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Sample records for green toad bufo

  1. Biological factors controlling developmental duration, growth and metamorphosis of the larval green toad, Bufo viridis viridis

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    Gamal A. Bekhet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study in a controlled laboratory setting provided important insights into both the degree of plasticity and the proximal environmental cues operating in the response of green toad tadpoles to pond drying, food level. It was concluded that timing of metamorphosis and size at metamorphosis were highly affected by pond duration. The effects of pond desiccation are reflected by shorter developmental duration and smaller size at metamorphosis as a result of increased crowding in the shallow tanks than tadpoles in the deep tanks. Bufo viridis raised on high food supplements grew faster than those raised on low food in low or high population density. In the tanks with decreased water and food levels, the tadpoles accelerate development and metamorphose earlier than tadpoles in higher food and water levels. The obtained data revealed that tadpoles grew faster under conditions of high population density than low one in either high or low food levels. Actual density had limited but significant effects on tadpole size and development. It also suggested that density regulation, acting on the tadpole stage, may be present in the population but was of less short-term importance than abiotic factors. Environmentally induced variation in developmental rates translated to changes in relative hind leg length. Hind leg length plasticity was positively correlated with growth rate plasticity. Finally, documenting the recent results of this study, B. viridis breed in temporary ponds and exhibited plasticity in developmental duration and growth rate in response to a change in water level.

  2. A Single Transcriptome of a Green Toad (Bufo viridis Yields Candidate Genes for Sex Determination and -Differentiation and Non-Anonymous Population Genetic Markers.

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    Jörn F Gerchen

    Full Text Available Large genome size, including immense repetitive and non-coding fractions, still present challenges for capacity, bioinformatics and thus affordability of whole genome sequencing in most amphibians. Here, we test the performance of a single transcriptome to understand whether it can provide a cost-efficient resource for species with large unknown genomes. Using RNA from six different tissues from a single Palearctic green toad (Bufo viridis specimen and Hiseq2000, we obtained 22,5 Mio reads and publish >100,000 unigene sequences. To evaluate efficacy and quality, we first use this data to identify green toad specific candidate genes, known from other vertebrates for their role in sex determination and differentiation. Of a list of 37 genes, the transcriptome yielded 32 (87%, many of which providing the first such data for this non-model anuran species. However, for many of these genes, only fragments could be retrieved. In order to allow also applications to population genetics, we further used the transcriptome for the targeted development of 21 non-anonymous microsatellites and tested them in genetic families and backcrosses. Eleven markers were specifically developed to be located on the B. viridis sex chromosomes; for eight markers we can indeed demonstrate sex-specific transmission in genetic families. Depending on phylogenetic distance, several markers, which are sex-linked in green toads, show high cross-amplification success across the anuran phylogeny, involving nine systematic anuran families. Our data support the view that single transcriptome sequencing (based on multiple tissues provides a reliable genomic resource and cost-efficient method for non-model amphibian species with large genome size and, despite limitations, should be considered as long as genome sequencing remains unaffordable for most species.

  3. Thyroid anatomy and topography of toad (Bufo marinus ictericus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, O.R. dos.

    1970-01-01

    The autoradiographic method is used for the study of the toad's thyroid of Bufo marinus ictericus by 131 I. Histolological proceedings are done. Comparative evaluations with bibliographic informations are presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Factors limiting the recovery of boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, C.; Corn, P.S.; Jones, M.S.; Livo, L.J.; Muths, E.; Loeffler, C.W.; Lannoo, M.

    2005-01-01

    Boreal toads (Bufo b. boreas) are widely distributed over much of the mountainous western United States. Populations in the Southern Rocky Mountains suffered extensive declines in the late 1970s through early 1980s (Carey, 1993). At the time, these mass mortalities were thought to be associated with a bacterial infection (Carey, 1993). Although the few populations that survived the mass die-offs were not systematically monitored until at least 1993, no mass mortalities had been observed until 1996 when die-offs were observed. A mycotic skin infection associated with a chytrid fungus is now causing mortality of toads in at least two of the populations (M.S. Jones and D.E. Green, unpublished data; Muths et al., 2003). Boreal toads are now absent throughout large areas of their former distribution in Colorado and southern Wyoming and may be extinct in New Mexico (Corn et al., 1989; Carey, 1993; Stuart and Painter, 1994). These toads are classified as “endangered” by Colorado and New Mexico and are designated as a protected non-game species in Wyoming. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has categorized the Southern Rocky Mountain populations for federal listing and is currently reviewing their designation as a “warranted but precluded” species for possible listing in the next few years. For the management of boreal toads and their habitats, a Boreal Toad Recovery Team was formed by the Colorado Division of Wildlife in 1995 as part of a collaborative effort with federal agencies within the United States’ departments of the Interior and Agriculture and with agencies in two adjoining states. To date, conservation agreements have been signed by eight state and federal agencies and by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program. Although boreal toads were considered common throughout their range in Colorado, no comprehensive surveys of the numbers and sizes of their populations were conducted prior to mass die-offs in the 1970s. Surveys completed in the late 1980s to

  5. Strong reproductive barriers in a narrow hybrid zone of West-Mediterranean green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup with Plio-Pleistocene divergence

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    Perrin Nicolas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One key question in evolutionary biology deals with the mode and rate at which reproductive isolation accumulates during allopatric speciation. Little is known about secondary contacts of recently diverged anuran species. Here we conduct a multi-locus field study to investigate a contact zone between two lineages of green toads with an estimated divergence time of 2.7 My, and report results from preliminary experimental crosses. Results The Sicilian endemic Bufo siculus and the Italian mainland-origin B. balearicus form a narrow hybrid zone east of Mt. Etna. Despite bidirectional mtDNA introgression over a ca. 40 km North-South cline, no F1 hybrids could be found, and nuclear genomes display almost no admixture. Populations from each side of the contact zone showed depressed genetic diversity and very strong differentiation (FST = 0.52. Preliminary experimental crosses point to a slightly reduced fitness in F1 hybrids, a strong hybrid breakdown in backcrossed offspring (F1 x parental, with very few reaching metamorphosis and a complete and early mortality in F2 (F1 x F1. Conclusion Genetic patterns at the contact zone are molded by drift and selection. Local effective sizes are reduced by the geography and history of the contact zone, B. balearicus populations being at the front wave of a recent expansion (late Pleistocene. Selection against hybrids likely results from intrinsic genomic causes (disruption of coadapted sets of genes in backcrosses and F2-hybrids, possibly reinforced by local adaptation (the ranges of the two taxa roughly coincide with the borders of semiarid and arid climates. The absence of F1 in the field might be due to premating isolation mechanisms. Our results, show that these lineages have evolved almost complete reproductive isolation after some 2.7 My of divergence, contrasting sharply with evidence from laboratory experiments that some anuran species may still produce viable F1 offspring after > 20

  6. Behavior of toads, Bufo bufo, in a dynamic environment.

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    Lychakov, D V

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to motion sickness was tested by exposing free moving toads to rotation of a stimulator modeled after an amusement park Ferris Wheel. The stimulator provided a gentle stimulation of frequency 0.25 Hz and centrifugal acceleration 0.143 g during 120 min or more without external visual cues. No emetic or prodromal behavioral response was elicited during or after rotation. During rotation the amount of motor activity in most toads increased evidently. The most active toads attempted to climb out of the test chamber. It was inferred that experimental rotation was rather a stressful stimulus which initiated an escape response. In addition, during rotation the number of eye retractions and urination incidences increased, but appetite after rotation was inhibited. During rotation the motionless toads performed small regular head movements with period equal to rotation period of stimulator. These oscillations were probably vestibular (otolith) reaction to oscillating acceleration. The proposed resonance hypothesis gives a general idea of why lower vertebrates are immune to motion sickness.

