and yellow emissions.

  17. Red light walking, transportation time and attitudes in crossing with intelligent green light for pedestrians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels; Andersen, Camilla Sloth

    registration, 72+53 interviewed persons, and what will be extracted from the literature review. Based on the collected data, it will be studied, if the share of red light walking will be reduced. Also, the transportation time including any waiting time will be calculated for the two periods. Furthermore......, the attitude and experiences with this traffic signals will be measured. It is the hypotheses that red light walking will be reduced and that the overall transportation time for pedestrians will be reduced due to a more applicable and dynamic traffic signal system. Likewise, it is expected that the pedestrian...

  18. Fish with red fluorescent eyes forage more efficiently under dim, blue-green light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harant, Ulrike Katharina; Michiels, Nicolaas Karel

    2017-04-20

    Natural red fluorescence is particularly conspicuous in the eyes of some small, benthic, predatory fishes. Fluorescence also increases in relative efficiency with increasing depth, which has generated speculation about its possible function as a "light organ" to detect cryptic organisms under bluish light. Here we investigate whether foraging success is improved under ambient conditions that make red fluorescence stand out more, using the triplefin Tripterygion delaisi as a model system. We repeatedly presented 10 copepods to individual fish (n = 40) kept under a narrow blue-green spectrum and compared their performance with that under a broad spectrum with the same overall brightness. The experiment was repeated for two levels of brightness, a shaded one representing 0.4% of the light present at the surface and a heavily shaded one with about 0.01% of the surface brightness. Fish were 7% more successful at catching copepods under the narrow, fluorescence-friendly spectrum than under the broad spectrum. However, this effect was significant under the heavily shaded light treatment only. This outcome corroborates previous predictions that fluorescence may be an adaptation to blue-green, heavily shaded environments, which coincides with the opportunistic biology of this species that lives in the transition zone between exposed and heavily shaded microhabitats.

  19. Degradation of malachite green on Pd/WO3 photocatalysts under simulated solar light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yonggang; Ohko, Yoshihisa; Zhang Ruiqin; YangYingnan; Zhang Zhenya

    2010-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of malachite green (MG) dye molecules in aqueous solution was investigated by using palladium (Pd) modified tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) under simulated solar light. The optimum values for Pd content vs. WO 3 and catalyst concentration in solution for MG (5.0 μmol L -1 ) degradation were 0.5 wt.% and 150 mg L -1 , respectively. The MG concentration change followed the pseudo first order kinetics of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Since MG was also degraded under visible light (λ > 470 nm), which was not absorbed by WO 3 , the mechanism involved both the photocatalytic degradation and self-sensitized degradation of MG. Pd modified WO 3 would be useful as an efficient tool for the decolorization of wastewater under solar light.

  20. Preparation and performance optimization of TPBISi green-light organic luminescent material devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huajing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Study analyzed and tested the absorption spectrum, photoluminescence spectrum, and device’s electroluminescence spectrum of a new silole material. The device with Silol as an emitting layer, emitted green-light whose structure is ITO/NPB/2,2,3,3-tetraphenyl-4,4-bisthienylsilole(TPBTSi/Alq3/Mg: A by improvement of preparation technology and optimization of thin film. It reaches the maximum luminescence of 11290.2 cd/m2, the maximum luminous efficiency of 0.84 lm/W, luminescence spectrum of 516 nm, chromaticity diagram CIE coordinate of(0.275, 0.4568 when voltage is 15V. All of the above is the green characteristic spectrum of TPBTSi.

  1. Red light for Green Paper: The EU policy on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The EU Green Paper on energy efficiency calls for action to decrease energy use and thus achieve increased competitiveness, fulfil the environmental targets and increase security of supply. In this comment, we examine the role the EU Commission suggest that energy efficiency, and policies supporting energy efficiency, takes. The policies and the suggestions are qualitatively elaborated upon in the light of the goal of a common European electricity market. We suggest that the rationales for the energy efficiency measures are weak, and that the suggested goals of increased competitiveness, environmental targets, and security of supply are best reached with the direct measures especially designed for each goal. Some of the energy efficiency measures may counter-act other direct policies. Further, The Green Paper measures may prove detrimental to the European Electricity market insofar as the policies suggested could lead to a policy fatigue among the electricity consumers

  2. Generation of single-frequency tunable green light in a coupled ring tapered diode laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    in the broad wavelength range from 1049 nm to 1093 nm and the beam propagation factor is improved from M2 = 2.8 to below 1.1. The laser frequency is automatically locked to the cavity resonance frequency using optical feedback. Furthermore, we show that this adaptive external cavity approach leads to efficient......We report the realization of a tapered diode laser operated in a coupled ring cavity that significantly improves the coherence properties of the tapered laser and efficiently generates tunable light at the second harmonic frequency. The tapered diode laser is tunable with single-frequency output...... frequency doubling. More than 500 mW green output power is obtained by placing a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal in the external cavity. The single frequency green output from the laser system is tunable in the 530 nm to 533 nm range limited by the LiNbO3 crystal. The optical to optical conversion...

  3. Corneal Resistance to Keratolysis After Collagen Crosslinking With Rose Bengal and Green Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, Ali; Zhu, Hong; Arafat, Samer; Kochevar, Irene; Melki, Samir; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resistance to degradation by collagenase A of corneas that have been crosslinked with Rose Bengal and green light (RGX). The ex vivo crosslinking procedure was performed on enucleated rabbit corneas. Corneas were deepithelialized after applying 30% alcohol. Corneas were stained with Rose Bengal (RB, 0.1%) for 2 minutes and then exposed to green light (532 nm) at 0.25 W/cm2 for times to deliver doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 J/cm2 (n = 5 per group). Five corneas were pretreated with riboflavin solution (0.1% riboflavin) for 15 minutes and irradiated with ultraviolet A (UVA) light (370 nm, 3 mW/cm2) for 30 minutes. Five corneas underwent only de-epithelialization and were otherwise untreated. Five corneas were stained with RB without light exposure. The central corneas of each group was removed with a 8.5-mm trephine and incubated at 37°C in 0.3% collagenase A solution. Time to dissolution of each cornea was compared across treatments. Corneas treated with RGX were treated with light fluences of 50, 100, 150, and 200 J/cm2; these corneas dissolved completely at 8.3 ± 1.2, 11.1 ± 1.4, 12.4 ± 1.7, and 15.7 ± 1.8 hours, respectively. Corneas treated by riboflavin and UVA light dissolved at 15.7 ± 1.7 hours, and nontreated corneas dissolved at 6.1 ± 1.3 hours. Corneas treated with only RB (no green light) dissolved at 9.3 ± 1.7 hours. Compared with the untreated corneas, all of the RB groups and the riboflavin-UVA-treated group of corneas degraded statistically significantly slower than untreated corneas (P < 0.05). Crosslinking with RGX increased corneal resistance to digestion by collagenase comparable to that produced by riboflavin and UVA treatment.

  4. Highly efficient green light harvesting from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles: Structural and optical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Sarla, E-mail: mail2sarlasharma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Vyas, Rishi [Department of Physics, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302017 (India); Sharma, Neha [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India); Singh, Vidyadhar [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Okinawa 9040495 (Japan); Singh, Arvind [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Kataria, Vanjula; Gupta, Bipin Kumar [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), New Delhi 110012 (India); Vijay, Y.K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302055 (India)

    2013-03-05

    Graphical abstract: Demonstration of highly efficient green light emission harvesting from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized via facile wet chemical route with an average particle size ∼15 nm. The resulted nanoparticles exhibit intense green emission peaking at 530 nm upon 325 nm excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of visible emission depends upon the doping concentration of Mg. The PL intensity was found maximum up to 4% doping of Mg and beyond it exhibits a decrees in emission. The obtained highly luminescent green emission of ZnO nanoparticle would be an ultimate choice for next generation optoelectronics device materials. Highlights: ► Zn{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}O nanoparticles were prepared by mechanochemical processing. ► High blue emission intensity was observed contrary to previous reports. ► Blue emission is suggested to be originating from the high density of defects. ► Defect density in as-milled condition is very high resulting in high emission. ► Mg promoted non-radiative recombination and lowered intensities. -- Abstract: Highly efficient green light emission was observed from Mg doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized via facile wet chemical route with an average particle size ∼15 nm. The XRD analysis confirmed the growth of wurtzite phase of ZnO nanoparticles. Moreover, the optical properties of these nanoparticles were investigated by different spectroscopic techniques. The resulted nanoparticles exhibit intense green emission peaking at 530 nm (2.34 eV) upon 325 nm (3.81 eV) excitation. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of visible emission depends upon the doping concentration of Mg. The PL intensity was found maximum up to 4% doping of Mg, and beyond it exhibits a decrees in emission. Furthermore, by varying the band gap from 3.50 to 3.61 eV, the PL spectra showed a near band edge (NBE) emission at wavelength around 370 nm (3.35 eV) and a broad deep level emission in the visible region. The obtained highly

  5. High light bio-fortification stimulatesde novosynthesis ofresveratrol inDiplotaxis tenuifolia(wild rocket micro-greens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianke Loedolff

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brassica vegetables and leafy greens are consumed globally due to their health promoting phytochemicals. Diplotaxis tenuifolia (wild rocket or arugula is a popular Brassica leafy green, with a diverse range of phytochemicals (in mature plants. Immature plants (micro-greens, 2-4 true leaves accumulate phytochemicals up to 10 times more than plants grown to maturity. Although plants accumulate phytochemicals ubiquitously, environmental stimuli can further enhance this phenomenon of accumulation, which is part of a global stress mechanism in plants. In this study, we describe a simple method toward the bio-fortification of a wild rocket micro-green system, via environmental manipulation (using high light. Objective: To establish a high light-induced bio-fortification strategy to augment the accumulation of bio-active compounds in Brassica micro-greens (wild rocket, with the purpose of developing a ‘designer’ micro-green melange (functional food product containing a diverse range of bio-active (disease preventative compounds. Results: High light stimulated wild rocket micro-greens to achieve a significant increase of known phytochemicals (documented in relevant Brassica leafy greens. Furthermore, undocumented phytochemicals (resveratrol, catechin, epicatechin, and kaempferol, among others also accumulated to adequate concentrations. Plant extracts from bio-fortified micro-greens displayed increased anti-oxidant capacity (up to 3-fold, when compared to control, a key component in future cancer cell research. Conclusion: The use of high light resulted in successful bio-fortification of wild rocket micro-greens, evidenced by the accumulation of previously undocumented polyphenols (such as resveratrol, catechin and epicatechin and improved anti-oxidant capacity.

  6. A green-light-emitting, spontaneously blinking fluorophore based on intramolecular spirocyclization for dual-colour super-resolution imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Shin-Nosuke; Kamiya, Mako; Morozumi, Akihiko; Urano, Yasuteru

    2017-12-19

    We have developed the first green-light-emitting, spontaneously blinking fluorophore (SBF), HEtetTFER. In combination with our near-infrared-light-emitting SBF (HMSiR), HEtetTFER allows dual-colour single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) in buffer solution without any additive and without photoactivation.

  7. Microsensor Studies of Oxygen and Light-Distribution in the Green Macroalga Codium Fragile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LASSEN, C.; BEBOUT, LE; PAERL, HW

    1994-01-01

    to multiple scattering in the medullary tissue. The constant intensity of visible light below 0.2 mm was thus a result of the combined effects of absorption and backscattering from the medulla. The oxygen exchange between the alga and the surrounding water was diffusion-limited with a steep O-2 gradient......Scalar irradiance, oxygen concentration, and oxygenic photosynthesis were measured at 0.1 mm spatial resolution within the tissue of the siphonous green macroalga Codium fragile subsp. tomentosoides (van Goer) Silva by fiber-optic scalar irradiance microsensors and oxygen microelectrodes......, The scalar irradiance of visible light was strongly attenuated in the outer 0.2 mm of the tissue but was nearly constant for the subsequent 1.0 mm of photosynthetic tissue. Far-red scalar irradiance at 750 nm increased below the tissue surface to a maximum of 200% of incident irradiance at 1.2 mm depth due...

  8. Origins of efficient green light emission in phase-separated InGaN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y-L; Liu, C-P; Lin, Y-H; Hsueh, T-H; Lin, R-M; Lyu, D-Y; Peng, Z-X; Lin, T-Y

    2006-01-01

    Green-light-emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with high luminescent efficiency were grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The microstructure of the sample was studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-resolution x-ray diffraction, while its optical behaviour was analysed in great detail by a variety of photoluminescence methods. Two InGaN-related peaks that were clearly found in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum are assigned to quasi-quantum dots (516 nm) and the InGaN matrix (450 nm), respectively, due to a strong phase separation observed by HRTEM. Except for the strong indium aggregation regions (511 meV of Stokes shift), slight composition fluctuations were also observed in the InGaN matrix, which were speculated from an 'S-shaped' transition and a Stokes shift of 341 meV. Stronger carrier localization and an internal quantum efficiency of the dot-related emission (21.5%), higher than the InGaN-matrix related emission (7.5%), was demonstrated. Additionally, a shorter lifetime and 'two-component' PL decay were found for the low-indium-content regions (matrix). Thus, the carrier transport process within quantum wells is suggested to drift from the low-In-content matrix to the high-In-content dots, resulting in the enhanced luminescence efficiency of the green light emission

  9. Corneal Crosslinking With Rose Bengal and Green Light: Efficacy and Safety Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Alt, Clemens; Webb, Robert H; Melki, Samir; Kochevar, Irene E

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate crosslinking of cornea in vivo using green light activation of Rose Bengal (RGX) and assess potential damaging effects of the green light on retina and iris. Corneas of Dutch belted rabbits were de-epithelialized, then stained with Rose Bengal and exposed to green light, or not further treated. Corneal stiffness was measured by uniaxial tensiometry. Re-epithelialization was assessed by fluorescein fluorescence. Keratocytes were counted on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections, and iris cell damage was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase staining. Thermal effects on the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) were assessed by fluorescein angiography and those on photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and choriocapillaris by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. RGX (10-min irradiation; 150 J/cm) increased corneal stiffness 1.9-fold on day 1 (1.25 ± 0.21 vs. 2.38 ± 0.59 N/mm; P = 0.036) and 2.8-fold compared with controls on day 28 (1.70 ± 0.74 vs. 4.95 ± 1.86 N/mm; P = 0.003). Keratocytes decreased only in the anterior stroma on day 1 (24.0 ± 3.0 vs. 3.67 ± 4.73, P = 0.003) and recovered by day 28 (37.7 ± 8.9 vs. 34.5 ± 2.4, P = 0.51). Iris cells were not thermally damaged. No evidence of BRB breakdown was detected on days 1 or 28. Retina from RGX-treated eyes seemed normal with RPE cells showing intact nuclei shielded apically by melanosomes, morphologically intact photoreceptor outer segments, normal outer nuclear layer thickness, and choriocapillaris containing intact erythrocytes. The substantial corneal stiffening produced by RGX together with the lack of significant effects on keratocytes and no evidence for retina or iris damage suggest that RGX-initiated corneal crosslinking may be a safe, rapid, and effective treatment.

  10. Modulating emission intensity of GaN-based green light emitting diodes on c-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Chunhua; Ma, Ziguang; Zhou, Junming; Lu, Taiping; Jiang, Yang; Jia, Haiqiang; Liu, Wuming; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The asymmetric dual-wavelength (green/blue) coupled InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells were proposed to modulate the green emission intensity. Electroluminescent measurements demonstrate the conspicuous increment of the green light intensity by decreasing the coupled barrier thickness. This was partly attributed to capture of more carriers when holes tunnel across the thinner barrier from the blue quantum wells, as a hole reservoir, to the green quantum wells. While lower effective barrier height of the blue quantum wells benefits improved hole transportation from p-GaN to the active region. Efficiency droop of the green quantum wells was partially alleviated due to the enhanced injection efficiency of holes

  11. Design and fabrication of adjustable red-green-blue LED light arrays for plant research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitz J Dustin

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although specific light attributes, such as color and fluence rate, influence plant growth and development, researchers generally cannot control the fine spectral conditions of artificial plant-growth environments. Plant growth chambers are typically outfitted with fluorescent and/or incandescent fixtures that provide a general spectrum that is accommodating to the human eye and not necessarily supportive to plant development. Many studies over the last several decades, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana, have clearly shown that variation in light quantity, quality and photoperiod can be manipulated to affect growth and control developmental transitions. Light emitting diodes (LEDs has been used for decades to test plant responses to narrow-bandwidth light. LEDs are particularly well suited for plant growth chambers, as they have an extraordinary life (about 100,000 hours, require little maintenance, and use negligible energy. These factors render LED-based light strategies particularly appropriate for space-biology as well as terrestrial applications. However, there is a need for a versatile and inexpensive LED array platform where individual wavebands can be specifically tuned to produce a series of light combinations consisting of various quantities and qualities of individual wavelengths. Two plans are presented in this report. Results In this technical report we describe the practical construction of tunable red-green-blue LED arrays to support research in plant growth and development. Two light fixture designs and corresponding circuitry are presented. The first is well suited for a laboratory environment for use in a finite area with small plants, such as Arabidopsis. The second is expandable and appropriate for growth chambers. The application of these arrays to early plant developmental studies has been validated with assays of hypocotyl growth inhibition/promotion and phototropic curvature in Arabidopsis seedlings

  12. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  13. Visible Light Induced Green Transformation of Primary Amines to Imines Using a Silicate Supported Anatase Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifani Zavahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  14. Visible light induced green transformation of primary amines to imines using a silicate supported anatase photocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavahir, Sifani; Zhu, Huaiyong

    2015-01-26

    Catalytic oxidation of amine to imine is of intense present interest since imines are important intermediates for the synthesis of fine chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. However, considerable efforts have been made to develop efficient methods for the oxidation of secondary amines to imines, while little attention has until recently been given to the oxidation of primary amines, presumably owing to the high reactivity of generated imines of primary amines that are easily dehydrogenated to nitriles. Herein, we report the oxidative coupling of a series of primary benzylic amines into corresponding imines with dioxygen as the benign oxidant over composite catalysts of TiO2 (anatase)-silicate under visible light irradiation of λ > 460 nm. Visible light response of this system is believed to be as a result of high population of defects and contacts between silicate and anatase crystals in the composite and the strong interaction between benzylic amine and the catalyst. It is found that tuning the intensity and wavelength of the light irradiation and the reaction temperature can remarkably enhance the reaction activity. Water can also act as a green medium for the reaction with an excellent selectivity. This report contributes to the use of readily synthesized, environmentally benign, TiO2 based composite photocatalyst and solar energy to realize the transformation of primary amines to imine compounds.

  15. Interactive effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and light to green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheloni, Giulia; Marti, Elodie; Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@unige.ch

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Comparable stability of CuO-NP suspensions under different light conditions. • UVR* inhibits growth, bleaches chlorophyll fluorescence and damages membrane. • Below 1 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs do not attenuate light in algal suspension. • SNL enhances significantly the effect of 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs on microalgae. • Synergistic interactions between UVR* and CuO-NPs. - Abstract: The present study explores the effect of light with different spectral composition on the stability of CuO-nanoparticle (CuO-NP) dispersions and their effects to green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results showed that simulated natural light (SNL) and light with enhanced UVB radiation (UVR*) do not affect the dissolution of CuO-NPs as compared to light irradiation conditions typically used in laboratory incubator (INC). Comparable values of ζ-potential and hydrodynamic size during 24 h were found under all studied conditions. Concentrations of CuO-NPs below 1 mg L{sup −1} do not attenuate the light penetration in the algal suspensions in comparison with NP-free system. Exposure to a combination of 8 μg L{sup −1} or 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs and INC or SNL has no significant effect on the algal growth inhibition, algal fluorescence and membrane integrity under short-term exposure. However, an enhancement of the percentage of cells experiencing oxidative stress was observed upon exposure to 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs and SNL for 4 and 8 h. Combination of UVR* and 0.8 mg L{sup −1} CuO-NPs resulted in synergistic effects for all biological endpoints. Despite the photocatalytic properties of CuO-NPs no significant increase in abiotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under simulated solar radiation was observed suggesting that the synergistic effect observed might be correlated to other factors than CuO-NP-mediated ROS photoproduction. Tests performed with CuSO{sub 4} confirmed the important role of dissolution as toxicity driving force for lower

  16. Non-BPS D-branes in light-cone Green-Schwarz formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha

    2005-01-01

    Non-BPS D-branes are difficult to describe covariantly in a manifestly supersymmetric formalism. For definiteness we concentrate on type-IIB string theory in flat background in light-cone Green-Schwarz formalism. We study both the boundary state and the boundary conformal field theory descriptions of these D-branes with manifest SO(8) covariance and go through various consistency checks. We analyze Sen's original construction of non-BPS D-branes given in terms of an orbifold boundary conformal field theory. We also directly study the relevant world-sheet theory by deriving the open string boundary condition from the covariant boundary state. Both these methods give the same open string spectrum which is consistent with the boundary state, as required by the world-sheet duality. The boundary condition found in the second method is given in terms of bi-local fields that are quadratic in Green-Schwarz fermions. We design a special 'doubling trick' suitable to handle such boundary conditions and prescribe rules for computing all possible correlation functions without boundary insertions. This prescription has been tested by computing disk one-point functions of several classes of closed string states and comparing the results with the boundary state computation. (author)

  17. Single nanowire green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guogang; Li, Ziyuan; Yuan, Xiaoming; Wang, Fan; Fu, Lan; Zhuang, Zhe; Ren, Fang-Fang; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Rong; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-10-01

    Single nanowire (NW) green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by top-down etching technology. The electroluminescence (EL) peak wavelength remains approximately constant with an increasing injection current in contrast to a standard planar LED, which suggests that the quantum-confined Stark effect is significantly reduced in the single NW device. The strain relaxation mechanism is studied in the single NW LED using Raman scattering analysis. As compared to its planar counterpart, the EL peak of the NW LED shows a redshift, due to electric field redistribution as a result of changes in the cavity mode pattern after metallization. Our method has important implication for single NW optoelectronic device applications.

  18. Efficient red, green, blue and white organic light-emitting diodes with same exciplex host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Wu, Szu-Wei; Huang, Chih-Wei; Hsieh, Chung-Tsung; Lin, Sung-En; Chen, Nien-Po; Chang, Hsin-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Recently, exciplex had drawn attention because of its potential for efficient electroluminescence or for use as a host in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this study, four kinds of hole transport material/electron transport material combinations were examined to verify the formation of exciplex and the corresponding energy bandgaps. We successfully demonstrated that the combination of tris(4-carbazoyl-9-ylphenyl)amine (TCTA) and 3,5,3‧,5‧-tetra(m-pyrid-3-yl)phenyl[1,1‧]biphenyl (BP4mPy) could form a stable exciplex emission with an adequate energy gap. Using exciplex as a host in red, green, and blue phosphorescent OLEDs with an identical trilayer architecture enabled effective energy transfer from exciplex to emitters, achieving corresponding efficiencies of 8.8, 14.1, and 15.8%. A maximum efficiency of 11.3% and stable emission was obtained in white OLEDs.

  19. The ``battle of gold'' under the light of green economics: a case study from Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damigos, D.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2006-05-01

    Mining firms stimulate local and national economies but this comes at a certain cost. In the light of increasing public concern, external costs of environmental degradation and social disruption are no longer of pure academic interest. The assessment of mining projects on the grounds of sustainable development is critical in order to decide whether the exploitation of mineral resources is socially desirable. In practice, few steps have been taken towards this end. In this paper, a case study is illustrated that provides the means for evaluating the social worthiness of mining projects. The analysis, which is the first of its kind in Greece, deals with a major problem of the mining industry: the gold debate on the grounds of green economics. The assessment is based on the social cost benefit approach. Well-established techniques (e.g. benefit transfer) and innovative approaches have been adopted to overcome various practical problems

  20. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin; Shen, Chao; Cozzan, Clayton; Farrell, Robert M.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; Ooi, Boon S.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021

  1. Green LED as an Effective Light Source for Curing Acrylate-Based Dental Resins in Combination with Irgacure 784

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Bukovinszky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low intensity green light emitting diodes (LED were shown to be an effective light source to induce the photopolymerization of an acrylate-based photocurable dental restorative resin mixture of bisphenol A glycerolate dimethacrylate (BisGMA, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, and diurethane dimethacrylate (UDMA, in combination with fluorinated diaryl titanocene (Irgacure 784. Dental matrices were prepared by the LED light source at different intensities. The mechanical properties, such as Vickers microhardness, compressive strength, diametric tensile strength, flexural strength, and E-modulus of the created samples, were investigated. The kinetics of the photopolymerization was followed by Raman spectroscopy and conversion values were determined. It was found that, despite its narrow-emission range centered at a wavelength of 531 nm, the green LED light source is suitable for the preparation of dental matrices with good mechanical properties and high conversion values.

  2. Effects of 530 nm green light on refractive status, melatonin, MT1 receptor, and melanopsin in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jiaqi; Lu, Yi; Chu, Renyuan

    2011-02-01

    To investigate (i) the effect of monochromatic light on inhibiting induction of light-induced melatonin and (ii) the roles of melanopsin and MT1 receptor in light-induced myopia in the guinea pig. Forty-eight guinea pigs were randomly distributed into three treatment groups: white-light (control), green-light (530 nm), and blue-light (480 nm) groups. Levels of pineal gland melatonin were measured twice daily--10:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.--10 days after initial light treatment. Thirty additional guinea pigs were also assigned to these groups and treated similarly. For these latter animals, refractive status, ocular length, and vitreous depth were measured before and after light treatment. Eight weeks after light treatment, retinal and sceral levels of melanopsin, melatonin receptor type (MT) 1, and mRNA protein were determined by Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry. The level of pineal gland melatonin in the green-light group was significantly higher than that in the blue-light group. Biometric measurements showed that guinea pigs in the green-light group had a somewhat myopic refractive status. Expressions of retinal melanopsin mRNA and protein were significantly higher in the blue-light group and lower in the green-light group when compared to controls. Conversely, expressions of MT1 receptor mRNA and protein in retina and sclera were significantly higher in the green-light group and lower in the blue-light group when compared to controls. Green light appears to suppress induction of melatonin production. In addition, 530 nm of green light is involved in the development of myopia. In the guinea pig, MT1 receptor and melanopsin appear to play roles in the development of myopia induced by 530 nm of light.

  3. Influence of Green, Red and Blue Light Emitting Diodes on Multiprotein Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Activity under Different Light Intensities in Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 μmol m−2 s−1 for blue LEDs at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm, red (639 nm and blue (470 nm LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters increased with an increasing light intensity under blue LED illumination and decreased when illuminated with red and green LEDs with decreased light intensity. The expression of multiprotein complex proteins including PSII-core dimer and PSII-core monomer using blue LEDs illumination was higher at higher light intensity (238 μmol m−2 s−1 and was lowered with decreased light intensity (70–80 μmol m−2 s−1. The responses of chloroplast sub-compartment proteins, including those active in stomatal opening and closing, and leaf physiological responses at different light intensities, indicated induced growth enhancement upon illumination with blue LEDs. High intensity blue LEDs promote plant growth by controlling the integrity of chloroplast proteins that optimize photosynthetic performance in the natural environment.

  4. Micro and nano-structured green gallium indium nitride/gallium nitride light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Christoph J. M.

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are commonly designed and studied based on bulk material properties. In this thesis different approaches based on patterns in the nano and micrometer length scale range are used to tackle low efficiency in the green spectral region, which is known as “green gap”. Since light generation and extraction are governed by microscopic processes, it is instructive to study LEDs with lateral mesa sizes scaled to the nanometer range. Besides the well-known case of the quantum size effect along the growth direction, a continuous lateral scaling could reveal the mechanisms behind the purported absence of a green gap in nanowire LEDs and the role of their extraction enhancement. Furthermore the possibility to modulate strain and piezoelectric polarization by post growth patterning is of practical interest, because the internal electric fields in conventional wurtzite GaN LEDs cause performance problems. A possible alternative is cubic phase GaN, which is free of built-in polarization fields. LEDs on cubic GaN could show the link between strong polarization fields and efficiency roll-off at high current densities, also known as droop. An additional problem for all nitride-based LEDs is efficient light extraction. For a planar GaN LED only roughly 8% of the generated light can be extracted. Novel lightextraction structures with extraction-favoring geometry can yield significant increase in light output power. To investigate the effect of scaling the mesa dimension, micro and nano-sized LED arrays of variable structure size were fabricated. The nano-LEDs were patterned by electron beam lithography and dry etching. They contained up to 100 parallel nano-stripe LEDs connected to one common contact area. The mesa width was varied over 1 μm, 200 nm, and 50 nm. These LEDs were characterized electrically and optically, and the peak emission wavelength was found to depend on the lateral structure size. An electroluminescence (EL) wavelength shift of 3 nm

  5. Amphibious fluorescent carbon dots: one-step green synthesis and application for light-emitting polymer nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; He, Benzhao; Huang, Jiachang

    2013-09-21

    A facile and green approach for the synthesis of amphibious fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) from natural polysaccharide is reported. Light-emitting polymer nanocomposites with excellent optical performance can be easily prepared by incorporation of the amphibious CDs into the polymer matrix.

  6. Enhanced Emission Efficiency of Size-Controlled InGaN/GaN Green Nanopillar Light-Emitting Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Nanopillar InGaN/GaN green light-emitting diode (LED) arrays were fabricated by self-assembled Au nanoparticles patterning and dry etching process. Structure size and density of the nanopillar arrays have been modified by varying the Au film thickness in the nanopatterning process. Fabricated...

  7. Antioxidant properties of green tea extract protect reduced fat soft cheese against oxidation induced by light exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huvaere, Kevin André Jurgen; Nielsen, Jacob Holm; Bakman, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The effect of two different antioxidants, EDTA and green tea extract (GTE), used individually or in combination, on the light-induced oxidation of reduced fat soft cheeses (0.2 and 6% fat) was investigated. In samples with 0.2% fat, lipid hydroperoxides as primary lipid oxidation products were...

  8. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanayng.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: • Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. • The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. • The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. • Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current density–voltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplet–triplet exciton annihilation.

  9. Monochromatic green light induces an aberrant accumulation of geranylgeranyled chlorophylls in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materová, Zuzana; Sobotka, Roman; Zdvihalová, Barbora; Oravec, Michal; Nezval, Jakub; Karlický, Václav; Vrábl, Daniel; Štroch, Michal; Špunda, Vladimír

    2017-07-01

    Light quality is an important environmental factor affecting the biosynthesis of photosynthetic pigments whose production seems to be affected not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In this work, we set out to identify unusual pigment detected in leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and explain its presence in plants grown under monochromatic green light (GL; 500-590 nm). The chromatographic analysis (HPLC-DAD) revealed that a peak belonging to this unknown pigment is eluted between chlorophyll (Chl) a and b. This pigment exhibited the same absorption spectrum and fluorescence excitation and emission spectra as Chl a. It was negligible in control plants cultivated under white light of the same irradiance (photosynthetic photon flux density of 240 μmol m -2  s -1 ). Mass spectrometry analysis of this pigment (ions m/z = 889 [M-H] - ; m/z = 949 [M+acetic acid-H] - ) indicates that it is Chl a with a tetrahydrogengeranylgeraniol side chain (containing two double bonds in a phytyl side chain; Chl a THGG ), which is an intermediate in Chl a synthesis. In plants grown under GL, the proportion of Chl a THGG to total Chl content rose to approximately 8% and 16% after 7 and 14 days of cultivation, respectively. Surprisingly, plants cultivated under GL exhibited drastically increased concentration of the enzyme geranylgeranyl reductase, which is responsible for the reduction of phytyl chain double bonds in the Chl synthesis pathway. This indicates impaired activity of this enzyme in GL-grown plants. A similar effect of GL on Chl synthesis was observed for distinct higher plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Green leaf volatiles and oxygenated metabolite emission bursts from mesquite branches following light-dark transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K; Barron-Gafford, G A; Norman, J P; Abrell, L; Monson, R K; Meyers, K T; Pavao-Zuckerman, M; Dontsova, K; Kleist, E; Werner, C; Huxman, T E

    2012-09-01

    Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are a diverse group of fatty acid-derived compounds emitted by all plants and are involved in a wide variety of developmental and stress-related biological functions. Recently, GLV emission bursts from leaves were reported following light-dark transitions and hypothesized to be related to the stress response while acetaldehyde bursts were hypothesized to be due to the 'pyruvate overflow' mechanism. In this study, branch emissions of GLVs and a group of oxygenated metabolites (acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetic acid, and acetone) derived from the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass pathway were quantified from mesquite plants following light-dark transitions using a coupled GC-MS, PTR-MS, and photosynthesis system. Within the first minute after darkening following a light period, large emission bursts of both C(5) and C(6) GLVs dominated by (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate together with the PDH bypass metabolites are reported for the first time. We found that branches exposed to CO(2)-free air lacked significant GLV and PDH bypass bursts while O(2)-free atmospheres eliminated the GLV burst but stimulated the PDH bypass burst. A positive relationship was observed between photosynthetic activity prior to darkening and the magnitude of the GLV and PDH bursts. Photosynthesis under (13)CO(2) resulted in bursts with extensive labeling of acetaldehyde, ethanol, and the acetate but not the C(6)-alcohol moiety of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate. Our observations are consistent with (1) the "pyruvate overflow" mechanism with a fast turnover time (3 h) responsible for the C(6) alcohol moiety of (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate via the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. We conclude that our non-invasive method may provide a new valuable in vivo tool for studies of acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism in plants at a variety of spatial scales.

  11. Photodegradation of Malachite Green by Nanostructured Bi2WO6 Visible Light-Induced Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Yijie Chen; Yaqin Zhang; Chen Liu; Aimin Lu; Weihua Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Bi2WO6 photocatalyst was first utilized to degrade malachite green. The effects of the concentration of malachite green, the pH value, and the concentration of Bi2WO6 on the photocatalytic efficiency were investigated. This study presents a strategy to eliminate highly toxic and persistent dyes such as malachite green.

  12. Efficiency Drop in Green InGaN /GaN Light Emitting Diodes: The Role of Random Alloy Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auf der Maur, Matthias; Pecchia, Alessandro; Penazzi, Gabriele; Rodrigues, Walter; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    White light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on III-nitride InGaN /GaN quantum wells currently offer the highest overall efficiency for solid state lighting applications. Although current phosphor-converted white LEDs have high electricity-to-light conversion efficiencies, it has been recently pointed out that the full potential of solid state lighting could be exploited only by color mixing approaches without employing phosphor-based wavelength conversion. Such an approach requires direct emitting LEDs of different colors, including, in particular, the green-yellow range of the visible spectrum. This range, however, suffers from a systematic drop in efficiency, known as the "green gap," whose physical origin has not been understood completely so far. In this work, we show by atomistic simulations that a consistent part of the green gap in c -plane InGaN /GaN -based light emitting diodes may be attributed to a decrease in the radiative recombination coefficient with increasing indium content due to random fluctuations of the indium concentration naturally present in any InGaN alloy.