  7. Sexual differences in the ecology and habitat selection of western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon.

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    Evelyn L. Bull

    2006-01-01

    Several species of toads (family Bufonidae), including the Western Toad (bufo boreas) have declined in the Western United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for population declines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad...

  8. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of inorganic phosphate handling in the toad Bufo bufo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Werner, Andreas; Hansen, Sofie M

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of P(i) handling in toads (Bufo bufo). We introduced toads to experimental solutions of various [P(i)] and high P(i) diets and measured urine and lymph [P(i)]. Both lymph and urine [P(i)] increased with increasing P(i) loads, indicating P......(i) absorption across skin and intestine. An initial fragment of a NaPi-II type transporter was amplified from kidney, and the full-length sequence was obtained. The protein showed the molecular hallmarks of NaPi-IIb transporters. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes the clone showed unusual pH dependence......, but apparent affinity constants for P(i) and Na(+) were in the range of other NaPi-II transporters. Expression profiling showed that the transporter was present in skin, intestine and kidney. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays on dissected renal tubules indicated expression...

  9. Nomenclatural availability of the names applied to “varieties” of the green toad (Bufo viridis subgroup in the Italian territory, with emphasis on the variety lineata of Ninni (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Nicola Novarini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent molecular investigations on Eurasian green toads led to the recognition of distinct lineages and to the establishment of new taxa within the former Bufo viridis; as a consequence, significant range-wide nomenclatural changes have been proposed, although some uncertainties remained on the available names applicable within the Italian territory. In order to contribute to clarify the matter, we evaluated, under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the nomenclatural availability of all the names that have been applied to infrasubspecific entities of the Bufo viridis subgroup within the Italian territory. We also provided a historical overview of the usage of all these names, as well as detailed information on the original material upon which the variety lineata of A.P. Ninni was established. Our analysis supports the view that only the names crucigera Eichwald, 1831 and balearica Boettger, 1880 are available, the former being however junior synonym of B. viridis Laurenti, 1768, whereas the names acutirostris and obtusirostris of Lessona, lineata of Ninni, concolor and maculata of Camerano, and nardoi of Paolucci, Fuhn and Bruno are all not available.

  10. Diazinon mediated biochemical changes in the African toad (Bufo regularis

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    Isioma Tongo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal toxicity of diazinon to the adult African toad, Bufo regularis was assessed using an integration of biomarkers. Changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, corticosterone and total protein levels were assessed in the serum, brain, liver, lungs and gastrointestinal tract (GIT and the results supported by bioaccumulation data. The biomarkers were chosen as indicators of key physiological functions: AChE for neurotoxicity, corticosterone and total protein levels as indicators of oxidative stress. Toads were exposed to 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 g/L for 28 days. Brain AChE activity reduced by 96% in the highest concentration (0.04 g/L compared to the control brain. Similarly, AChE activities in serum, liver, lungs and GIT tissues (88%, 88%, 87, 87% umg-1 protein respectively were also inhibited in the toads. Corticosterone and total protein levels in the tissues decreased compared to the control. The accumulation results obtained showed accumulation in the tissues (liver>serum>brain> lung>GIT, with a direct relationship between tissue concentration and changes in the biochemical indices. The alterations in all the indices were significantly concentration dependent. The biomarkers described in this study could be useful complementary indices in the risk assessment of diazinon pesticide.

  11. Morphological and genetic differentiation of Bufo toads: two cryptic species in Western Europe (Anura, Bufonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; McAtear, J.; Recuero, E.; Ziermann, J.M.; Ohler, A.; Alphen, van J.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    The Common toad Bufo bufo sensu lato is a widespread, morphologically conserved taxon. Recent studies have uncovered deep genetic differentiation between population groups, highlighting the need to revise the current taxonomy of the group and recognize additional species. Here we investigate

  12. Summer movements of boreal toads (Bufo boreas boreas) in two western Montana basins

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    David A. Schmetterling; Michael K. Young

    2008-01-01

    The Boreal Toad (Bufo boreas boreas) is widely distributed in the western United States but has declined in portions of its range. Research directed at conserving Boreal Toads has indicated that their movements are largely terrestrial and often limited after the breeding season. We used a combination of stream-based netting, PIT tagging, and radio...

  13. Accumulation and depuration of trace metals in Southern Toads, Bufo Terrestris, exposed to coal combustion waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.; Hassan, S.; Mendonca, M. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Dept. of Biological Science

    2009-02-15

    Accumulation and depuration of metals by an organism are underrepresented in the literature. We collected southern toads (Bufo terrestris) from coal by-product (ash)-contaminated and uncontaminated sites to examine metal concentrations over time. Toads were placed in four exposure regimes, then sacrificed periodically over a 5-month period, and whole-body metal levels were measured. Toads exposed to ash accumulated significant concentrations of metals. Metal concentrations changed throughout the experiment, and profiles of accumulation and depuration differed depending on the metal and exposure regime. Ash-exposed toads exhibited elevated levels of 11 of 18 metals measured. Increases ranged from 47.5% for Pb to more than 5000% for As. Eight of 18 metals did not change in control toads, while 10 of 18 metals decreased in toads removed from ash, ranging from -25% for Co to -96% for Tl. Seven metals that decreased in toads removed from ash did not change in control toads.

  14. Immunolocation of mitochondria-rich cells in epidermis of the common toad, Bufo bufo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Ingrid B.M.

    1997-01-01

    Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation.......Adult toads, skin, flask-shaped cells, cytoskeleton, keratin expression, immunohistochemistry, differentiation....

  15. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ontogeny of kin recognition and influence of social environment on the development of kin recognition behaviour was experimentally investigated in tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus that lived in aggregations and showed low larval dispersion. Embryos and tadpoles of the toad were reared as. kin only,; with kin and ...

  16. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The ontogeny of kin recognition and influence of social environment on the development of kin recognition behaviour was experimentally investigated in tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus that lived in aggregations and showed low larval dispersion. Embryos and tadpoles of the toad were reared as. kin only ...

  17. induced gastric acid secretion in the common african toadbufo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Summary: The study aimed to determine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on the action of histamine and carbachol on acid secretion in the common African toadBufo regularis. Gastric acidity was determined by titration method. The acid secretion was determined when nitric oxide was absent following administration of ...

  18. Selection of diet by metamorphic and juvenile western toads (Bufo boreas) in northeastern Oregon

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    Evelyn L Bull; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The decline of Bufo boreas, the Western Toad, in portions of its range has accentuated the need for more complete information on all life stages of this species. Our objectives were to describe the diet of recently metamorphosed and juvenile (one-year old) B. boreas and then compare it to the available arthropods. Metamorphs (n...

  19. HABITAT PATCH OCCUPANCY BY THE TOADS (BUFO PUNCTATUS) IN A NATURALLY FRAGMENTED, DESERT LANDSCAPE

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    Amphibians are often thought to have a metapopulation structure, which may render them vulnerable to habitat fragmentation. The red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus) in the southwestern USA and Mexico commonly inhabits wetlands that have become much smaller and fewer since the late...

  20. Localization of water channels in the skin of two species of desert toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius.

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    Shibata, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Anuran amphibians obtain water by osmosis across their ventral skin. A specialized region in the pelvic skin of semiterrestrial species, termed the seat patch, contains aquaporins (AQPs) that become inserted into the apical plasma membrane of the epidermis following stimulation by arginine vasotocin (AVT) to facilitate rehydration. Two AVT-stimulated AQPs, AQP-h2 and AQP-h3, have been identified in the epidermis of seat patch skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, and show a high degree of homology with those of bufonid species. We used antibodies raised against AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 to characterize the expression of homologous AQPs in the skin of two species of toads that inhabit arid desert regions of southwestern North America. Western blot analysis of proteins gave positive results for AQP-h2-like proteins in the pelvic skin and also the urinary bladder of Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus while AQP-h3-like proteins were found in extracts from the pelvic skin and the more anterior ventral skin, but not the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical observations showed both AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins were present in the apical membrane of skin from the pelvic skin of hydrated and dehydrated A. punctatus. Further stimulation by AVT or isoproterenol treatment of living toads was not evident. In contrast, skin from hydrated Incilius (Bufo) alvarius showed very weak labeling of AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins and labeling turned intense following stimulation by AVT. These results are similar to those of tree frogs and toads that occupy mesic habitats and suggest this pattern of AQP expression is the result of phylogenetic factors shared by hylid and bufonid anurans.

  1. Measuring energetics and behaviour using accelerometry in cane toads Bufo marinus.

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    Lewis G Halsey

    Full Text Available Cane toads Bufo marinus were introduced to Australia as a control agent but now have a rapidly progressing invasion front and damage new habitats they enter. Predictive models that can give expansion rates as functions of energy supply and feeding ground distribution could help to maximise control efficiency but to date no study has measured rates of field energy expenditure in an amphibian. In the present study we used the accelerometry technique to generate behavioural time budgets and, through the derivation of ODBA (overall dynamic body acceleration, to obtain estimates of energetics in free ranging cane toads. This represents the first time that accelerometers have been used to not only quantify the behaviour of animals but also assign to those behaviours rates of energy expenditure. Firstly, laboratory calibrations between ODBA and metabolic rate were obtained and used to generate a common prediction equation for the subject toads (R(2 = 0.74. Furthermore, acceleration data recorded during different behaviours was studied to ascertain threshold values for objectively defining behaviour categories. Importantly, while subsequent accelerometer field deployments were relatively short they agreed with previous studies on the proportion of time that cane toads locomote yet suggest that the metabolic rate of cane toads in the wild may sometimes be considerably higher than might be assumed based on data for other species.

  2. Effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia) at different temperatures

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    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Herbicides based on the active ingredient glyphosate are frequently applied in agriculture, horticulture and private gardens all over the world. Recently, leaching of glyphosate or its metabolite (AMPA) into water bodies inhabited by amphibians has been reported. However, very little is known about non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians and even less is known to what extent different temperatures might alter these effects. Using climate chambers, we investigated the effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup PowerFlex® (480 g L-1 glyphosate, formulated as 588 g L-1 potassium salt) on the larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo L.; Amphibia: Anura) under different temperature regimes (15°C vs. 20°C). We established five herbicide concentrations: 0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent L-1 and a 4 mg a.e. L-1 pulse treatment (totally three applications of 1.5, 1.5 and another 1 mg a.e. L-1) at each temperature in a full-factorial design. Each treatment combination was replicated five times, the experiment ran for 24 days. Results showed a highly significant effect of temperature on body length and body width but no effect of herbicide concentration on these growth parameters. Moreover, highly significant interactions between herbicide and temperature on body length and body width were observed suggesting that herbicides had different effects on different temperatures. In conclusion, although Roundup PowerFlex® at the tested concentrations appeared to have no acute toxicity to larvae of Common toads, the observed effects on tadpole morphology will potentially affect competitive interactions in spawning ponds of amphibia. Our findings of herbicide x temperature interactions might become more prevalent when human-induced climate change will lead to more extreme temperatures.

  3. Population Genetic Structure and Species Status of Asiatic Toads (Bufo gargarizans) in Western China.

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    Wen, Guannan; Yang, Weizhao; Fu, Jinzhong

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the population genetic structure of Asiatic toads (Bufo gargarizans) from the mountains of western China to determine their species status, using genotypic data of ten microsatellite DNA loci and DNA sequences from one mitochondrial gene. A total of 197 samples from eight sites were examined, which cover a large range of elevations (559-3457 m), as well as all three traditionally defined species (or subspecies). AMOVA did not reveal any particularly large among-groups structure, whether the sites were grouped by drainage, elevation, region, or species (subspecies). Individual assignment tests placed all samples into two genetic clusters, which largely corresponded to their geographic locations. An isolation-by-distance pattern was also detected when an outlier population (site 3) was excluded. Furthermore, a mitochondrial gene tree revealed deep divergence among haplotypes, sometimes within the same site. The clade patterns were partially associated with geographic distribution but had no resemblance to the traditional 2- or 3-species classification. Overall, these toad populations harbor a large amount of genetic diversity and have very high population differentiation, but taken together the evidence suggests that all populations belong to a single species. Our results are consistent with most previous molecular studies, and we recommend using Bufo gargarizans to represent all Asiatic toad populations from western China without subspecies division.

  4. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    Two types of chloride current response to a step-wise hyperpolarization of the toad skin is demonstrated: (1) An "instantaneous" response observed immediately upon voltage change, and (2) a subsequent slow response, the time course of which is sigmoidal. The slow response is due to an increase of...

  5. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative......, and apparent leakage conductance was reduced. Application of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to skin of fully salt-adapted toads increased the transepithelial Cl- conductance, and the time courses of voltage clamp currents became more like those of water-adapted toads. Apparent...... leakage conductance was increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  6. Diagnostic histological findings in Yosemite toads (Bufo canorus) from die-off in the 1970s

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    Green, D.E.; Sherman, C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Twelve adult and 25 larval Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus) specimens from the eastern Sierra Nevada of California were examined histologically for evidence of infectious, toxicological, and degenerative diseases. The preserved toads were selected from 21 that had been salvaged or collected during a die-off in 1976-1979 that immediately preceded a population decline. Causes of death of four toads were determined histologically; clinical signs and field observations suggested causes of death of three more. Four toads died of infectious diseases, including chytridiomycosis of the skin (N = 1), bacillary septicemia (N = 2), and combined chytridiomycosis and bacterial septicemia (N = 1). Infections by a funguslike organism (Dermosporidium penneri), renal myxozoa (Leptotheca ohlmacheri), larval Rhabdias, various gastrointestinal nematodes, urinary bladder flukes, and lung flukes were detected in five specimens. No evidence of degenerative diseases, virus infections, or intoxications was found. The variety of lethal diseases and our inability to determine the causes of death of five specimens suggests that one or more histologically undetectable diseases or intoxications may have also contributed to the deaths and population decline.

  7. Ion transport mechanisms in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo: microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear how and whether terrestrial amphibians handle NaCl transport in the distal nephron. Therefore, we studied ion transport in isolated perfused collecting tubules and ducts from toad, Bufo bufo, by means of microelectrodes. No qualitative difference in basolateral cell membrane...... and amiloride application showed a small apical Na+ conductance. Arginine vasotocin depolarized Vbl. The small apical Na+ conductance indicates that the collecting duct system contributes little to NaCl reabsorption when compared to aquatic amphibians. In contrast, Vbl rapidly depolarized upon lowering of [Na...

  8. Movements and habitat use of Yosemite toads (Anaxyrus (formerly Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra National Forest, California

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    Christina T. Liang

    2013-01-01

    The Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus (Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the central Sierra Nevada mountain range in California whose populations are in decline. There is limited information on their terrestrial movement and habitat use, which impairs our understanding of the ecology and habitat...

  9. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtis R. Moseley; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; W. Mark Ford

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo tmrestns) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands...