  13. Seeing green bacteria in a new light: genomics-enabled studies of the photosynthetic apparatus in green sulfur bacteria and filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A

    2004-01-01

    Based upon their photosynthetic nature and the presence of a unique light-harvesting antenna structure, the chlorosome, the photosynthetic green bacteria are defined as a distinctive group in the Bacteria. However, members of the two taxa that comprise this group, the green sulfur bacteria...... (Chlorobi) and the filamentous anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria ("Chloroflexales"), are otherwise quite different, both physiologically and phylogenetically. This review summarizes how genome sequence information facilitated studies of the biosynthesis and function of the photosynthetic apparatus...... a and carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, gene cluster analysis in Cfx. aurantiacus, and gene inactivation studies in Chl. tepidum. Based on these results, BChl a and BChl c biosynthesis is similar in the two organisms, whereas carotenoid biosynthesis differs significantly. In agreement with its facultative anaerobic...

  14. [KTP (green light) laser for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Preliminary evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coz, Fernando; Domenech, Alfredo

    2007-09-01

    Photoselective vaporization of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a minimally invasive technique, consisting of vaporization of prostatic tissue by KTP green light laser with a power of 80 W. The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with this technique. KTP laser photoselective vaporization was performed in 18 patients, with lower obstructive uropathy secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia at Santiago Military hospital from December 2005. Preoperative characteristics, postoperative results and complications were recorded. Mean prostatic volume was 55 cc (range: 24 to 78). Mean operating time was 83 minutes (range: 40 to 120). In sixteen patients, the Foley catheter was removed before 24 hours. The mean preoperative AUA score was 22 and decreased to 11.4 after 30 days. The mean maximum preoperative urine flow rate was 9 ml/s and increased to 18.2; 22.1; 22.5; 25.3 and 27.2 ml/s on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 30, respectively. Only minor complications were observed: delayed removal of the Foley catheter (11.1%), dysuria (16.6%) and late haematuria (11.1%). KTP laser photoselective vaporization of BPH is a safe technique, that is easy to learn, with good short-term functional results, associated with low complication rate.

  15. Circular dichroism measured on single chlorosomal light-harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Furumaki, Shu

    2012-12-06

    We report results on circular dichroism (CD) measured on single immobilized chlorosomes of a triple mutant of green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. The CD signal is measured by monitoring chlorosomal bacteriochlorphyll c fluorescence excited by alternate left and right circularly polarized laser light with a fixed wavelength of 733 nm. The excitation wavelength is close to a maximum of the negative CD signal of a bulk solution of the same chlorosomes. The average CD dissymmetry parameter obtained from an ensemble of individual chlorosomes was gs = -0.025, with an intrinsic standard deviation (due to variations between individual chlorosomes) of 0.006. The dissymmetry value is about 2.5 times larger than that obtained at the same wavelength in the bulk solution. The difference can be satisfactorily explained by taking into account the orientation factor in the single-chlorosome experiments. The observed distribution of the dissymmetry parameter reflects the well-ordered nature of the mutant chlorosomes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  17. Green laser induced foveal cyst sustained in a recreational laser light show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Aydin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 9-year-old boy complained of visual loss in his right eye after watching green laser light show being hit by a ray of a laser at shopping center before five days ago. The laser had a maximum power rating of 30 mW (US Food and Drug Administration class IIIB. Best-corrected visual acuity in his right eye was 0.2 with Snellen at 5 days after the injury. Dilated fundoscopic examination demonstrated a macular hole appearance in the right eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany demonstrates a steep fovea contour, a thickening of the macular edges, intraretinal cysts, disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment layer and macular pseudohole formation. Central foveal thickness (515 µm was increased. Two months after the injury, the patient's visual acuity improved to 0.9 in the right eye without any ocular treatment. Spectral domain OCT revealed the closure of the macular hole with the resolution of the cystic spaces. At 6-months follow-up, visual function had fully recovered and macular assessment was normal.

  18. Circular dichroism measured on single chlorosomal light-harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Furumaki, Shu; Yabiku, Yu; Habuchi, Satoshi; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Bryant, Donald A.; Vá cha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report results on circular dichroism (CD) measured on single immobilized chlorosomes of a triple mutant of green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. The CD signal is measured by monitoring chlorosomal bacteriochlorphyll c fluorescence excited by alternate left and right circularly polarized laser light with a fixed wavelength of 733 nm. The excitation wavelength is close to a maximum of the negative CD signal of a bulk solution of the same chlorosomes. The average CD dissymmetry parameter obtained from an ensemble of individual chlorosomes was gs = -0.025, with an intrinsic standard deviation (due to variations between individual chlorosomes) of 0.006. The dissymmetry value is about 2.5 times larger than that obtained at the same wavelength in the bulk solution. The difference can be satisfactorily explained by taking into account the orientation factor in the single-chlorosome experiments. The observed distribution of the dissymmetry parameter reflects the well-ordered nature of the mutant chlorosomes. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Wu, Yukun; Yan, Pingrui; Wu, Qingyang; Qu, Dalong; Liu, Shiyong; Zhao, Yi

    2014-01-27

    Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a common simply double emitting layer (D-EML) structure are investigated. Our OLEDs without any out-coupling schemes as well as n-doping strategies show low driving voltage, e.g. white OLED, respectively. This work demonstrates that the low driving voltages and high efficiencies can be simultaneously realized with a common simply D-EML structure.

  20. An Advanced Method to Apply Multiple Rainfall Thresholds for Urban Flood Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Huei Jang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Issuing warning information to the public when rainfall exceeds given thresholds is a simple and widely-used method to minimize flood risk; however, this method lacks sophistication when compared with hydrodynamic simulation. In this study, an advanced methodology is proposed to improve the warning effectiveness of the rainfall threshold method for urban areas through deterministic-stochastic modeling, without sacrificing simplicity and efficiency. With regards to flooding mechanisms, rainfall thresholds of different durations are divided into two groups accounting for flooding caused by drainage overload and disastrous runoff, which help in grading the warning level in terms of emergency and severity when the two are observed together. A flood warning is then classified into four levels distinguished by green, yellow, orange, and red lights in ascending order of priority that indicate the required measures, from standby, flood defense, evacuation to rescue, respectively. The proposed methodology is tested according to 22 historical events in the last 10 years for 252 urbanized townships in Taiwan. The results show satisfactory accuracy in predicting the occurrence and timing of flooding, with a logical warning time series for taking progressive measures. For systems with multiple rainfall thresholds already in place, the methodology can be used to ensure better application of rainfall thresholds in urban flood warnings.

  1. Effects of 24-epibrassinolide and green light on plastid gene transcription and cytokinin content of barley leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Efimova, N.V.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Kusnetsov, V.; Litvinovskaya, R. P.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Dobrev, Petre; Vedenicheva, N.P.; Savchuk, A. L.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Kudryakova, N.V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, APR (2017), s. 32-40 ISSN 0039-128X Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : lupinus-luteus cotyledons * arabidopsis-thaliana * de-etiolation * abscisic-acid * brassinosteroid biosynthesis * plant development * hormonal balance * mutant * expression * growth * Brassinosteroids * Cytokinin * Gene expression * Green light * Hordeum vulgare * Transcription Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  2. Optimization of sensitometric properties of blue and green light sensitive dental radiographic films employing an automatic processor

    OpenAIRE

    Suchetha N Malleshi; Karthikeya Patil; Mahima V Guledgud

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accurate film processing is of paramount importance in acquiring a good diagnostic radiograph. Radiographic films show variations in densities and contrast, with changes in processing conditions, and also film type, all of which are interdependent. Therefore, this research was conducted to recognize the effect of time and temperature variations of automatic processor on the sensitometric properties of blue and green light sensitive screen films. The study also aimed to note the ef...

  3. Optimization of sensitometric properties of blue and green light sensitive dental radiographic films employing an automatic processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchetha N Malleshi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate film processing is of paramount importance in acquiring a good diagnostic radiograph. Radiographic films show variations in densities and contrast, with changes in processing conditions, and also film type, all of which are interdependent. Therefore, this research was conducted to recognize the effect of time and temperature variations of automatic processor on the sensitometric properties of blue and green light sensitive screen films. The study also aimed to note the effect on sensitometric properties when mismatch occurred when using between the screen and film belonging to different manufacturers. Materials and Methods: Sixty green light sensitive and 60 blue light sensitive spectrally matched screen film combinations were used in the study. However, the films and the intensifying screens employed belonged to different manufacturers. These films were exposed to five different exposure times and subsequently processed in an automatic processor, using two different protocols. Initially, at constant processing time of 2.5 min, five different processing temperatures were employed. Later, maintaining constant processing temperature of 35°C and five different processing times were engaged. Density, contrast and speed were calculated, using H and D curve. Results: Results revealed increasing density, contrast and speed values with increasing processing times and temperatures of both green and blue sensitive films. Conclusion: This investigation clearly establishes the possibility of obtaining optimal sensitometric properties, despite using intensifying screens and films of different manufacturers, if spectral match is ensured.

  4. Evidence for dark repair of far ultraviolet light damage in the blue-green alga, Gloeocapsa alpicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.; Lambert, J.; O'Brien, P.; Houghton, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The inactivating effect of far UV light on the unicellular blue-green alga Gloeocapsa alpicola could be totally reversed by exposure to blue light immediately after irradiation. However, if the irradiated cells were held in the dark before exposure to blue light, reversal became progressively less efficient, and almost disappeared after 60-80 h holding. Caffeine and acriflavine inhibited loss of photoreversibility, suggesting an involvement of excision functions. Chloramphenicol and rifampicin slightly increased the rate of loss of photoreversibility, indicating that inducible functions play only a minor role. Split UV dose experiments indicated that light-dependent repair remained operational during dark liquid holding. These results provide preliminary evidence for dark repair in G. alpicola. (author)

  5. Increased light-use efficiency in northern terrestrial ecosystems indicated by CO 2 and greening observations: INCREASE IN NH LIGHT USE EFFICIENCY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Rebecca T. [Science and Solutions for a Changing Planet DTP, Imperial College London, London UK; AXA Chair Programme in Biosphere and Climate Impacts, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London UK; Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London UK; Prentice, Iain Colin [AXA Chair Programme in Biosphere and Climate Impacts, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London UK; Grantham Institute: Climate Change and the Environment, Imperial College London, London UK; Graven, Heather [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London UK; Grantham Institute: Climate Change and the Environment, Imperial College London, London UK; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, Saint-Aubin France; Fisher, Joshua B. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California USA; Hayes, Daniel J. [School of Forest Resources, University of Maine, Orono Maine USA; Huang, Maoyi [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Huntzinger, Deborah N. [School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff Arizona USA; Ito, Akihiko [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba Japan; Jain, Atul [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana Illinois USA; Mao, Jiafu [Climate Change Science Institute and Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA; Michalak, Anna M. [Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford California USA; Peng, Shushi [Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing China; Poulter, Benjamin [Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman Montana USA; Ricciuto, Daniel M. [Climate Change Science Institute and Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA; Shi, Xiaoying [Climate Change Science Institute and Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA; Schwalm, Christopher [Woods Hole Research Center, Falmouth Massachusetts USA; Tian, Hanqin [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn Alabama USA; Zeng, Ning [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park Maryland USA

    2016-11-04

    Observations show an increasing amplitude in the seasonal cycle of CO2 (ASC) north of 45°N of 56 ± 9.8% over the last 50 years and an increase in vegetation greenness of 7.5–15% in high northern latitudes since the 1980s. However, the causes of these changes remain uncertain. Historical simulations from terrestrial biosphere models in the Multiscale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project are compared to the ASC and greenness observations, using the TM3 atmospheric transport model to translate surface fluxes into CO2 concentrations. We find that the modeled change in ASC is too small but the mean greening trend is generally captured. Modeled increases in greenness are primarily driven by warming, whereas ASC changes are primarily driven by increasing CO2. We suggest that increases in ecosystem-scale light use efficiency (LUE) have contributed to the observed ASC increase but are underestimated by current models. We highlight potential mechanisms that could increase modeled LUE.

  6. Can we develop an effective early warning system for volcanic eruptions using `off the shelf' webcams and low-light cameras?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrild, M.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.

    2016-12-01

    An effective early warning system to detect volcanic activity is an invaluable tool, but often very expensive. Detecting and monitoring precursory events, thermal signatures, and ongoing eruptions in near real-time is essential, but conventional methods are often logistically challenging, expensive, and difficult to maintain. Our investigation explores the use of `off the shelf' webcams and low-light cameras, operating in the visible to near-infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, to detect and monitor volcanic incandescent activity. Large databases of webcam imagery already exist at institutions around the world, but are often extremely underutilised and we aim to change this. We focus on the early detection of thermal signatures at volcanoes, using automated scripts to analyse individual images for changes in pixel brightness, allowing us to detect relative changes in thermally incandescent activity. Primarily, our work focuses on freely available streams of webcam images from around the world, which we can download and analyse in near real-time. When changes in activity are detected, an alert is sent to the users informing them of the changes in activity and a need for further investigation. Although relatively rudimentary, this technique provides constant monitoring for volcanoes in remote locations and developing nations, where it is not financially viable to deploy expensive equipment. We also purchased several of our own cameras, which were extensively tested in controlled laboratory settings with a black body source to determine their individual spectral response. Our aim is to deploy these cameras at active volcanoes knowing exactly how they will respond to varying levels of incandescence. They are ideal for field deployments as they are cheap (0-1,000), consume little power, are easily replaced, and can provide telemetered near real-time data. Data from Shiveluch volcano, Russia and our spectral response lab experiments are presented here.

  7. Comparison of male and female emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) responses to phoebe oil and (Z)-3-hexanol lures in light green prism traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Tina Ciaramitaro; D. Barry Lyons; Gene C. Jones

    2011-01-01

    We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA, and Ontario, Canada, to compare unbaited light green sticky prism traps with traps baited with phoebe oil, (Z)-3-hexenol (Z3-6:OH), or blends of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the...

  8. Microwave warning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, W.

    1981-01-01

    A device for warning a person carrying or wearing it of the presence of dangerous microwave radiation is fully powered by the radiations being detected. A very low-wattage gas-discharge lamp is energized by a broadly or a sharply tuned receiver circuit including dipole antennas or one antenna and a ''grounding'' casing element. The casing may be largely and uniformly transparent or have different areas gradedly light-transmissive to indicate varying radiation intensities. The casing can be made in the shape of a pocket watch, fountain pen, bracelet or finger ring, etc

  9. Introduction of Red-Green-Blue Fluorescent Dyes into a Metal-Organic Framework for Tunable White Light Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuehong; Sheng, Tianlu; Zhu, Xiaoquan; Zhuo, Chao; Su, Shaodong; Li, Haoran; Hu, Shengmin; Zhu, Qi-Long; Wu, Xintao

    2017-10-01

    The unique features of the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including ultrahigh porosities and surface areas, tunable pores, endow the MOFs with special utilizations as host matrices. In this work, various neutral and ionic guest dye molecules, such as fluorescent brighteners, coumarin derivatives, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM), and 4-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium (DSM), are encapsulated in a neutral MOF, yielding novel blue-, green-, and red-phosphors, respectively. Furthermore, this study introduces the red-, green-, and blue-emitting dyes into a MOF together for the first time, producing white-light materials with nearly ideal Commission International ed'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates, high color-rendering index values (up to 92%) and quantum yields (up to 26%), and moderate correlated color temperature values. The white light is tunable by changing the content or type of the three dye guests, or the excitation wavelength. Significantly, the introduction of blue-emitting guests in the methodology makes the available MOF host more extensive, and the final white-light output more tunable and high-quality. Such strategy can be widely adopted to design and prepare white-light-emitting materials. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ultrapure Green Light-Emitting Diodes Using Two-Dimensional Formamidinium Perovskites: Achieving Recommendation 2020 Color Coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sudhir; Jagielski, Jakub; Kallikounis, Nikolaos; Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Jenny, Florian; Tian, Tian; Hofer, Corinne J; Chiu, Yu-Cheng; Stark, Wendelin J; Lee, Tae-Woo; Shih, Chih-Jen

    2017-09-13

    Pure green light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are essential for realizing an ultrawide color gamut in next-generation displays, as is defined by the recommendation (Rec.) 2020 standard. However, because the human eye is more sensitive to the green spectral region, it is not yet possible to achieve an ultrapure green electroluminescence (EL) with a sufficiently narrow bandwidth that covers >95% of the Rec. 2020 standard in the CIE 1931 color space. Here, we demonstrate efficient, ultrapure green EL based on the colloidal two-dimensional (2D) formamidinium lead bromide (FAPbBr 3 ) hybrid perovskites. Through the dielectric quantum well (DQW) engineering, the quantum-confined 2D FAPbBr 3 perovskites exhibit a high exciton binding energy of 162 meV, resulting in a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of ∼92% in the spin-coated films. Our optimized LED devices show a maximum current efficiency (η CE ) of 13.02 cd A -1 and the CIE 1931 color coordinates of (0.168, 0.773). The color gamut covers 97% and 99% of the Rec. 2020 standard in the CIE 1931 and the CIE 1976 color space, respectively, representing the "greenest" LEDs ever reported. Moreover, the device shows only a ∼10% roll-off in η CE (11.3 cd A -1 ) at 1000 cd m -2 . We further demonstrate large-area (3 cm 2 ) and ultraflexible (bending radius of 2 mm) LEDs based on 2D perovskites.

  11. Fabrication and evaluation of green-light emitting Ta2O5:Er, Ce co-sputtered thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Miura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erbium and cerium co-doped tantalum-oxide (Ta2O5:Er, Ce thin films were fabricated using radio-frequency co-sputtering of Ta2O5, Er2O3, and CeO2 for the first time. Enhanced green-light emission due to Er3+ that seems to be sensitized by Ce3+ was observed from the film annealed at 900 °C for 20 min. From XRD measurements of the films, the β-Ta2O5 (orthorhombic, δ-Ta2O5 (hexagonal, and (201 Ta2O5 phases seem to be very important for obtaining green PL from them. Such Ta2O5:Er, Ce co-sputtered films can be used as high-refractive-index materials of autocloned photonic crystals that can be applied to novel green-light-emitting devices, and they will also be used as multi-functional coating films that can work both as anti-reflection and down-conversion films for realizing high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  12. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  13. An Ocean Acidification Acclimatised Green Tide Alga Is Robust to Changes of Seawater Carbon Chemistry but Vulnerable to Light Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Gao

    Full Text Available Ulva is the dominant genus in the green tide events and is considered to have efficient CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs. However, little is understood regarding the impacts of ocean acidification on the CCMs of Ulva and the consequences of thalli's acclimation to ocean acidification in terms of responding to environmental factors. Here, we grew a cosmopolitan green alga, Ulva linza at ambient (LC and elevated (HC CO2 levels and investigated the alteration of CCMs in U. linza grown at HC and its responses to the changed seawater carbon chemistry and light intensity. The inhibitors experiment for photosynthetic inorganic carbon utilization demonstrated that acidic compartments, extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA and intracellular CA worked together in the thalli grown at LC and the acquisition of exogenous carbon source in the thalli could be attributed to the collaboration of acidic compartments and extracellular CA. Contrastingly, when U. linza was grown at HC, extracellular CA was completely inhibited, acidic compartments and intracellular CA were also down-regulated to different extents and thus the acquisition of exogenous carbon source solely relied on acidic compartments. The down-regulated CCMs in U. linza did not affect its responses to changes of seawater carbon chemistry but led to a decrease of net photosynthetic rate when thalli were exposed to increased light intensity. This decrease could be attributed to photodamage caused by the combination of the saved energy due to the down-regulated CCMs and high light intensity. Our findings suggest future ocean acidification might impose depressing effects on green tide events when combined with increased light exposure.

  14. Red, green, blue and white light upconversion emission in Yb3+/Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desirena, H; De la Rosa, E; Meza, O; Salas, P

    2011-01-01

    Several Yb 3+ /Tm 3+ /Ho 3+ co-doped transparent TeO 2 -ZnO-Na 2 O-Yb 2 O 3 -Ho 2 O 3 -Tm 2 O 3 glasses were prepared and luminescence properties were characterized. Simultaneous red, green and blue (RGB) emission were obtained after excitation at 970 nm. Colour emission was tuned from multicolour to white light with colour coordinate (0.32, 0.33) matching very well with the white reference (0.33, 0.33). Changes in colour emission were obtained by varying the intensity ratios between RGB bands that are strongly concentration dependent because of the interaction of co-dopants. The colour tunability, high quality of white light and high intensity of the emitted signal make these transparent glasses excellent candidates for applications in solid-state lighting.

  15. Efficient blue-green and green electroluminescent devices obtained by doping iridium complexes into hole-block material as supplementary light-emitting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zheng, Youxuan, E-mail: yxzheng@mail.nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Deng, Ruiping; Feng, Jing; Song, Mingxing; Hao, Zhaomin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhang, Hongjie, E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zuo, Jinglin; You, Xiaozeng [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, organic electroluminescent (EL) devices with dominant and supplementary light-emitting layers (EMLs) were designed to further improve the EL performances of two iridium{sup III}-based phosphorescent complexes, which have been reported to provide EL devices with slow EL efficiency roll-off. The widely used hole-block material 2,2′,2''-(1,3,5-Benzinetriyl)-tris(1-phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) was selected as host material to construct the supplementary EML. Compared with single-EML devices, double-EMLs devices showed higher EL efficiencies, higher brightness, and lower operation voltage attributed to wider recombination zone and better balance of carriers. In addition, the insertion of supplementary EML is instrumental in facilitating carriers trapping, thus improving the color purity. Finally, high performance blue-green and green EL devices with maximum current efficiencies of 35.22 and 90.68 cd/A, maximum power efficiencies of 26.36 and 98.18 lm/W, and maximum brightness of 56,678 and 112,352 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained by optimizing the doping concentrations. Such a device design strategy extends the application of a double EML device structure and provides a chance to simplify device fabrication processes. -- Highlights: • Electroluminescent devices with supplementary light-emitting layer were fabricated. • Doping concentrations and thicknesses were optimized. • Better balance of holes and electrons causes the enhanced efficiency. • Improved carrier trapping suppresses the emission of host material.

  16. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Luminescence of Green Light Emitting Phosphors Zn2SiO4/Mn2+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Mn2+ doped Zn2SiO4 phosphors were synthesized by sol-gel method, and the influence of zinc source, Mn2+ dopant concentration and annealing temperature were investigated. Results show that zinc nitrate based precursor with strong green emission intensities is better than zinc acetate based precursor. The intensity of green light emission reaches a peak at 254 nm when the Mn2+ dopant concentration is about 5%( molar percentage). Structural details of the phosphors were examined through X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The result indicates that they are both rhombohedral structures, which remain amorphous below 700 ℃and crystallize completely around 1 000℃. The luminescent properties of Zn2SiO4/Mn2+ phosphors were characterized by excitation and emission spectra.

  17. Generation of 46 W green-light by frequency doubling of 96 W picosecond unpolarized Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrated a high efficiency and high average power picosecond green light source based on SHG (second harmonic generation) of an unpolarized ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier chain. Using single-pass frequency doubling in two temperature-tuned type-I phase-matching LBO crystals, we were able to generate 46 W, >70 ps pulses at 532 nm from a fundamental beam at 1064 nm, whose output is 96 W, 4.8 μJ, with a repetition frequency of 20 MHz and nearly diffraction limited. The optical conversion efficiency was ∼48% in a highly compact design. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported on ps green source through SHG of an unpolarized fiber laser with such a high output and high efficiency.

  18. Small-scale (flash) flood early warning in the light of operational requirements: opportunities and limits with regard to user demands, driving data, and hydrologic modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Andy; Kerl, Florian; Büttner, Uwe; Metzkes, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Wagner, Michael; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the Free State of Saxony (Eastern Germany) was repeatedly hit by both extensive riverine flooding, as well as flash flood events, emerging foremost from convective heavy rainfall. Especially after a couple of small-scale, yet disastrous events in 2010, preconditions, drivers, and methods for deriving flash flood related early warning products are investigated. This is to clarify the feasibility and the limits of envisaged early warning procedures for small catchments, hit by flashy heavy rain events. Early warning about potentially flash flood prone situations (i.e., with a suitable lead time with regard to required reaction-time needs of the stakeholders involved in flood risk management) needs to take into account not only hydrological, but also meteorological, as well as communication issues. Therefore, we propose a threefold methodology to identify potential benefits and limitations in a real-world warning/reaction context. First, the user demands (with respect to desired/required warning products, preparation times, etc.) are investigated. Second, focusing on small catchments of some hundred square kilometers, two quantitative precipitation forecasts are verified. Third, considering the user needs, as well as the input parameter uncertainty (i.e., foremost emerging from an uncertain QPF), a feasible, yet robust hydrological modeling approach is proposed on the basis of pilot studies, employing deterministic, data-driven, and simple scoring methods.

  19. Efficient fluorescent red, green, and blue organic light-emitting devices with a blue host of spirobifluorene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.-H. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: lerongho@yuntech.edu.tw; Huang, Y.-W.; Wang, Y.-Y. [Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China); Chang, H.-Y. [EChem Hightech CO., LTD, Hsin-Chu Industrial Park, Hu-Kou, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2008-06-02

    Efficient fluorescent blue, green, and red (RGB) organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated using a blue host material of pyrimidine-containing spirobifluorene derivative 2,7-bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)pyrimidine-5-yl]-9,9'-spirobifluorene (TBPSF) doped with blue dye perylene, green dye 10-(2-benzothiazolyl)-1,1,7,7-tetramethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H,5H, 11H-benzo[l] pyrano[6,7,8-ij] quinolizin-11-one (C545T), and red dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl) -4H-pyran (DCJTB), respectively. The brightness and current efficiency of the perylene doped blue device reached 10117 cd/m{sup 2} and 2.97 cd/A. Green emission of the C545T doped device reached 8500 cd/m{sup 2} and 13.0 cd/A. Red emission of the DCJTB doped device can be as high as 9000 cd/m{sup 2} and 2.0 cd/A, respectively. High color purity of the blue (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE{sub x,y}) coordinates (CIE, x = 0.27, y = 0.24)), green (CIE, x = 0.19, y = 0.63) and red (CIE, x = 0.62, y = 0.37) emissions were achieved for RGB dyes doped TBPSF OLEDs. High brightness, large current efficiency, and good color purity of TBPSF-based RGB OLEDs were obtained by the configuration optimization device, such as inserting the hole and electron-injection materials, and suitable dopant content and light emitting layer thickness.

  20. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Gu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl and a normally pigmented control (Z802 were subjected to high (HL and low light (LL. Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size.

  1. Photosynthetic Properties and Potentials for Improvement of Photosynthesis in Pale Green Leaf Rice under High Light Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junfei; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Li, Zhikang; Chen, Ying; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-01-01

    Light is the driving force of plant growth, providing the energy required for photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis is also vulnerable to light-induced damage caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants have therefore evolved various protective mechanisms such as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) to dissipate excessively absorbed solar energy as heat; however, photoinhibition and NPQ represent a significant loss in solar energy and photosynthetic efficiency, which lowers the yield potential in crops. To estimate light capture and light energy conversion in rice, a genotype with pale green leaves (pgl) and a normally pigmented control (Z802) were subjected to high (HL) and low light (LL). Chlorophyll content, light absorption, chloroplast micrographs, abundance of light-harvesting complex (LHC) binding proteins, electron transport rates (ETR), photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, and generation of ROS were subsequently examined. Pgl had a smaller size of light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna and absorbed less photons than Z802. NPQ and the generation of ROS were also low, while photosystem II efficiency and ETR were high, resulting in improved photosynthesis and less photoinhibition in pgl than Z802. Chlorophyll synthesis and solar conversion efficiency were higher in pgl under HL compared to LL treatment, while Z802 showed an opposite trend due to the high level of photoinhibition under HL. In Z802, excessive absorption of solar energy not only increased the generation of ROS and NPQ, but also exacerbated the effects of increases in temperature, causing midday depression in photosynthesis. These results suggest that photosynthesis and yield potential in rice could be enhanced by truncated light-harvesting chlorophyll antenna size. PMID:28676818

  2. The Effects of Brazilian Green Propolis against Excessive Light-Induced Cell Damage in Retina and Fibroblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Murase

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated the effects of Brazilian green propolis and its constituents against white light- or UVA-induced cell damage in mouse retinal cone-cell line 661W or human skin-derived fibroblast cells (NB1-RGB. Methods. Cell damage was induced by 3,000lx white light for 24 h or 4/10 J/cm2 UVA exposure. Cell viability was assessed by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining or by tetrazolium salt (WST-8 cell viability assay. The radical scavenging activity of propolis induced by UVA irradiation in NB1-RGB cells was measured using a reactive-oxygen-species- (ROS- sensitive probe CM-H2DCFDA. Moreover, the effects of propolis on the UVA-induced activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK were examined by immunoblotting. Results. Treatment with propolis and two dicaffeoylquinic acids significantly inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by white light in 661W. Propolis and its constituents inhibited the decrease in cell viability induced by UVA in NB1-RGB. Moreover, propolis suppressed the intracellular ROS production by UVA irradiation. Propolis also inhibited the levels of phosphorylated-p38 and ERK by UVA irradiation. Conclusion. Brazilian green propolis may become a major therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AMD and skin damage induced by UV irradiation.

  3. Effects of melatonin and green-wavelength LED light on the physiological stress and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to high water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Choi, Ji Yong; Choi, Young-Ung; Heo, Youn Seong; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22-30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or melatonin on stress in goldfish, we measured plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mRNA expression; plasma cortisol and glucose; and immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme mRNA expression. The thyroid hormone activities, TR mRNA expression, and plasma cortisol and glucose were higher in goldfish exposed to high-temperature water, but were lower after exposure to melatonin or green-wavelength LED light. Lysozyme mRNA expression and plasma IgM activity and protein expression were lower after exposure to high water temperatures and higher after melatonin or green-wavelength LED light treatments. Therefore, high water temperature induced stress and decreased immunity; however, green-wavelength LED light and melatonin treatments mitigated the effects of stress and enhanced immunity. The benefits of melatonin decreased with time, whereas those of green-wavelength LED treatment did not.

  4. Efficient generation of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light with spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    We propose an efficient concept increasing the power of diode laser systems in the visible spectral range. In comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation enhances the available power significantly. Combining two...... 1060 nm tapered diode lasers, we achieve a 2.5-3.2 fold increase of green light with a maximum power of 3.9 Watts in a diffraction-limited beam. At this level, diode lasers have a high application potential, for example, within the biomedical field. In order to enhance the power even further, our...

  5. Economic versus belief-based models: Shedding light on the adoption of novel green technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Mayer, Sebastian; Nägele, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the determinants for the adoption of novel green consumer technologies is important to effectively foster their diffusion. Energy and environmental science literature often takes an approach based on economic variables such as objectively measureable household and technology characteristics. Increasingly, also subjective variables based on personal belief are considered. On the basis of a survey about the intention to adopt an exemplary novel green consumer technology (intelligent thermostats), we contribute to the clarification of the explanatory power of these two approaches. We first compare the economic model to the belief-based model and second, investigate how beliefs about the green technology are influenced by personal environmental norms and innovativeness. Our evaluation shows that the belief-based model explains considerably higher variance in the intention to adopt. Thereby the perceived hedonic satisfaction, usefulness, habit and facilitating conditions reveal as key determinants. Moreover, environmental norms show lower impact than personal innovativeness. In the discussion we consolidate these findings and point to the risk of omitted variable bias when selectively including belief-based variables in adoption models. Our findings suggest that policies can effectively accelerate the early market diffusion of green consumer technologies by incentivizing retailers to introduce and market such technologies. - Highlights: • Adoption of a green consumer technology (energy-saving thermostats) is evaluated. • Subjective beliefs about the technology show higher impact than objective measures. • Key beliefs relate to pleasure, usefulness, habits and facilitating conditions. • Personal innovativeness is more relevant for adoption than environmental norms. • Isolated use of belief-based adoption determinants can lead to omitted variable bias.

  6. Synthesis, Photoluminescence Behavior of Green Light Emitting Tb(III) Complexes and Mechanistic Investigation of Energy Transfer Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Kumar, Satish; Devi, Rekha; Khatkar, Avni; Taxak, V B; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, S P

    2018-06-04

    A series of five new terbium(III) ion complexes with 4,4-difluoro-1-phenylbutane-1,3-dione (HDPBD) and anciliary ligands was synthesized. The composition and properties of complexes were analyzed by elemental analysis, IR, NMR, powder X-ray diffaraction, TG-DTG and photoluminescence spectroscopy. These complexes exhibited ligand sensitized green emission at 546 nm associated with 5 D 4  →  7 F 5 transitions of terbium ion in the emission spectra. The photoluminescence study manifested that the organic ligands act as antenna and facilitate the absorbed energy to emitting levels of Tb(III) ion efficiently. The enhanced luminescence intensity and decay time of ternary C2-C5 complexes observed due to synergistic effect of anciliary ligands. The CIE color coordinates of complexes came under the green region of chromaticity diagram. The mechanistic investigation of intramolecular energy transfer in the complexes was discussed in detail. These terbium(III) complexes can be thrivingly used as one of the green component in light emitting material and in display devices. Graphical Abstract Illustrate the sensitization process of the Tb ion and intramolecular energy transfer process in the Tb 3+ complex.

  7. Analysis of dominant carrier recombination mechanisms depending on injection current in InGaN green light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu-Sang; Han, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Hyun-Sung; Shim, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Two kinds of green InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated in order to understand the different slopes in logarithmic light output power-current (L-I) curves. Through the analysis of the carrier rate equation and by considering the carrier density-dependent the injection efficiency into quantum wells, the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves can be more rigorously understood. The low current level, two as the tunneling current is initially dominant. The high current level beyond the peak of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) diminishes below one as the carrier overflow becomes dominant. In addition, the normalized carrier injection efficiency can be obtained by analyzing the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves. The carrier injection efficiency decreases after the EQE peak of the InGaN LEDs, determined from the analysis of the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves

  8. Remarkable photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green by nickel doped bismuth selenide under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mondal, Anup; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal; Banerjee, Dipali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Bi_2Se_3 and Ni doped Bi_2Se_3 were synthesized by solvothermal approach. • Presence of nickel was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement. • Complete degradation of malachite green (MG) dye was achieved by Ni doped Bi_2Se_3 with H_2O_2. • Remarkable photo-catalytic degradation by doped bismuth selenide has been explained. • Scavenger tests show degradation of MG is mainly dominated by ·OH oxidation process. - Abstract: Bismuth selenide (Bi_2Se_3) and nickel (Ni) doped Bi_2Se_3 were prepared by a solvothermal approach to explore the photo-catalytic performance of the materials in degradation of malachite green (MG). The presence of nickel was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement in doped Bi_2Se_3. The results showed that the nickel doping played an important role in microstructure and photo-catalytic activity of the samples. Nickel doped Bi_2Se_3 sample exhibited higher photo-catalytic activity than that of the pure Bi_2Se_3 sample under visible-light irradiation. The photo-catalytic degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. Fast degradation kinetics and complete (100% in 5 min of visible light irradiation) removal of MG was achieved by nickel doped Bi_2Se_3 in presence of hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) due to modification of band gap energies leading to suppression of photo-generated electron-hole recombination.