  10. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

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    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  11. Central thermoregulatory effects of lactate in the toad Bufo paracnemis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, L G; Steiner, A A

    1999-04-01

    Hypoxia induces a regulated decrease in body temperature (Tb; anapyrexia) in organisms ranging from protozoans to mammals, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved. Several candidates have been suggested to mediate hypoxia-induced anapyrexia, among them lactate, which is a classical compansion of hypoxic stress in vertebrates. The present study was designed to assess the central thermoregulatory effects of lactate in Bujo paracnemis. Toads equipped with a temperature probe were tested over a thermal gradient (10-40 degrees C). Lactate injected systemically (4.0 mmol kg-1) caused a significant reduction of Tb from 24.6 +/- 2.1 to 17.4 +/- 3.9 degrees C. To assess the role of central thermoregulatory mechanisms, a lower dose (0.4 mmol kg-1) of lactate was injected into the fourth cerebral ventricle or systemically. Intracerebroventricular injection of lactate caused a similar decrease in Tb, whereas systemic injection caused no change. The data indicate that lactate may play a role in hypoxia-induced anapyrexia in central rather than peripheral sites.

  12. Behavioral response and kinetics of terrestrial atrazine exposure in American toads (bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrs, Mendez S.I.; Tillitt, D.E.; Rittenhouse, T.A.G.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians in terrestrial environments obtain water through a highly vascularized pelvic patch of skin. Chemicals can also be exchanged across this patch. Atrazine (ATZ), a widespread herbicide, continues to be a concern among amphibian ecologists based on potential exposure and toxicity. Few studies have examined its impact on the terrestrial juvenile or adult stages of toads. In the current study, we asked the following questions: (1) Will juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) avoid soils contaminated with ATZ? (2) Can they absorb ATZ across the pelvic patch? (3) If so, how is it distributed among the organs and eventually eliminated? We conducted a behavioral choice test between control soil and soil dosed with ecologically relevant concentrations of ATZ. In addition, we examined the uptake, distribution, and elimination of water dosed with 14C-labeled ATZ. Our data demonstrate that toads do not avoid ATZ-laden soils. ATZ crossed the pelvic patch rapidly and reached an apparent equilibrium within 5 h. The majority of the radiolabeled ATZ ended up in the intestines, whereas the greatest concentrations were observed in the gall bladder. Thus, exposure of adult life stages of amphibians through direct uptake of ATZ from soils and runoff water should be considered in risk evaluations. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  13. Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betto-Colliard, C; Sermier, R; Litvinchuk, S; Perrin, N; Stöck, M

    2015-03-01

    Polyploidization, which is expected to trigger major genomic reorganizations, occurs much less commonly in animals than in plants, possibly because of constraints imposed by sex-determination systems. We investigated the origins and consequences of allopolyploidization in Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) from Central Asia, with three ploidy levels and different modes of genome transmission (sexual versus clonal), to (i) establish a topology for the reticulate phylogeny in a species-rich radiation involving several closely related lineages and (ii) explore processes of genomic reorganization that may follow polyploidization. Sibship analyses based on 30 cross-amplifying microsatellite markers substantiated the maternal origins and revealed the paternal origins and relationships of subgenomes in allopolyploids. Analyses of the synteny of linkage groups identified three markers affected by translocation events, which occurred only within the paternally inherited subgenomes of allopolyploid toads and exclusively affected the linkage group that determines sex in several diploid species of the green toad radiation. Recombination rates did not differ between diploid and polyploid toad species, and were overall much reduced in males, independent of linkage group and ploidy levels. Clonally transmitted subgenomes in allotriploid toads provided support for strong genetic drift, presumably resulting from recombination arrest. The Palearctic green toad radiation seems to offer unique opportunities to investigate the consequences of polyploidization and clonal transmission on the dynamics of genomes in vertebrates.

  14. Modelling the extinction risk of isolated populations of natterjack toad Bufo calamita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Many local populations of the natterjack toad Bufo calamita in Germany are endangered. Due to the fragmentation and destruction of natural habitats by man, toads have often been forced to switch to secondary habitats. The permanent existence of these habitats is uncertain. Habitat and area requirements have been investigated in various parts of Germany in recent years. Our study uses field observations from sites in Halle (Saxony-Anhalt and List (Schleswig-Holstein as a basis for analyses of the population dynamics under different environmental conditions. Deterministic trends of these populations are calculated with the help of a Leslie matrix consisting of average parameters for mortality and reproduction. For a more thorough analysis we use a stochastic simulation model in order to assess survival probabilities of local toad populations. This model also takes into account environmental fluctuations affecting mortality and reproduction. Using scenarios from different locations, a sensitivity analysis of the parameters indicates which management options are the most promising to preserve a population. Our results indicate that the mortality rates of juveniles and the availability of spawning ground have the greatest influence on a population’s survival. Consequently, habitat management should focus on these aspects. In addition, we investigate the risk of extinction for different reproductive strategies. Natterjack toad populations observed in the field actually follow a strategy with three breeding periods. We find that this strategy supports the survival of the population better than strategies with less periods, which are more likely to result in a complete breeding failure during one season.

  15. Chronic exposure to coal fly ash causes minimal changes in corticosterone and testosterone concentrations in male southern toads Bufo terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, C.K.; Mendonca, M.T. [Auburn University, Montgomery, AL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    2006-08-15

    More than 50% of the electricity in the United States is produced by coal-burning power plants. The byproduct of coal-burning plants is coal fly ash, which contains increased concentrations of trace metals and is disposed of in collection basins. Southern toads (Bufo terrestris) frequently use these basins for reproduction. Male toads were collected in spring 2001 and 2002 from an ash basin and a reference site and divided into four groups: toads collected at the control site and maintained on (1) control substrate and food or (2) ash and contaminated food and toads collected at the ash site and maintained in (3) control or (4) ash conditions. Blood was collected periodically during 5 months to determine testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Reference to ash toads exhibited a significant, transient increase in corticosterone at 4 weeks, but neither corticosterone nor testosterone continued to increase beyond this time. In contrast, toads caught and maintained on ash did not exhibit increased corticosterone. Testosterone in these toads appeared to be unrelated to ash exposure. This unexpected lack of a corticosterone response and no effect on testosterone suggests that toads chronically exposed to trace metals can acclimate to a polluted environment, but they may still experience subtle long-term consequences.

  16. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killorn, E E; Toews, D P

    2001-01-01

    Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 +/- 2.03 ml min(-1) kg(-1) in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 +/- 0.89 ml min(-1) kg(-1) in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

  17. A complex Enrichment Diet improves growth and health in the endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Vaughan, M J; Browne, R K

    2009-05-01

    The endangered Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri) suffers nutrition related pathologies including poor growth and feeding difficulties from squamous metaplasia. Juvenile B. baxteri were each fed three supplemented feeder diets over 22 weeks and their growth, strike rate, and ingestion success measured. Diet (1) Enrichment Diet: feeder crickets fed fish oil, spirulina, and ground turtle feed; (2) Vitamin Diet: feeder crickets dusted heavily with Reptivite multi-vitamin/mineral powder; and (3) Control Diet: feeder crickets dusted with calcium and Vitamin D powder. The Enrichment Diet produced faster growth in length (Pcalcium/vitamin D powder was lost within 90 sec of dusting. The Enrichment Diet produced the same strike rate (approximately 25 strikes in 5 min.) but higher (P<0.01) IS (38.3+/-4.2%) than those fed the Vitamin Diet (24.2+/-1.8%) or Control Diet (20.1+/-1.5). 1)Results showed that the Enrichment Diet provided superior growth, enrichment of feeder crickets provides an attractive alternative to the use of topical powders alone, and crickets lose approximately 50% of topical powders within minutes. Feeding a diet highly enriched in retinol and unsaturated fatty acids resulted in improved growth and health for young Wyoming toads.

  18. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  19. Ranking landscape development scenarios affecting natterjack toad (Bufo calamita population dynamics in Central Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila W Franz

    Full Text Available When data are limited it is difficult for conservation managers to assess alternative management scenarios and make decisions. The natterjack toad (Bufo calamita is declining at the edges of its distribution range in Europe and little is known about its current distribution and abundance in Poland. Although different landscape management plans for central Poland exist, it is unclear to what extent they impact this species. Based on these plans, we investigated how four alternative landscape development scenarios would affect the total carrying capacity and population dynamics of the natterjack toad. To facilitate decision-making, we first ranked the scenarios according to their total carrying capacity. We used the software RAMAS GIS to determine the size and location of habitat patches in the landscape. The estimated carrying capacities were very similar for each scenario, and clear ranking was not possible. Only the reforestation scenario showed a marked loss in carrying capacity. We therefore simulated metapopulation dynamics with RAMAS taking into account dynamical processes such as reproduction and dispersal and ranked the scenarios according to the resulting species abundance. In this case, we could clearly rank the development scenarios. We identified road mortality of adults as a key process governing the dynamics and separating the different scenarios. The renaturalisation scenario clearly ranked highest due to its decreased road mortality. Taken together our results suggest that road infrastructure development might be much more important for natterjack toad conservation than changes in the amount of habitat in the semi-natural river valley. We gained these insights by considering both the resulting metapopulation structure and dynamics in the form of a PVA. We conclude that the consideration of dynamic processes in amphibian conservation management may be indispensable for ranking management scenarios.

  20. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...... studied in toads (Bufo bufo) immediately before, and after 2,7, and 14 days exposure to distilled water. General epidermal structure was not affected. However, the numbers of MRCs per mm2 (DMRC) increased throughout the experiment as revealed by staining of epidermal sheets with AgNO3 (Ag) or methylene...... blue (MB). Part of the increased DMRC was accounted for by an increase in MRC subpopulation(s) that stained neither with Ag nor MB. The cell birth rate (Kb) decreased and cell loss by moulting (Kd) increased without any significant change in epidermal cell pool size, indicating a reduced apoptotic rate...

  1. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toews Daniel P

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the posterior region of Bufo marinus was measured under resting conditions and in response to a systemic hypervolemia. Doppler flow probes were positioned on the renal portal and ventral abdominal veins, and flow was recorded as injections of artificial plasma equaling 100% of the animal's plasma volume were administered through the sciatic artery. Resting flow was found to be 5.54 ± 2.03 ml min-1 kg-1 in the paired renal portal veins, and 7.31 ± 0.89 ml min-1 kg-1 in the ventral abdominal vein. While renal portal flow was found to increase by a factor of 2.4 times during the first 10 min of hypervolemia, ventral abdominal flow only increased by a factor of 1.3. Conclusions Our results quantify the contribution to circulation from posterior venous return in the toad Bufo marinus. A preferential movement of excess fluid through the renal portal pathway was also demonstrated, supporting the possibility of water elimination via the renal portal circulation, especially during periods of high water influx into the animals.

  2. Genetic structure and origin of a tetraploid toad species Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 (Amphibia, Bufonidae) from central Asia: Description of biochemical polymorphism and comparison of heterozygosity levels in diploid and tetraploid species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezhzherin, S.V.; Pisanets, E.M. [Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of individual variation at 24 biochemical loci in members of the species complex of Palearctic green toads showed that the heterozygosity of the tetraploid species Bufo danatensis (H{sub obs} = 0.45) was significantly higher than that of the diploid species B. viridis, B. sp., and B. raddei (H{sub obs} = 0.009 - 0.103). Such difference can be explained only by a hybrid origin of the tetraploid species. Individual electrophoretic variability of the polyploid toad species is associated with an allelic variation that is manifested in constantly heterozygous spectra as the gene dosage effect. At the population level, this phenomenon found in Pamir toads is caused by irregular meiosis in founders of the population or by directional changes in gene regulation. Genotypic distributions in zones of contact of the diploid and tetraploid taxons demonstrate the possibility of restricted introgressive hybridization.

  3. Multi-Level Effects of Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation on Southern Toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Stark

    Full Text Available Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris during its pre-terrestrial stages of development -embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later, to four low dose rates of 137Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d-1, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21 mGy d-1 and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  4. Thallium in spawn, juveniles, and adult common toads (Bufo bufo) living in the vicinity of a zinc-mining complex, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmowski, Krzysztof; Rossa, Monika; Kowalska, Joanna; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2015-01-01

    A breeding population of the common toad Bufo bufo living in the vicinity of a Zn-Pb smelting works in Bukowno, Poland was studied for the presence of thallium. Tl concentration was measured in the bottom sediments of the spawning pond, in the laid eggs, in juveniles after metamorphosis, and in the selected tissues of the adult individuals. A very high concentration of Tl was detected in the spawn (13.97 ± 8.90 mg/kg d.w.). In 50% of the spawn samples, levels exceeded 20 mgTl/kg d.w. The issue of maternal transfer of thallium from females to oocytes is discussed. Due to a significant accumulation of thallium, spawn analysis can be used as a sensitive indicator of the presence of this element in the environment and may replace more invasive methods that involve the killing of adult animals. In those regions that are abundant in Zn-Pb ores, the spawn of amphibians may be a very important source of thallium contamination for predators. From among all tissues of the Bukowno adult toads, the livers have shown the highest accumulation of thallium (mean 3.98 mg/kg d.w. and maximum value--18.63). For as many as 96.5% of livers, concentrations exceeded 1.0 mgTl/kg d.w. which is treated as indicative of poisoning.

  5. Ultrastructural and Molecular Changes in the Developing Small Intestine of the Toad Bufo regularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenetic development of the small intestine of the toad Bufo regularis was investigated using twofold approaches, namely, ultrastructural and molecular. The former has been done using transmission electron microscope and utilizing the developmental stages 42, 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66. The most prominent ultrastructural changes were recorded at stage 60 and were more evident at stage 63. These included the appearance of apoptotic bodies/nuclei within the larval epithelium, the presence of macrophages, swollen mitochondria, distorted rough endoplasmic reticulum, chromatin condensation, and irregular nuclear envelop, and the presence of large vacuoles and lysosomes. The molecular investigation involved examining DNA content and fragmentation. The results showed that the DNA content decreased significantly during the metamorphic stages 60 and 63 compared with both larval (50 and 55 and postmetamorphic (66 stages. The metamorphic stages (60 and 63 displayed extensive DNA laddering compared with stages 50, 55, and 66. The percentage of DNA damage was 0.00%, 12.91%, 57.26%, 45.48%, and 4.43% for the developmental stages 50, 55, 60, 63, and 66, respectively. In conclusion, the recorded remodeling of the small intestine represents a model for clarifying the mechanism whereby cell death and proliferation are controlled.

  6. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  7. Mechanisms of ion transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of Bufo bufo as revealed by microelectrode recordings in isolated perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad......amphibian, Ba2+, Bufo bufo, collecting duct, collecting tubule, K+ conductance, K+ secretion, kidney, mesonephros, ouabain, toad...

  8. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Porter, Warren P.

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a population of Western toads (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) boreas) occupying forested habitats in southeastern Idaho. Niche Mapper uses first principles of environmental biophysics to combine features of topography, climate, land cover, and animal features to model microclimates and animal physiology and behavior across landscapes. Niche Mapper reproduced core body temperatures (Tc) and evaporation rates of live toads with average errors of 1.6 ± 0.4 °C and 0.8 ± 0.2 g/h, respectively. For four different habitat types, it reproduced similar mid-summer daily temperature patterns as those measured in the field and calculated evaporation rates (g/h) with an average error rate of 7.2 ± 5.5%. Sensitivity analyses indicate these errors do not significantly affect estimates of food consumption or activity. Using Niche Mapper we predicted the daily habitats used by free-ranging toads; our accuracy for female toads was greater than for male toads (74.2 ± 6.8% and 53.6 ± 15.8%, respectively), reflecting the stronger patterns of habitat selection among females. Using these changing to construct a cost surface, we also reconstructed movement paths that were consistent with field observations. The effect of climate warming on toads depends on the interaction of temperature and atmospheric moisture. If climate change occurs as predicted, results from Niche Mapper suggests that climate warming will increase the physiological cost of landscapes thereby limiting the activity for toads in different habitats.