  9. Interactive influence of leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on green ash foliar chemistry and emerald ash borer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-07-01

    Biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect plant nutritional quality and defensive compounds that confer plant resistance to herbivory. Influence of leaf age, light availability, and girdling on foliar nutrition and defense of green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) was examined in this study. Longevity of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), adults reared on green ash foliage subjected to these factors was assayed. Mature leaves generally were more nutritious with greater amino acids and a greater ratio of protein to non-structural carbohydrate (P:C) than young leaves, in particular when trees were grown in shade. On the other hand, mature leaves had lower amounts of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and total phenolics compared to young leaves. Lower defense of mature leaves alone, or along with higher nutritional quality may lead to increased survival and longevity of emerald ash borer feeding on mature leaves. Sunlight reduced amino acids and P:C ratio, irrespective of leaf age and girdling, and elevated total protein of young foliage, but not protein of mature leaves. Sunlight also dramatically increased all investigated defensive compounds of young, but not mature leaves. Girdling reduced green ash foliar nutrition, especially, of young leaves grown in shade and of mature leaves grown in sun. However emerald ash borer performance did not differ when fed leaves from trees grown in sun or shade, or from girdled or control trees. One explanation is that emerald ash borer reared on lower nutritional quality food may compensate for nutrient deficiency by increasing its consumption rate. The strong interactions among leaf age, light intensity, and girdling on nutrition and defense highlight the need for caution when interpreting data without considering possible interactions.

  10. Profile of Green Consumers in Romania in Light of Sustainability Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Roman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and responsible consumption are now the policies of companies interested in preserving a good reputation. If in the past, sustainability was an issue present only in the corporate social responsibility campaigns developed by companies; nowadays, this aspect has become a key element that has been proven to influence the purchasing behavior of consumers. The existence of policies and strategies in the area of sustainability does not necessarily mean their being put into practice as long as people, who make these objectives attainable, are not aware of them. The present paper aims to explore the green consumption of Romanian consumers, which would indicate whether the concern for environmental problems is then translated into an appropriate behavior; in other words, whether “words become facts”. At the same time, this paper analyzes the extent to which the “green trend” has gained popularity in Romania, how involved the Romanian consumers are with environmental issues and the behaviors they adopt in order to mitigate the impact on the ecosystem. However, there are differences between individual opinions on green consumption and the actual behavior adopted in trying to ameliorate this issue.

  11. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  12. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Collier Valle

    Full Text Available Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions.

  13. Design and optimization of a volume-phase holographic grating for simultaneous use with red, green, and blue light using unpolarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Adoum H; Narducci, Frank A; Schwiegerling, James

    2016-03-01

    Volume-phase holographic (VPH) gratings have been designed for use in many areas of science and technology, such as optical communication, optical imaging, and astronomy. In this paper, the design of a volume-phase holographic grating, simultaneously optimized to operate in the red, green, and blue wavelengths, is presented along with a study of its fabrication tolerances. The grating is optimized to produce 98% efficiency at λ=532  nm and at least 75% efficiency in the region between 400 and 700 nm, when the incident light is unpolarized. The optimization is done for recording in dichromated gelatin with a thickness of 12 μm, an average refractive index of 1.5, and a refractive index modulation of 0.022.

  14. Response of bats to light with different spectra: light-shy and agile bat presence is affected by white and green, but not red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, K.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Ramakers, J.J.C.; Ferguson, Kim B.; Raap, Thomas; Donners, Maurice; Veenendaal, Elmar M.; Visser, Marcel E.

    Artificial light at night has shown a remarkable increase over the past decades. Effects are reported for many species groups, and include changes in presence, behaviour, physiology and life-history traits. Among these, bats are strongly affected, and how bat species react to light is likely to vary

  15. Density of phonon states in the light-harvesting complex II of green plants

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G

    2002-01-01

    In photosynthetic antenna complexes, the coupling of electronic transitions to low-frequency vibrations of the protein matrix (phonons) plays an essential role in light absorption and ultra-fast excitation energy transfer (EET). The model calculations presented here indicate that inelastic neutron scattering experiments provide invaluable information on the phonon density of states for light-harvesting complex II, which may permit a consistent interpretation of contradictory results from high-resolution optical spectroscopy. (orig.)

  16. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  17. One pot light assisted green synthesis, storage and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Shah, Abdullah; Jantan, Ibrahim; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ahmed, Riaz; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2014-12-03

    Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) mediated with dextran. Dextran was used as a stabilizer and capping agent to synthesize Ag NPs using silver nitrate (AgNO3) under diffused sunlight conditions. UV-vis spectra of as synthesized Ag nanoparticles showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range from ~405-452 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies showed spherical Ag NPs in the size regime of ~50-70 nm. Face centered cubic lattice of Ag NPs was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that dextran not only acts as reducing agent but also functionalizes the surfaces of Ag NPs to make very stable dispersions. Moreover, on drying, the solution of dextran stabilized Ag NPs resulted in the formation of thin films which were found stable over months with no change in the plasmon band of pristine Ag NPs. The antimicrobial assay of the as synthesized Ag NPs showed remarkable activity. Being significantly active against microbes, the Ag NPs can be explored for antimicrobial medical devices.

  18. Sharp green electroluminescence from 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline-based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Y. T.; Balasubramaniam, E.; Danel, A.; Jarosz, B.; Tomasik, P.

    2000-09-01

    A multilayer organic light-emitting diode was fabricated using a fluorescent compound {6-N,N-diethylamino-1-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline} (PAQ-NEt2) doped into the hole-transporting layer of NPB {4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl-1-)-N-phenyl-amino]-biphenyl}, with the TPBI {2,2',2″-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris[1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole]} as an electrontransporting material. At 16% PAQ-NEt2 doping concentration, the device gave a sharp, bright, and efficient green electroluminescence (EL) peaked at around 530 nm. The full width at half maximum of the EL is 60 nm, which is 60% of the green emission from typical NPB/AlQ [where AlQ=tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum] device. For the same concentration, a maximum luminance of 37 000 cd/m2 was obtained at 10.0 V and the maximum power, luminescence, and external quantum efficiencies were obtained 4.2 lm/W, 6.0 cd/A, and 1.6%, respectively, at 5.0 V.

  19. Plasmon enhanced green GaN light-emitting diodes - Invited paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke

    in spectral design, more compact etc. TheIII-nitride (GaN, InNetc.) semiconductors are attracting a lot of research effort because the combination of both could emit light with wavelength range from UV to infrared. Basically one material platform could provide all the solutions to light sources.However huge...... nanosphere lithography. For both cases, emission enhancement is demonstrated. For periodic Ag nanoparicles, aphotoluminescence enhancement of 2.7 is observed with a nanodisk diameter of 330 nm.It is found that an optimalpitch exists for a given particle size.For the random Ag nanoparticles,low temperature...

  20. Reduced-droop green III-nitride light-emitting diodes utilizing GaN tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Young, Erin C.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Albadri, Abdulrahman; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.

    2018-04-01

    We report the fabrication of low-droop high-efficiency green c-plane light-emitting diodes (LEDs) utilizing GaN tunnel junction (TJ) contacts. The LED epitaxial layers with a top p-GaN layer were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and an n++-GaN layer was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy to form a TJ. The TJ LEDs were then compared with equivalent LEDs having a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) contact. The TJ LEDs exhibited a higher performance and a lower efficiency droop than did the ITO LEDs. At 35 A/cm2, the external quantum efficiencies for the TJ and ITO LEDs were 31.2 and 27%, respectively.

  1. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...... the physiological range for redox-active cysteines. In the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, the protein was a sensitive probe for the redox changes that occur upon disruption of the thioredoxin reductive pathway....

  2. GreenLight laser vs diode laser vaporization of the prostate: 3-year results of a prospective nonrandomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sanwei; Müller, Georg; Bonkat, Gernot; Püschel, Heike; Gasser, Thomas; Bachmann, Alexander; Rieken, Malte

    2015-04-01

    Laser vaporization of the prostate is one of the alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate. Short-term studies report a comparable outcome after laser vaporization with the 532 nm 120-W GreenLight high-performance system (HPS) laser and the 980 nm 200 W high-intensity diode (diode) laser. In this study, we analyzed the intermediate-term results of both techniques. From January 2007 to January 2008, 112 consecutive patients with symptomatic benign prostate enlargement were nonrandomly assigned to treatment with the GreenLight laser or the diode laser. Perioperative parameters, postoperative functional outcome, complications, and the reoperation rate at 3 years were analyzed. Improvement of voiding symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score, quality-of-life) and micturition parameters (maximum flow rate, postvoid residual volume) showed no significant difference between the HPS group and the diode group. A significantly higher reoperation rate was observed in the diode group in comparison to the HPS group (37.5% vs 8.9%, p=0.0003) due to obstructive necrotic tissue (16.1% vs 0%, p=0.0018), bladder neck stricture (16.1% vs 1.8%, p=0.008), and persisting or recurrent adenoma (5.4% vs 7.1%, p=0.70), respectively. Both lasers lead to comparable improvement of voiding parameters and micturition symptoms. Treatment with the 200 W diode laser led to a significantly higher reoperation rate, which might be attributed to a higher degree of coagulation necrosis. Thus, a careful clinical application of this diode laser type is warranted.

  3. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2017-07-12

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021) substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  4. Gigabit-per-second white light-based visible light communication using near-ultraviolet laser diode and red-, green-, and blue-emitting phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changmin; Shen, Chao; Cozzan, Clayton; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Ooi, Boon S; DenBaars, Steven P

    2017-07-24

    Data communication based on white light generated using a near-ultraviolet (NUV) laser diode (LD) pumping red-, green-, and blue-emitting (RGB) phosphors was demonstrated for the first time. A III-nitride laser diode (LD) on a semipolar (2021¯)  substrate emitting at 410 nm was used for the transmitter. The measured modulation bandwidth of the LD was 1 GHz, which was limited by the avalanche photodetector. The emission from the NUV LD and the RGB phosphor combination measured a color rendering index (CRI) of 79 and correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4050 K, indicating promise of this approach for creating high quality white lighting. Using this configuration, data was successfully transmitted at a rate of more than 1 Gbps. This NUV laser-based system is expected to have lower background noise from sunlight at the LD emission wavelength than a system that uses a blue LD due to the rapid fall off in intensity of the solar spectrum in the NUV spectral region.

  5. Brake wear warning device: A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S. F.

    1973-01-01

    Heat-insulated wire is introduced through brake shoe and partially into brake lining. Wire is connected to positive terminal and light bulb. When brakes wear to critical point, contact between wire and wheel drum grounds circuit and turns on warning light.

  6. Dry etching characteristics of GaN for blue/green light-emitting diode fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, K.H.; Pearton, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The etch rates, surface morphology and sidewall profiles of features formed in GaN/InGaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes by Cl 2 -based dry etching are reported. The chlorine provides an enhancement in etch rate of over a factor of 40 relative to the physical etching provided by Ar and the etching is reactant-limited until chlorine gas flow rates of at least 50 standard cubic centimeters per minute. Mesa sidewall profile angle control is possible using a combination of Cl 2 /Ar plasma chemistry and SiO 2 mask. N-face GaN is found to etch faster than Ga-face surfaces under the same conditions. Patterning of the sapphire substrate for improved light extraction is also possible using the same plasma chemistry

  7. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Sabatini, Randy; Walters, Grant; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Li, Yiying; Fan, James Z.; Tan, Hairen; Pan, Jun; Yuan, Mingjian; Bakr, Osman; Lu, Zhenghong; Kim, Dong Ha; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  8. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na

    2017-05-10

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  9. (Carbon and hydrogen metabolism of green algae in light and dark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The focus of this project was the elucidation of anaerobic metabolism in ecuaryotic green algae, chlamydomonas reinhardii. Chlamydomonas is a versatile organism that can grow under disparate conditions such as fresh water lakes and sewage ponds. The cell an photoassimilate CO{sub 2} aerobically and anaerobically, the latter after adaptation'' to a hydrogen metabolism. It can recall the knallgas or oxyhydrogen reaction and utilize hydrogen the simplest of all reducing agents for the dark assimilation of CO{sub 2} by the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. The dark reduction with hydrogen lies on the border line between autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon assimilation. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria are known in which molecular hydrogen can replace either inorganic or organic hydrogen donors. Here the dark reduction of CO{sub 2} acquires a particular importance since it occurs in the same cell that carries on photoreduction and photosynthesis. We will demonstrate here that the alga chloroplast possesses a respiratory capacity. It seems likely that Chlamydomonas may have retained the chloroplastic respiratory pathway because of the selective advantage provided to the algae under a wide range of environmental conditions that the cells experience in nature. The ability to cycle electrons and poise the reduction level of the photosynthetic apparatus under aerobic and microaerobic conditions could allow more efficient CO{sub 2} fixation and enhanced growth under unfavorable conditions or survival under more severe conditions.

  10. UV light induced photodegradation of malachite green on TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Lu, C.S.; Chung, Y.C.; Jan, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The photodegradation of malachite green (MG), a cationic triphenylmethane dye, is examined both under different pH values and amounts of TiO 2 . After 15 W UV-365 nm irradiation for 4 h, ca. 99.9% of MG was degraded with addition of 0.5 g L -1 TiO 2 to solutions containing 50 mg L -1 of the MG dye. The HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS technique was used to obtain a better understanding on the mechanistic details of this TiO 2 -assisted photodegradation of the MG dye with UV irradiation. Five intermediates of the process were separated, identified, and characterized for the first time. The results indicated that the N-de-methylation degradation of MG dye took place in a stepwise manner to yield mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-N-de-methylated MG species generated during the processes. Under acidic conditions, the results indicated that the photodegradation mechanism is favorable to cleavage of the whole conjugated chromophore structure of the MG dye. Under basic conditions, the results showed that the photodegradation mechanism is favorable to a formation of a series of N-de-methylated intermediates of the MG dye

  11. Photodegradation of malachite green dye catalyzed by Keggin-type polyoxometalates under visible-light irradiation: Transition metal substituted effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Guang; Zheng, Ting; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Han-Yu

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper, Keggin-type polyoxometalates (POMs) (NH4)3[PW12O40] and its mono-transition-metal-substituted species (NH4)5[{PW11O39}MII(H2O)] (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) have been synthesized and used as photocatalyst to activate O2 for the degradation of dye molecule under visible-light irradiation. Because of the strong adsorption on the surface of POM catalyst, malachite green (MG) molecule was employed as a molecular probe to test their photocatalytic activity. The photodegradation study shows that introduction of transition metal ion leads to an increase in the degradation of MG in the following order: Mn < Fe < Co < [PW12O40]3- < Ni < Cu < Zn, which indicates that the photocatalytic activity of these POMs is sensitive to the transition metal substituted effects. Electronic structure analysis based on the density functional theory calculations shows that a moderate decrease of oxidizing ability of POM catalyst may improve the photocatalytic activity in the degradation of dye molecule under visible-light irradiation. Meanwhile, intermediate products about the photocatalytic oxidation of MG molecule were proposed on the basis of gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analysis.

  12. Remarkable photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green by nickel doped bismuth selenide under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsi, Chiranjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mondal, Anup; Kargupta, Kajari; Ganguly, Saibal; Banerjee, Dipali

    2017-01-01

    Bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) and nickel (Ni) doped Bi2Se3 were prepared by a solvothermal approach to explore the photo-catalytic performance of the materials in degradation of malachite green (MG). The presence of nickel was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement in doped Bi2Se3. The results showed that the nickel doping played an important role in microstructure and photo-catalytic activity of the samples. Nickel doped Bi2Se3 sample exhibited higher photo-catalytic activity than that of the pure Bi2Se3 sample under visible-light irradiation. The photo-catalytic degradation followed first-order reaction kinetics. Fast degradation kinetics and complete (100% in 5 min of visible light irradiation) removal of MG was achieved by nickel doped Bi2Se3 in presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) due to modification of band gap energies leading to suppression of photo-generated electron-hole recombination.

  13. 1,213 Cases of Treatment of Facial Acne Using Indocyanine Green and Intense Pulsed Light in Asian Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Young Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used for acne, with various combinations of photosensitizers and light sources. Objective. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of indocyanine green (ICG and intense pulsed light (IPL in the treatment of acne. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,213 patients with facial acne were retrospectively reviewed. Patients received three or five treatments of ICG and IPL at two-week intervals. Clinical response to treatment was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment clinical photographs and patient satisfaction scores. Results. Marked to excellent improvement was noted in 483 of 1,213 (39.8% patients, while minimal to moderate improvement was achieved in the remaining 730 (60.2% patients. Patient satisfaction scores revealed that 197 (16.3% of 1,213 patients were highly satisfied, 887 (73.1% were somewhat satisfied, and 129 (10.6% were unsatisfied. There were no significant side effects. Conclusion. These results suggest that PDT with ICG and IPL can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of acne.

  14. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugart, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Wu, Sasa; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2017-01-01

    Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm), violet (420 nm), blue (470 nm), or green (515 nm). We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates), and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants) over control plants. PMID:29190278

  15. Can narrow-bandwidth light from UV-A to green alter secondary plant metabolism and increase Brassica plant defenses against aphids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Rechner

    Full Text Available Light of different wavelengths is essential for plant growth and development. Short-wavelength radiation such as UV can shift the composition of flavonoids, glucosinolates, and other plant metabolites responsible for enhanced defense against certain herbivorous insects. The intensity of light-induced, metabolite-based resistance is plant- and insect species-specific and depends on herbivore feeding guild and specialization. The increasing use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs in horticultural plant production systems in protected environments enables the creation of tailor-made light scenarios for improved plant cultivation and induced defense against herbivorous insects. In this study, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica plants were grown in a climate chamber under broad spectra photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and were additionally treated with the following narrow-bandwidth light generated with LEDs: UV-A (365 nm, violet (420 nm, blue (470 nm, or green (515 nm. We determined the influence of narrow-bandwidth light on broccoli plant growth, secondary plant metabolism (flavonol glycosides and glucosinolates, and plant-mediated light effects on the performance and behavior of the specialized cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Green light increased plant height more than UV-A, violet, or blue LED treatments. Among flavonol glycosides, specific quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were increased under violet light. The concentration of 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate in plants was increased by UV-A treatment. B. brassicae performance was not influenced by the different light qualities, but in host-choice tests, B. brassicae preferred previously blue-illuminated plants (but not UV-A-, violet-, or green-illuminated plants over control plants.

  16. Still waiting for the green light on Taiwan's units 7 and 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.

    1992-01-01

    Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) is the only utility supplying electricity to Taiwan. In 1991, six nuclear units shared 28% of the total installed capacity (5144MWe out of 18 382MWe), but produced 38% of the total electricity (33 878TWh out of 89 129TWh), with a 7% increase over 1990. The weighted average capacity factor reached a record high of 78.32%. Compared with 1990's weighted average capacity factor of 72.94%, the annual performance in 1991 reveals that Taipower nuclear power plants are in better shape than they were before. The major improvement efforts in 1992 will focus on shortening the duration of outages and enforcing safety culture training. This article also briefly describes existing and projected waste management plants and comments on the project to build two 1000MWe Light Water Reactor plants at Yenliao which are tentatively scheduled for commercial operation in 2000. (Author)

  17. Further investigations into pulsed optically stimulated luminescence from feldspars using blue and green light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankjaergaard, C.; Jain, M.; Kalchgruber, R.; Lapp, T.; Klein, D.; McKeever, S.W.S.; Murray, A.S.; Morthekai, P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate characteristics of luminescence signals resulting from pulsed optical stimulation of feldspars and thereby to understand the underlying processes giving rise to the signal. Fourteen different feldspar specimens were investigated using time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL), and these signals can be mathematically described as a sum of 4 exponential components (a, b, c, d). The slowest component, d, increases with the duration of the light pulse as expected from the exponential model. The stimulation temperature dependence experiment suggests that the TR-OSL signal decay is governed by the recombination process and not by the excited state lifetime. Furthermore data from the TR-OSL signal dependence on stimulation time and preheat temperature suggest that the recombination process may not be a sum of exponentials, although the model cannot be rejected definitively.

  18. Green bright squeezed light from a cw periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2002-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of bright amplitude squeezed light from a singly resonant second harmonic generator (SHG) based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Contrary to conventional SHG, the interacting waves in this device couple efficiently using qu...... reduction is greater than what could be expected using normal birefringence phase matched KTP with the same experimental parameters. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found. (C)2002 Optical Society of America....... quasi phase matching (QPM) and more importantly QPM allows access to higher valued elements of the nonlinear tensor than is possible under the constraint of birefringence phase matching. We observe a noise reduction of 13% below the shot noise limit in the generated second harmonic field. This noise...

  19. Transfer from blue light or green light to white light partially reverses changes in ocular refraction and anatomy of developing guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Feng; Liu, Rui; Dai, Jin-Hui; Chen, Min-Jie; Zhou, Xing-Tao; Chu, Ren-Yuan

    2013-09-26

    Relative to the broadband white light (BL), postnatal guinea pigs develop myopia in a monochromic middle-wavelength light (ML, 530 nm) environment and develop hyperopia in a monochromic short-wavelength light (SL, 430 nm) environment. We investigated whether transfer from SL or ML to BL leads to recuperation of ocular refraction and anatomy of developing guinea pigs. Two-week-old guinea pigs were given (a) SL for 20 weeks, (b) SL recuperation (SLR, SL for 10 weeks then BL for 10 weeks), (c) ML for 20 weeks, (d) ML recuperation (MLR, ML for 10 weeks then BL for 10 weeks), or (e) BL for 20 weeks. Two weeks after transfer from ML to BL (MLR group), ocular refraction increased from 1.95 ± 0.35 D to 2.58 ± 0.24 D, and vitreous length decreased from 3.48 ± 0.06 mm to 3.41 ± 0.06 mm. Two weeks after transfer from SL to BL (SLR group), ocular refraction decreased from 5.65 ± 0.61 D to 4.33 ± 0.49 D, and vitreous length increased from 3.18 ± 0.07 mm to 3.26 ± 0.11 mm. The MLR and SLR groups had final ocular refractions that were significantly different from those of the ML and SL groups at 20 weeks (ML vs. MLR: p < 0.0001; SL vs. SLR: p < 0.0001) but were still significantly different from the BL group (BL vs. MLR: p = 0.0120; BL vs. SLR: p = 0.0010). These results suggest that recuperation was not complete after return to BL for 10 weeks.

  20. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  1. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2015-11-23

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  3. Synthesis and green electrophosphorescence of a novel cyclometalated iridium complex in polymer light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Lilan [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China); Tsai Sunghao [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China); Guo Tzungfang [Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China); Yang Chenghsien [Carbon Nanocapsules Research Department, Nano-Powder and Thin Film Technology Center, ITRI South, Tainan, Taiwan 709 (China)]. E-mail: jasonyang0606@yahoo.com.tw; Sun, I-W. [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 70101 (China)]. E-mail: iwsun@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-10-15

    Abstact: In this paper, we synthesized a new complex bis(dibenzo[f,h]quinolinato-N,C {sup 2'}) iridium(III) acetylactonate ((DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac)) having a longer conjugate system than bis(2-phenylpyridinato-N,C {sup 2'}) iridium(III) acetylacetonate ((PPY){sub 2}Ir(acac)). Interestingly (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac) emits at the same wavelength as (photoluminescence of 530 nm) (PPY){sub 2}Ir(acac). A high-efficiency electrophosphorescent polymer light-emitting diodes was constructed by using (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac) as the dopant, and a blend of poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) with 2-tert-butylphenyl-5-biphenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol (PBD) as the host material. The electroluminescence efficiency of 9.5 cd/A is reported for the device doped with 3 wt% of (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac). In this device, the emission from the PVK or PBD host was effectively inhibited with the using (DBQ){sub 2}Ir(acac) . Emission from the dopant molecules in such devices involve localization of the injected electron and hole on the metal-organic center. This can occur by a variety of mechanisms, including Foerster and Dexter energy transfer from the host transport material to the dopant, and direct trapping of both electrons and holes on the metal-organic center.

  4. The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue-green light transmission in the upper ocean: An exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengan; Tan, Jianyu; Lai, Qingzhi

    2016-12-01

    The “blue-green window” in the ocean plays an important role in functions such as communication between vessels, underwater target identification, and remote sensing. In this study, the transmission process of blue-green light in the upper ocean is analyzed numerically using the Monte Carlo method. First, the effect of total number of photons on the numerical results is evaluated, and the most favorable number is chosen to ensure accuracy without excessive costs for calculation. Then, the physical and mathematical models are constructed. The rough sea surface is generated under windy conditions and the transmission signals are measured in the far field. Therefore, it can be conceptualized as a 1D slab with a rough boundary surface. Under windy conditions, these bubbles form layers that are horizontally homogeneous and decay exponentially with depth under the influence of gravity. The effects of bubble populations on the process of blue-green light transmission at different wind speeds, wavelengths, angle of incidence and chlorophyll-a concentrations are studied for both air-incident and water-incident cases. The results of this study indicate that the transmission process of blue-green light is significantly influenced by bubbles under high wind-speed conditions.

  5. 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light at 515 nm from SHG of a single-frequency tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, André

    2017-01-01

    Multi-Watt efficient compact green laser sources are required for a number of applications e.g. within biophotonics, laser pumping and laser displays. We present generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light at 515 nm by second harmonic generation (SHG) of a tapered diode laser, itself...... yielding more than 9 W at 1030 nm. SHG is performed in single pass through a cascade of two nonlinear crystals with re-focusing and dispersion compensating optics between the two nonlinear crystals. The laser is single-frequency and the output power is stabilized to better than ±0.4%....

  6. The ARGOS laser system: green light for ground layer adaptive optics at the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Walfried; Rabien, Sebastian; Gässler, Wolfgang; Esposito, Simone; Barl, Lothar; Borelli, Jose; Daysenroth, Matthias; Gemperlein, Hans; Kulas, Martin; Ziegleder, Julian

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development of the laser system of ARGOS, the multiple laser guide star adaptive optics system for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The system uses a total of six high powered, pulsed Nd:YAG lasers frequency-doubled to a wavelength of 532 nm to generate a set of three guide stars above each of the LBT telescopes. The position of each of the LGS constellations on sky as well as the relative position of the individual laser guide stars within this constellation is controlled by a set of steerable mirrors and a fast tip-tilt mirror within the laser system. The entire opto-mechanical system is housed in two hermetically sealed and thermally controlled enclosures on the SX and DX side of the LBT telescope. The laser beams are propagated through two refractive launch telescopes which focus the beams at an altitude of 12 km, creating a constellation of laser guide stars around a 4 arcminute diameter circle by means of Rayleigh scattering. In addition to the GLAO Rayleigh beacon system, ARGOS has also been designed for a possible future upgrade with a hybrid sodium laser - Rayleigh beacon combination, enabling diffraction limited operation. The ARGOS laser system was successfully installed at the LBT in April 2013. Extensive functional tests have been carried out and have verified the operation of the systems according to specifications. The alignment of the laser system with respect to the launch telescope was carried out during two more runs in June and October 2013, followed by the first propagation of laser light on sky in November 2013.

  7. Use of invisible near infrared light fluorescence with indocyanine green and methylene blue in urology. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, Wojciech; Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    In the second part of this paper, concerning the use of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urology, other possible uses of this new technique will be presented. In kidney transplantation, this concerns allograft perfusion and real time NIR-guided angiography; moreover, perfusion angiography of tissue flaps, NIRF visualization of ureters, NIR-guided visualization of urinary calcifications, NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. In this part, we have also analysed cancer targeting and imaging fluorophores as well as cost benefits associated with the use of these new techniques. PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Although NIR-guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in a few more major domains of urology, including 1) kidney transplantation: kidney allograft perfusion and vessel reconstruction; 2) angiography perfusion of tissue flaps; 3) visualization of ureters; 4) visualization of urinary calcifications; and 5) NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. Near infrared technology in urology is at its early stages. More studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. Initial studies show that this pioneering tool may influence various aspects of urology.

  8. Improvement of ITO properties in green-light-emitting devices by using N2:O2 plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeonseong; Kang, Seongjong; Oh, Hwansool

    2016-01-01

    Plasma treatment reduces the roughness of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) interface in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Oxygen gas is typically used in the plasma treatment of conventional OLED devices. However, in this study, nitrogen and oxygen gases were used for surface treatment to improve the properties of ITO. To investigate the improvements resulting from the use of nitrogen and oxygen plasma treatment, fabricated green OLED devices. The device's structure was ITO (600 Å) / α-NPD (500 Å) / Alq3:NKX1595 (400 Å:20 Å,5%) / LiF / Al:Li (10 Å:1000 Å). The plasma treatment was performed in a capacitive coupled plasma (CCP) type plasma treatment chamber similar to that used in the traditional oxygen plasma treatment. The results of this study show that the combined nitrogen/oxygen plasma treatment increases the lifetime, current density, and brightness of the fabricated OLED while decreasing the operating voltage relative to those of OLEDs fabricated using oxygen plasma treatment.

  9. Evaluation of an in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) to reduce risky driving behaviors in commercial drivers: Comparison of in-cab warning lights and supervisory coaching with videos of driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Taylor, Matthew A; Chen, Guang-Xiang; Kirk, Rachel D; Leatherman, Erin R

    2017-02-01

    Roadway incidents are the leading cause of work-related death in the United States. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether two types of feedback from a commercially available in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) would reduce the incidence of risky driving behaviors in drivers from two companies. IVMS were installed in 315 vehicles representing the industries of local truck transportation and oil and gas support operations, and data were collected over an approximate two-year period in intervention and control groups. In one period, intervention group drivers were given feedback from in-cab warning lights from an IVMS that indicated occurrence of harsh vehicle maneuvers. In another period, intervention group drivers viewed video recordings of their risky driving behaviors with supervisors, and were coached by supervisors on safe driving practices. Risky driving behaviors declined significantly more during the period with coaching plus instant feedback with lights in comparison to the period with lights-only feedback (ORadj=0.61 95% CI 0.43-0.86; Holm-adjusted p=0.035) and the control group (ORadj=0.52 95% CI 0.33-0.82; Holm-adjusted p=0.032). Lights-only feedback was not found to be significantly different than the control group's decline from baseline (ORadj=0.86 95% CI 0.51-1.43; Holm-adjusted p>0.05). The largest decline in the rate of risky driving behaviors occurred when feedback included both supervisory coaching and lights. Supervisory coaching is an effective form of feedback to improve driving habits in the workplace. The potential advantages and limitations of this IVMS-based intervention program are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Novel green-emitting Na2CaPO4F:Eu2+ phosphors for near-ultraviolet white light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Chen, Yen-Chi; Kuo, Te-Wen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2011-01-01

    In this study, green-emitting Na 2 CaPO 4 F:Eu 2+ phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reactions. The excitation spectra of the phosphors showed a broad hump between 250 and 450 nm; the spectra match well with the near-ultraviolet (NUV) emission spectra of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The emission spectrum showed an intense broad emission band centered at 506 nm. White LEDs were fabricated by integrating a 390 nm NUV chip comprising blue-emitting BaMgAl 10 O 17 :Eu 2+ , green-emitting Na 2 CaPO 4 F:0.02 Eu 2+ , and red-emitting CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ phosphors into a single package; the white LEDs exhibited white light with a correlated color temperature of 5540 K, a color-rendering index of 90.75, and color coordinates (0.332, 0.365) close to those of ideal white light. - Highlights: → Novel green-emitting Na 2 CaPO 4 F:Eu 2+ phosphors were synthesized by solid-state reactions in this research. → White LEDs were fabricated by integrating a 390 nm NUV chip comprising blue-emitting BaMgAl 10 O 17 :Eu 2+ , green-emitting Na 2 CaPO 4 F:0.02Eu 2+ , and red-emitting CaAlSiN 3 :Eu 2+ phosphors into a single package. → The white LEDs exhibited white light with a correlated color temperature of 5540 K, a color-rendering index of 90.75, and color coordinates (0.332, 0.365) close to those of ideal white light.

  11. Reverse leakage current characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well ultraviolet/blue/green light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengjun; Lv, Jiajiang; Wu, Yini; Zhang, Yuan; Zheng, Chenju; Liu, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the reverse leakage current characteristics of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) near-ultraviolet (NUV)/blue/green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Experimental results showed that the NUV LED has the smallest reverse leakage current whereas the green LED has the largest. The reason is that the number of defects increases with increasing nominal indium content in InGaN/GaN MQWs. The mechanism of the reverse leakage current was analyzed by temperature-dependent current–voltage measurement and capacitance–voltage measurement. The reverse leakage currents of NUV/blue/green LEDs show similar conduction mechanisms: at low temperatures, the reverse leakage current of these LEDs is attributed to variable-range hopping (VRH) conduction; at high temperatures, the reverse leakage current of these LEDs is attributed to nearest-neighbor hopping (NNH) conduction, which is enhanced by the Poole–Frenkel effect.

  12. Generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light from SHG of a single tapered diode laser in a cascade of nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Many applications, e.g., within biomedicine stand to benefit greatly from the development of diode laser-based multi- Watt efficient compact green laser sources. The low power of existing diode lasers in the green area (about 100 mW) means that the most promising approach remains nonlinear...... frequency conversion of infrared tapered diode lasers. Here, we describe the generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light from SHG of a single tapered diode laser, itself yielding 10 W at 1063 nm. This SHG is performed in single pass through a cascade of two PPMgO:LN crystals with re...... power of 3.5 W corresponds to a power enhancement greater than 2 compared to SHG in each of the crystals individually and is the highest visible output power generated by frequency conversion of a single diode laser. Such laser sources provide the necessary pump power for biophotonics applications...

  13. Synergetic effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter and determination of optimal wavelength to choose light source for optical computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The ultimate aim of this study is to observe the effect of Green tea as a co-antioxidant in PAGAT gel dosimeter and evaluate the appropriate light source for scanning the PAGAT and NIPAM polymer gel.Methods: Both PAGAT (Poly Acrylamide Gelatin Tetrakis hydroxyl phosphonium chloride and NIPAM (N-Isopropyl acrylamide gel were prepared in normoxic condition. The green tea extract (GTE was prepared and tested only on PAGAT. Co-60 teletherapy machine has been used for irradiation purpose, and the gel samples were scanned using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Water equivalency of the gel has been tested in terms of their electron density, effective atomic number and Ratio of oxygen and hydrogen (O/H. We have used NIST XCOM database to test the water equivalency.Results: In this study we found that the GTE added to the gel do not respond to the given doses. By adding sugar we can enhance the sensitivity of the gel. Further investigations are required to use Green tea as a co antioxidant concentration of THPC (Tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride. The optimal wavelength with different region for scanning the PAGAT is 450 to 480 nm (Blue region, for NIPAM it is 540 nm and 570 nm (Green and yellow region. The PAGAT and NIPAM showed better sensitivity at 510 nm. Both gels have their effective atomic number closer to water (NIPAM-7.2, PAGAT-7.379.Conclusion: As per our results, we concluded that GTE alone is not an effective co-antioxidant for polymer gels. When the GTE is combined with sugar and THPC, it protects the gel from pre-polymerization. This study strongly suggests that the blue light is an optimal source for scanning the PAGAT and green to yellow light for NIPAM gel. Though both gels were considered as water equivalent, the PAGAT is equivalent to water and the temporal stability of this gel is higher than NIPAM.