  9. Effects of Multiple Routes of Cadmium Exposure on the Hibernation Success of the American Toad (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S.M.; Little, E.E.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of multiple routes of cadmium exposure on juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus) were evaluated using environmentally relevant concentrations. During or after exposure, toads were individually hibernated for 172 days at approximately 4??C. The following experiments were conducted: (1) dermal exposure (hibernation in soil contaminated with up to 120 ??g Cd/ g (dry weight)); (2) injection exposure (single injection with cadmium to achieve a maximum whole-body nominal concentration of 3 ??g Cd/g (wet weight) 12 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil); and, (3) oral exposure (feeding with mealworms containing ???16 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) for 50 days before hibernation in uncontaminated soil)., We hypothesized that sublethal levels of cadmium would become lethal during hibernation because of combined chemical and cold stress. No prehibernation mortality occurred in the injection and oral exposure studies. There was a significant treatment effect on whole-body cadmium concentration in toads orally or dermally exposed and on percent of cadmium retention in toads orally exposed. There was also a trend of increased time-to-burrowing and more toads partially buried with greater cadmium concentration in the dermal study, which indicated avoidance. In all 3 experiments, no significant differences were found among cadmium treatments in hibernation survival, percent of mass loss, or locomotor performance. However, toads fed mealworms averaging 4.7 ??g Cd/g (dry weight) had only 56% survival compared with 100% survival for controls. Although our results suggest that environmentally relevant levels of cadmium do not pose a great risk to American toads, factors such as soil type or prey species may increase cadmium bioavailability, and other amphibian species may be more sensitive to cadmium than B. americanus.

  10. Interactive effects of maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metts, Brian S.; Buhlmann, Kurt A.; Scott, David E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.; Hopkins, William A.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a mesocosm study to assess the individual and interactive effects of previous maternal exposure and larval exposure to trace element-laden sediments on southern toads (Bufo terrestris). Previous maternal exposure to coal combustion wastes (CCW) reduced larval survival to metamorphosis up to 57% compared to larvae of unexposed females. Larvae reared on CCW accumulated significant concentrations of trace elements resulting in extended larval periods, reduced growth rates, and reduced mass at metamorphosis. However, the effects were dependent on age of sediments, suggesting the effects of contaminants from CCW may be partially ameliorated over time through the reduced bioavailability of trace elements in aged CCW. Most importantly, maternal exposure to contaminants coupled with larval exposure to fresh CCW interacted to reduce survival to metamorphosis by 85% compared to reference conditions. Our study yields further evidence that disposal of CCW in aquatic basins potentially creates ecological traps for some amphibian populations. - Highlights: ► The interaction of maternal exposure and larval exposure to CCW reduced survival. ► Previous maternal exposure to CCW had a latent effect on survival to metamorphosis. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW experienced prolonged larval periods. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced growth rates. ► Larval southern toads exposed to CCW had reduced mass at metamorphosis. - Maternal and environmental exposure to coal combustion wastes interact to decrease survival in larval amphibians.

  11. Diet of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands subject to coarse woody debris manipulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, Kurtis R.; Steven B. Castleberry; James L. Hanula; Mark Ford.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT In the southeastern United States, coarse woody debris (CWD) typically harbors high densities of invertebrates. However, its importance as a foraging substrate for southeastern amphibians is relatively unknown. We examined effects of CWD manipulations on diet composition of southern toads (Bufo terrestris) in upland loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Twelve 9.3-ha plots were assigned one of the following treatments: removal- all CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed; downed- five-fold increase in volume of down CWD; and unmanipulated control stands. We collected southern toads _4 cm snout-vent length (SVL) during 14 d sampling periods in June and October 2002, June 2003 and during a 28 d sampling period in April 2003. We collected 80, 36 and 35 southern toads in control, downed and removal treatments, respectively. We found no difference in relative abundance or frequency of invertebrate groups consumed among treatments (P.0.05). Average body weight (g), SVL (cm) and stomach content weight (g wet) of individuals also were similar among treatments (P . 0.05). The role of CWD as a foraging substrate for southern toads in loblolly pine stands of the southeastern Coastal Plain may be negligible, at least in the early stages of decay.

  12. Morphological recovery in the reattached retina of the toad Bufo marinus: a new experimental model of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal Monaim, Moustafa; Suleiman, Jiab H; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the toad (Bufo marinus) has been used in many studies as a model for understanding its role and interaction with the neural retina. The toad's retina has been used to establish a new in vitro model of experimental retinal detachment (RD) and replacement . It has been shown that the electrophysiological measures of retinal function recovered following complete RD. The toad was chosen because its RPE is similar to the mammalian RPE . In this report, light microscopy was used to characterize the morphologic changes that occur in the RPE and neural retina following RD/replacement and to correlate these findings with recovery of electrophysiologic function. Retinas from Bufo marinus were studied in vitro. The neural retina completely detached from the RPE and then replaced. At various times after replacement, neural retina-RPE tissues were processed for light microscopy. At 30 min after replacement, the subretinal space was greatly expanded, and the apical processes that normally ensheath the rod outer segments were short and no longer contacted the rod outer segments. The RPE was swollen, contained many vacuoles and the apical surface was rounded. By 2 h after replacement, the subretinal space was significantly resorbed and contained many shredded rod outer segments; RPE cells were still swollen, although less. During the next 5-10 h, the number of phagosomes in the RPE cytoplasm increased and the number of shredded rod outer segments in the subretinal space decreased. RPE cells regained their normal size and interdigitation of apical processes and rod outer segments were observed. These results demonstrate the re-establishment of morphological interactions between the RPE and neural retina within hours following RD/replacement. Morphological recovery coincides with recovery of electrophysiologic parameters. This is a good model to investigate the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina mechanisms involved in retinal

  13. Retina damage after exposure to UVA radiation on the early developmental stages of the Egyptian toad Bufo regularis Reuss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the histological and histochemical changes in the retina on different developmental stages of Egyptian toad Bufo regularis. Our experiment started when tadpoles begin to feed. The adapted embryos are divided into 3 large tanks of 200 embryos each, collections of samples started from feeding age every three days. Both histological and histochemical results showed that the general architecture of the retina organ is correlated with the state of development. Therefore, it displayed different characteristic features depending on the investigated developmental stage starting from the larval stage (feeding began, stage 44 and ending with the post-metamorphic stage 66. Also, the present work aimed to study the chronic effects of UVA on the retina structure of B. regularis during development and metamorphosis for the first time.

  14. Microsatellite analysis of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) in Denmark: populations are islands in a fragmented landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Briggs, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The European natterjack toad (Bufo calamita) has declined rapidly in recent years, primarily due to loss of habitat, and in Denmark it is estimated that 50% of the isolated populations are lost each decade. To efficiently manage and conserve this species and its genetic diversity, knowledge...... of isolation by distance within major regions supported this apparent lack of a gene flow continuum. Indications of a genetic bottleneck were found in three populations. The analyses suggest that the remaining Bufo calamita populations in Denmark are genetically isolated, and represent independent units...... in a highly fragmented gene pool. Future conservation management of this species is discussed in light of these results....

  15. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  16. Chloride transport in toad skin (Bufo viridis). The effect of salt adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, U; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1984-01-01

    The steady-state Cl- current across the skin of Bufo viridis adapted to tap water was found to be rectified. In skins bathed with NaCl Ringer on both sides, a large outward current, carried by influx of Cl-, was observed at a clamping voltage (V) of less than -50 mV (outside of the skin negative...