  14. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  15. Bluish-green color emitting Ba2Si3O8:Eu2+ ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F; Xue, Y N; Zhang, Q Y

    2009-10-15

    This paper reports on the structural and optical properties of Eu(2+) activated Ba(2)Si(3)O(8) ceramic phosphors synthesized by a sol-gel method. The ceramic phosphors have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and fluorescence measurements. The structural characterization results suggest that the as-prepared phosphors are of single phase monoclinic Ba(2)Si(3)O(8) with rod-like morphology. A broad excitation band ranging from 300 to 410 nm matches well with the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Upon 380 nm UV light excitation, these phosphors emit bluish-green emission centered at 500 nm with color coordination (x=0.25, y=0.40). All the obtained results indicate that the Ba(2)Si(3)O(8):Eu(2+) ceramic phosphors are promising bluish-green candidates for the phosphor-converted white LEDs.

  16. Self-assembly of natural light-harvesting bacteriochlorophylls of green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria in silicate capsules as stable models of chlorosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Yoshitaka; Akai, Sho; Miyatake, Tomohiro; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Naturally occurring bacteriochlorophyll(BChl)s-c, -d, and -e from green sulfur photosynthetic bacteria were self-assembled in an aqueous solution in the presence of octadecyltriethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane, followed by polycondensation of the alkoxysilanes by incubation for 50 h at 25 degrees C. The resulting BChl self-assemblies in silicate capsules exhibited visible absorption and circular dichroism spectra similar to the corresponding natural light-harvesting systems (chlorosomes) of green sulfur bacteria. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that the silicate capsules had an average hydrodynamic diameter of several hundred nanometers. BChl self-aggregates in silicate capsules were significantly stable to a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, which was apt to decompose the BChl aggregates to their monomeric form, compared with conventional micelle systems. BChls in silicate capsules were more tolerant to demetalation of the central magnesium under acidic conditions than the natural systems.

  17. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  18. Green's dyadic approach of the self-stress on a dielectric-diamagnetic cylinder with non-uniform speed of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavero-Pelaez, I; Milton, K A

    2006-01-01

    We present a Green's dyadic formulation to calculate the Casimir energy for a dielectric-diamagnetic cylinder with the speed of light differing inside and outside. Although the result is in general divergent, special cases are meaningful. It is pointed out how the self-stress on a purely dielectric cylinder vanishes through second order in the deviation of the permittivity from its vacuum value, in agreement with the result calculated from the sum of van der Waals forces

  19. Apparent dissociation of photoperiodic time measurement between vernal migration and breeding under dim green light conditions in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang WANG, Marilyn RAMENOFSKY, John C. WINGFIELD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In seasonally breeding birds, the annual cycle of photoperiod is a principal environmental cue for temporal arrangement of different life-history stages, such as migration and breeding. In the past, most research has focused on the mechanisms of photoperiodic control of breeding with less attention paid to migration. In Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (GWCS, photoreceptors for induction of breeding are known to reside in the basal hypothalamus. However, it is unknown whether the sites of photoperiodic reception for vernal migration are the same as those for breeding. Therefore, we hypothesized that they may be controlled separately. In this study, we exposed photosensitive GWCSs to low-penetration green light (wavelength at 510 nm under a regime of 1 lux during the day and <0.1 lux at night, and switched the photoperiodic conditions from short day (10 h daytime to long day (18 h daytime. The results showed that the experimental birds developed traits associated with vernal migration including mass increase, fat deposition and migratory restlessness behavior when transferred from short day to long day green light cycles, while control birds maintained continuously on short day green light conditions did not express any migration related characteristics. Neither experimental nor control groups showed gonadal recrudescence under either green light cycles. In support of our hypothesis, we were able to apparently dissociate the photoperiodic responses regulating vernal migration and breeding, which suggests separate mechanisms of photoperiodic time measurement. Such distinct photoperiodic mechanisms may drive the fine-tuned temporal arrangement of the two life history stages [Current Zoology 59 (3: 349–359, 2013].

  20. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  1. Solution processed multilayer red, green and blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes using carbazole dendrimer as a host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, Zainal Abidin; Woon, Kai Lin; Wong, Wah Seng; Ariffin, Azhar; Chen, Show-An

    2017-01-01

    4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3, 6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl)-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl, a novel carbazole dendrimer, has been synthesized. This compound shows an excellent thermal stability with a high glass transition temperature of 283 °C and decomposition temperature of 487 °C. Density functional theory is used to investigate the frontier orbitals. It was found that the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital and the Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital levels of 4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3, 6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl)-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl are nearly degenerate to the next highest or lowest frontier orbitals. The electron rich outer dendrons along with Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital level of 5.24 eV as determined from cyclic voltammetry makes 4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3,6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl)carbazol-9-yl)-2, 2'-dimethylbiphenyl a good hole transporting material. This compound also shows a triplet energy of 2.83 eV. Solution processable multilayer red, green and blue phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes are fabricated having 4, 4'-bis(3,6-bis(3,6-ditert-pentyl-carbazol-9-yl) carbazol-9-yl)-2,2'-dimethylbiphenyl as a hole transporting host. It was found that the CIE-coordinates remain constant within a wide range of brightness.

  2. Fluorescent minerals - A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark.

  3. Electroplex as a New Concept of Universal Host for Improved Efficiency and Lifetime in Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wook; Lee, Jun Yeob; Cho, Yong Joo; Yu, Hyeonghwa; Aziz, Hany; Lee, Kang Mun

    2018-02-01

    A new concept of host, electroplex host, is developed for high efficiency and long lifetime phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by mixing two host materials generating an electroplex under an electric field. A carbazole-type host and a triazine-type host are selected as the host materials to form the electroplex host. The electroplex host is found to induce light emission through an energy transfer process rather than charge trapping, and universally improves the lifetime of red, yellow, green, and blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes by more than four times. Furthermore, the electroplex host shows much longer lifetime than a common exciplex host. This is the first demonstration of using the electroplex as the host of high efficiency and long lifetime phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.

  4. Training warning flags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    Problems in accredited training programmes at US nuclear stations have resulted in several programmes having their accreditation status designated as probationary. A limited probationary period allows time for problem resolution before the programmes are again reviewed by the National Nuclear Accrediting Board. A careful study of these problems has resulted in the identification of several 'Training Warning Flags' that singularly, or in concert, may indicate or predict degraded training programme effectiveness. These training warning flags have been used by several US nuclear stations as a framework for self-assessments, as a reference in making changes to training programmes, and as a tool in considering student and management feedback on training activities. Further analysis and consideration of the training warning flags has developed precursors for each of the training warning flags. Although more subjective than the training warning flags, the precursors may represent early indicators of factors that may lead to or contribute to degraded training programme effectiveness. Used as evaluative tools, the training warning flags and the precursors may help identify areas for improvements in training programmes and help prioritize training programme improvement efforts. (author)

  5. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  6. High solar-light photocatalytic activity of using Cu3Se2/rGO nanocomposites synthesized by a green co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Morteza; Saray, Abdolali Moghaddam; Azimi, H. R.; Yousefi, Ramin

    2017-11-01

    Current work presents a facile, cost-effective, and green method to synthesize copper selenide nanostructures and copper selenide/graphene nanocomposites. The products were synthesized by a co-precipitation method by glycine amino acid as a green surfactant and graphene oxide (GO) sheets as a graphene source. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) of the products indicated that the products were Cu2Se3 with tetragonal phase. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the XRD patterns indicated that the GO sheets were changed into reduced GO (rGO) during the synthesis process. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) images showed the nanoparticles (NPs) that were decorated on rGO sheets had the significantly smaller size in compared to the pristine NPs. UV-vis results revealed that, the absorption peak of the products were in the visible region with a band-gap value between 1.85 eV and 1.95 eV. Finally, the products were applied as photocatalytic materials to remove Methylene Blue (MB) dye under solar-light and visible-light irradiation conditions. It was observed; the rGO had a significant role in enhancing the photocatalytic performance of the products and Cu2Se3/rGO (15%) could degrade more than 91% and 73% of MB only during 1 h under solar-light and visible-light sources, respectively.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence study of green light emitting bis(1[(4-butylphenylimino]methyl naphthalen-2-ol Ni(II complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetically feasible and cost effective Ni(II complex phosphor (4 as green organic light emitting diode (OLED was prepared by using Schiff base 1-[(4-butylphenylimino]methyl naphthalen-2-ol (3. The single crystals of Ni(II complex were grown from chloroform and hexane (1:1 v/v solution. The green crystals of the complex were characterized by using single crystal XRD studies and were evaluated for their photophysical properties. From the Diffused Reflectance Spectrum of the complex, the measured band gap energy was found to be 1.83 eV and the PL spectrum of the complex showed emission peak at 519 nm. The excitation peaks at 519 nm were appeared at 394 nm and 465 nm. The Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE chromaticity diagram indicated that, the complex exhibit green color. Hence, Ni(II complex (4 could be a promising green OLED for developing strong electroluminescent materials for flat panel display applications.

  8. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  9. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvine, Dorian; Wuestenhagen, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  10. Reds are more important than greens: how UK supermarket shoppers use the different information on a traffic light nutrition label in a choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Peter; Matthews, Anne; Eyles, Helen; Kaur, Asha; Hodgkins, Charo; Raats, Monique M; Rayner, Mike

    2015-12-12

    Colour coded front-of-pack nutrition labelling ('traffic light labelling') has been recommended for use in the UK since 2006. The voluntary scheme is used by all the major retailers and some manufacturers. It is not clear how consumers use these labels to make a single decision about the relative healthiness of foods. Our research questions were: Which of the four nutrients on UK traffic light labels (total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt) has the most influence on decisions? Do green lights or red lights have a greater influence? Are there age and gender differences in how people use the colour and nutrient information? We recruited participants from a UK supermarket chain membership list to conduct an online choice experiment in May 2014. We analysed data using multilevel logisitic models with food choices (n = 3321) nested in individuals (n = 187) as the unit of analysis. A food with more reds was 11.4 (95% confidence intervals: 10.3, 12.5) times less likely to be chosen as healthy, whereas a food with more greens was 6.1 (5.6, 6.6) times more likely to be chosen as healthy. Foods with better colours on saturated fat and salt were 7.3 (6.7, 8.0) and 7.1 (6.5, 7.8) times more likely to be chosen as healthy - significantly greater than for total fat (odds ratio 4.8 (4.4, 5.3)) and sugar (5.2 (4.7, 5.6)). Results were broadly similar for different genders and age groups. We found that participants were more concerned with avoiding reds than choosing greens, and that saturated fat and salt had a greater influence on decisions regarding healthiness than total fat and sugar. This could influence decisions about food reformulation and guidance on using nutrition labelling.

  11. Warnings on alcohol containers and advertisements: international experience and evidence on effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Claire; Room, Robin

    2009-07-01

    In light of possible introduction of alcohol warning labels in Australia and New Zealand, this paper discusses the international experience with and evidence of effects of alcohol warning labels. The report describes international experience with providing information and warnings concerning the promotion or sale of alcoholic beverages, and considers the evidence on the effects of such information and warnings. The experience with and evaluations of the effects of tobacco warning labels are also considered. The most methodologically sound evaluations of alcohol warning labels are based on the US experience. Although these evaluations find little evidence that the introduction of the warning label in the USA had an impact on drinking behaviour, there is evidence that they led to an increase in awareness of the message they contained. In contrast, evaluations of tobacco warning labels find clear evidence of effects on behaviour. There is a need and opportunity for a rigorous evaluation of the impacts of introducing alcohol warning labels to add to the published work on their effectiveness. The experience with tobacco labels might guide the way for more effective alcohol warning labels. Alcohol warning labels are an increasingly popular alcohol policy initiative. It is clear that warning labels can be ineffective, but the tobacco experience suggests that effective warning labels are possible. Any introduction of alcohol warning labels should be evaluated in terms of effects on attitudes and behaviour.

  12. High-Efficiency Intracavity Continuous-Wave Green-Light Generation by Quasiphase Matching in a Bulk Periodically Poled MgO:LiNbO3 Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 908 mW of green light at 532 nm were generated by intracavity quasiphase matching in a bulk periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 (PPMgLN crystal. A maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 33.5% was obtained from a 0.5 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 5 mol% MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with an end-pump power of 2.7 W at 808 nm. The temperature bandwidth between the intracavity and single-pass frequency doubling was found to be different for the PPMgLN. Reliability and stability of the green laser were evaluated. It was found that for continuous operation of 100 hours, the output stability was better than 97.5% and no optical damage was observed.

  13. Synthesis of Won-WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) Heterostructures for Highly Efficient Green Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Shikui

    2017-07-04

    Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WOn -WX2 (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WOn nanomaterials. The WOn -WX2 heterostructures are composed of WO2.9 nanoparticles (NPs) or WO2.7 nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX2 nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WOn -WX2 heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO2.9 NP-WSe2 NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer.

  14. Efficient concept for generation of diffraction-limited green light by sum-frequency generation of spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power signific......In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power...... significantly. By combining two distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers we achieve a 2.5–3.2 fold increase in power and a maximum of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light. At this power level, green diode laser systems have a high application potential, e.g., within the biomedical field. Our concept...

  15. Topical application of green and white tea extracts provides protection from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camouse, Melissa M; Domingo, Diana Santo; Swain, Freddie R; Conrad, Edward P; Matsui, Mary S; Maes, Daniel; Declercq, Lieve; Cooper, Kevin D; Stevens, Seth R; Baron, Elma D

    2009-06-01

    Tea polyphenols have been found to exert beneficial effects on the skin via their antioxidant properties. We sought to determine whether topical application of green tea or white tea extracts would prevent simulated solar radiation-induced oxidative damages to DNA and Langerhans cells that may lead to immune suppression and carcinogenesis. Skin samples were analysed from volunteers or skin explants treated with white tea or green tea after UV irradiation. In another group of patients, the in vivo immune protective effects of green and white tea were evaluated using contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene. Topical application of green and white tea offered protection against detrimental effects of UV on cutaneous immunity. Such protection is not because of direct UV absorption or sunscreen effects as both products showed a sun protection factor of 1. There was no significant difference in the levels of protection afforded by the two agents. Hence, both green tea and white tea are potential photoprotective agents that may be used in conjunction with established methods of sun protection.

  16. High-efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layer and thick N-doped electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuki, Shunichiro, E-mail: shunichiro.nobuki.nb@hitachi.com [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Wakana, Hironori; Ishihara, Shingo [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., 7-1-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-city, Ibaraki 319-1292 (Japan); Mikami, Akiyoshi [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichimachi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have developed green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W at 2.73 V at 0.053 mA/cm{sup 2}. A double emission layer and a thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted to improve the exciton recombination factor. A high refractive index hemispherical lens was attached to a high refractive index substrate for extracting light trapped inside the substrate and the multiple-layers of OLEDs to air. Additionally, we analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify room for the improvement of our OLEDs including the charge balance factor. - Highlights: • We developed high efficiency green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED). • Our OLED had external quantum efficiency of 59.7% and power efficiency of 243 lm/W. • A double emission layer and thick n-doped electron transport layer were adopted. • High refractive index media (hemispherical lens and substrate) were also used. • We analyzed an energy loss mechanism to clarify the charge balance factor of our OLED.

  17. High efficiency green/yellow and red InGaN/AlGaN nanowire light-emitting diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Philip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the achievement of high efficiency green, yellow, and red InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-a-wire nanowire light-emitting diodes grown on Si(111 by molecular beam epitaxy. The peak emission wavelengths were altered by varying the growth conditions, including the substrate temperature, and In/Ga flux ratio. The devices demonstrate relatively high (>40% internal quantum efficiency at room temperature, relative to that measured at 5 K. Moreover, negligible blue-shift in peak emission spectrum associated with no efficiency droop was measured when injection current was driven up to 556 A/cm2.

  18. 1.5 W green light generation by single-pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    More than 1.5 W of green light at 531 nm is generated by singlepass second harmonic generation in periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. The pump laser is a high power tapered laser with a distributed Bragg reflector etched in the ridge section of the laser to provide wavelength selectivity. The output...... power of the single-frequency tapered laser is 9.3 W in continuous wave operation. A conversion efficiency of 18.5 % was achieved in the experiments....

  19. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    clusters, and the detection of organic and other molecules in space. The ALMA partners will construct the telescope at an altitude of 16,500 feet in the Atacama Desert in the Chilean Andes. This unique site is perhaps the best location on Earth to study millimeter and sub-millimeter light because these wavelengths are absorbed by moisture in the atmosphere. "Astronomers will have a pristine view of that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the ALMA site," said Colwell. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The National Research Council of Canada will partner with the NSF in the North American endeavor. "The NRAO is very pleased to have the leading role in this project on behalf of the North American partners," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, director of the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. "ALMA will be one of astronomy's premier tools for studying the Universe," said Nobel Laureate Riccardo Giacconi, president of AUI. "The entire astronomical community is anxious to have the unprecedented power and resolution that ALMA will provide." The President of the ESO Council, Professor Piet van der Kruit, agrees: "ALMA heralds a breakthrough in sub-millimeter and millimeter astronomy, allowing some of the most penetrating studies of the Universe ever made. It is safe to predict that there will be exciting scientific surprises when ALMA enters into operation." By signing this agreement, ESO and the NSF give the green light for the joint construction of the ALMA telescope, which will cost approximately $552 million U.S. (in FY 2000 dollars). To oversee the construction and management of ALMA, a joint ALMA Board has been established by the partners. This board met for the first time on February 24

  20. Dynamical behavior of psb gene transcripts in greening wheat seedlings. I. Time course of accumulation of the pshA through psbN gene transcripts during light-induced greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, H; Fukuda, I; Shiina, T; Toyoshima, Y

    1992-11-01

    The time course of the accumulation of the transcripts from 13 psb genes encoding a major part of the proteins composing photosystem II during light-induced greening of dark-grown wheat seedlings was examined focusing on early stages of plastid development (0.5 h through 72 h). The 13 genes can be divided into three groups. (1) The psbA gene is transcribed as a single transcript of 1.3 kb in the dark-grown seedlings, but its level increases 5- to 7-fold in response to light due to selective increase in RNA stability as well as in transcription activity. (2) The psbE-F-L-J operon, psbM and psbN genes are transcribed as a single transcript of 1.1 kb, two transcripts of 0.5 and 0.7 kb and a single transcript of 0.3 kb, respectively, in the dark-grown seedlings. The levels of accumulation of every transcript remain unchanged or rather decrease during plastid development under illumination. (3) The psbK-I-D-C gene cluster and psbB-H operon exhibit fairly complicated northern hybridization patterns during the greening process. When a psbC or psbD gene probe was used for northern hybridization, five transcripts differing in length were detected in the etioplasts from 5-day old dark-grown seedlings. After 2 h illumination, two new transcripts of different length appeared. Light induction of new transcripts was also observed in the psbB-H operon.

  1. Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2017-02-16

    White light based on blue laser - YAG: Ce phosphor has the advantage of implementing solid-state lighting and optical wireless communications combined-functionalities in a single lamp. However, the blue light was found to disrupt melatonin production, and therefore the human circadian rhythm in general; while the yellow phosphor is susceptible to degradation by laser irradiation and also lack tunability in color rendering index (CRI). In this investigation, by using a violet laser, which has 50% less impact on circadian response, as compared to blue light, and an InGaN-quantum-disks nanowires-based light-emitting diode (NWs-LED), we address both issues simultaneously. The white light is therefore generated using violet-green-red lasers, in conjunction with a yellow NWs-LED realized using molecular beam epitaxy technique, on titanium-coated silicon substrates. Unlike the conventional quantum-well-based LED, the NWs-LED showed efficiency-droop free behavior up to 9.8 A/cm with peak output power of 400 μW. A low turn-on voltage of ∼2.1 V was attributed to the formation of conducting titanium nitride layer at NWs nucleation site and improved fabrication process in the presence of relatively uniform height distribution. The 3D quantum confinement and the reduced band bending improve carriers-wavefunctions overlap, resulting in an IQE of ∼39 %. By changing the relative intensities of the individual color components, CRI of >85 was achieved with tunable correlated color temperature (CCT), thus covering the desired room lighting conditions. Our architecture provides important considerations in designing smart solid-state lighting while addressing the harmful effect of blue light.

  2. Health-friendly high-quality white light using violet-green-red laser and InGaN nanowires-based true yellow nanowires light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Bilal; Ng, Tien K.; Zhao, Chao; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Consiglio, Giuseppe Bernardo; Shen, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-02-01

    White light based on blue laser - YAG: Ce3+ phosphor has the advantage of implementing solid-state lighting and optical wireless communications combined-functionalities in a single lamp. However, the blue light was found to disrupt melatonin production, and therefore the human circadian rhythm in general; while the yellow phosphor is susceptible to degradation by laser irradiation and also lack tunability in color rendering index (CRI). In this investigation, by using a violet laser, which has 50% less impact on circadian response, as compared to blue light, and an InGaN-quantum-disks nanowires-based light-emitting diode (NWs-LED), we address both issues simultaneously. The white light is therefore generated using violet-green-red lasers, in conjunction with a yellow NWs-LED realized using molecular beam epitaxy technique, on titanium-coated silicon substrates. Unlike the conventional quantum-well-based LED, the NWs-LED showed efficiency-droop free behavior up to 9.8 A/cm2 with peak output power of 400 μW. A low turn-on voltage of 2.1 V was attributed to the formation of conducting titanium nitride layer at NWs nucleation site and improved fabrication process in the presence of relatively uniform height distribution. The 3D quantum confinement and the reduced band bending improve carriers-wavefunctions overlap, resulting in an IQE of 39 %. By changing the relative intensities of the individual color components, CRI of >85 was achieved with tunable correlated color temperature (CCT), thus covering the desired room lighting conditions. Our architecture provides important considerations in designing smart solid-state lighting while addressing the harmful effect of blue light.

  3. The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massabuau, F. C.-P., E-mail: fm350@cam.ac.uk; Oehler, F.; Pamenter, S. K.; Thrush, E. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 22 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Davies, M. J.; Dawson, P. [Photon Science Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Leo-Brandt- Straße, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Williams, T.; Etheridge, J. [Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Clayton Campus, VIC 3800 (Australia); Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    The impact of trench defects in blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated. Two mechanisms responsible for the structural degradation of the multiple quantum well (MQW) active region were identified. It was found that during the growth of the p-type GaN capping layer, loss of part of the active region enclosed within a trench defect occurred, affecting the top-most QWs in the MQW stack. Indium platelets and voids were also found to form preferentially at the bottom of the MQW stack. The presence of high densities of trench defects in the LEDs was found to relate to a significant reduction in photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission efficiency, for a range of excitation power densities and drive currents. This reduction in emission efficiency was attributed to an increase in the density of non-radiative recombination centres within the MQW stack, believed to be associated with the stacking mismatch boundaries which form part of the sub-surface structure of the trench defects. Investigation of the surface of green-emitting QW structures found a two decade increase in the density of trench defects, compared to its blue-emitting counterpart, suggesting that the efficiency of green-emitting LEDs may be strongly affected by the presence of these defects. Our results are therefore consistent with a model that the “green gap” problem might relate to localized strain relaxation occurring through defects.

  4. The impact of trench defects in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes and implications for the “green gap” problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massabuau, F. C.-P.; Oehler, F.; Pamenter, S. K.; Thrush, E. J.; Kappers, M. J.; Humphreys, C. J.; Oliver, R. A.; Davies, M. J.; Dawson, P.; Kovács, A.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Williams, T.; Etheridge, J.; Hopkins, M. A.; Allsopp, D. W. E.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of trench defects in blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) has been investigated. Two mechanisms responsible for the structural degradation of the multiple quantum well (MQW) active region were identified. It was found that during the growth of the p-type GaN capping layer, loss of part of the active region enclosed within a trench defect occurred, affecting the top-most QWs in the MQW stack. Indium platelets and voids were also found to form preferentially at the bottom of the MQW stack. The presence of high densities of trench defects in the LEDs was found to relate to a significant reduction in photoluminescence and electroluminescence emission efficiency, for a range of excitation power densities and drive currents. This reduction in emission efficiency was attributed to an increase in the density of non-radiative recombination centres within the MQW stack, believed to be associated with the stacking mismatch boundaries which form part of the sub-surface structure of the trench defects. Investigation of the surface of green-emitting QW structures found a two decade increase in the density of trench defects, compared to its blue-emitting counterpart, suggesting that the efficiency of green-emitting LEDs may be strongly affected by the presence of these defects. Our results are therefore consistent with a model that the “green gap” problem might relate to localized strain relaxation occurring through defects.

  5. Green perovskite light emitting diodes based on the ITO/Al2O3/CsPbBr3 heterojunction structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shiwei; Ma, Xue; Hu, Daqiang; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Yuantao; Zhang, Baolin

    2018-03-01

    Perovskite light emitting diodes (PeLEDs) now emerge as a promising new optoelectronic application field for these amazing semiconductors. For the purpose of investigating the device structures and light emission mechanisms of PeLEDs, we have fabricated green PeLEDs based on the ITO/Al2O3/CsPbBr3 heterojunction structure. The emission layer inorganic perovskite CsPbBr3 film with small grain sizes (∼28.9 nm) was prepared using a two-step method. The device exhibits a typical rectification behavior with turn-on voltage of ∼6 V. The EL emission band is narrow with the FWHM of ∼25 nm. The peak EQE of the device was ∼0.09%. The working mechanism of the device is also discussed. The result of the present work provides a feasible innovation idea of PeLEDs fabrication and great potentials for the development of perovskite based LEDs.

  6. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of pure and Li⁺ activated Alq₃ complexes for green and blue organic light emitting diodes and display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J

    2014-08-01

    Pure and Li(+)-doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining the stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption and Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the molecular structure, the completion of quinoline ring formation and presence of quinoline structure in the metal complex. Ultraviolet-visible and PL spectra revealed that Li(+) activated Alq3 complexes exhibit the highest intensity in comparison to pure Alq3 phosphor. Thus, Li(+) enhances PL emission intensity when doped into Alq3 phosphor. The excitation spectra lie in the range of 383-456 nm. All the synthesized complexes other than Liq give green emission, while Liq gives blue emission with enhanced intensity. Thus, he synthesized phosphors are the best suitable candidates for green- and blue-emitting organic light emitting diode, PL liquid-crystal display and solid-state lighting applications. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A comparison study of Riboflavin/UV-A and Rose-Bengal/Green light cross-linking of the rabbit corneas using optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Vantipalli, Srilatha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Kazemi, Tina; Twa, Michael D.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    The biomechanical properties of the cornea are critical factors which determine its health and subsequent visual acuity. Keratoconus is a structural degeneration of the cornea which can diminish vision quality. Riboflavin/UV-A corneal collagen cross-linking (UV-CXL) is an emerging treatment that increases the stiffness of the cornea and improves its ability to resist further degeneration. While UV-CXL has shown great promise for effective therapy of the keratoconus, there are concerns associated with the UV irradiation, such as keratocyte cytotoxicity. Rose-bengal/green light corneal collagen cross-linking (RGX) has been proposed as an alternative to UV-CXL. Because of the high absorbance of the rose-bengal dye at green wavelengths, the treatment time is significantly shorter than with UV-CXL. Moreover, because green light is used in lieu of UV irradiation, there are no cytotoxic side-effects. In this study, noncontact optical coherence elastography (OCE) was used to compare the outcomes of UV-CXL and RGX treatment in rabbit cornea. Low-amplitude (micrometer scale) elastic waves were induced by a focused air-pulse loading system. The elastic wave propagation was then imaged by a phase-stabilized swept source OCE (PhS-SSOCE) system. The changes in the viscoelasticity of the corneas were quantified by a previously developed modified Rayleigh Lamb frequency model. The depth-resolved micro-scale phase-velocity distribution in the cornea was used to reveal the depth-wise heterogeneity before and after both cross-linking techniques. Our results show that UV-CXL and RGX increased the stiffness of the corneas by ~54% and ~5% while reducing the viscosity by ~42% and ~17%, respectively. The depth-wise phase velocities showed that UV-CXL affected the anterior ~1/3 of the corneas, while RGX only affected the anterior ~1/7 of the corneas.

  9. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by green semiconductor films that is induced by irradiation by a light-emitting diode and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Chi; Doong, Ruey-An; Chen, Ku-Fan; Chen, Giin-Shan; Tsai, Yung-Pin

    2018-01-01

    This study develops a low-energy rotating photocatalytic contactor (LE-RPC) that has Cu-doped TiO 2 films coated on stainless-steel rotating disks, to experimentally evaluate the efficiency of the degradation and decolorization of methylene blue (MB) under irradiation from different light sources (visible 430 nm, light-emitting diode [LED] 460 nm, and LED 525 nm). The production of hydroxyl radicals is also examined. The experimental results show that the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 that is doped with Cu 2+ is induced by illumination with visible light and an LED. More than 90% of methylene blue at a 10 mg/L concentration is degraded after illumination by visible light (430 nm) for 4 hr at 20 rpm. This study also demonstrates that the quantity of hydroxyl radicals produced is directly proportional to the light energy intensity. The greater the light energy intensity, the greater is the number of hydroxyl radicals produced. The CuO-doped anatase TiO 2 powder was successfully synthesized in this study by a sol-gel method. The catalytic abilities of the stainless-steel film were enhanced in the visible light regions. This study has successfully modified the nano-photocatalytic materials to drop band gap and has also successfully fixed the nano-photocatalytic materials on a substratum to effectively treat dye wastewater in the range of visible light. The results can be useful to the development of a low-energy rotating photocatalytic contactor for decontamination purposes.

  10. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  12. Earthquake Early Warning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Because of Taiwan’s unique geographical environment, earthquake disasters occur frequently in Taiwan. The Central Weather Bureau collated earthquake data from between 1901 and 2006 (Central Weather Bureau, 2007) and found that 97 earthquakes had occurred, of which, 52 resulted in casualties. The 921 Chichi Earthquake had the most profound impact. Because earthquakes have instant destructive power and current scientific technologies cannot provide precise early warnings in advance, earthquake ...

  13. On the assessment of the productivity of suspension cultures of unicellular green algae at defined light conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiss, U; Borns, E; Boehm, H

    1985-01-01

    A description is given of the possibility of a comparison of the production between different suspension cultures of microalgae at equal and defined light conditions. For this, a variant of the turbidostat technique is used by which with the acid of a phototransistor and the filter combination of red filter/opal glass filter a chlorophyll-equivalent signal is applied for control. The equal light conditions are compared and set by the preparation of the respective absorption profiles. From this one can derive the mean level of irradiation within the suspension cultures and use it as the reference value for the light conditions. By this technique it is possible to set equal light conditions in suspension cultures independent of the given cell sizes, cell shapes and dry matter contents.

  14. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  15. Green light emitting nanostructures of Tb3+ doped LaOF prepared via ultrasound route applicable in display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, C.; Nagabhushana, H.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Prasad, B. Daruka

    2017-05-01

    For the first time Tb3+ (1-5 mol %) doped LaOF nanophosphors using Aloe vera (AV) leaves extract as bio-surfactant were synthesized by facile ultrasound supported sonochemical route at relatively high temperature (700°C) and short duration of 3h. The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) profiles of LaOF nanophosphors showed tetragonal structure. The morphological features of LaOF with effect of Sonication time and concentration of bio-surfactant were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The particle size were estimated from transmission electron microscope (TEM) image was found to be in the range of 20-30 nm. The characteristic photoluminescence emission peaks at 487, 541, 586 and 620 nm in green region corresponding to 5D4→7Fj (j=6, 5, 4, 3) transitions of Tb3+ were observed. The LaOF: Tb3+ nanophosphors exhibit green luminescence with better chromaticity coordinates, colour purity and higher intensity under low-voltage electron beam excitation were observed by Commission International De I'Eclairage (CIE) along with colour correlated temperature (CCT). All results indicate that these obtained nanophosphors have potential applications in field emission display device.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis at 2 years of surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia by photoselective vaporization of the prostate with GreenLight-Photo vaporization 120 W versus transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benejam-Gual, J M; Sanz-Granda, A; García-Miralles Grávalos, R; Severa-Ruíz de Velasco, A; Pons-Viver, J

    2014-05-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate is the gold standard of surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms associated to benign prostate hyperplasia. The new Green Light Photovaporization has been shown to be an alternative that is as effective for this condition as the transurethral resection of the prostate. To compare the efficiency of Green Light Photovaporization 120 W versus transurethral resection of the prostate in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) in a 2-year time horizon from the perspective of the Spanish health service perspective. A cost utility analysis was performed retrospectively with the data from 98 patients treated sequentially with transurethral resection of the prostate (n: 50) and Green Light Photovaporization 120 W (n: 48). A Markov model was designed to estimate the cost (2012€) and results (quality adjusted life years) in a 2-year time horizon. The total cost associated to Green Light Photovaporization 120 W treatment was less (3,377€; 95% CI: 3,228; 3,537) than that of the transurethral resection of the prostate (3,770€; 95% CI: 3,579; 3,945). The determining factor of the cost was the surgical phase (difference: -450€; 95% CI: -625; -158) because admission to hospital after surgery was not necessary with the GreenLight-PhotoVaporization. Surgical treatment of BPH patients with GreenLight-PhotoVaporization 120 W is more efficient than transurethral resection of the prostate in the surgical treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia as it has similar effectiveness and lower cost (-393€; 95% CI: -625; -158). Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. An efficient visible and UV-light-activated B-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic film for solar depollution prepared via a green method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Qingchi; Zhang Yan; He Ziming [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Loo, Say Chye Joachim, E-mail: joachimloo@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Singapore); Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang, E-mail: tytan@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore)

    2012-08-15

    This work reports an efficient visible and UV-light-activated boron and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} porous film prepared via a 'green' and direct coating approach. Such photocatalyst is highly promising for solar depollution application due to its efficient photocatalytic activities in both visible and UV spectrum. The preparation method avoids the use of organic solvents, which are usually more expensive and hazardous compared with water. Using stearic acid as the model organic pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity of optimized porous B-N-codoped TiO{sub 2} film (p-3B-N-TiO{sub 2}) is 3 times higher than that of porous N-doped TiO{sub 2} (p-N-TiO{sub 2}) film, while its UV photocatalytic activity is almost double that of p-N-TiO{sub 2} film and comparable to that of porous TiO{sub 2}. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to higher surface area due to the porous structure, improved visible-light absorption attributed to interstitially substituted boron atoms, and coexistence of boron and nitrogen dopants which may reduce Ti{sup 3+} recombination centers.