  17. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia) and associated algae are altered by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Fabian; Gruber, Edith; Hein, Thomas; Bondar-Kunze, Elisabeth; Ivanković, Marina; Mentler, Axel; Brühl, Carsten A; Spangl, Bernhard; Zaller, Johann G

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L -1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L -1 ) on larval development of Common toads ( Bufo bufo , L.; Amphibia: Anura) and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C). Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (-8%), induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails) and reduced algae diversity (-6%). Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl) +66%, length-to-width ratio +4%) and decreased algae diversity (-21%). No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological interactions in freshwater ecosystems. Although no clear dose

  18. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  19. Effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the specific dynamic action of the marine toad, Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Faulkner, Angela C

    2002-01-01

    Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA of the marine toad, Bufo marinus. Peak postprandial rates of O(2) consumption (.V(O2)) and CO(2) production (.V(CO2)) and SDA increased with meal size (5%-20% of body mass). Postprandial metabolism was impacted by meal type; the digestion of hard-bodied superworms (Zophobas larva) and crickets was more costly than the digestion of soft-bodied earthworms and juvenile rats. An increase in body temperature (from 20 degrees to 35 degrees C) altered the postprandial metabolic profile, decreasing its duration and increasing its magnitude, but did not effect SDA, with the cost of meal digestion remaining constant across body temperatures. Allometric mass exponents were 0.69 for standard metabolic rate, 0.85 for peak postprandial .V(O2), and 1.02 for SDA; therefore, the factorial scope of peak postprandial .V(O2) increased with body mass. The mass of nutritive organs (stomach, liver, intestines, and kidneys) accounted for 38% and 20% of the variation in peak postprandial .V(O2) and SDA, respectively. Toads forced to exercise experienced 25-fold increases in .V(O2) much greater than the 5.5-fold increase experience during digestion. Controlling for meal size, meal type, and body temperature, the specific dynamic responses of B. marinus are similar to those of the congeneric Bufo alvarius, Bufo boreas, Bufo terrestris, and Bufo woodhouseii.

  20. Spatial and temporal ecology of oak toads (Bufo quercicus) on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT: We used data from 10 years of continuous, concurrent monitoring of oak toads at eight isolated, ephemeral ponds in Florida longleaf pine-wiregrass uplands to address: (1) did weather variables affect movement patterns of oak toads?; (2) did pond hydrology and the condition of surrounding uplands affect pond selection by adults or juvenile recruitment?; (3) were population trends evident?; and (4) did a classical metapopulation model best represent their population ecology? Of 4076 oak toads captured, 92.2% were adults. Substantial (n _ 30 exiting juveniles) recruitment occurred only three times (once each at three ponds during two years). Males outnumbered females (average for all years 2.3:1). Most captures occurred during May–September. Adult captures during June–August increased with heavier rainfall but were not influenced by the durations of preceding dry periods. Movement patterns of metamorphs suggested that oak toads emigrated when moisture conditions become favorable. Pond use by adults was correlated with maximum change in pond depth (May–September). Juvenile recruitment was negatively correlated with minimum pond depth and the number of weeks since a pond was last dry, and positively correlated with the maximum number of weeks a pond held water continuously. The number of breeding adults and juvenile recruitment were highest at ponds within the hardwood-invaded upland matrix. The direction of most immigrations and emigrations was nonrandom, but movement occurred from all directions, and the mean direction of pond entry and exit did not always correspond. A total of 21.1% of individuals was recaptured; 13.3% of first captures were recaptured during the same year, and 7.7% during a subsequent year. Only 1.9% of captured oak toads moved among ponds, mostly within a distance of 132 m. We did not detect adult population trends over the 10- yr studied. Presence or absence at ponds in any given year was a poor indicator of overall use. We saw

  1. Antibacterial activity of the parotid glands secretions of sudanese indigenous african toad (Bufo spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abugabr, H. E.; Elhussein, S. A.; Mahmoud, Z. N.

    2009-01-01

    The study revealed a well-built first line innate immunity system in Bufo Spp., the skin extracts illustrated a very active antibiotic attitude which inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria species, Escherichia coli (ATCC 19615), staphylococcus aureus(ATCC29213) and streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC25922). Heat treatment of secretion supported the fact that the antibacterial components possess an enzymatic attitude. Gel filtration chromatography accompanied with sensitivity tests against S.aureus showed the existence of four groups responsible for antibacterial activity in the parotoid glands secretions.(Author)

  2. Expression pattern of glycoconjugates in the Bidderian and ovarian follicles of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus analyzed by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Farias

    Full Text Available The Bidder's organ and ovary of the Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus were studied by light microscopy, using hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. The expression and distribution of carbohydrate moieties was analyzed by lectin histochemistry, using 8 lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: Ulex europaeus (UEA I, Lens culinaris (LCA, Erythrina cristagalli (ECA, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Ricinus communis (RCA I, Aleuria aurantia (AAA, Triticum vulgaris (WGA, and Glycine maximum (SBA. The results showed that the Bidderian zona pellucida presented alpha-mannose, alpha-L-fucose, beta-D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. The Bidderian follicular cells showed the presence of beta-D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. In the extracellular matrix, alpha-mannose and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues were detected. The ovarian zona pellucida showed alpha-L-fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues, and alpha-mannose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues were detected in the follicular cells. Thus, the zona pellucida in both organs contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and alpha/beta-N-acetyl-galactosamine residues. alpha-L-fucose residues were detected in the zona pellucida of both organs, using different lectins. Considering that beta-D-galactose residue was absent from ovary but present in the Bidder's organ, this sugar residue may play an important role in follicle development, blocking the Bidderian follicles and preventing further development of the Bidder's organ into a functional ovary.

  3. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  4. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Brutto Sabrina

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My; however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp. and African green toads (B. boulengeri on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My to Pleistocene (0.16 My with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My. We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus. Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti, whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus

  5. Effects of fluoride on morphology, growth, development, and thyroid hormone of Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Lei; Li, Xinyi; Chai, Lihong; Chen, Mengxing; Kong, Xiaojing; Wang, Qingqing; Liu, Jingfei; Zhi, Lijuan; Yang, Chang; Wang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect amphibians, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in Bufo gargarizans embryos. In the present study, the effects of fluoride exposure on B. gargarizans embryos were investigated. First, fluoride teratogenic experiment showed that the 9 days EC 50 of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos was 177.62 mg/L. Then, we studied the sublethal effects of fluoride on B. gargarizans embryos at control, 0.7, 4.1, 19.6, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride concentration. Malformation, growth, and development of embryos were monitored, and type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were measured. Our results showed the morphological malformations, such as tail curvature (lordosis), edema, cuticularized ciliated cells, and hyperplasia were occurred during fluoride exposure. Growth and development were all inhibited at 19.5, 41.9, and 62.7 mg/L fluoride-treated groups after 9 days' exposure. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to fluoride upregulated Dio3 and TRβ mRNA expression and downregulated Dio2 and TRα mRNA level. All above indicated that excessive fluoride could induce morphology malformations, inhibit embryonic growth and development, and disrupt the normal function of maternal thyroid hormone in B. gargarizans embryos. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:123-133, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of seasonal variation on oxidative stress physiology in natural population of toad Bufo melanostictus; clues for analysis of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Luna; Paital, Biswaranjan

    2016-11-01

    Natural population of Bufo melanostictus in response to environmental cues shows several physiologic changes such as reproductive activity, hibernation, aestivation and metabolic depression in different seasons. We investigated the effects of seasonal fluctuations on oxidative stress (OS) physiology biomarkers, such as endogenous (ELPx) and induced (ILPx) lipid peroxidation, front-line redox regulatory enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase) and two non-enzyme antioxidant metabolites (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione) in liver, gonad and cerebral hemisphere of toads collected from the Bhubaneswar area of India, where temperature fluctuates considerably rising to the highest in summer (∼46 °C) and being lowest in winter (pollutants alone and/or as results of metabolic changes under hibernation, aestivation and due to reproductive activities. Therefore, seasonal changes in OS physiological responses in poikilothermic models especially in toads must be cautiously used as indicators to assess environmental impact, mainly soil pollution. Results of the present study may be used as baseline data for any future analyses of the physiological impacts of environmental changes using toads as model organism.