  18. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  19. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Sener, S.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO 2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO 2 based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  20. STAY-GREEN and Chlorophyll Catabolic Enzymes Interact at Light-Harvesting Complex II for Chlorophyll Detoxification during Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Schelbert, Silvia; Park, So-Yon; Han, Su-Hyun; Lee, Byoung-Doo; Andrès, Céline Besagni; Kessler, Felix; Hörtensteiner, Stefan; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2012-01-01

    During leaf senescence, plants degrade chlorophyll to colorless linear tetrapyrroles that are stored in the vacuole of senescing cells. The early steps of chlorophyll breakdown occur in plastids. To date, five chlorophyll catabolic enzymes (CCEs), NONYELLOW COLORING1 (NYC1), NYC1-LIKE, pheophytinase, pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO), and red chlorophyll catabolite reductase, have been identified; these enzymes catalyze the stepwise degradation of chlorophyll to a fluorescent intermediate, pFCC, which is then exported from the plastid. In addition, STAY-GREEN (SGR), Mendel’s green cotyledon gene encoding a chloroplast protein, is required for the initiation of chlorophyll breakdown in plastids. Senescence-induced SGR binds to light-harvesting complex II (LHCII), but its exact role remains elusive. Here, we show that all five CCEs also specifically interact with LHCII. In addition, SGR and CCEs interact directly or indirectly with each other at LHCII, and SGR is essential for recruiting CCEs in senescing chloroplasts. PAO, which had been attributed to the inner envelope, is found to localize in the thylakoid membrane. These data indicate a predominant role for the SGR-CCE-LHCII protein interaction in the breakdown of LHCII-located chlorophyll, likely to allow metabolic channeling of phototoxic chlorophyll breakdown intermediates upstream of nontoxic pFCC. PMID:22366162

  1. Electrical, spectral and optical performance of yellow-green and amber micro-pixelated InGaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Liu, N. Y.; Tao, Y. B.; Massoubre, D.; Xie, E. Y.; Hu, X. D.; Chen, Z. Z.; Zhang, G. Y.; Pan, Y. B.; Hao, M. S.; Watson, I. M.; Gu, E.; Dawson, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Micro-pixelated InGaN LED arrays operating at 560 and 600 nm, respectively, are demonstrated for what the authors believe to be the first time. Such devices offer applications in areas including bioinstrumentation, visible light communications and optoelectronic tweezers. The devices reported are based on new epitaxial structures, retaining conventional (0 0 0 1) orientation, but incorporating electron reservoir layers which enhance the efficiency of radiative combination in the active regions. A measured output optical power density up to 8 W cm-2 (4.4 W cm-2) has been achieved from a representative pixel of the yellow-green (amber) LED array, substantially higher than that from conventional broad-area reference LEDs fabricated from the same wafer material. Furthermore, these micro-LEDs can sustain a high current density, up to 4.5 kA cm-2, before thermal rollover. A significant blueshift of the emission wavelength with increasing injection current is observed, however. This blueshift saturates at 45 nm (50 nm) for the yellow-green (amber) LED array, and numerical simulations have been used to gain insight into the responsible mechanisms in this microstructured format of device. In the relatively low-current-density regime (screening of the piezoelectric field by the injected carriers and the band-filling effect, whereas in the high-current regime, it is mainly due to band-filling. Further development of the epitaxial wafer material is expected to improve the current-dependent spectral stability.

  2. InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dots yellow-green light-emitting diode with optimized GaN barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenbin; Wang, Lai; Wang, Jiaxing; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi

    2012-11-07

    InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot (QD) structure is a potential type of active regions for yellow-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The surface morphologies and crystalline quality of GaN barriers are critical to the uniformity of InGaN QD layers. While GaN barriers were grown in multi-QD layers, we used improved growth parameters by increasing the growth temperature and switching the carrier gas from N2 to H2 in the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. As a result, a 10-layer InGaN/GaN QD LED is demonstrated successfully. The transmission electron microscopy image shows the uniform multilayer InGaN QDs clearly. As the injection current increases from 5 to 50 mA, the electroluminescence peak wavelength shifts from 574 to 537 nm.

  3. Green Synthesis and Characterization of SmVO4 Nanoparticles in the Presence of Carbohydrates As Capping Agents with Investigation of Visible-Light Photocatalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali-Arani, Mohammad; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Pourmasoud, Saeid

    2018-03-01

    SmVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized through a fast and simple procedure (green method). The effects of three parameters including temperature, type of capping agent, and concentration on the size and morphology behavior of SmVO4 nanoparticles were explored. The analysis of SmVO4 nanoparticles was performed through some techniques including, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometers. The study of photocatalytic behaviour of the SmVO4 nanoparticles in various conditions has been carried out. The impacts of different factors such as dosage, grain size, and kind of pollutant (methylene blue = MB and methyl orange = MO) on the photocatalytic property of SmVO4 nanoparticles were assessed. The photocatalytic activities of SmVO4 catalysts were studied for the degradation of dye under visible light (λ > 400 nm).

  4. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  5. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  6. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana-light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznikov, Olga; Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas ( Iguana iguana ). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  7. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107. PMID:27920949

  8. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  9. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  10. Quake warnings, seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Huggins, Tom; Miles, Scott; Otegui, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Since 1990, nearly one million people have died from the impacts of earthquakes. Reducing those impacts requires building a local seismic culture in which residents are aware of earthquake risks and value efforts to mitigate harm. Such efforts include earthquake early warning (EEW) systems that provide seconds to minutes notice of pending shaking. Recent events in Mexico provide an opportunity to assess performance and perception of an EEW system and highlight areas for further improvement. We have learned that EEW systems, even imperfect ones, can help people prepare for earthquakes and build local seismic culture, both beneficial in reducing earthquake-related losses.

  11. Green tide deactivation with layered-structure cuboids of Ag/CaTiO3 under UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Wohn; Lozano-Sánchez, L.M.; Rodríguez-González, V.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Synergic reasons such as mass transfer, morphology, biocide properties, UV-A photoresponse, and electron trapping that reduce recombination on Ag/CaTiO 3 nanocomposites, have the potential for the generation of reactive radicals that promote the fatal irreversible deactivation of Tetraselmis suecica algae in 12 min under UV-A irradiation. -- Highlights: • An alternative to deactivate harmful green tide is proposed by employing Ag/CaTiO 3 . • Particles of perovskite-like have rectangular prisms morphology with AgNPs ∼13 nm. • The cuboids achieve complete inactivation of Tetraselmis suecica algae in 12 min. • AgNPs functionalization induce fatal irreversible damages on the algae surface. -- Abstract: In this work, an alternative to deactivate noxious green tide Tetraselmis suecica in the short-term is proposed by employing Perovskite-like cube-shaped, crystalline CaTiO 3 semiconductors functionalized with atomic silver nanoparticles. CaTiO 3 was prepared by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and then Ag 0 NPs (1 wt% of CaTiO 3 ), were added by the photoreduction method. The XRD results show that crystalline CaTiO 3 has an orthorhombic unit cell with a Perovskite-like structure. Images obtained by FESEM and HRTEM microscopies show well-faceted CaTiO 3 rectangular prismatic morphology functionalizated with silver nanoparticles ∼13.5 nm. XPS and EDS-FESEM has confirmed the composition of CaTiO 3 and silver occurring mainly as reduced metal. The UV inactivation of noxious T. suecica with Ag/CaTiO 3 nanocomposites formed on bare materials results in complete deactivation of the algae in 12 min. The direct contact between harmful algae and Ag/CaTiO 3 nanocomposite is necessary to deactivate the algae and inhibits algae viability

  12. Multicenter study on costs associated with two surgical procedures: GreenLight XPS 180 W versus the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benejam-Gual, J M; Sanz-Granda, A; Budía, A; Extramiana, J; Capitán, C

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the costs associated with two surgical procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: GreenLight XPS 180¦W versus the gold standard transurethral resection of the prostate. A multicenter, retrospective cost study was carried out from the National Health Service perspective, over a 3-month time period. Costs were broken down into pre-surgical, surgical and post-surgical phases. Data were extracted from records of patients operated sequentially, with IPSS=15, Qmax=15 mL/seg and a prostate volume of 40-80mL, adding only direct healthcare costs (€, 2013) associated with the procedure and management of complications. A total of 79 patients sequentially underwent GL XPS (n: 39) or TURP (n: 40) between July and October, 2013. Clinical outcomes were similar (94.9% and 92.5%, GL XPS and TURP, respectively) without significant differences (P=.67). The average direct cost per patient was reduced by €114 in GL XPS versus TURP patients; the cost was higher in the surgical phase with GL XPS (difference: €1,209; P<.001) but was lower in the post-surgical phase (difference: €-1,351; P<.001). The GreenLight XPS 180-W laser system is associated with a reduction in costs with respect to transurethral resection of prostate in the surgical treatment of LUTS secondary to PBH. This reduction is due to a shorter inpatient length of stay that offsets the cost of the new technology. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of colour light on production of zooids in 10 strains of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Přibyl, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2006), s. 127-133 ISSN 1213-3434 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : colour light * Scenedesmus * life cycle Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  14. 49 CFR 234.259 - Warning time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warning time. 234.259 Section 234.259..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.259 Warning time. Each crossing warning system shall be tested for the prescribed warning time at least once every 12 months and when the warning system is...

  15. Contrasting impacts of light reduction on sediment biogeochemistry in deep- and shallow-water tropical seagrass assemblages (Green Island, Great Barrier Reef).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrameyer, Verena; York, Paul H; Chartrand, Kathryn; Ralph, Peter J; Kühl, Michael; Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Rasheed, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Seagrass meadows increasingly face reduced light availability as a consequence of coastal development, eutrophication, and climate-driven increases in rainfall leading to turbidity plumes. We examined the impact of reduced light on above-ground seagrass biomass and sediment biogeochemistry in tropical shallow- (∼2 m) and deep-water (∼17 m) seagrass meadows (Green Island, Australia). Artificial shading (transmitting ∼10-25% of incident solar irradiance) was applied to the shallow- and deep-water sites for up to two weeks. While above-ground biomass was unchanged, higher diffusive O 2 uptake (DOU) rates, lower O 2 penetration depths, and higher volume-specific O 2 consumption (R) rates were found in seagrass-vegetated sediments as compared to adjacent bare sand (control) areas at the shallow-water sites. In contrast, deep-water sediment characteristics did not differ between bare sand and vegetated sites. At the vegetated shallow-water site, shading resulted in significantly lower hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) levels in the sediment. No shading effects were found on sediment biogeochemistry at the deep-water site. Overall, our results show that the sediment biogeochemistry of shallow-water (Halodule uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymodocea rotundata and C. serrulata) and deep-water (Halophila decipiens) seagrass meadows with different species differ in response to reduced light. The light-driven dynamics of the sediment biogeochemistry at the shallow-water site could suggest the presence of a microbial consortium, which might be stimulated by photosynthetically produced exudates from the seagrass, which becomes limited due to lower seagrass photosynthesis under shaded conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Numerical analysis of the electrical and the optical properties of green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Young Wook; Lee, Hyeon Gi; Won, Tae Young

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report a theoretical study on the electrical-optical properties of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs). Our simulation reveals that the refractive index of each material plays a crucial role in the emission characteristics and that the barrier height at the interface significantly influences the behavior of charge transport as well as the generation of excitons. The calculated transient profiles indicate that the carrier recombination in the PHOLEDs takes place mainly at the interface between the emitting layer and the hole transport layer after 8 μs. In the case of high index of refraction, the simulation result via modal analysis implies a possibility for improving the light extraction by increasing the substrate mode. As the thickness of each layer has been altered, we observe that the chromaticity of the device changes periodically.

  17. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cepák, Vladislav; Přibyl, Pavel; Vítová, Milada

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 342-348 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/1113; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : color lights * cell cycle * Scenedesmus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  18. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India); Sharma, Mamta [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  19. Connected motorcycle crash warning interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Crash warning systems have been deployed in the high-end vehicle market segment for some time and are trickling down to additional motor vehicle industry segments each year. The motorcycle segment, however, has no deployed crash warning system to dat...

  20. Ag@graphene oxide nanocomposite as an efficient visible-light plasmonic photocatalyst for the degradation of organic pollutants: A facile green synthetic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Kim, Byung-Keuk; Jo, Youl-Lae; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    We report a simple and effective supercritical route to decorate silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on graphene oxide (GO) using a commonly available and non-toxic glucose as a reducing agent. Transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that Ag NPs of size around 8–20 nm were coated on the GO surface under optimized experimental condition. Ag NPs on the GO surface were predominantly spherical in shape and well dispersed. The experimental results proved that the as-synthesized GO/Ag nanocomposite could be used as a highly efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of Rhodamine 123 dye and acetaldehyde under visible-light irradiation. The degradation results indicated that the photocatalytic performance of nanocomposite was greatly enhanced owing to the improved adsorption performance and separation efficiency of photo-generated carriers. The nanocomposite maintains a high level activity even after four times of recycle. Furthermore, the nanocomposite exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. - Highlights: • Visible-light driven reusable photocatalyst. • Efficient degradation of Rhodamine 123 dye and acetaldehyde. • Excellent antibacterial activity. • Green synthetic approach using supercritical fluid. • New field of sustainable nanotechnology

  1. Effects of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium-treatment in the InGaN/GaN quantum well on green light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Liang; Ma, Zi-Guang; Chen, Hong; Wu, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Yang, Hao-Jun; Zhao, Bin; He, Miao; Zheng, Shu-Wen; Li, Shu-Ti

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the influence of multiple interruptions with trimethylindium (TMIn)-treatment in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on green light-emitting diode (LED) is investigated. A comparison of conventional LEDs with the one fabricated with our method shows that the latter has better optical properties. Photoluminescence (PL) full-width at half maximum (FWHM) is reduced, light output power is much higher and the blue shift of electroluminescence (EL) dominant wavelength becomes smaller with current increasing. These improvements should be attributed to the reduced interface roughness of MQW and more uniformity of indium distribution in MQWs by the interruptions with TMIn-treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204360 and 61210014), the Science and Technology Planning Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant Nos. 2014B050505020, 2015B010114007, and 2014B090904045), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20134407110008), the Guangzhou Municipal Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2016201604030027), and the Zhongshan Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B3FC0003).

  2. Fabrication of Ag-decorated BiOBr-mBiVO4 dual heterojunction composite with enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance for degradation of malachite green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Chhabilal; Dhakal, Dipesh; Kim, Tae-Ho; Yamaguchi, Takutaro; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2018-04-01

    A visible light active Ag-decorated BiVO4-BiOBr dual heterojunction photocatalyst was prepared using a facile hydrothermal method, followed by the photodeposition of Ag. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized samples was investigated by monitoring the change in malachite green (MG) concentration upon visible light irradiation. The synthesized sample was highly effective for the degradation of non-biodegradable MG. The enhanced activity observed was ascribed to the efficient separation and transfer of charge carriers across the dual heterojunction structure as verified by photoluminescence measurements. The removal of MG was primarily initiated by hydroxyl radicals and holes based on scavenger’s effect. To gain insight into the degradation mechanism, both high performance liquid chromatography and high resolution-quantitative time of flight, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry measurements during the degradation process were carried out. The degradation primarily followed the hydroxylation and N-demethylation process. A possible reaction pathway is proposed on the basis of all the information obtained under various experimental conditions.

  3. CNT supported Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles: simple synthesis and improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of malachite green dye under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. M.; Shawky, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Hexagonal ZnO nanoparticles doped with Mn and supported with a minor amount of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized through a simple coprecipitation-ultrasonication process with high yield. The effect of Mn doping, as well as CNTs addition on structure, surface morphology and texture, optical and electronic properties, was studied. We found that just 1% Mn doping and 1% CNT addition on ZnO showed the best crystallinity, highest surface area, improved visible light absorption, and a lowest estimated band gap of 2.6 eV with minimum charge recombination as revealed from photoluminescence spectra. The application of the optimum composition of the synthesized sample for the photodegradation of malachite green dye showed enhanced photocatalytic activity > 95% under visible light irradiation within 120 min at a minimum dosage of 0.1 g L-1 without any using of hole scavenger or changing the pH. This work highlighting the humble preparation procedure and develops photocatalysis research for real industrial applications.

  4. Highly Simplified Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices Incorporating a Green Phosphorescence Ultrathin Emitter within a Novel Interface Exciplex for High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Jun-Gui; Huang, Chen-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Fung, Man-Keung; Murtaza, Imran; Meng, Hong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2017-03-29

    Herein we report a novel design philosophy of tandem OLEDs incorporating a doping-free green phosphorescent bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-N)phenyl-C](acetylacetonato)iridium(III) (Ir(ppy) 2 (acac)) as an ultrathin emissive layer (UEML) into a novel interface-exciplex-forming structure of 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) and 1,3,5-tri(p-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene (TmPyPB). Particularly, relatively low working voltage and remarkable efficiency are achieved and the designed tandem OLEDs exhibit a peak current efficiency of 135.74 cd/A (EQE = 36.85%) which is two times higher than 66.2 cd/A (EQE = 17.97%) of the device with a single emitter unit. This might be one of the highest efficiencies of OLEDs applying ultrathin emitters without light extraction. Moreover, with the proposed structure, the color gamut of the displays can be effectively increased from 76% to 82% NTSC if the same red and blue emissions as those in the NTSC are applied. A novel form of harmonious fusion among interface exciplex, UEML, and tandem structure is successfully realized, which sheds light on further development of ideal OLED structure with high efficiency, simplified fabrication, low power consumption, low cost, and improved color gamut, simultaneously.

  5. SHINING LIGHT ON MERGING GALAXIES. I. THE ONGOING MERGER OF A QUASAR WITH A 'GREEN VALLEY' GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Robert L.; Xavier Prochaska, J.; Rosario, David; Tumlinson, Jason; Tripp, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Serendipitous observations of a pair z = 0.37 interacting galaxies (one hosting a quasar) show a massive gaseous bridge of material connecting the two objects. This bridge is photoionized by the quasar (QSO), revealing gas along the entire projected 38 h -1 70 kpc sightline connecting the two galaxies. The emission lines that result give an unprecedented opportunity to study the merger process at this redshift. We determine the kinematics, ionization parameter (log U ∼ -2.5 ± 0.03), column density (N H,perpendicular ∼ 10 21 cm -2 ), metallicity ([M/H] ∼ - 0.20 ± 0.15), and mass (∼10 8 M sun ) of the gaseous bridge. We simultaneously constrain properties of the QSO host (M DM > 8.8 x 10 11 M sun ) and its companion galaxy (M DM > 2.1 x 10 11 M sun ; M * ∼ 2 x 10 10 M sun ; stellar burst age = 300-800 Myr; SFR ∼6 M sun yr -1 ; and metallicity 12 + log (O/H) = 8.64 ± 0.2). The general properties of this system match the standard paradigm of a galaxy-galaxy merger caught between first and second passages while one of the galaxies hosts an active quasar. The companion galaxy lies in the so-called green valley, with a stellar population consistent with a recent starburst triggered during the first passage of the merger and has no discernible active galactic nucleus activity. In addition to providing case studies of quasars associated with galaxy mergers, quasar/galaxy pairs with QSO-photoionized tidal bridges such as this one offer unique insights into the galaxy properties while also distinguishing an important and inadequately understood phase of galaxy evolution.

  6. Process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) web-based child obesity management program: combining health promotion with ecology and economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogova, Maria; Song, Joshua Eun-Soo; Campbell, Audrey Clare; Warbuton, Darren; Warshawski, Tom; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre

    2013-04-01

    To conduct a process evaluation of the Living Green, Healthy and Thrifty (LiGHT) program, a novel virtual child obesity management program that combines health promotion with ecology and economy (Phase 1). We carried out a mixed methods process evaluation involving qualitative and quantitative data collection in 3 phases: among 3 child-parent units, (group 1) that informed program development; 9 child-parent units (group 2) that tested the draft program and further aided program refinement; and 17 child-parent units (group 3) for a 4-week pilot of the program. In the program pilot, we assessed participants' knowledge and readiness to change pre- and postintervention and explored perceptions of the program. Participants generally felt that the online format for program delivery was convenient and accessible, the content was practical, and the integration of health-environment-economy was well received. Many parents also appreciated the involvement of the family. However, the lack of visual appeal and overabundance of text was identified as a challenge, and children/youth in particular requested assurance that their personal information (e.g. weight) was not seen by their parents. The online method of program delivery holds the unique challenge of requiring special efforts to create a sense of personal connection and community. The presence of a "Way-finder" to assist participants and discussion boards/forums are potential solutions. The LiGHT online weight management program offers an accessible, convenient weight management resource that children and families appreciate for its availability, broader educational scope, and practicality. Outcome evaluation of LiGHT will be carried out in Phase 2 of the project. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conversion of green emission into white light in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasimhadri, M.; Ratnam, B.V. [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kiwan, E-mail: kwjang@changwon.ac.k [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Sueb [Department of Physics, Changwon National University, Changwon, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Soung-Soo [Department of Photonics, Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jung-Hyun [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors were prepared by combustion synthesis with and without doping of Dy{sup 3+} ions. The X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate that as-prepared Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.1 mol% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors have monoclinic structures. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies revealed that the as-prepared phosphors had an average crystallite sizes around 37 nm. The excitation and emission properties have been investigated for Dy{sup 3+} doped and undoped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors. New emission bands were observed in the visible region for Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors without any rare earth ion doping under different excitations. A tentative mechanism for the origin of luminescence from Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} host was discussed. Emission properties also measured for 0.1 mol% Dy{sup 3+} doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors and found the characteristic Dy{sup 3+} visible emissions at 489 and 580 nm due to {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub 13/2} transitions, respectively. The chromaticity coordinates were calculated based on the emission spectra of Dy{sup 3+} doped and undoped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors and analyzed with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. These nanophosphors exhibit green color in undoped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and white color after adding 0.1 mol% Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanophosphors under UV excitation. These phosphors could be a promising phosphor for applications in flat panel displays.

  8. Efficient Photocatalytic Bilirubin Removal over the Biocompatible Core/Shell P25/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions with Metal-free Exposed Surfaces under Moderate Green Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shifei; Qin, Hengfei; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yongkui; Bai, Xia; Li, Xi; Sun, Di; Wang, Yangang; Cui, Lifeng

    2017-03-01

    Highly-monodispersed g-C3N4/TiO2 hybrids with a core/shell structure were synthesized from a simple room temperature impregnation method, in which g-C3N4 was coated through self-assembly on the commercially available Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles. Structural and surface characterizations showed that the presence of g-C3N4 notably affected the light absorption characteristics of TiO2. The g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunctions with metal-free exposed surfaces were directly used as biocompatible photocatalysts for simulated jaundice phototherapy under low-power green-light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity and stability of g-C3N4/TiO2 were enhanced relative to pure P25 or g-C3N4, which could be ascribed to the effective Z-scheme separation of photo-induced charge carriers in g-C3N4/TiO2 heterojunction. The photoactivity was maximized in the 4 wt.% g-C3N4-coated P25, as the bilirubin removal rate under green light irradiation was more than 5-fold higher than that under the clinically-used blue light without any photocatalyst. This study approves the future applications of the photocatalyst-assisted bilirubin removal in jaundice treatment under moderate green light which is more tolerable by humans.

  9. Density of vibrational States of the light-harvesting complex II of green plants studied by inelastic neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Lechner, R E

    2004-01-01

    Results of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHC II) in the temperature range from 5 to 100 K. Two incident neutron wavelengths of 2.0 ( similar to 20 meV) and 5.1 A ( similar to 3.2 meV) corresponding to elastic energy resolutions of DeltaE = 0.920 meV and DeltaE = 0.093 meV, respectively, are employed to study INS spectra of LHC II for both neutron energy loss and gain. Solubilized LHC II and D//2O-containing buffer solution are investigated separately in order to properly subtract the contribution of the solvent. The inelastic part of the scattering function S(Q, omega) derived for the LHC II protein resembles the well-known "Boson-peak" and is characterized by a maximum at about 2.5 meV and a strongly asymmetric line shape with a slight tailing toward higher energy transfers. Analysis of the momentum transfer dependence of S(Q, omega) reveals that both the elastic and inelastic contributions to S(Q, omega) e...

  10. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  11. Green synthesis of AgI-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: Toward enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for organic dye removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Lee, Seunghee; Choi, Jiha; Park, Seonhwa; Ma, Rory; Yang, Haesik; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel green synthesis of AgI-RGO nanocomposites. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • Additive promoted photocatalytic performance in AgI-RGO composites. • AgI-RGO nanocomposites may find applications in luminescent and catalytic devices. - Abstract: Novel reduced graphene oxide (RGO) enwrapped AgI nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by a facile template-free ultrasound-assisted method at room temperature. The structural, morphological, and optical studies demonstrate that the obtained nanostructures have good crystallinity and that the graphene nanosheets are decorated densely with AgI nanostructures. The photocatalytic activity of the composite was evaluated by the degradation of an organic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), under visible-light irradiation. The results indicate that AgI with incorporated graphene exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than the pure AgI due to the improved separation efficiency of the photogenerated carriers and that it prolonged the lifetime of the electron–hole pairs due to the chemical bonding between AgI and graphene. AgI (0.4 mg mL −1 of graphene oxide) nanocomposites displayed the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency and the corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 70 min were ∼96%. Moreover, with the assistance of H 2 O 2 the photocatalytic ability of the as-obtained AgI-RGO nanocomposites was enhanced. The corresponding catalytic efficiencies within 30 min were ∼96.8% (for 1 mL H 2 O 2 ) under the same irradiation conditions. The excellent visible-light photocatalytic efficiency and luminescence properties make the AgI-RGO nanocomposites promising candidates for the removal of organic dyes for water purification and enable their application in near-UV white LEDs

  12. Radiation early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Kloesch, W.; Stadtmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype station for a Radiation Early Warning Network has been designed and set up at the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf. This unit was developed to measure all relevant parameters necessary to detect and track radioactive contamination at an early stage. The station consists of the following components: Radiation measuring channel for ambient gamma dose rate. Meteorological measurement channels for air temperature and humidity, wind direction and wind speed, and precipitation. Data processing and storage unit. The system is capable of unattended operation and data acquisition even under adverse environmental conditions. Connection to a central processing platform may be achieved via leased line, dial up over public switched telephone network (PSTN), or radio-frequency transmission. The remote station will continue acquiring and storing data for at least a month, even if the communications link is broken. Multiple stations can be combined to form a network, providing detailed information about radiological and meteorological data at each site. Thus increased ambient radiation levels may be discovered, tracked, and forecasted based on calculations using current and local weather data

  13. Utilizing a Spiro Core with Acridine- and Phenothiazine-Based New Hole Transporting Materials for Highly Efficient Green Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanaskanda Braveenth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new hole transporting materials, 2,7-bis(9,9-diphenylacridin-10(9H-yl-9,9′ spirobi[fluorene] (SP1 and 2,7-di(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl-9,9′-spirobi[fluorene] (SP2, were designed and synthesized by using the Buchwald–Hartwig coupling reaction with a high yield percentage of over 84%. Both of the materials exhibited high glass transition temperatures of over 150 °C. In order to understand the device performances, we have fabricated green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs with SP1 and SP2 as hole transporting materials. Both of the materials revealed improved device properties, in particular, the SP2-based device showed excellent power (34.47 lm/W and current (38.41 cd/A efficiencies when compare with the 4,4′-bis(N-phenyl-1-naphthylaminobiphenyl (NPB-based reference device (30.33 lm/W and 32.83 cd/A. The external quantum efficiency (EQE of SP2 was 13.43%, which was higher than SP1 (13.27% and the reference material (11.45% with a similar device structure. The SP2 hole transporting material provides an effective charge transporting path from anode to emission layer, which is explained by the device efficiencies.

  14. Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083, China and School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing 402160 (China); Zhao, De Gang, E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, De Sheng; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zong Shun; Zhu, Jian Jun; Li, Xiang; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Dan Mei [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Shu Ming; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2015-11-15

    The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures grown via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. With increasing In content in InGaN well layers, the peak energy redshifts, the emission intensity reduces and the inhomogeneous broadening of the luminescence band increases. In addition, it is found that the EL spectra shrink with increasing injection current at low excitation condition, which may be ascribed to both Coulomb screening of polarization field and carrier transferring from shallower localization states to the deeper ones, while at high currents the state-filling effect in all localization states may become significant and lead to a broadening of EL spectra. However, surprisingly, for the MQW sample with much higher In content, the EL spectral bandwidth can be almost unchanged with increasing current at the high current range, since a large number of carriers may be captured by the nonradiative recombination centers distributed outside the localized potential traps and the state-filling effect in the localization states is suppressed.

  15. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured mono and double layer thin films for Malachite Green dye degradation under UV and vis-lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayilkan, F.; Asiltuerk, M.; Tatar, P.; Kiraz, N.; Arpac, E.; Sayilkan, H.

    2007-01-01

    Nanostructure Sn 4+ -doped TiO 2 based mono and double layer thin films, contain 50% solid ratio of TiO 2 in coating have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. Their photocatalytic performances were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis irradiation. Sn 4+ -doped nano-TiO 2 particle a doping ratio of about 5[Sn 4+ /Ti(OBu n ) 4 ; mol/mol%] has been synthesized by hydrotermal process at 225 deg. C. The structure, surface and optical properties of the thin films and/or the particles have been investigated by XRD, BET and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The results showed that the double layer coated glass surfaces have a very high photocatalytic performance than the other one under UV and vis lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO 2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water. The results also reveal that the coated surfaces have hydrophilic property

  16. Green Synthesis of InP/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots for Application in Heavy-Metal-Free Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Hung, Shih-Ting; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chou, Tzu-Lin; Kuo, Ming-Cheng; Kuo, Ya-Pei; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2017-09-19

    Quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) have been considered as potential display technologies with the characterizations of high color purity, flexibility, transparency, and cost efficiency. For the practical applications, the development of heavy-metal-free QD-LEDs from environment-friendly materials is the most important issue to reduce the impacts on human health and environmental pollution. In this work, heavy-metal-free InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with different fluorescence were prepared by green synthesis method with low cost, safe, and environment-friendly precursors. The InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with maximum fluorescence peak at ~ 530 nm, superior fluorescence quantum yield of 60.1%, and full width at half maximum of 55 nm were applied as an emission layer to fabricate multilayered QD-LEDs. The multilayered InP/ZnS core/shell QD-LEDs showed the turn-on voltage at ~ 5 V, the highest luminance (160 cd/m 2 ) at 12 V, and the external quantum efficiency of 0.223% at 6.7 V. Overall, the multilayered InP/ZnS core/shell QD-LEDs reveal potential to be the heavy-metal-free QD-LEDs for future display applications.

  17. Green Synthesis of InP/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots for Application in Heavy-Metal-Free Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Hung, Shih-Ting; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chou, Tzu-Lin; Kuo, Ming-Cheng; Kuo, Ya-Pei; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2017-09-01

    Quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) have been considered as potential display technologies with the characterizations of high color purity, flexibility, transparency, and cost efficiency. For the practical applications, the development of heavy-metal-free QD-LEDs from environment-friendly materials is the most important issue to reduce the impacts on human health and environmental pollution. In this work, heavy-metal-free InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with different fluorescence were prepared by green synthesis method with low cost, safe, and environment-friendly precursors. The InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with maximum fluorescence peak at 530 nm, superior fluorescence quantum yield of 60.1%, and full width at half maximum of 55 nm were applied as an emission layer to fabricate multilayered QD-LEDs. The multilayered InP/ZnS core/shell QD-LEDs showed the turn-on voltage at 5 V, the highest luminance (160 cd/m2) at 12 V, and the external quantum efficiency of 0.223% at 6.7 V. Overall, the multilayered InP/ZnS core/shell QD-LEDs reveal potential to be the heavy-metal-free QD-LEDs for future display applications.

  18. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann; Li, Haoning; Kusch, Gunnar; Zhao, Chao; Ooi, Boon S.; Paul, Edwards; Martin, Robert; Holmes, Justin D.; Parbrook, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  19. Effect of localization states on the electroluminescence spectral width of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, De Gang; Jiang, De Sheng; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zong Shun; Zhu, Jian Jun; Li, Xiang; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Dan Mei; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Shu Ming; Wang, Hui; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of blue–green light emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures grown via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition are investigated. With increasing In content in InGaN well layers, the peak energy redshifts, the emission intensity reduces and the inhomogeneous broadening of the luminescence band increases. In addition, it is found that the EL spectra shrink with increasing injection current at low excitation condition, which may be ascribed to both Coulomb screening of polarization field and carrier transferring from shallower localization states to the deeper ones, while at high currents the state-filling effect in all localization states may become significant and lead to a broadening of EL spectra. However, surprisingly, for the MQW sample with much higher In content, the EL spectral bandwidth can be almost unchanged with increasing current at the high current range, since a large number of carriers may be captured by the nonradiative recombination centers distributed outside the localized potential traps and the state-filling effect in the localization states is suppressed

  20. Electron injection mechanisms of green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing a double electron injection layer consisting of cesium carbonate and fullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.S.; Choo, D.C.; Kim, T.W.; Jin, Y.Y.; Seo, J.H.; Kim, Y.K.

    2010-01-01

    Electron injection mechanisms of the luminance efficiency of green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 )/fullerene (C 60 ) heterostructure acting as an electron injection layer (EIL) were investigated. Current density-voltage and luminance-voltage measurements showed that the current densities and the luminances of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 or Cs 2 CO 3 /C 60 EIL were higher than that of the OLEDs with a Liq EIL. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 EIL was almost three times higher than that of the OLEDs with a Liq EIL. Because the electron injection efficiency of the Cs 2 CO 3 layer in OLEDs was different from that of the C 60 layer, the luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a double EIL consisting of a Cs 2 CO 3 layer and a C 60 layer was smaller than that of the OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 EIL. The electron injection mechanisms of OLEDs with a Cs 2 CO 3 and C 60 double EIL are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  1. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann

    2016-03-10

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  2. EVALUATING EFFECTIVENESS OF MOBILE BROWSER SECURITY WARNINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work precisely evaluates whether browser security warnings are as ineffective as proposed by popular sentiments and past writings. This research used different kinds of Android mobile browsers as well as desktop browsers to evaluate security warnings. Security experts and developers should give emphasis on making a user aware of security warnings and should not neglect aim of communicating this to users. Security experts and system architects should emphasis the goal of communicating security information to end users. In most of the browsers, security warnings are not emphasized, and browsers simply do not show warnings, or there are a number of ways to hide those warnings of malicious sites. This work precisely finds that how inconsistent browsers really are in prompting security warnings. In particular, majority of the modern mobile web browsers are vulnerable to these security threats. We find inconsistency in SSL warnings among web browsers. Based on this work, we make recommendations for warning designers and researchers.

  3. A simple and portable colorimeter using a red-green-blue light-emitting diode and its application to the on-site determination of nitrite and iron in river-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutada; Aruga, Terutomi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Miki; Kuwabara, Tetsuo; Kawakubo, Susumu; Iwatsuki, Masaaki

    2004-06-01

    A portable colorimeter using a red-green-blue light-emitting diode as a light source has been developed. An embedded controller sequentially turns emitters on and off, and acquires the signals detected by two photo diodes synchronized with their blinking. The controller calculates the absorbance and displays it on a liquid-crystal display. The whole system, including a 006P dry cell, is contained in a 100 x 70 x 50 mm aluminum case and its mass is 280 g. This colorimeter was successfully applied to the on-site determination of nitrite and iron in river-water.

  4. Predictors of Improvement in Storage Symptoms at Three Years After 120W GreenLight High Performance System Laser Treatment for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won Hoon; Park, Juhyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Cho, Min Chul; Jeong, Hyeon; Son, Hwancheol

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the indicators of recovery in storage symptoms after GreenLight High Performance System photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP) in men with benign prostate hyperplasia. A total of 155 men with a baseline subtotal storage symptom score of international prostate symptom score (sIPSS) greater than or equal to six, who underwent HPS-PVP and were followed up on for as much as 3 years, were included in this retrospective study. Surgical outcomes were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. Improvement of storage symptoms was defined as a reduction greater than or equal to 30% of sIPSS after surgery compared to the baseline. The mean age was 67.5 ± 7.8 years and the preoperative median prostate-specific antigen, mean total prostate volume, and sIPSS were 1.95 (0.97-5.27) ng/mL, 52.1 ± 32.5 mL, and 9.6 ± 2.6, respectively. The mean improvement rate of sIPSS after 3 years was 34.4%. Age was only associated with an improvement of sIPSS in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.889, p = 0.008). The mean improvement rates of sIPSS according to age group (storage symptom improvement for as much as 3 years. Therefore, we suggest that older patients who are being considered candidates for surgical treatment should be further evaluated.

  5. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on the Efficacy of Multimedia Informed Consent for Patients Scheduled to Undergo Green-Light High-Performance System Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yeub Ham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia informed consent (IC presentation on the understanding and satisfaction of patients who were scheduled to receive 120-W green-light high-performance system photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP. Materials and Methods: A multimedia IC (M-IC presentation for HPS-PVP was developed. Forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia who were scheduled to undergo HPS-PVP were prospectively randomized to a conventional written IC group (W-IC group, n=20 or the M-IC group (n=20. The allocated IC was obtained by one certified urologist, followed by a 15-question test (maximum score, 15 to evaluate objective understanding, and questionnaires on subjective understanding (range, 0∼10 and satisfaction (range, 0∼10 using a visual analogue scale. Results: Demographic characteristics, including age and the highest level of education, did not significantly differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in scores reflecting the objective understanding of HPS-PVP (9.9±2.3 vs. 10.6±2.8, p=0.332 or in subjective understanding scores (7.5±2.1 vs. 8.6±1.7, p=0.122; however, the M-IC group showed higher satisfaction scores than the W-IC group (7.4±1.7 vs. 8.4±1.5, p=0.033. After adjusting for age and educational level, the M-IC group still had significantly higher satisfaction scores. Conclusions: M-IC did not enhance the objective knowledge of patients regarding this surgical procedure. However, it improved the satisfaction of patients with the IC process itself.

  6. Prospective Randomized Controlled Study on the Efficacy of Multimedia Informed Consent for Patients Scheduled to Undergo Green-Light High-Performance System Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Dong Yeub; Choi, Woo Suk; Song, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Young-Joon; Park, Hyoung Keun; Kim, Hyeong Gon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a multimedia informed consent (IC) presentation on the understanding and satisfaction of patients who were scheduled to receive 120-W green-light high-performance system photoselective vaporization of the prostate (HPS-PVP). Materials and Methods A multimedia IC (M-IC) presentation for HPS-PVP was developed. Forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia who were scheduled to undergo HPS-PVP were prospectively randomized to a conventional written IC group (W-IC group, n=20) or the M-IC group (n=20). The allocated IC was obtained by one certified urologist, followed by a 15-question test (maximum score, 15) to evaluate objective understanding, and questionnaires on subjective understanding (range, 0~10) and satisfaction (range, 0~10) using a visual analogue scale. Results Demographic characteristics, including age and the highest level of education, did not significantly differ between the two groups. No significant differences were found in scores reflecting the objective understanding of HPS-PVP (9.9±2.3 vs. 10.6±2.8, p=0.332) or in subjective understanding scores (7.5±2.1 vs. 8.6±1.7, p=0.122); however, the M-IC group showed higher satisfaction scores than the W-IC group (7.4±1.7 vs. 8.4±1.5, p=0.033). After adjusting for age and educational level, the M-IC group still had significantly higher satisfaction scores. Conclusions M-IC did not enhance the objective knowledge of patients regarding this surgical procedure. However, it improved the satisfaction of patients with the IC process itself. PMID:27169129

  7. Influence of thylakoid membrane lipids on the structure of aggregated light-harvesting complexes of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana and the green alga Mantoniella squamata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller-Laudel, Susann; Latowski, Dariusz; Jemioła-Rzemińska, Małgorzata; Strzałka, Kazimierz; Daum, Sebastian; Bacia, Kirsten; Wilhelm, Christian; Goss, Reimund

    2017-07-01

    The study investigated the effect of the thylakoid membrane lipids monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulphoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the structure of two algal light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). In contrast to higher plants whose thylakoid membranes are characterized by an enrichment of the neutral galactolipids MGDG and DGDG, both the green alga Mantoniella squamata and the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana contain membranes with a high content of the negatively charged lipids SQDG and PG. The algal thylakoids do not show the typical grana-stroma differentiation of higher plants but a regular arrangement. To analyze the effect of the membrane lipids, the fucoxanthin chlorophyll protein (FCP) complex of T. pseudonana and the LHC of M. squamata (MLHC) were prepared by successive cation precipitation using Triton X-100 as detergent. With this method, it is possible to isolate LHCs with a reduced amount of associated lipids in an aggregated state. The results from 77 K fluorescence and photon correlation spectroscopy show that neither the neutral galactolipids nor the negatively charged lipids are able to significantly alter the aggregation state of the FCP or the MLHC. This is in contrast to higher plants where SQDG and PG lead to a strong disaggregation of the LHCII whereas MGDG and DGDG induce the formation of large macroaggregates. The results indicate that LHCs which are integrated into thylakoid membranes with a high amount of negatively charged lipids and a regular arrangement are less sensitive to lipid-induced structural alterations than their counterparts in membranes enriched in neutral lipids with a grana-stroma differentiation. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Photosynthesis of green algal soil crust lichens from arid lands in southern Utah, USA: Role of water content on light and temperature responses of CO2 exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne; Meyer, Angelika

    1997-01-01

    Biotic soil crusts are a worldwide phenomenon in arid and semi-arid landscapes. Metabolic activity of the poikilohydric organisms found in these crusts is dominated by quick and drastic changes in moisture availability and long periods of drought. Under controlled conditions, we studied the role of water content on photosynthetic and respiratory CO2 exchange of three green algal soil crust lichens from a desert site in southern Utah (USA): Diploschistes diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch, Psora cerebriformis W. Weber, and Squamarina lentigera (Weber) Poelt.Photosynthetic metabolism is activated by extremely small amounts of moisture; lower compensation values for net photosynthesis (NP) are reached between 0.05 and 0.27 mm of precipitation equivalent. Thus, the lichens can use very low degrees of hydration for carbon gain. Maximal NP occurs between 0.39 and 0.94 mm precipitation equivalent, and area-related rates equal 2.6–5.2 μmol CO2 m−2s−1. All three tested species show ‘sun plant’ features, including high light requirements for CO2 exchange compensation and for NP saturation.Diploschistes diacapsis maintains high rates of NP at full water saturation. In contrast, suprasaturated thalli of the other two species show a strong depression in NP which can be removed or reduced by increased external CO2 concentration. Consequently, this depression is most probably caused by increased thallus diffusive resistances due to pathway blockage by water. This depression will greatly limit carbon gain of these species in the field after heavy rain. It occurs at all temperatures of ecological relevance and also under conditions of low light. However, maximum water holding capacity of P. cerebriformis and S. lentigera is higher than that of D. diacapsis. This could mean that periods of hydration favorable for metabolic activity for those two species last longer than those of D. diacapsis. This might compensate for their lower rates of NP during suprasaturation. Thus, two

  9. Green light for the VELO

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ten years after the beginning of the project, the LHCb’s delicate VELO detector has been successfully installed in its final position. At the end of October, the very fragile VELO detector was carefully inserted into its vacuum tank. LHCb’s most fragile detector, the VELO, has been successfully installed in its final position. The first half was gently slid into place on 30 October and the second half followed on 31 October. For the LHCb collaboration, installing the Vertex Locator (VELO) detector into the VELO tank underground in the experimental cavern at CERN has been a challenging task. The VELO is a precise particle-tracking detector that surrounds the proton-proton collision point inside the LHCb experiment. At its heart are 84 half-moon shaped silicon sensors, each one connected to its electronics. The sensors, which are grouped in pairs to make a total of 42 modules, were constr...

  10. Green light for Japanese reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, international discussions of peaceful nuclear energy use and non-proliferation have been greatly influenced by the attitude of the US Government. Since the mid-Seventies, in the Carter area, this attitude has changed due to the fear that world-wide use of so-called sensitive technologies, i.e. uranium enrichment, reprocessing, and fast breeder development may increase the hazard of misuse for the production of nuclear weapons. (orig.) [de

  11. Volcano warning systems: Chapter 67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ewert, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Messages conveying volcano alert level such as Watches and Warnings are designed to provide people with risk information before, during, and after eruptions. Information is communicated to people from volcano observatories and emergency management agencies and from informal sources and social and environmental cues. Any individual or agency can be both a message sender and a recipient and multiple messages received from multiple sources is the norm in a volcanic crisis. Significant challenges to developing effective warning systems for volcanic hazards stem from the great diversity in unrest, eruption, and post-eruption processes and the rapidly advancing digital technologies that people use to seek real-time risk information. Challenges also involve the need to invest resources before unrest to help people develop shared mental models of important risk factors. Two populations of people are the target of volcano notifications–ground- and aviation-based populations, and volcano warning systems must address both distinctly different populations.

  12. The effect of pictorial warnings on cigarette packages on attentional bias of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Wilden, Sophia; Schneider, Sven; Rockenbach, Christine; Dinter, Christina; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hermann, Derik; Wagner, Michael; Winterer, Georg; Kiefer, Falk

    2011-04-01

    Given that previous studies demonstrated that smoking-related cues (like cigarette packages) grab the attention of smokers and thereby contribute to craving and tobacco seeking we investigated how pictorial health warnings presented on cigarette packages affect attention allocation towards cigarette packages. The WHO advises the use of pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages. However, at present no experimental studies are available investigating if pictorial warnings modulate incentive properties of cigarette packages. Fifty-nine tobacco smokers and 55 non-smokers performed a visual dot probe task to assess attention allocation towards cigarette packages with and without health warnings. Smokers were divided a priori in a group of light smokers (smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day; n=20). Psychometric measures on anxiety and nicotine craving were administered. Light smokers showed an attentional bias towards packages without pictorial warnings while no effects were observed in the other groups. In heavy smokers attention allocation towards pictorial health warnings was associated with an increase of craving and anxiety. The results have a potential public health perspective as pictorial health warnings might be an effective strategy to reduce attentional bias towards cigarette packages of light smokers, while counterproductive effects in heavy smokers warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. LED-Based High-Voltage Lines Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldar MUSA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available LED-based system, running with the current of high-voltage lines and converting the current flowing through the line into the light by using a toroid transformer, has been developed. The transformer’s primary winding is constituted by the high voltage power line. Toroidal core consists of two equal parts and the secondary windings are evenly placed on these two parts. The system is mounted on the high-voltage lines as a clamp. The secondary winding ends are connected in series by the connector on the clamp. LEDs are supplied by the voltage at the ends of secondary. Current flowing through highvoltage transmission lines is converted to voltage by the toroidal transformer and the light emitting LEDs are supplied with this voltage. The theory of the conversion of the current flowing through the line into the light is given. The system, running with the current of the line and converting the current into the light, has been developed. System has many application areas such as warning high voltage lines (warning winches to not hinder the high-voltage lines when working under the lines, warning planes to not touch the high-voltage lines, remote measurement of high-voltage line currents, and local illumination of the line area

  14. Oceanographic data collected from Lower Sand Island light (USCG day mark green 5) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 1997-07-12 to 2014-01-15 (NCEI Accession 0162181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162181 contains navigational and physical data collected at Lower Sand Island light (USCG day mark green 5), a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  15. Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) Storm Wallets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is responsible for typhoon forecasts and warnings for the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean basins. After each storm, the JTWC...

  16. Warning: not edible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, R.P.

    2011-03-15

    Nowadays, nine out of ten onshore natural gas and oil wells are using fracture stimulation. During this process, a lot of water, sand and chemicals are injected into the ground. The industry is looking for ways to decrease its environmental footprint. To do so, Halliburton created its CleanSuite technologies using mechanical processes instead of fraccing chemicals, and materials from the food industry instead of fraccing fluids. The fluids system's components are mixed on site with water. Ultraviolet light is used to kill the micro-organisms reducing the necessity of chemicals. A water treatment system treats and reuses up to 40 percent of the water issued from the fraccing process reducing the amount of fresh water used for fraccing.

  17. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  18. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvine, Dorian [University of Montpellier 1, LASER-CREDEN, UFR d' Economie, Montpellier (France); Wuestenhagen, Rolf [University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). IWOe-HSG

    2011-01-15

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  19. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  20. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When trains... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 56.14214 Section 56.14214...

  2. 30 CFR 57.14214 - Train warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14214 Train warnings. A warning that is audible above the surrounding noise level shall be sounded— (a) Immediately prior to moving trains; (b) When... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Train warnings. 57.14214 Section 57.14214...

  3. A pocket warning γ-dosimeter with numerical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-09-01

    A pocket warning dosimeter is described. It provides alarms (continuous tone and a flashing red light) when a presettable dose has been accumulated in the range .064 - 16.4 rads (0.64 - 164 μGy). This warning level can be selected in nine steps of 2 with a switch inside the dosimeter. The dose rate is indicated by a series of sound pulses whose repetition rate is proportional to the dose rate. At 1 rad/h (10 mGy/h) about 17 pluses/minute are emitted. The accumulated dose up to 20 rads (0.2 Gy) is displayed in steps of 1 mrad (10 μGy) with a liquid crystal display. A red LED lights before battery failure occurs. The effects of changes in temperature, battery voltage, dose rate and photon energy upon dosimeter sensitivity are presented. Finally, the applications of the dosimeter are discussed. (auth)

  4. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  5. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  6. [1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine as Building Blocks for Universal Host Materials for High-Performance Red, Green, Blue and White Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenxuan; Shi, Lijiang; Gao, Lei; Hu, Peijun; Mu, Haichuan; Xia, Zhenyuan; Huang, Jinhai; Su, Jianhua

    2018-02-14

    The electron-accepting [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine (TP) moiety was introduced to build bipolar host materials for the first time, and two host materials based on this TP acceptor and carbazole donor, namely, 9,9'-(2-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (o-CzTP) and 9,9'-(5-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(9H-carbazole) (m-CzTP), were designed and synthesized. These two TP-based host materials possess a high triplet energy (>2.9 eV) and appropriate highest occupied molecular orbital/lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels as well as the bipolar transporting feature, which permits their applicability as universal host materials in multicolor phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (PhOLEDs). Blue, green, and red PhOLEDs based on o-CzTP and m-CzTP with the same device configuration all show high efficiencies and low efficiency roll-off. The devices hosted by o-CzTP exhibit maximum external quantum efficiencies (η ext ) of 27.1, 25.0, and 15.8% for blue, green, and red light emitting, respectively, which are comparable with the best electroluminescene performance reported for FIrpic-based blue, Ir(ppy) 3 -based green, and Ir(pq) 2 (acac)-based red PhOLEDs equipped with a single-component host. The white PhOLEDs based on the o-CzTP host and three lumophors containing red, green, and blue emitting layers were fabricated with the same device structure, which exhibit a maximum current efficiency and η c of 40.4 cd/A and 17.8%, respectively, with the color rendering index value of 75.

  7. Blue to bluish-green tunable phosphor Sr2LiSiO4F:Ce3+,Tb3+ and efficient energy transfer for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Mubiao; Zeng, Lihua; Ye, TingLi; Yang, Xi; Zhu, Xianmei; Peng, Siyun; Lei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ activated Sr 2 LiSiO 4 F phosphors were prepared by a solid state reaction technique at high temperature, and their ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopic properties were investigated. Under ultraviolet light excitation, Ce 3+ -doped Sr 2 LiSiO 4 F phosphors emit blue light (420 nm), while Tb 3+ -doped phosphors show yellowish green emission. Efficient energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ ions in co-doped samples was confirmed in terms of corresponding excitation and emission spectra. The energy transfer mechanism between Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ was discussed and demonstrated to be dipole–dipole interaction in Sr 2 LiSiO 4 F:Ce 3+ ,Tb 3+ phosphors. Due to energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ , Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ co-doped Sr 2 LiSiO 4 F phosphors show intense absorption in near-UV region, and present tunable emission from blue to bluish green under 360 nm light excitation. The results indicate that these phosphors can be considered as candidates for white LEDs pumped by n-UV chips. (paper)

  8. Alcohol warnings in TV beer advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M D; Domenech, M M

    1995-05-01

    Mandated warnings are among the few steps Congress has taken to influence the use of legal substances such as alcohol. The usefulness of such warnings in discouraging abuse of alcohol is, however, controversial. This study examines the impact of televised warnings on probable antecedents of belief change not examined in previous research: confidence in beliefs about beer risks or benefits, and cognitive responses to the advertisements. The present study (N = 75 male and female college students) tests four of the warnings recommended in Senate Bill 674 (1993--the "Thurmond bill") edited into randomly sampled television beer advertisements, using a between-subjects treatment-and-control experimental design. The four advertisements or advertisement/warning pairs were counterbalanced and analyzed as a repeated measures factor. The study indicated, as hypothesized, that subjects exposed to warnings tended to have less confidence in their generally skeptical assessments of beer risks--a likely precursor to belief change in resistant populations. Repeated exposure to the advertisements alone also appeared to lead to increased confidence in generally positive assessments of beer benefits, whereas repeated exposure to warnings led to decreased confidence in such assessments. Repeated exposure to warnings also may have primed negative reactions to subsequent beer advertisements. These results suggest mechanisms by which alcohol warnings may over time influence beliefs. Measures used here may serve as useful criterion variables in future studies on warnings. Further attention to optimizing warning content and presentation is recommended.

  9. [Tourism ecological security early warning of Zhangjiajie, China based on the improved TOPSIS method and the grey GM (1,1)model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Liu, Chun la; Li, Dan; Zhong, Xiao Lin

    2017-11-01

    Tourism ecological security early warning is of great significance both to the coordination of ecological environment protection and tourism industry rapid development in tourism destination, and the sustainable and healthy development of regional social and economy. Firstly, based on the DPSIR model, the tourism ecological security early warning index system of Zhangjiajie was constructed from 5 aspects, which were driving force, pressure, state, impact and response. Then, by using the improved TOPSIS method, the tourism ecological security situation of Zhangjiajie from 2001 to 2014 was analyzed. Lastly, by using the grey GM (1,1) model, the tourism ecological security evolution trend of 2015-2020 was predicted. The results indicated that, on the whole, the close degree of Zhangjiajie's tourism ecological security showed a slightly upward trend during 2001-2014, the warning degree was the moderate warning. In terms of each subsystem, warning degree of the driving force system and the pressure system of Zhangjiajie's tourism ecological secu-rity were on the rise, which evolved from light warning to heavy warning; warning degree of the state system and the impact system had not changed so much, and had been in the moderate warning; warning degree of the response system was on the decline, which changed from huge warning to no warning during 2001-2014. According to the current development trend, the close degree of Zhangjiajie's tourism ecological security would rise further in 2015-2020, and the warning degree would turn from moderate warning into light warning, but the task of coordinating the relationship between tourism development and ecological construction and environmental protection would be still arduous.

  10. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  11. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  12. Light guide technology: using light to enhance safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, William S.

    2009-05-01

    When used to detect extreme temperatures in harsh environments, warning devices have been placed at a distance from the "danger zone" for several reasons. The inability to mix electricity with flammable, caustic, liquid or volatile substances, the limited heat tolerances exhibited by most light sources, and the susceptibility of light sources to damage from vibration, have made the placement of a warning light directly within these harsh environments impossible. This paper describes a system that utilizes a beam of light to provide just such a warning. This system can be used with hard-wired or wireless sensors, side-light illumination, image projection and image transfer. The entire system may be self-contained and portable.

  13. Law guide for photovoltaic installations: Array installation; Connecting the grid; Financing; The new legal regime implemented in 2011; Is green taxing still so green?; Which judge will bring the light?: Reactions of actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracci, Vanina; Vandervorst, Alain; Tixier, Jean-Luc; Barthelemy, Christophe; Cloche-Dubois, Celine; Tenailleau, Francois; Rubio, Aurore-Emmanuelle; Pechamat, Olivier; Gandet, Stephanie; Deharbe, David; Rousset, Alain; Boedec, Morgan; Joffre, Andre; Blosseville, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane; Maincent, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    The authors discuss legal issues and aspects regarding photovoltaic installations in France: the array installation (constraints related to urban planning: rules, authorizations and competencies when setting up on the ground or on buildings, urban taxes, estate issues), the connection to the grid, the financing (electricity prices, partnership contract), the new legal regime implemented in 2011, the question whether green taxing is still sufficiently attractive, the dispute about the mandatory purchase mechanism, and the attitude of the different actors (notably local communities, and industries) in front of the decrease of purchase prices

  14. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  15. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  16. Bioethics and deliberative democracy: five warnings from Hobbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Griffin

    2006-06-01

    Thomas Hobbes is one of the most ardent and thoroughgoing opponents of participatory democracy among Western political philosophers. Though Hobbes's alternative to participatory democracy-assent by subjects to rule by an absolute sovereign-no longer constitutes a viable political alternative for Westerners, his critique of participatory democracy is a potentially valuable source of insight about its liabilities. This essay elaborates five theses from Hobbes that stand as cogent warnings to those who embrace participatory democracy, especially those (such as most bioethicists) advocating for deliberative democracy based on a rational consensus model. In light of these warnings, the author suggests an alternative, modus vivendi approach to deliberative democracy that would radically alter the current practice of bioethics.

  17. Cost Analysis of a Transition to Green Vehicle Technology for Light Duty Fleet Vehicles in Public Works Department Naval Support Activity Monterey (PWD Monterey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    price of the hybrid vehicle. Many consumers will view the idea of paying more initially to save on gasoline costs down the road as not worthwhile...braking and electricity generation from an ICE. Similar to the HEV, upon purchase of a PHEV, the consumer may take advantage of the green vehicle tax ... electric cards and Hybrids? (2015, November 3). Retrieved from Plug’n Drive website: https://www.plugndrive.ca/whats- the-difference-between- electric - cars

  18. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  19. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  20. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  1. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Bora [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sang Hoon [Department of Chemistry, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Kyu, E-mail: tkkim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Institute for Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of RGO–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposites without any surfactant. • Promising candidates as solar light active photocatalyst for dye degradation. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for CuI–RGO (2 mg mL{sup −1}). - Abstract: Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–CuI quasi-shell−core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI–RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI–RGO core–shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI–RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL{sup −1} nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI–RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI–RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light

  2. Green synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposite: A highly efficient and stable solar-light-induced catalyst for organic dye degradation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jiha; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Islam, M. Jahurul; Seo, Bora; Joo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of RGO–CuI quasi-shell–core nanocomposites without any surfactant. • Promising candidates as solar light active photocatalyst for dye degradation. • Significant improvement of the photocatalytic activity in RGO wrapped composites. • The best photocatalytic activity to RhB has been attained for CuI–RGO (2 mg mL −1 ). - Abstract: Surfactant-free, reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–CuI quasi-shell−core nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using ultra-sonication assisted chemical method at room temperature. The morphologies, structures and optical properties of the CuI and CuI–RGO nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Morphological and structural analyses indicated that the CuI–RGO core–shell nanocomposites comprise single-crystalline face-centered cubic phase CuI nanostructures, coated with a thin RGO quasi-shell. Photocatalysis experiments revealed that the as-synthesized CuI–RGO nanocomposites exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities and stabilities for photo degradation of Rhodamine-B (RhB) organic dye under simulated solar light irradiation. The photo degradation ability is strongly affected by the concentration of RGO in the nanocomposites; the highest photodegradation rate was obtained at a graphene loading content of 2 mg mL −1 nanocomposite. The remarkable photocatalytic performance of the CuI–RGO nanocomposites mainly originates from their unique adsorption and electron-accepting and electron-transporting properties of RGO. The present work provides a novel green synthetic route to producing CuI–RGO nanocomposites without toxic solvents or reducing agents, thereby providing highly efficient and stable solar light-induced RGO

  3. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  4. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  5. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  6. Pictorial warnings on cigarette packets: Effectiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pictorial warnings and their ability to reduce the prevalence of cigarette smoking among youth in Egypt. Through semi-structured in-depth interviews with a sample of cigarette smokers, the research argues that various social, cultural, and economic factors constrain the effectiveness of pictorial warnings. A key finding is that ...

  7. Radiation warning system in Slovenia (ROSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arh, S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizing that a radiological accident may have a widespread effect, the Slovenian government has decided to establish an early warning system. The aim of it is to detect any incident (domestic or foreign) involving radioactivity as fast as possible, to initiate appropriate measures, and to give immediate warning to the population

  8. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  9. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  10. Effect of V-pits embedded InGaN/GaN superlattices on optical and electrical properties of GaN-based green light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengjun [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Xingtong [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigated effects of V-pits embedded InGaN/GaN superlattices (SL) on optical and electrical properties of high power green LEDs by changing the number of SL period and SL growth temperature. Surface morphology of V-pits embedded InGaN/GaN SL with various periods and growth temperatures was evaluated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that density and size of V-pit increase with decreasing SL growth temperature and increasing SL periods. Experimental studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with cathodoluminescence (CL) indicated that SL with larger V-pits appear to be more effective in suppressing the lateral diffusion of carriers into threading dislocations (TD). Compared to c-plane quantum wells, narrower quantum wells on the V-pit sidewall were clearly observed by performing high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) and the efficiency droop of green LEDs grown on underlying SL with larger V-pits are improved at high injection current regime, which is attributed to a more efficient hole injection into multiple quantum well, and also to a higher V-pit potential barrier height that could more effectively suppress the lateral diffusion of carriers into non-radiative recombination centers of TDs. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. User-centered design of discharge warnings tool for colorectal surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D; Horstman, Molly J; Li, Linda T; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Campbell, Bryan; Mills, Whitney L; Herman, Levi I; Anaya, Daniel A; Trautner, Barbara W; Berger, David H

    2017-09-01

    Readmission following colorectal surgery, typically due to surgery-related complications, is common. Patient-centered discharge warnings may guide recognition of early complication signs after colorectal surgery. User-centered design of a discharge warnings tool consisted of iterative health literacy review and a heuristic evaluation with human factors and clinical experts as well as patient end users to establish content validity and usability. Literacy evaluation of the prototype suggested >12th-grade reading level. Subsequent revisions reduced reading level to 8th grade or below. Contents were formatted during heuristic evaluation into 3 action-oriented zones (green, yellow, and red) with relevant warning lexicons. Usability testing demonstrated comprehension of this 3-level lexicon and recognition of appropriate patient actions to take for each level. We developed a discharge warnings tool for colorectal surgery using staged user-centered design. The lexicon of surgical discharge warnings could structure communication among patients, caregivers, and clinicians to improve post-discharge care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  13. Synthesis of green TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/CdS hybrid nano-catalyst for efficient light harvesting using an elegant pulsed laser ablation in liquids method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondal, M.A., E-mail: magondal@kfupm.edu.sa [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Ilyas, A.M.; Fasasi, T.A.; Dastageer, M.A. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Seddigi, Z.S. [Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health and Health Informatics, Umm Al-Qura University, 21955 Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Qahtan, T.F.; Faiz, M.; Khattak, G.D. [Laser Research Group, Physics Department & Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile strategy for synthesis of green catalyst (TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/CdS) was developed. • Clean synthesis of green catalyst was done using pulsed laser ablation in liquids. • Synthesized composite size ranges between 10 and 40 nm confirmed by HRTEM studies. • Enhanced improvement was noticed in the carriers transport in the visible region. • Visible region absorption opens door to many applications for solar energy harvesting. - Abstract: The main limitation on the applications of TiO{sub 2} as a photocatalyst is its large band gap (3.2 eV) which limits its absorption only to the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum. To overcome this problem, a facile strategy for clean synthesis of a nanocomposite green catalyst of zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and cadmium sulphide (CdS) was developed using pulsed laser ablation in liquids (PLAL) technique for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The main aim of addition of ZnO is to reduce the electron–hole recombination in the TiO{sub 2} while CdS is used to increase the light harvesting efficiency of TiO{sub 2} in the visible spectral region. The absorption spectrum of the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO/CdS composite obtained from the UV–vis spectrophotometer exhibits strong absorption in the visible region as compared to the pure TiO{sub 2} whose absorption band lies around 380 nm which is in the UV-region. The morphology of the composite quantum dots was also investigated using high resolution TEM technique which shows that the synthesized composite size ranges between 10 and 40 nm. These nanocomposites have demosntarted noticible improvement in the carriers transport in the visible region which could enhance its efficiency for many applications in the visible region especially for energy harvesting using solar radiations.

  14. ATTACK WARNING: Costs to Modernize NORAD's Computer System Significantly Understated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cross, F

    1991-01-01

    ...) Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (ITW/AA) system. These subsystems provide critical strategic surveillance and attack warning and assessment information to United States and Canadian leaders...

  15. Synthesis of WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures for highly efficient green quantum dot light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Shikui; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Junze; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Luo, Zhimin; Ma, Qinglang; Sindoro, Melinda; Zhang, Hua [Center for Programmable Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Yang, Xuyong [Luminous. Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu [Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai; Huang, Xiao; Huang, Wei [Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech) (China); Qi, Xiaoying [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Singapore (Singapore); Sun, Xiao Wei [Luminous. Center of Excellence for Semiconductor Lighting and Displays, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, College of Engineering, Southern Univ. of Science and Technology, Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong (China)

    2017-08-21

    Preparation of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures is important not only fundamentally, but also technologically for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Herein, we report a facile colloidal method for the synthesis of WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} (n=2.7, 2.9; X=S, Se) heterostructures by sulfurization or selenization of WO{sub n} nanomaterials. The WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} heterostructures are composed of WO{sub 2.9} nanoparticles (NPs) or WO{sub 2.7} nanowires (NWs) grown together with single- or few-layer WX{sub 2} nanosheets (NSs). As a proof-of-concept application, the WO{sub n}-WX{sub 2} heterostructures are used as the anode interfacial buffer layer for green quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QLEDs). The QLED prepared with WO{sub 2.9} NP-WSe{sub 2} NS heterostructures achieves external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 8.53 %. To our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency in the reported green QLEDs using inorganic materials as the hole injection layer. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Luminance mechanisms in green organic light-emitting devices fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Dong Chul; Seo, Su Yul; Kim, Tae Whan; Jin, You Young; Seo, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kwan

    2010-05-01

    The electrical and the optical properties in green organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) fabricated utilizing tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BPhen) multiple heterostructures acting as an electron transport layer (ETL) were investigated. The operating voltage of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL increased with increasing the number of the Alq3/BPhen heterostructures because more electrons were accumulated at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerfaces. The number of the leakage holes existing in the multiple heterostructure ETL of the OLEDs at a low voltage range slightly increased due to an increase of the internal electric field generated from the accumulated electrons at the Alq3/BPhen heterointerface. The luminance efficiency of the OLEDs with a multiple heterostructure ETL at a high voltage range became stabilized because the increase of the number of the heterointerface decreased the quantity of electrons accumulated at each heterointerface.

  17. Growth and characterization of ZnCdMgSe-based green light emitters and distributed Bragg reflectors towards II-VI based semiconductor disk lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jesus, Joel; Gayen, Swapan K.; Garcia, Thor A.; Tamargo, Maria C.; Kartazaev, Vladimir; Jones, Brynmor E.; Schlosser, Peter J.; Hastie, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural and optical properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown II-VI semiconductor multiple quantum well (MQW) structures and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on InP substrates for application in developing optically-pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) operating in the green spectral range. One sample was grown directly on an InP substrate with an InGaAs buffer layer, while another had a 5-period ZnCdMgSe-based DBR grown on the InGaAs/InP substrate. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements revealed sharp superlattice peaks and abrupt layer interfaces, while steady-state photoluminescence measurements demonstrated surface emission between 540-570 nm. Under pulsed excitation both samples exhibited features of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) or stimulated emission, accompanied by luminescence lifetime shortening. The sample with the DBR showed higher surface luminescence and the onset of ASE at lower pump power. To further explore the design and performance of a ZnCdMgSe-based DBR, a 20-period DBR was grown and a reflectivity of 83% was obtained at ∝560 nm. We estimate that a DBR with ∝40 periods would be needed for optimal performance in a SDL using these materials. These results show the potential of II-VI MQW structures on InP substrates for the development of SDLs operational in the green-yellow wavelength range. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. High performance tunnel injection InGaN/GaN quantum Dot light emitting diodes emitting in the green (λ=495nm)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Meng; Banerjee, Animesh; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2011-01-01

    peak at 495 nm at 300 K. The characteristics of tunnel injection InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diodes are presented. The current density at maximum efficiency is 90.2 A/cm 2, which is superior to equivalent multiquantum well devices. © 2010

  19. Generation of fluorescence quenchers from the triplet states of chlorophylls in the major light-harvesting complex II from green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barzda, V.; Vengris, M.; Valkunas, L.; van Amerongen, H.; van Grondelle, R.

    2000-01-01

    Laser flash-induced changes of the fluorescence yield were studied in aggregates of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) on a time scale ranging from microseconds to seconds. Carotenoid (Car) and chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states, decaying with lifetimes of several microseconds and hundreds of

  20. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  1. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  2. A 3 W High-Voltage Single-Chip Green Light-Emitting Diode with Multiple-Cells Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A parallel and series network structure was introduced into the design of the high-voltage single-chip (HV-SC light-emitting diode to inhibit the effect of current crowding and to improve the yield. Using such a design, a 6.6×5 mm2 large area LED chip of 24 parallel stages was demonstrated with 3 W light output power (LOP at the current of 500 mA. The forward voltage was measured to be 83 V with the same current injection, corresponding to 3.5 V for a single stage. The LED chip’s average thermal resistance was identified to be 0.28 K/W by using infrared thermography analysis.

  3. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  4. Green Synthesis of InP/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots for Application in Heavy-Metal-Free Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Tsung-Rong; Hung, Shih-Ting; Lin, Yen-Ting; Chou, Tzu-Lin; Kuo, Ming-Cheng; Kuo, Ya-Pei; Chen, Chia-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dot light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs) have been considered as potential display technologies with the characterizations of high color purity, flexibility, transparency, and cost efficiency. For the practical applications, the development of heavy-metal-free QD-LEDs from environment-friendly materials is the most important issue to reduce the impacts on human health and environmental pollution. In this work, heavy-metal-free InP/ZnS core/shell QDs with different fluorescence were prepare...