  7. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables.

  8. The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads (Bufo americanus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Stacy M.; Little, Edward E.; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2004-01-01

    The soil ecotoxicology literature has focused primarily on a few major taxa, to the neglect of other fossorial organisms such as amphibians. We selected cadmium (Cd) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) as a model contaminant and biological species to assess the impact of soil contamination on amphibian hibernation survival and post-hibernation condition. Soil sand composition (50, 70, 90%) and hydration (100, 150% water holding capacity (WHC)) were manipulated in addition to Cd concentration (0, 56, 165, 483 μg/g) to determine whether these soil properties affect toxicity. Soil Cd concentration significantly reduced survival and locomotor performance, and was correlated negatively with percent mass loss and positively with whole body Cd concentration. Higher sand content resulted in less mass loss and greater Cd uptake. Toads that were hibernated in 50% sand hydrated to 100% WHC had higher survival, less mass loss, and better sprint performance than those hibernated in 50% sand, 150% WHC. This study demonstrates that concentrations of Cd found in soil at highly contaminated sites can be bioaccumulated by hibernating amphibians and may reduce fitness. Differences in microhabitat use may cause species to vary in their exposure and susceptibility to soil contamination. The toxicity of Cd to amphibians could be greater in natural systems where there are multiple stressors and fluctuations in environmental variables. - Capsule: The effect of cadmium-contaminated soils on hibernating amphibians depends on cadmium concentration and soil composition and moisture

  9. Non-invasive treatments of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for inducing spermiation in American (Bufo americanus) and Gulf Coast (Bufo valliceps) toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Angela D.; Obringer, Amy R.; Roth, Terri L.

    2001-01-01

    As many as 20% of all assessed amphibian species are threatened with extinction, and captive breeding programs are becoming important components of conservation strategies for this taxon. For some species, exogenous hormone administration has been integrated into breeding protocols to improve propagation. However, most treatments are administered by an intraperitoneal injection that can be associated with some risks. The general goal of this study was to identify a non-invasive method of applying luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which reliably induces sperm release in toads. Specific objectives were to 1) test the spermiation response after topical application of different LHRH doses to the abdominal seat region, 2) evaluate the effects of adding the absorption enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, and glyceryl monocaprylate (GMC) to the LHRH, 3) assess the spermiation response after oral delivery of LHRH in a mealworm vehicle, and 4) compare sperm characteristics and spermiation responses to treatments in two different toad species. Male American (n = 9) and Gulf Coast (n = 7) toads were rotated systematically through a series of treatments. Urine was collected and evaluated for the presence of sperm at 0, 3, 7, 12, and 24 hours post-treatment. There were no statistical differences in spermiation induction or sperm characteristics between American and Gulf Coast toads after the treatments. Oral administration of 100 &mgr;g LHRH was occasionally successful in inducing spermiation, but results appeared largely unreliable. Ventral dermal application of 100 or 10 &mgr;g LHRH in 40% DMSO were more effective (P Zoo Biol 20:63-74, 2001. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. blood glucose level in Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a larger study dealing with glucose homeostasis in the toad Bufo gutturalis. Seven groups of seven toads each were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for one month. During this period the toads were fed daily on live insects and were housed in a large laboratory terrarium in which the natural habitat was simulated as ...

  11. Effects of temperature on embryonic and larval development and growth in the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita in a semi-arid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy, D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature affects the duration of embryonic and larval periods in amphibians. Plasticity in time to metamorphosis is especially important in amphibian populations of Mediterranean semi-arid zones where temperatures are high and precipitation is low, increasing the rate of pond desiccation. In order to test the influence of water temperature on the larval development and growth of the natterjack toad (Bufo calamita, we collected two spawns in a semi¿arid zone at Balaguer (Lleida, NE Iberian peninsula. Approximately 50 (+/-10 eggs (stage 14-16 were raised in the lab at different temperature conditions: 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25ºC with 12:12 photoperiod. The results show a lengthening of development time with decreasing temperatures and a better survival performance of B. calamita to high temperatures. However, mean size at metamorphosis was not different across treatments, thus, suggesting that this population of B. calamita requires a minimum size to complete the metamorphosis. This study is the first approach to examine the effects that climatic factors have on the growth and development of B. calamita in semi-arid zones.

  12. Geographic variation in life-history traits: growth season affects age structure, egg size and clutch size in Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen Bo; Luo, Yi; Lou, Shang Ling; Lu, Di; Jehle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Environmental variation associated with season length is likely to promote differentiation in life-history traits, but has been little studied in natural populations of ectotherms. We investigated patterns of variation in egg size, clutch size, age at sexual maturity, maximum age, mean age, growth rate and adult body size in relation to growth season length among 17 populations of Andrew's toad (Bufo andrewsi) at different latitudes and altitudes in the Hengduan Mountains, western China. We found that egg size, age at sexual maturity, and mean age increased with decreasing length of the growth season, whereas clutch size showed a converse cline. Body size did not increase with decreasing length of the growth season, but was tightly linked to lifetime activity (i.e. the estimated number of active days during lifetime). Males and females differed in their patterns of geographic variation in growth rates, which may be the result of forces shaping the trade-off between growth and reproduction in different environments. Our findings suggest that growth season plays an important role in shaping variation in life-history traits in B. andrewsi across geographical gradients.

  13. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na + /K + -ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  14. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaël Borzée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad (Bufo gargarizans from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.. Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a

  15. Phylogeographic and population insights of the Asian common toad (Bufo gargarizans) in Korea and China: population isolation and expansions as response to the ice ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzée, Amaël; Santos, Joana L; Sánchez-RamÍrez, Santiago; Bae, Yoonhyuk; Heo, Kyongman; Jang, Yikweon; Jowers, Michael Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ice ages on speciation have been well documented for many European and North American taxa. In contrast, very few studies have addressed the consequences of such environmental and topographical changes in North East Asian species. More precisely, the Korean Peninsula offers a unique model to assess patterns and processes of speciation as it hosts the northern- and eastern-most distribution limit of some widespread Asian taxa. Despite this, studies addressing phylogeographic patterns and population genetics in the peninsula and surrounding countries are few and studies for most families are lacking. Here we inferred the phylogenetic relationships of the common toad ( Bufo gargarizans ) from South Korea and their North East Asian counterpart populations, based on mitochondrial data. Korean B. gargarizans GenBank BLASTs matched few individuals from nearby China, but the presence of a Korean clade suggests isolation on the Korean Peninsula, previous to the last glacial maximum, linked to sea level resurgence. Molecular clock calibrations within this group were used to date the divergence between clades and their relationship to paleo-climatic events in the area. Lack of genetic structure among South Korean populations and strong homogeneity between the Korean and some Chinese localities suggest weak isolation and recent expansion. Geographical projection of continuous coalescent maximum-clade-credibility trees shows an original Chinese expansion towards the Korean Peninsula through the Yellow Sea circa two million years ago with colonisation events dating circa 800 thousand years ago (K. y. a.). Following this colonisation, the data point to outgoing Korean Peninsula dispersal events throughout different