  5. An efficient visible and UV-light-activated B–N-codoped TiO2 photocatalytic film for solar depollution prepared via a green method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qingchi; Zhang Yan; He Ziming; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2012-01-01

    This work reports an efficient visible and UV-light-activated boron and nitrogen codoped TiO 2 porous film prepared via a “green” and direct coating approach. Such photocatalyst is highly promising for solar depollution application due to its efficient photocatalytic activities in both visible and UV spectrum. The preparation method avoids the use of organic solvents, which are usually more expensive and hazardous compared with water. Using stearic acid as the model organic pollutant, the visible-light photocatalytic activity of optimized porous B–N-codoped TiO 2 film (p-3B–N–TiO 2 ) is 3 times higher than that of porous N-doped TiO 2 (p-N–TiO 2 ) film, while its UV photocatalytic activity is almost double that of p-N–TiO 2 film and comparable to that of porous TiO 2 . The enhancement in photocatalytic activity is attributed to higher surface area due to the porous structure, improved visible-light absorption attributed to interstitially substituted boron atoms, and coexistence of boron and nitrogen dopants which may reduce Ti 3+ recombination centers.

  6. Application of a Tsunami Warning Message Metric to refine NOAA NWS Tsunami Warning Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Johnston, D.; Sorensen, J.; Whitmore, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) funded a three year project to integrate social science into their Tsunami Program. One of three primary requirements of the grant was to make improvements to tsunami warning messages of the NWS' two Tsunami Warning Centers- the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. We conducted focus group meetings with a purposive sample of local, state and Federal stakeholders and emergency managers in six states (AK, WA, OR, CA, HI and NC) and two US Territories (US Virgin Islands and American Samoa) to qualitatively asses information needs in tsunami warning messages using WCATWC tsunami messages for the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami event. We also reviewed research literature on behavioral response to warnings to develop a tsunami warning message metric that could be used to guide revisions to tsunami warning messages of both warning centers. The message metric is divided into categories of Message Content, Style, Order and Formatting and Receiver Characteristics. A message is evaluated by cross-referencing the message with the operational definitions of metric factors. Findings are then used to guide revisions of the message until the characteristics of each factor are met. Using findings from this project and findings from a parallel NWS Warning Tiger Team study led by T. Nicolini, the WCATWC implemented the first of two phases of revisions to their warning messages in November 2012. A second phase of additional changes, which will fully implement the redesign of messages based on the metric, is in progress. The resulting messages will reflect current state-of-the-art knowledge on warning message effectiveness. Here we present the message metric; evidence-based rational for message factors; and examples of previous, existing and proposed messages.

  7. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  8. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  9. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  10. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  11. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  12. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  13. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  14. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Therapies Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... see the boxed section below for more advice. Stem Cell Uses and FDA Regulation The FDA has the ...

  15. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  16. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  17. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  18. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  19. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  20. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  1. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...

  2. Caltrans fog detection and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has implemented a fog detection and warning system on Highway 99 near Fresno. The entire central valley region is susceptible to Tule fog, which can reduce visibility tremendously, sometimes to n...

  3. View of the VO prototype made of two sectors of scintillating counters. WLS fibers embedded within connectors appear in green color. Beams of optical fibers inside black sheath collect and transport the emitted light to photo-multipliers a few meters apart.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    View of the VO prototype made of two sectors of scintillating counters. WLS fibers embedded within connectors appear in green color. Beams of optical fibers inside black sheath collect and transport the emitted light to photo-multipliers a few meters apart.

  4. High performance tunnel injection InGaN/GaN quantum Dot light emitting diodes emitting in the green (λ=495nm)

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Meng

    2011-05-01

    InGaN/GaN self-organized quantum dots with density of (2-5)×10 10 cm-2, internal quantum efficiency of 32% and a reduced recombination lifetime of 0.6 ns were grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The photoluminescence spectra of the dots peak at 495 nm at 300 K. The characteristics of tunnel injection InGaN/GaN quantum dot light emitting diodes are presented. The current density at maximum efficiency is 90.2 A/cm 2, which is superior to equivalent multiquantum well devices. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eating Green: Shining Light on the Use of Dietary Phytochemicals as a Modern Approach in the Prevention and Treatment of Head and Neck Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Linda L; Howard, Candace M; Balachandran, Premalatha; Pasco, David S; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2018-01-12

    Enthusiasm for the use of dietary bioactive compounds as chemopreventive agents and adjuvants for current therapies has increased laboratory research conducted on several types of cancers including Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). The green chemoprevention movement is a modern approach to highlight healthy lifestyle changes that aim to decrease the incidence of HNSCC. A healthy diet can be an effective way to prevent the development of oral cancers. Discovery of the naturally occurring plant based compounds called phytochemicals has facilitated the development of new treatment strategies for patients that are at risk for, or have developed HNSCC. Many of these compounds have been shown to elicit very potent anti-carcinogenic properties. While there are many compounds that have been studied, the compounds from two specific categories of phytochemicals, phenolics (resveratrol, EGCG, curcumin, quercetin, and honokiol) and glucosinolates (sulforaphane, PEITC and BITC), are emerging as potent and effective inhibitors of oral carcinogenesis. These compounds have been shown to inhibit HNSCC growth through a variety of mechanisms. Research has demonstrated that these compounds can regulate cancer cell proliferation through the regulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. They can impede cell cycle progression, induce differentiation and apoptosis, prevent angiogenesis, and inhibit cancer cell invasive and metastatic properties. They can protect normal cells during treatment and reduce the damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review aims to provide an overview of some of the most effective phytochemicals that have the potential to successfully prevent and treat head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Structure health assessment and warning system (SHAWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Daniel M.; Kim, Keehoon; Mapar, Jalal

    2008-03-01

    We are developing a Structure Health Assessment and Warning System (SHAWS) based on building displacement measurements and wireless communication. SHAWS will measure and predict the stability/instability of a building, determine whether it is safe for emergency responders to enter during an emergency, and provide individual warnings on the condition of the structure. SHAWS incorporates remote sensing nodes (RSNs) installed on the exterior frame of a building. Each RSN includes a temperature sensor, a three-axis accelerometer making static-acceleration measurements, and a ZigBee wireless system (IEEE 802.15.4). The RSNs will be deployed remotely using an air cannon delivery system, with each RSN having an innovative adhesive structure for fast (<10 min) and strong installation under emergency conditions. Once the building has moved past a threshold (~0.25 in./building story), a warning will be issued to emergency responders. In addition to the RSNs, SHAWS will include a base station located on an emergency responder's primary vehicle, a PDA for mobile data display to guide responders, and individual warning modules that can be worn by each responder. The individual warning modules will include visual and audio indicators with a ZigBee receiver to provide the proper degree of warning to each responder.

  8. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  9. Color improvement of white-light through Mn-enhancing yellow-green emission of SrSi2O2N2:Eu phosphor for white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Qinni; Liu Yanhua; Gu Tiecheng; Wang Dajian

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) enhancement of SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu and the resultant color improvement of white-light were investigated via co-doping Mn with Eu. We observed that a unique absorption of host lattice of SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 and its visible band emission peaked at around ∼550 nm for SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Mn 2+ in the wavelength range of 450-600 nm. This highly eye-sensitive ∼550 nm-peaked band emission of SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 doped with Mn 2+ happens to overlap the 535 nm-peaked band emission of SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 doped with Eu 2+ , resulting in an intensified photoluminescence in a maximum by 355%. By combining this as-prepared Mn intensified SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu phosphor with blue InGaN chip, the quality of white-light was improved to 93.3% for color rendering index and 3584 K for correlated color temperature. - Research highlights: Photoluminescence enhancement and resultant color improvement of SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 : Eu can be adjusted via co-doping Mn with Eu. The band emission peaked at ∼550 for Mn2+ overlaps that at ∼535 nm for Eu 2+ . A white-light with 93.3% for CRI and 3584 K for CCT is achieved.

  10. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  11. Detection of early warning signals of forest mortality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Kumar, M.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Massive forest mortality was observed in California during the most recent drought. Owing to complex interactions of physiological mechanisms under stress, prediction of climate-induced forest mortality using dynamic global vegetation models remains fraught with uncertainty. Given that forest ecosystems approaching mortality tend to exhibit reduction in resilience, we evaluate the time-varying resilience from time series of satellite images to detect early warning signals (EWSs) of mortality. Four metrics of EWSs are used: (1) low greenness, (2) high empirical autocorrelation of greenness, (3) high autocorrelation inferred using a Bayesian dynamic linear model considering the influence of seasonality and climate conditions, and (4) low recovery rate inferred from the drift term in the Langevin equation describing stochastic dynamics. Spatial accuracy and lead-time of these EWSs are evaluated by comparing the EWSs against observed mortality from aerial surveys conducted by the US Forest Service. Our results show that most forested areas in California that underwent mortality exhibit a EWS with a lead time of three months to two years ahead of observed mortality. Notably, EWS is also detected in some areas without mortality, suggesting reduced resilience during drought. Furthermore, the influence of the previous drought (2007-2009) may have propagated into the recent drought (2012-2016) through reduced resilience, hence contributing to the massive forest mortality observed recently. Methodologies developed in this study for detection of EWS will improve the near-term predictability of forest mortality, thus providing crucial information for forest and water resource management.

  12. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  13. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  14. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  15. Instructors' Use of Trigger Warnings and Behavior Warnings in Abnormal Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy A.; Wells, Anna Mae; Dawson, Kaylee J.

    2016-01-01

    College students have been increasingly demanding warnings and accommodations in relation to course topics they believe will elicit strong, negative emotions. These "trigger warnings" are highly relevant to Abnormal Psychology because of the sensitive topics covered in the course (e.g., suicide, trauma, sex). A survey of Abnormal…

  16. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  17. Environment Agency England flood warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Chris; Walters, Mark; Haynes, Elizabeth; Dobson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Context In England around 5 million homes are at risk of flooding. We invest significantly in flood prevention and management schemes but we can never prevent all flooding. Early alerting systems are fundamental to helping us reduce the impacts of flooding. The Environment Agency has had the responsibility for flood warning since 1996. In 2006 we invested in a new dissemination system that would send direct messages to pre-identified recipients via a range of channels. Since then we have continuously improved the system and service we offer. In 2010 we introduced an 'opt-out' service where we pre-registered landline numbers in flood risk areas, significantly increasing the customer base. The service has performed exceptionally well under intense flood conditions. Over a period of 3 days in December 2013, when England was experiencing an east coast storm surge, the system sent nearly 350,000 telephone messages, 85,000 emails and 70,000 text messages, with a peak call rate of around 37,000 per hour and 100% availability. The Floodline Warnings Direct (FWD) System FWD provides warnings in advance of flooding so that people at risk and responders can take action to minimise the impact of the flood. Warnings are sent via telephone, fax, text message, pager or e-mail to over 1.1 million properties located within flood risk areas in England. Triggers for issuing alerts and warnings include attained and forecast river levels and rainfall in some rapidly responding locations. There are three levels of warning: Flood Alert, Flood Warning and Severe Flood Warning, and a stand down message. The warnings can be updated to include relevant information to help inform those at risk. Working with our current provider Fujitsu, the system is under a programme of continuous improvement including expanding the 'opt-out' service to mobile phone numbers registered to at risk addresses, allowing mobile registration to the system for people 'on the move' and providing access to

  18. Thermally stable green Ba(3)Y(PO(4))3:Ce(3+),Tb(3+) and red Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))4:Eu(3+) phosphors for white-light fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hao; Kuo, Te-Wen; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2011-01-03

    A class of thermal stable of green-emitting phosphors Ba(3)Y(PO(4))(3):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) (BYP:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)) and red-emitting phosphors Ca(3)Y(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4):Eu(3+) (CYAB:Eu(3+)) for white-light fluorescent lamps were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. We observed a decay of only 3% at 150 °C for BYP:0.25Ce3+,0.25Tb3+ (3% for LaPO4:Ce(3+),Tb(3+)), and a decay of 4% for CYAB:0.5Eu(3+) (7% for Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+), 24% for Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+)). The emission intensity of composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) is 70% of that of commercial LaPO(4):Ce(3+),Tb(3+) phosphors, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are found to be (0.323, 0.534). The emission intensity of Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) is 70% and 83% of those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) phosphors, respectively, and the CIE chromaticity coordinates are redder (0.652, 0.342) than those of Y(2)O(3):Eu(3+) (0.645, 0.347) and Y(2)O(2)S:Eu(3+) (0.647, 0.343). A white-light fluorescent lamp is fabricated using composition-optimized Ba(3)(Y(0.5)Ce(0.25)Tb(0.25))(PO(4))(3) and Ca(3)(Y(0.5)Eu(0.5))(AlO)(3)(BO(3))(4) phosphors and matching blue-emitting phosphors. The results indicate that the quality of the brightness and color reproduction is suitable for application in shortwave UV fluorescent lamps. The white-light fluorescent lamp displays CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.33, y = 0.35, a warm white light with a correlated color temperature of 5646 K, and a color-rendering index of Ra = 70.

  19. Tsunami early warning and decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steinmetz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An innovative newly developed modular and standards based Decision Support System (DSS is presented which forms part of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS. The GITEWS project stems from the effort to implement an effective and efficient Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System for the coast of Indonesia facing the Sunda Arc along the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. The geological setting along an active continental margin which is very close to densely populated areas is a particularly difficult one to cope with, because potential tsunamis' travel times are thus inherently short. National policies require an initial warning to be issued within the first five minutes after an earthquake has occurred. There is an urgent requirement for an end-to-end solution where the decision support takes the entire warning chain into account. The system of choice is based on pre-computed scenario simulations and rule-based decision support which is delivered to the decision maker through a sophisticated graphical user interface (GUI using information fusion and fast information aggregation to create situational awareness in the shortest time possible. The system also contains risk and vulnerability information which was designed with the far end of the warning chain in mind – it enables the decision maker to base his acceptance (or refusal of the supported decision also on regionally differentiated risk and vulnerability information (see Strunz et al., 2010. While the system strives to provide a warning as quickly as possible, it is not in its proper responsibility to send and disseminate the warning to the recipients. The DSS only broadcasts its messages to a dissemination system (and possibly any other dissemination system which is operated under the responsibility of BMKG – the meteorological, climatological and geophysical service of Indonesia – which also hosts the tsunami early warning center. The system is to be seen

  20. Design and Validation of Affective Warning Pictorial on Cigarette Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanduen Pat-Arin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study were to design and validate affective warning pictorials for cigarette label in Thailand. Brainstorming and survey techniques were used to collect the idea of possible warning pictorials. All ideas were grouped for finding candidated pictorials. Then, primary sixty warning pictorials were collected and equally classified into three affective warning pictorial groups as positive, neutral, and negative. Sixty Thai male engineering students participated in affective validation of warning pictorials using SAM rating. The International Affective Picture System (IAPS was used to manipulate the affective state of participants to neutral affective state before the experiments. The results revealed that all affective warning pictorials were successfully evoked target affective states on participants. After refining, thirty affective warning pictorials were provided as positive, neutral, and negative affective warning pictorials for using on cigarette labels. Implications on the affective warning pictorials design and validation.

  1. EPR and optical properties of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} co-doped MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17} blue–green light emitting powder phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Vijay, E-mail: vijayjiin2006@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sivaramaiah, G. [Department of Physics, Government College (M), Kadapa 516 004 (India); Rao, J.L. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502 (India); Singh, Pramod K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Sharda University, Greater Noida 201 310 (India); Pathak, M.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033 (India); Mohapatra, M. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-10-15

    Strong blue–green light emitting MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} phosphor was synthesized by a low-temperature initiated, self-propagating and gas producing combustion process in a very short time (<5 min). Structural characterization of the luminescent material was studied with X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The absorption spectrum exhibits bands due to Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions. The excitation spectrum shows a peak at 337 nm. Upon excitation at 337 nm, the emission spectrum exhibits an intense band centered at 462 nm due to transitions from the 4f{sup 6}5d{sup 1} to the 4f{sup 7} configuration of the Eu{sup 2+} ions, whereas sharp peak at 513 nm attributed to {sup 4}T{sub 1}→{sup 6}A{sub 1} transition of Mn{sup 2+} ions. The X-band EPR spectra of MgSrAl{sub 10}O{sub 17}:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} showed the presence of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions.

  2. Emergency warning for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkovich, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this article is to assess the current state of Emergency Warning capabilities in the United States and make recommendations on what needs to be done to cost effectively establish a National Emergency Warning System to best serve the people of the United States, including those with disabilities. As part of this assessment, terminology will be defined, existing systems will be examined, critical needs and functions will be explained, and recommendations made for a system to deliver emergency messages to those people immediately at risk from natural and human-caused disasters in a timely and effective manner, regardless of location or situational circumstance. The assessment will include the needs and available technologies for delivering emergency warnings to people with disabilities, which are generally little understood, poorly addressed, and often ignored.

  3. Of Theory and Meaning in Green Criminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Brisman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I focus on green criminology’s relationship with theory with the aim of describing some of its animating features and offering some suggestions for green criminology’s further emergence. In so doing, I examine green criminology’s intra-disciplinary theoretical engagement and the notion of applying different meanings and interpretations to established theory. Following this, I explore green criminology’s interface with theories and ideas outside criminology – what I refer to as green criminology’s extra-disciplinary theoretical engagement. I conclude by suggesting that green criminology has shed light on the etiology of environmental crime and harm (including climate change, and that it will continue to illuminate not only how and why environmental crime and harm occurs, but also the meaning of such crime and harm.

  4. A new French flash flood warning service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Saint-Aubin Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The French State services in charge of flood forecasting supervise about 22,000 km among the 120,000 km of the French rivers within a warning procedure called Vigilance Crues (http://www.vigicrues.gouv.fr. Some recent dramatic flood events on small watershed not covered by Vigilance Crues highlight the need for a new warning procedure to anticipate violent flash floods that regularly affect rapid river-basins. Thus the concept emerged of an automatic warning service specifically dedicated to local crisis managers. This service will be less elaborated than Vigilance Crues, probably with false alarms and missed events sometimes, but it will deliver a first information. The generation of the warning is based on a simple rainfall-runoff hydrological model developed by Irstea on all French rivers, fed with radar-gauge rainfall grids provided by Meteo-France. Every fifteen minutes, the hydrological model estimates the discharges on the rivers eligible to the service and determine if certain thresholds corresponding to a high or very high flood are likely to be exceeded. The last step of the real-time system is to determine which municipalities are concerned with flood risk and send them an automatic warning by voice call, optionally by sms or email. A specific web interface is available for users to monitor the evolution of the flood risk on maps that are updated every 15 minutes. This new flash flood warning service will be operational early 2017 as a free service for about 8,000 French municipalities.

  5. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties...... areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions...

  6. Recasting the warning-response problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C.O.; Otto, F.; Brante, J.

    2010-01-01

    , accepted, prioritized and responded to by policy-makers. This has led to a simplistic understanding of how communicative, cognitive and political processes involving a range of actors can influence both the perception as well as the response to warnings. The paper also criticizes that many normative...... judgments about the desirability of preventive action are suffering from hindsight bias and insufficient attention to balancing problems related to risk substitution, opportunity costs and moral hazard. In response to these deficits, the paper puts forward a modified model of warning as a persuasive process...

  7. Sensors Provide Early Warning of Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Early Warning Inc. of Troy, New York, licensed powerful biosensor technology from Ames Research Center. Incorporating carbon nanotubes tipped with single strands of nucleic acid from waterborne pathogens, the sensor can detect even minute amounts of targeted, disease causing bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Early Warning features the NASA biosensor in its water analyzer, which can provide advance alert of potential biological hazards in water used for agriculture, food and beverages, showers, and at beaches and lakes -- within hours instead of the days required by conventional laboratory methods.

  8. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure...... supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being...... updatedduring operation. The presented prototypes and associatedexperimental results demonstrate the main functionalitiesof the communication infrastructure, and have led to theinitial deployment of LIWAS units....

  9. The Global Emergency Observation and Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Mulqueen, John A.

    1994-01-01

    Based on an extensive characterization of natural hazards, and an evaluation of their impacts on humanity, a set of functional technical requirements for a global warning and relief system was developed. Since no technological breakthroughs are required to implement a global system capable of performing the functions required to provide sufficient information for prevention, preparedness, warning, and relief from natural disaster effects, a system is proposed which would combine the elements of remote sensing, data processing, information distribution, and communications support on a global scale for disaster mitigation.

  10. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  11. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  12. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  13. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  14. Reduction of greening in potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes which are exposed to light gradually turn green at the surface due to the formation of chlorophyll. Since these potatoes are unattractive to the consumer, various methods have been used to delay the rate of greening. This paper describes a method whereby potatoes were irradiated within one week of harvest and then exposed to continuous fluorescent light

  15. The green against the green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2007-01-01

    When two years ago national park Tatransky narodny park (TANAP) was hit by a windstorm that destroyed 12-thousand hectares of forest, environmentalists demanded that at least part of the area be left untouched. They wanted to achieve a situation where some parts of the mountains would be covered by virgin forest. Foresters warned that if they left the fallen trees where they were, the bark beetle population would multiply excessively, and then spread to a large part of the High Tatras forests. For a long time the mountains would be covered by dry stumps and the dream of environmentalist about a virgin forest would only start to come true after many decades. Gradually the two parties managed to reach a consensus in regards to most of the damaged areas. The area under the fifth level of protection remained untouched (the fallen wood was not removed) and environmentalists allowed the foresters salvage cuttings for planting pheromone traps. Although the bark beetle still manages to spread further, the numbers are not so high as to endanger the Tatra forests. State owned forestry company Statne lesy TANAP together with private owners harvested about 93% of the calamity wood. The rest was left where it had fallen to create ground for a new natural forest. Foresters sold the wood and are using the money raised to plant new forests. This was not the end of disputes, however. At the beginning of last month the fight between environmentalists and foresters ignited again. (author)

  16. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  17. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  18. Crisis management and warning procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie November

    2009-03-01

    territoriale du risque s’avère nécessaire.Based on two flood events that recently affected new housing areas in very different political, organisational and hydrological contexts, this article examines the practices of actors involved in emergency and crisis situations in Switzerland. In both cases, the actors are identified – through their role and their position in the various procedures related to crisis management – and an inventory is made of the documents used. The study examines how the flood events were managed, identifies the organisational changes that followed the crises, and determines how the risk was conceived and to what extent it was formalised by the different actors both before and after the floods. Finally new forecasting and warning procedures that were set up following the events are described. The study shows that floods have a decisive impact on the production of knowledge, but that this phenomenon varies according to the actors. Events such as floods also sometimes reveal the existence of "latent" knowledge, or knowledge that is available but has not yet been integrated into institutional procedures. In terms of both forecasting and crisis management, these events also provide the opportunity to test information channels and to identify and correct any problems relating to organisation, cooperation or the reliability of means of communication. Among other things, the risks and crises related to flooding modify the dynamics and policies of the local area as a result of readjustments in the networks of actors. The introduction of emergency and crisis management measures appears more effective, however, than the reorganisation of planning and development procedures, a process which generally takes a lot longer. Nevertheless, since the recollection of events tends to fade with time, it is important that risks find a more concrete form of spatial expression on the landscape.

  19. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  20. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  1. Flood early warning system: sensors and internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengel, B.E.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Melnikova, N.B.; Shirshov, G.S.; Koelewijn, A.R.; Pyayt, A.L.; Mokhov, I.I.; Chavoshian, A.; Takeuchi, K.

    2013-01-01

    The UrbanFlood early warning system (EWS) is designed to monitor data from very large sensornetworks in flood defences such as embankments, dikes, levees, and dams. The EWS, based on the internet, uses real-time sensor information and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to immediately calculate the

  2. 16 CFR 307.2 - Required warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Required warnings. 307.2 Section 307.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS REGULATIONS UNDER... Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 is the law that requires the enactment of these...

  3. 30 CFR 75.208 - Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.208 Warning devices. Except during the..., or a physical barrier shall be installed to impede travel beyond permanent support. ...

  4. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  5. 2013 Copyright © 2013, CRISA Publications PictoriAl WArningS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Cigarette smoking; tobacco; pictorial warning messages; late adolescents corresponding author: ... messages on the prevention of smoking ... centrate on the effect of social smoking .... The research's aim was explained to the.

  6. Green justice in the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Gulsrud, Natalie Marie

    2016-01-01

    tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment of andde...... of anddecision-making around UGS. On this basis we discuss potentials for European urban green space researchto take up a more explicit environmental justice framing to shed much-needed light on injustices inEuropean cities and inspire change in policy and practice.......tIn this short communication, we discuss European urban green space (UGS) research from an environ-mental justice perspective. We show that European UGS scholarship primarily focuses on functionalvalues and managerial aspects of UGS, while paying less attention to equity in the enjoyment...

  7. Trigger Warnings as Respect for Student Boundaries in University Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leland G.; Kulbaga, Theresa A.

    2018-01-01

    The fierce public and scholarly debate over trigger warnings in university classrooms has often characterized the issue as one of academic freedom and ignored the social justice arguments for trigger warnings. In this essay, we argue that trigger warnings expand academic speech by engaging students more fully in their own learning. Specifically,…

  8. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  9. An electrophysiological study of the impact of a Forward Collision Warning System in a simulator driving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mercedes; Fabrigoule, Colette; Deleurence, Philippe; Ndiaye, Daniel; Fort, Alexandra

    2012-08-27

    Driver distraction has been identified as the most important contributing factor in rear-end collisions. In this context, Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) have been developed specifically to warn drivers of potential rear-end collisions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of a surrogate FCWS and of its reliability according to the driver's attentional state by recording both behavioral and electrophysiological data. Participants drove following a lead motorcycle in a simplified simulator with or without a warning system which gave forewarning of the preceding vehicle braking. Participants had to perform this driving task either alone (simple task) or simultaneously with a secondary cognitive task (dual task). Behavioral and electrophysiological data contributed to revealing a positive effect of the warning system. Participants were faster in detecting the brake light when the system was perfect or imperfect, and the time and attentional resources allocation required for processing the target at higher cognitive level were reduced when the system was completely reliable. When both tasks were performed simultaneously, warning effectiveness was considerably affected at both performance and neural levels; however, the analysis of the brain activity revealed fewer differences between distracted and undistracted drivers when using the warning system. These results show that electrophysiological data could be a valuable tool to complement behavioral data and to have a better understanding of how these systems impact the driver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Warning Triggers in Environmental Hazards: Who Should Be Warned to Do What and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Thomas J; Dennison, Philip E; Li, Dapeng; Drews, Frank A; Siebeneck, Laura K; Lindell, Michael K

    2017-04-01

    Determining the most effective public warnings to issue during a hazardous environmental event is a complex problem. Three primary questions need to be answered: Who should take protective action? What is the best action? and When should this action be initiated? Warning triggers provide a proactive means for emergency managers to simultaneously answer these questions by recommending that a target group take a specified protective action if a preset environmental trigger condition occurs (e.g., warn a community to evacuate if a wildfire crosses a proximal ridgeline). Triggers are used to warn the public across a wide variety of environmental hazards, and an improved understanding of their nature and role promises to: (1) advance protective action theory by unifying the natural, built, and social themes in hazards research into one framework, (2) reveal important information about emergency managers' risk perception, situational awareness, and threat assessment regarding threat behavior and public response, and (3) advance spatiotemporal models for representing the geography and timing of disaster warning and response (i.e., a coupled natural-built-social system). We provide an overview and research agenda designed to advance our understanding and modeling of warning triggers. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. GREEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE CHANGE PREVENTION CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While experts in economics place transition to green economy on two directions - reducing ecological footprint and increasing human welfare - climate change specialists warn that effects of global warming will have a much greater impact in the future. It is natural to join scientific contributions in these two areas because both perspectives recognize the ravages made by industrialization, which triggered a serie of abrupt climate changes. For example, the average temperature in Europe has increased about 1oC. Based on these evidences, this article will show the usefulness of introducing a concept of full cycle to prevent climate change in the new paradigm that seeks to solve problems related to the fundamentals of sustainable development through transition to green economy. Using this method, this approach intends to be a new theoretical contribution which can act as support to efficiency of new clean technologies.

  12. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  13. The lower effectiveness of text-only health warnings in China compared to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Xu, Steve Shaowei; Meng, Gang; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve C; Feng, Guoze; Jiang, Yuan; Driezen, Pete; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-11-01

    In 2009, China changed its health warnings on cigarette packs from side-only text warnings to two text-only warnings on 30% of the bottom of the front and back of the pack. Also in 2009, Malaysia changed from similar text warnings to pictorial health warnings consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11 Guidelines. To measure the impact of the change in health warnings in China and to compare the text-only health warnings to the impact of the pictorial health warnings introduced in Malaysia. We measured changes in key indicators of warning effectiveness among a longitudinal cohort sample of smokers from Waves 1 to 3 (2006-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey and from Waves 3 to 4 (2008-2009) of the ITC Malaysia Survey. Each cohort consisted of representative samples of adult (≥18 years) smokers from six cities in China (n=6575) and from a national sample in Malaysia (n=2883). Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine the impact of the health warnings on subsequent changes in salience of warnings, cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Compared to Malaysia, the weak text-only warning labels in China led to a significant change in only two of six key indicators of health warning effectiveness: forgoing cigarettes and reading the warning labels. The change to pictorial health warnings in Malaysia led to significant and substantial increases in five of six indicators (noticing, reading, forgoing, avoiding, thinking about quitting). The delay in implementing pictorial health warnings in China constitutes a lost opportunity for increasing knowledge and awareness of the harms of cigarettes, and for motivating smokers to quit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetically engineered plants get a green light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin

    1983-10-07

    The National Institutes of Health's Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee has given conditional approval to a proposal by the Cetus Madison Corporation to field test plants that have been genetically manipulated to resist some diseases. The committee made no recommendation, however, on another field test proposed by BioTechnica International Inc. Both proposals had been challenged by a coalition of environmental groups led by Jeremy Rifkin, who has now filed a freedom of information request to NIH asking for documents pertaining to their health and safety aspects.

  16. Spectrally balanced chromatic landing approach lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, W. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Red warning lights delineate the runway approach with additional blue lights juxtaposed with the red lights such that the red lights are chromatically balanced. The red/blue point light sources result in the phenomenon that the red lights appear in front of the blue lights with about one and one-half times the diameter of the blue. To a pilot observing these lights along a glide path, those red lights directly below appear to be nearer than the blue lights. For those lights farther away seen in perspective at oblique angles, the red lights appear to be in a position closer to the pilot and hence appear to be above the corresponding blue lights. This produces a very pronounced three dimensional effect referred to as chromostereopsis which provides valuable visual cues to enable the pilot to perceive his actual position above the ground and the actual distance to the runway.

  17. The Influence of Legitimacy on a Proactive Green Orientation and Green Performance: A Study Based on Transitional Economy Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Ge

    2016-12-01

    different industries to develop green actions under the pressure of institutional constraints but also warns governments to improve policies and regulations quickly under different situations of institutional uncertainty.

  18. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  19. Different shades of green on small islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tiago

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many small islands exist as tourism destinations worldwide. In the 1990s, the growth of environmental consciousness led some small islands to question their mass tourism offers and to refocus on more sustainable propositions. However, it remains unclear whether hospitality firms see these sustainability related efforts as drivers of success and whether tourists value this dimension when choosing or recommending a destination. This study chose a small island destination to address these questions using data covering firm and tourism perceptions of green products. The results show that tourists tend to value green efforts with different intensities, corresponding to three segments: Light Green, Green, and Super Green. These findings should help hotels adjust their communication strategies and develop new services. Further, destination marketing organizations can devise a consistent destination strategy, integrating all stakeholders by including their most valued concepts.

  20. Les Rȇves de la Fée Verte : L’absinthe dans les romans de la deuxième moitié du XIXe siècle (Dreams of The Green Fairy: Absinthe in The Novels of The Second Half of The 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voldřichová Beránková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabricated from the end of the 18th century, popularized after 1830 by French soldiers returning from Algeria, crowned the green fairy of the Parisian boulevards around 1860, the absinthe dominates the fin-de-siècle imagination as the principal means of transport “anywhere out of the world”. This article resumes the paradoxical mythology of this beverage that appears in French novels in the second half of the 19th century. Octave Féré, Jules Cauvain and the Goncourt brothers give a warning against its pernicious power, while Emile Zola’s attitude to the absinthe is more ambiguous. The magical potential of the green fairy seems to be tempting the father of naturalism who mixes science and mythology, the probable and the grotesque, the strict laws of heredity and the supernatural lightness of a blue flame coming from the “spontaneous combustion”.

  1. Forecasting, Warning and Responding to Transnational Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas to conceptualise and empirically study the interlinked problems of forecasting, warning and mobilising preventive action. Contributors comment on key problems such as uncertainty, silo-mentality, spotting weak-signals, cultures of blame, conflicts of interest and divergent risk perceptions......, but are also sensitive to differences between actors and types of risk. The overall thrust is to challenge both technocratic and popularised accounts of the warning-response problem. Successful prevention or mitigation involves difficult cognitive, normative and political judgements. Whilst these difficulties......What does it take to recognise and prevent hazards with international causes and consequences? How can we handle the risks related to financial instability, terrorism, pandemics, air pollution, flooding and climate change? The book brings together scholars and senior practitioners from different...

  2. Automatic early warning systems for the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesjak Martin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Computerized, continuous monitoring environmental early warning systems are complex networks that merge measurements with the information technology. Accuracy, consistency, reliability and data quality are their most important features. Several effects may disturb their characteristics: hostile environment, unreliable communications, poor quality of equipment nonqualified users or service personnel. According to our experiences, a number of measures should be taken to enhance system performances and to maintain them at the desired level. In the paper, we are presenting an analysis of system requirements, possible disturbances and corrective measures that give the main directives for the design, construction and exploitation of the environmental early warning systems. Procedures which ensure data integrity and quality are mentioned. Finally, the contemporary system approach based on the LAN/WAN network topology with Intranet/Internet software is proposed, together with case descriptions of two already operating systems, based on computer-network principle.

  3. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  4. Home seismometer for earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shigeki; Horiuchi, Yuko; Yamamoto, Shunroku; Nakamura, Hiromitsu; Wu, Changjiang; Rydelek, Paul A.; Kachi, Masaaki

    2009-02-01

    The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has started the practical service of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) and a very dense deployment of receiving units is expected in the near future. The receiving/alarm unit of an EEW system is equipped with a CPU and memory and is on-line via the internet. By adding an inexpensive seismometer and A/D converter, this unit is transformed into a real-time seismic observatory, which we are calling a home seismometer. If the home seismometer is incorporated in the standard receiving unit of EEW, then the number of seismic observatories will be drastically increased. Since the background noise inside a house caused by human activity may be very large, we have developed specialized software for on-site warning using the home seismometer. We tested our software and found that our algorithm can correctly distinguish between noise and earthquakes for nearly all the events.

  5. Forests and Phenology: Designing the Early Warning System to Understand Forest Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, T.; Phillips, M. B.; Hargrove, W. W.; Dobson, G.; Hicks, J.; Hutchins, M.; Lichtenstein, K.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetative phenology is the study of plant development and changes with the seasons, such as the greening-up and browning-down of forests, and how these events are influenced by variations in climate. A National Phenology Data Set, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images covering 2002 through 2009, is now available from work by NASA, the US Forest Service, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This new data set provides an easily interpretable product useful for detecting changes to the landscape due to long-term factors such as climate change, as well as finding areas affected by short-term forest threats such as insects or disease. The Early Warning System (EWS) is a toolset being developed by the US Forest Service and the University of North Carolina-Asheville to support distribution and use of the National Phenology Data Set. The Early Warning System will help research scientists, US Forest Service personnel, forest and natural resources managers, decision makers, and the public in the use of phenology data to better understand unexpected change within our nation’s forests. These changes could have multiple natural sources such as insects, disease, or storm damage, or may be due to human-induced events, like thinning, harvest, forest conversion to agriculture, or residential and commercial use. The primary goal of the Early Warning System is to provide a seamless integration between monitoring, detection, early warning and prediction of these forest disturbances as observed through phenological data. The system consists of PC and web-based components that are structured to support four user stages of increasing knowledge and data sophistication. Building Literacy: This stage of the Early Warning System educates potential users about the system, why the system should be used, and the fundamentals about the data the system uses. The channels for this education include a website, interactive tutorials, pamphlets, and other technology

  6. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  7. Crowd-Sourced Global Earthquake Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Murray, J. R.; Langbein, J. O.; Owen, S. E.; Iannucci, B. A.; Hauser, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Although earthquake early warning (EEW) has shown great promise for reducing loss of life and property, it has only been implemented in a few regions due, in part, to the prohibitive cost of building the required dense seismic and geodetic networks. However, many cars and consumer smartphones, tablets, laptops, and similar devices contain low-cost versions of the same sensors used for earthquake monitoring. If a workable EEW system could be implemented based on either crowd-sourced observations from consumer devices or very inexpensive networks of instruments built from consumer-quality sensors, EEW coverage could potentially be expanded worldwide. Controlled tests of several accelerometers and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers typically found in consumer devices show that, while they are significantly noisier than scientific-grade instruments, they are still accurate enough to capture displacements from moderate and large magnitude earthquakes. The accuracy of these sensors varies greatly depending on the type of data collected. Raw coarse acquisition (C/A) code GPS data are relatively noisy. These observations have a surface displacement detection threshold approaching ~1 m and would thus only be useful in large Mw 8+ earthquakes. However, incorporating either satellite-based differential corrections or using a Kalman filter to combine the raw GNSS data with low-cost acceleration data (such as from a smartphone) decreases the noise dramatically. These approaches allow detection thresholds as low as 5 cm, potentially enabling accurate warnings for earthquakes as small as Mw 6.5. Simulated performance tests show that, with data contributed from only a very small fraction of the population, a crowd-sourced EEW system would be capable of warning San Francisco and San Jose of a Mw 7 rupture on California's Hayward fault and could have accurately issued both earthquake and tsunami warnings for the 2011 Mw 9 Tohoku-oki, Japan earthquake.

  8. Early warnings : a phenomenon in project management

    OpenAIRE

    Nikander, Ilmari O.

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of Concurrent Engineering has caused growing demands on project management. The classic project management methods are often slow: problems may already exist when those methods are applied. The objective of the present study is to improve the opportunities of those responsible for a project's operational management to receive advance information about potential problems and final results through early warnings typical of the theory of weak signals by Igor Ansoff. The researc...

  9. A comparison of different informative vibrotactile forward collision warnings: does the warning need to be linked to the collision event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    Full Text Available Recent research demonstrates that auditory and vibrotactile forward collision warnings presenting a motion signal (e.g., looming or apparent motion across the body surface can facilitate speeded braking reaction times (BRTs. The purpose of the present study was to expand on this work by directly comparing warning signals in which the motion conveyed was constant across all collision events with signals in which the speed of motion was dependent on the closing velocity (CV. Two experiments were conducted using a simulated car-following task and BRTs were measured. In Experiment 1, increasing intensity (looming vibrotactile signals were presented from a single tactor attached to the driver's waist. When the increase in intensity was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster as compared to a no-warning condition, however, they were not significantly different from constant intensity and CV-independent looming warnings. In Experiment 2, a vertical array of three tactors was used to create motion either towards (upwards or away (downwards from the driver's head. When the warning signal presented upwards motion that was CV-linked, BRTs were significantly faster than all other warning types. Downwards warnings led to a significantly higher number of brake activations in false alarm situations as compared to upwards moving warnings. The effectiveness of dynamic tactile collision warnings would therefore appear to depend on both the link between the warning and collision event and on the directionality of the warning signal.

  10. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  11. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  12. A quasi-randomised, controlled, feasibility trial of GLITtER (Green Light Imaging Interpretation to Enhance Recovery—a psychoeducational intervention for adults with low back pain attending secondary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Karran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Although it is broadly accepted that clinicians should endeavour to reassure patients with low back pain, to do so can present a significant clinical challenge. Guidance for how to provide effective reassurance is scarce and there may be a need to counter patient concerns arising from misinterpretation of spinal imaging findings. ‘GLITtER’ (Green Light Imaging Intervention to Enhance Recovery was developed as a standardised method of communicating imaging findings in a manner that is reassuring and promotes engagement in an active recovery. This feasibility study is an important step towards definitive testing of its effect. Methods This feasibility study was a prospective, quasi-randomised, parallel trial with longitudinal follow-up, involving sampling of patients attending a spinal outpatient clinic at a metropolitan hospital. English speaking adults (18–75 years presenting to the clinic with low back pain and prior spinal imaging were considered for inclusion. Eligible patients were allocated to receive a GLITtER consultation or a standard consultation (as determined by appointment scheduling and clinician availability, and were blinded to their allocation. Full details of the GLITtER intervention are described in accordance with the Tidier template.Follow-up data were collected after 1 and 3 months. The primary outcome of this study was the fulfillment of specific feasibility criteria which were established a priori. Determination of a sample size for a definitive randomised controlled trial was a secondary objective. Results Two hundred seventy-six patients underwent preliminary screening and 31 patients met the final eligibility criteria for study inclusion. Seventeen participants were allocated to the intervention group and 14 were allocated to the control group. Three month follow-up data were available from 42% of the 31 enrolled participants (N = 13, six intervention, seven control. Feasibility indicators for consent

  13. A quasi-randomised, controlled, feasibility trial of GLITtER (Green Light Imaging Interpretation to Enhance Recovery)-a psychoeducational intervention for adults with low back pain attending secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karran, Emma L; Hillier, Susan L; Yau, Yun-Hom; McAuley, James H; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2018-01-01

    Although it is broadly accepted that clinicians should endeavour to reassure patients with low back pain, to do so can present a significant clinical challenge. Guidance for how to provide effective reassurance is scarce and there may be a need to counter patient concerns arising from misinterpretation of spinal imaging findings. 'GLITtER' (Green Light Imaging Intervention to Enhance Recovery) was developed as a standardised method of communicating imaging findings in a manner that is reassuring and promotes engagement in an active recovery. This feasibility study is an important step towards definitive testing of its effect. This feasibility study was a prospective, quasi-randomised, parallel trial with longitudinal follow-up, involving sampling of patients attending a spinal outpatient clinic at a metropolitan hospital. English speaking adults (18-75 years) presenting to the clinic with low back pain and prior spinal imaging were considered for inclusion. Eligible patients were allocated to receive a GLITtER consultation or a standard consultation (as determined by appointment scheduling and clinician availability), and were blinded to their allocation. Full details of the GLITtER intervention are described in accordance with the Tidier template.Follow-up data were collected after 1 and 3 months. The primary outcome of this study was the fulfillment of specific feasibility criteria which were established a priori . Determination of a sample size for a definitive randomised controlled trial was a secondary objective. Two hundred seventy-six patients underwent preliminary screening and 31 patients met the final eligibility criteria for study inclusion. Seventeen participants were allocated to the intervention group and 14 were allocated to the control group. Three month follow-up data were available from 42% of the 31 enrolled participants ( N  = 13, six intervention, seven control). Feasibility indicators for consent, resource burden and acceptability of the

  14. Implicit motivational impact of pictorial health warning on cigarette packs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Volchan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. METHODS: Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338 were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63 tested pictorial warnings (ten that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs' manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings' emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. FINDINGS: Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants' judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change.

  15. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated by successes made in non-disease specific community-based early warning systems with a view to identify opportunities for developing similar systems for malaria. This article reviewed the existing community-based early warning systems documented in literature. The types of disasters that are addressed by these systems and the methodologies utilised in the development of the systems were identified. The review showed that most of the documented community-based early warning systems focus on natural disasters such as floods, drought, and landslides. Community-based early warning systems for human diseases are very few, even though such systems exist at national and regional and global levels. There is a clear gap in terms of community-based malaria early warning systems. The methodologies for the development of the community-based early warning systems reviewed mainly derive from the four elements of early warning systems; namely risk knowledge, monitoring, warning communication and response capability. The review indicated the need for the development of community based early warning systems for human diseases. Keywords: community; early warning; disaster; hazards

  16. Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Szu-Hung; Shiu, Jin-Ruei; Liu, Shun-Wei; Yeh, Shi-Jay; Chen, Yu-Hung; Chen, Chin-Ti; Chow, Tahsin J; Wu, Chih-I

    2009-01-21

    A series of group III metal chelates have been synthesized and characterized for the versatile application of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These metal chelates are based on 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine derivates as chelating ligands, and they are the blue version analogues of well-known green fluorophore Alq(3) (tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum). These chelating ligands and their metal chelates were easily prepared with an improved synthetic method, and they were facially purified by a sublimation process, which enables the materials to be readily available in bulk quantity and facilitates their usage in OLEDs. Unlike most currently known blue analogues of Alq(3) or other deep blue materials, metal chelates of 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine exhibit very deep blue fluorescence, wide band gap energy, high charge carrier mobility, and superior thermal stability. Using a vacuum-thermal-deposition process in the fabrication of OLEDs, we have successfully demonstrated that the application of these unusual hydroxynaphthyridine metal chelates can be very versatile and effective. First, we have solved or alleviated the problem of exciplex formation that took place between the hole-transporting layer and hydroxynaphthyridine metal chelates, of which OLED application has been prohibited to date. Second, these deep blue materials can play various roles in OLED application. They can be a highly efficient nondopant deep blue emitter: maximum external quantum efficiency eta(ext) of 4.2%; Commision Internationale de L'Eclairage x, y coordinates, CIE(x,y) = 0.15, 0.07. Compared with Alq(3), Bebq(2) (beryllium bis(benzoquinolin-10-olate)), or TPBI (2,2',2''-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole), they are a good electron-transporting material: low HOMO energy level of 6.4-6.5 eV and not so high LUMO energy level of 3.0-3.3 eV. They can be ambipolar and possess a high electron mobility of 10(-4) cm(2)/V s at an electric field of 6.4 x 10(5) V/cm. They are a

  17. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  18. Implicit Motivational Impact of Pictorial Health Warning on Cigarette Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchan, Eliane; David, Isabel A.; Tavares, Gisella; Nascimento, Billy M.; Oliveira, Jose M.; Gleiser, Sonia; Szklo, Andre; Perez, Cristina; Cavalcante, Tania; Pereira, Mirtes G.; Oliveira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages is one of the provisions included in the first ever global health treaty by the World Health Organization against the tobacco epidemic. There is substantial evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of graphic health warning labels on intention to quit, thoughts about health risks and engaging in cessation behaviors. However, studies that address the implicit emotional drives evoked by such warnings are still underexplored. Here, we provide experimental data for the use of pictorial health warnings as a reliable strategy for tobacco control. Methods Experiment 1 pre-tested nineteen prototypes of pictorial warnings to screen for their emotional impact. Participants (n = 338) were young adults balanced in gender, smoking status and education. Experiment 2 (n = 63) tested pictorial warnings (ten) that were stamped on packs. We employed an innovative set-up to investigate the impact of the warnings on the ordinary attitude of packs’ manipulation, and quantified judgments of warnings’ emotional strength and efficacy against smoking. Findings Experiment 1 revealed that women judged the warning prototypes as more aversive than men, and smokers judged them more aversive than non-smokers. Participants with lower education judged the prototypes more aversive than participants with higher education. Experiment 2 showed that stamped warnings antagonized the appeal of the brands by imposing a cost to manipulate the cigarette packs, especially for smokers. Additionally, participants’ judgments revealed that the more aversive a warning, the more it is perceived as effective against smoking. Conclusions Health warning labels are one of the key components of the integrated approach to control the global tobacco epidemic. The evidence presented in this study adds to the understanding of how implicit responses to pictorial warnings may contribute to behavioral change. PMID:23977223

  19. A review of studies on community based early warning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Macherera; Moses J. Chimbari

    2016-01-01

    Community-based early warning systems involve community driven collection and analysis of information that enable warning messages to help a community to react to a hazard and reduce the resulting loss or harm. Most early warning systems are designed at the national or global level. Local communities’ capacity to predict weather conditions using indigenous knowledge has been demonstrated in studies focusing on climate change and agriculture in some African countries. This review was motivated...

  20. The effects of light-emitting diode lighting on greenhouse plant growth and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Olle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present the light emitting diode (LED technology for greenhouse plant lighting and to give an overview about LED light effects on photosynthetic indices, growth, yield and nutritional value in green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, sweet pepper transplants. The sole LED lighting, applied in closed growth chambers, as well as combinations of LED wavelengths with conventional light sources, fluorescent and high pressure sodium lamp light, and natural illumination in greenhouses are overviewed. Red and blue light are basal in the lighting spectra for green vegetables and tomato, cucumber, and pepper transplants; far red light, important for photomorphogenetic processes in plants also results in growth promotion. However, theoretically unprofitable spectral parts as green or yellow also have significant physiological effects on investigated plants. Presented results disclose the variability of light spectral effects on different plant species and different physiological indices.

  1. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  2. Leakage warning system for flexible underwater pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, E; Bernstein, L

    1985-08-01

    Underwater pipelines for unloading oil tankers, e.g. in 30 km distance from the harbour site, are required to be flexible and require supervision. This is done by implementation of oil sensitive sensors between the inner rubber tube and the following impregnated textile layer. The generated sensor signals, influenced by leak oil, have to be wireless transmitted from 150 meters under water to the supervisory station at the coast. Sensor configurations are described, to derive the point of the leakage from the topologized warning signals.

  3. Early warning signals of simulated Amazon dieback

    OpenAIRE

    Boulton, Chris; Good, Peter; Lenton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Dieback of the Amazon rainforest has been considered a potential tipping point in the Earth system due to the belief that there is more than one stable attractor in its dynamics and for future projections within global climate models (GCMs), in some cases a huge amount of forest is lost abruptly. The rainforest is a huge carbon sink, playing a critical role in the global carbon cycle and so if dieback is going to happen over a short period of time, it is important to have some early warning t...

  4. Early warning network of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.; Kuca, P.; Prouza, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The Early Warning Network encompasses 48 measuring sites covering the whole territory of the Czech Republic; 38 of them are located at observatories of the Czech Hydro-Meteorological Institute (28 at round-the-clock manned observatories, 10 at unmanned, automated observatories) and 10 are located at air contamination measuring points operated by the National Radiation Protection Institute and Regional Centres of the State Office for Nuclear Safety. The network operates in one of 3 modes: the standard mode, alert mode, and emergency mode. (P.A.)

  5. An analysis of legal warnings after drug approval in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriphiromya, Pakawadee; Theeraroungchaisri, Anuchai

    2015-02-01

    Drug risk management has many tools for minimizing risk and black-boxed warnings (BBWs) are one of those tools. Some serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs) emerge only after a drug is marketed and used in a larger population. In Thailand, additional legal warnings after drug approval, in the form of black-boxed warnings, may be applied. Review of their characteristics can assist in the development of effective risk mitigation. This study was a cross sectional review of all legal warnings imposed in Thailand after drug approval (2003-2012). Any boxed warnings for biological products and revised warnings which were not related to safety were excluded. Nine legal warnings were evaluated. Seven related to drugs classes and two to individual drugs. The warnings involved four main types of predictable ADRs: drug-disease interactions, side effects, overdose and drug-drug interactions. The average time from first ADRs reported to legal warnings implementation was 12 years. The triggers were from both safety signals in Thailand and regulatory measures in other countries outside Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Quantitative Analysis of Variability Warnings in Linux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean; Flesborg, Elvis; Brabrand, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In order to get insight into challenges with quality in highly-configurable software, we analyze one of the largest open source projects, the Linux kernel, and quantify basic properties of configuration-related warnings. We automatically analyze more than 20 thousand valid and distinct random...... configurations, in a computation that lasted more than a month. We count and classify a total of 400,000 warnings to get an insight in the distribution of warning types, and the location of the warnings. We run both on a stable and unstable version of the Linux kernel. The results show that Linux contains...

  7. Warning: you are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers’ decisions - if the ad is goal relevant - the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  8. Warning: You are being primed! The effect of a warning on the impact of subliminal ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Bernritter, S.F.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    As it has been demonstrated that subliminal advertising can affect consumers' decisions – if the ad is goal relevant – the question rises whether consumers are able to shield themselves from subliminal influences. In the present research it was examined whether warning people of the presence of

  9. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  10. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  11. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  12. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  13. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  14. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  15. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  16. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  17. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  18. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  19. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  20. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  1. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  2. Evaluation of a sudden brake warning system: effect on the response time of the following driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Robert B; Starkey, Nicola J

    2010-07-01

    This study used a video-based braking simulation dual task to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the effect of a sudden brake warning system (SBWS) in a leading passenger vehicle on the response time of the following driver. The primary task required the participants (N=25, 16 females, full NZ license holders) to respond to sudden braking manoeuvres of a lead vehicle during day and night driving, wet and dry conditions and in rural and urban traffic, while concurrently performing a secondary tracking task using a computer mouse. The SBWS in the lead vehicle consisted of g-force controlled activation of the rear hazard lights (the rear indicators flashed), in addition to the standard brake lights. Overall, the results revealed that responses to the braking manoeuvres of the leading vehicles when the hazard lights were activated by the warning system were 0.34 s (19%) faster compared to the standard brake lights. The SBWS was particularly effective when the simulated braking scenario of the leading vehicle did not require an immediate and abrupt braking response. Given this, the SBWS may also be beneficial for allowing smoother deceleration, thus reducing fuel consumption. These preliminary findings justify a larger, more ecologically valid laboratory evaluation which may lead to a naturalistic study in order to test this new technology in 'real world' braking situations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  4. Observed activation status of lane departure warning and forward collision warning of Honda vehicles at dealership service centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-11-16

    There are little objective data on whether drivers with lane departure warning and forward collision warning systems actually use them, but self-report data indicate that lane departure warning may be used less and viewed less favorably than forward collision warning. The current study assessed whether the systems were turned on when drivers brought their vehicles to dealership service stations and whether the observational protocol is a feasible method for collecting similar data on various manufacturers' systems. Observations of 2013-2015 Honda Accords, 2014-2015 Odysseys, and 2015 CR-Vs occurred at 2 U.S. Honda dealerships for approximately 4 weeks during Summer 2015. Of the 265 vehicles observed to have the 2 systems, 87 (32.8%) had lane departure warning turned on. Accords were associated with a 66% increase in the likelihood that lane departure warning was turned on compared with Odysseys, but the rate was still only about 40% in Accords. In contrast, forward collision warning was turned on in all but one of the observed vehicles. Observations found that the activation rate was much higher for forward collision warning than lane departure warning. The observation method worked well and appears feasible for extending to other manufacturers.

  5. Enhanced chemical weapon warning via sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael; Pritchett, Daniel; Cothren, Brian; Schwaiger, James

    2011-05-01

    Torch Technologies Inc., is actively involved in chemical sensor networking and data fusion via multi-year efforts with Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). The objective of these efforts is to develop innovative concepts and advanced algorithms that enhance our national Chemical Warfare (CW) test and warning capabilities via the fusion of traditional and non-traditional CW sensor data. Under Phase I, II, and III Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contracts with DPG, Torch developed the Advanced Chemical Release Evaluation System (ACRES) software to support non real-time CW sensor data fusion. Under Phase I and II SBIRs with DTRA in conjunction with the Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (ECBC), Torch is using the DPG ACRES CW sensor data fuser as a framework from which to develop the Cloud state Estimation in a Networked Sensor Environment (CENSE) data fusion system. Torch is currently developing CENSE to implement and test innovative real-time sensor network based data fusion concepts using CW and non-CW ancillary sensor data to improve CW warning and detection in tactical scenarios.

  6. Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.

    1969-01-01

    From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: 1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from β-carotene to chlorophyll occurs

  7. Green accounting for greener energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, M.; Vranes, S.; Goekalp, I.

    2010-01-01

    The first step towards the widespread use of renewable energy sources and preservation of our environment for the people of the future is to adopt the ''green accounting'' standards that translate socially and environmentally responsible behavior into monetary terms, the only language businesses understand. These standards have the potential of switching on the red light for all pollution-causing power plants, and those depleting the natural capital in any way, be it over-harvesting the forests, or exhausting the underground treasures - coal, oil, natural gas, etc. This paper will show how green accounting can help in changing the focus from the economic welfare to the total societal welfare, acknowledging the fact that human society is an integral part of the natural world. The paper will also briefly present the software developed by the authors that introduce the green accounting principles into the investment appraisal process, aiming at encouraging investments into renewable energy. The tool is also useful as a platform facilitating calibration of economic/financial instruments, like environmental taxes of governmental incentives, that are usually to boost renewable energy sector. The comparative analysis of investment into biofuel-powered combined heat and power production plant using two types of investment valuation standards, one based on conventional cash-flow analysis, the other based on green-accounting standards is detailed in the paper. The analysis is performed as a part of the European Commission Framework Program Project AFTUR, undertaken by the consortium consisting of respectful European Research Establishments in renewable energy area as well as major European biofuel-powered turbine producers. The results show that the wider adoption of green accounting standards would induce the unprecedented growth of the renewable energy sector, because it would make the investment into renewable energy attractive for investors. (author)

  8. [Impact of cigarette packages warning labels in relation to tobacco-smoking dependence and motivation to quit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannocci, Alice; Antici, Daniele; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    ) reduced the number cigarettes per day, and 5% (12 smokers) attempted to quit. Forty-five percent of smokers did not know the real impact of light cigarettes on their health, and 49% decided to smoke light cigarettes after having read the warnings. Women were more susceptible to immediate consequences of smoking (appearance of wrinkles; p<0.001), and were more prone to switch to light cigarettes (p=0.002). Smoking dependence, computed with Fagerstrom's test, showed significant differences by age groups (higher in smokers aged 30-45 years; p=0.001), and in smokers who were not interested to deepen knowledge of smoking effects (p=0.009). Individuals more motivated to quit were younger smokers (p=0.012). Smokers aged ≥ 45 years (OR=2.54; 95%CI 1.05-6.17), more motivated to quit (OR=2.92; 95%CI 1.17-7.30), those who reported they do not like the smoking smell on their own clothes (OR=3.6; 95%CI 1.4-9.0), those who reported warning messages are important (OR=4.93; 95%CI 1.55-15.71), those who changed their own smoking behavior due the warnings (OR=3.31; 95%CI 1.10-9.99) were more likely to reduce daily number of cigarettes due the health warnings. Forty-seven percent thought that health warnings with text and images could have a higher impact in comparison to text-only warnings. Moreover, women were more motivated to change cigarette brand if a brand should introduce pictorial warnings (OR=2.54; 95%CI 1.41-4.56). our study showed some positive effects of the introduction of health warnings on cigarette packages. In fact, almost all were informed on tobacco effects, 14% of them reduced the amount of daily smoking, and 5% attempted to quit. Many smokers still believe that switching to lighter cigarettes (e.g. those with less nicotine and tar contents) reduces smoking-related diseases. More than 50% of smokers recognized the importance of health warnings in communicating health risks of smoking, while women were more impressed than men by shocking pictorial warnings.

  9. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  11. Going Green: Eco-Friendly Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show that a school's physical condition--especially its lighting and indoor air quality--directly affect student performance. A 2005 Turner Construction survey of green buildings found that 70 percent of districts with sustainable schools reported improved student performance. It also makes perfect sense that…

  12. Red and green fluorescence from oral biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, C.M.C.; Hoogenkamp, M.A.; Krom, B.P.; Janus, M.M.; ten Cate, J.M.; de Soet, J.J.; Crielaard, W.; van der Veen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis.

  13. Ultrasound and green chemistry--Further comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintas, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent discussions regarding the association of sonochemistry and sustainable methods, as well as the controversial misuse and abuse of the "green" concept through the scientific literature, this manuscript provides further thoughts hoping to be of benefit to the broad readership of this journal and practitioners of sustainable chemistry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Collision warning system based on probability density functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a collision warning method between the host vehicle and target object(s) is studied. A probabilistic collision warning method is proposed, which is, in particular, useful for objects, e.g. vulnerable road users, which trajectories can rapidly change heading and/or velocity with

  15. 14 CFR 91.223 - Terrain awareness and warning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the terrain awareness and warning system audio and visual warnings. (d) Exceptions. Paragraphs (a... after March 29, 2002. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a... minimum meets the requirements for Class B equipment in Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C151. (b) Airplanes...

  16. 49 CFR 571.125 - Standard No. 125; Warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS Federal... in motor vehicles and used to warn approaching traffic of the presence of a stopped vehicle, except... the driver activate the vehicular hazard warning signal lamps before leaving the vehicle to erect the...

  17. 49 CFR 234.211 - Security of warning system apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of warning system apparatus. 234.211... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.211 Security of warning system apparatus...

  18. Multimodal warnings to enhance risk communication and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, E.C.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2014-01-01

    Multimodal warnings incorporate audio and/or skin-based (tactile) cues to supplement or replace visual cues in environments where the user’s visual perception is busy, impaired, or nonexistent. This paper describes characteristics of audio, tactile, and multimodal warning displays and their role in

  19. An exploration of public knowledge of warning signs for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Sinead; McKenna, Hugh; Fleming, Paul; McIlfatrick, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Warning signs of cancer have long been used as an effective way to summarise and communicate early indications of cancer to the public. Given the increasing global burden of cancer, the communication of these warning signs to the public is more important than ever before. This paper presents part of a larger study which explored the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours of people in mid-life towards cancer prevention. The focus of this paper is on the assessment of the knowledge of members of the public aged between 35 and 54 years of age. A questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of the population listing 17 warning signs of cancer. These included the correct warning signs and distracter signs. Respondents were asked to correctly identify the seven warning signs. Findings show that respondents could identify 4.8 cancer warning signs correctly. Analysis by demographics shows that being female, being older, having a higher level of educational attainment and being in a higher socio-economic group are predictors of better level of knowledge of cancer warning signs. Recommendations are proffered with regard to better targeting, clarification and communication of cancer warning signs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  1. A scheme for evaluating a local queue warning system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H. & Oei, H.-L.

    2018-01-01

    This article outlines a method of evaluating a 'local queue warning system', in principle intended only to warn drivers of unexpected congestion at known discontinuities of the road geomctry (bottleneck) and give them advisory speed indications. A prerequisite for installing this system is therefore

  2. 30 CFR 77.410 - Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Safeguards for Mechanical Equipment § 77.410 Mobile equipment; automatic warning devices. (a) Mobile equipment such as front-end loaders, forklifts, tractors, graders, and trucks, except...

  3. Development of tsunami early warning systems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wächter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostered by and embedded in the general development of information and communications technology (ICT, the evolution of tsunami warning systems (TWS shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors (e.g. tide gauges and buoys for the detection of tsunami waves in the ocean.

    Currently, the beginning implementation of regional tsunami warning infrastructures indicates a new phase in the development of TWS. A new generation of TWS should not only be able to realise multi-sensor monitoring for tsunami detection. Moreover, these systems have to be capable to form a collaborative communication infrastructure of distributed tsunami warning systems in order to implement regional, ocean-wide monitoring and warning strategies.

    In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS and in the EU-funded FP6 project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS, a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS have been successfully incorporated.

    In the FP7 project Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC, new developments in ICT (e.g. complex event processing (CEP and event-driven architecture (EDA are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed tsunami warning systems.

  4. Warning Signs for Suicide: Theory, Research, and Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, M. David; Berman, Alan L.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Nock, Matthew K.; Silverman, Morton M.; Mandrusiak, Michael; Van Orden, Kimberly; Witte, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    The current article addresses the issue of warning signs for suicide, attempting to differentiate the construct from risk factors. In accordance with the characteristic features discussed, a consensus set of warning signs identified by the American Association of Suicidology working group are presented, along with a discussion of relevant clinical…

  5. The investigation of early warning signs of aggression in forensic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frans Fluttert; prof Berno van Meijel; Mieke Grypdonck; Bjørkly Stal; Mirjan van Leeuwen

    2012-01-01

    Aims and objectives. The Forensic Early Warning Signs of Aggression Inventory (FESAI) was developed to assist nurses and patients in identifying early warning signs and constructing individual early detection plans (EDP) for the prevention of aggressive incidents. The aims of this research were as

  6. The Mental Health Counselor and "Duty to Warn."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrofesa, John J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews background and case histories surrounding legal concept of "duty to warn" and confidentiality limits of counseling. Discusses professional, ethical, and legal responsibilities of mental health counselors and identifies steps to follow for counselors who have to warn potential victims of danger from their clients. (Author/ABL)

  7. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  8. Red warning for air pollution in China: Exploring residents' perceptions of the first two red warnings in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hanping; Wang, Fangping; Niu, Chence; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xiaoxue

    2018-02-01

    Air pollution early warnings have been issued in China to mitigate the effects of high pollution days. Public perceptions and views about early warning signals can affect individual behaviors and play a major role in the public's response to air pollution risks. This study examined public attitudes and responses to the first two red warnings for air pollution in Beijing in 2015. An online survey was sent out, and 664 respondents (response rate = 90%) provided their perspectives on the red warnings. Descriptive statistics, sign tests and binary logit models were used to analyze the data. More than half of the respondents reported that their life and work were affected by the red warning in December 2015. In contrast to their perceptions about the second red warning period, the public thought that the first red warning should have been issued earlier and that the number of consecutive days of warnings should have been reduced. The respondents also recommended that instead of reducing the number of red warnings, the red warning emergency measures should be adjusted. Specifically, the public preferred the installation of air purifiers in schools rather than closing schools and strengthening road flushing and dust pollution controls over restrictions on driving. Data analyses were conducted to examine the affected groups and different groups' perceptions of the necessity of implementing emergency measures. The results indicated that men and more educated respondents were more likely to be affected by driving limitations, and men were less supportive of these limitations. The age and education of respondents were significantly negatively associated with the opinion that schools should be closed, whereas wealthier respondents were more supportive of school closings. The finding of a negative attitude among the public toward the first two red warnings may be used to help local governments modify protective measures and pollution mitigation initiatives to increase

  9. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  10. Green Roofs and Green Walls for Biodiversity Conservation: A Contribution to Urban Connectivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavie Mayrand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs and walls have recently emerged as conservation tools, and they offer promising additional opportunities to enhance biodiversity in cities. However, their ecological conditions remain poorly considered when planning wildlife corridors. To discuss the role of vegetated buildings in landscape connectivity, we reviewed the ecological and technical specificities of green walls and green roofs in light of the key factors concerning urban wildlife (patch size, quality, abundance, and isolation. Green roofs and walls show limited patch sizes, distinct habitat quality at the building scale, and limited redundancy of patch quality within the landscape. We also highlight that the abundance of roof and wall patches is often low. Future research is needed to establish if walls can be vertical corridors for wildlife, thereby reducing the isolation of green roofs. We argue that creating 3D ecological connectivity within the city requires substantial modifications of the design and maintenance of existing green building systems. We suggest that research is needed to integrate the biotic and abiotic characteristics of green buildings to make them more closely resemble those of open green spaces.

  11. Application of the balanced scorecard to an academic medical center in Taiwan: the effect of warning systems on improvement of hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Hou, Ying-Hui; Chang, Ray-E

    2012-10-01

    The balanced scorecard (BSC) is considered to be a useful tool for management in a variety of business environments. The purpose of this article is to utilize the experimental data produced by the incorporation and implementation of the BSC in hospitals and to investigate the effects of the BSC red light tracking warning system on performance improvement. This research was designed to be a retrospective follow-up study. The linear mixed model was applied for correcting the correlated errors. The data used in this study were secondary data collected by repeated measurements taken between 2004 and 2010 by 67 first-line medical departments of a public academic medical center in Taipei, Taiwan. The linear mixed model of analysis was applied for multilevel analysis. Improvements were observed with various time lags, from the subsequent month to three months after red light warning. During follow-up, the red light warning system more effectively improved controllable costs, infection rates, and the medical records completion rate. This further suggests that follow-up management promotes an enhancing and supportive effect to the red light warning. The red light follow-up management of BSC is an effective and efficient tool where improvement depends on ongoing and consistent attention in a continuing effort to better administer medical care and control costs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early warning of climate tipping points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2011-07-01

    A climate 'tipping point' occurs when a small change in forcing triggers a strongly nonlinear response in the internal dynamics of part of the climate system, qualitatively changing its future state. Human-induced climate change could push several large-scale 'tipping elements' past a tipping point. Candidates include irreversible melt of the Greenland ice sheet, dieback of the Amazon rainforest and shift of the West African monsoon. Recent assessments give an increased probability of future tipping events, and the corresponding impacts are estimated to be large, making them significant risks. Recent work shows that early warning of an approaching climate tipping point is possible in principle, and could have considerable value in reducing the risk that they pose.

  14. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  15. Ionizing-radiation warning - Supplementary symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This International Standard specifies the symbol to warn of the presence of a dangerous level of ionizing radiation from a high-level sealed radioactive source that can cause death or serious injury if handled carelessly. This symbol is not intended to replace the basic ionizing radiation symbol [ISO 361, ISO 7010:2003, Table 1 (Reference number W003)], but to supplement it by providing further information on the danger associated with the source and the necessity for untrained or uninformed members of the public to stay away from it. This symbol is recommended for use with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 1, 2, and 3 sealed radioactive sources. These sources are defined by the IAEA as having the ability to cause death or serious injuries. The paper informs about scope, shape, proportions and colour of the symbol, and application of the symbol. An annex provides the technical specifications of the symbol

  16. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  17. Reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards: Concept and application to debris flow warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are increasingly applied to mitigate the risks posed by natural hazards. To compare the effect of EWS with alternative risk reduction measures and to optimize their design and operation, their reliability and effectiveness must be quantified. In the present contribution, a framework approach to the evaluation of threshold-based EWS for natural hazards is presented. The system reliability is classically represented by the Probability of Detection (POD) and Probability of False Alarms (PFA). We demonstrate how the EWS effectiveness, which is a measure of risk reduction, can be formulated as a function of POD and PFA. To model the EWS and compute the reliability, we develop a framework based on Bayesian Networks, which is further extended to a decision graph, facilitating the optimization of the warning system. In a case study, the framework is applied to the assessment of an existing debris flow EWS. The application demonstrates the potential of the framework for identifying the important factors influencing the effectiveness of the EWS and determining optimal warning strategies and system configurations. - Highlights: • Warning systems are increasingly applied measures to reduce natural hazard risks. • Bayesian Networks (BN) are powerful tools to quantify warning system's reliability. • The effectiveness is defined to assess the optimality of warning systems. • By extending BNs to decision graphs, the optimal warning strategy is identified. • Sensors positioning significantly influence the effectiveness of warning systems

  18. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  19. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  20. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism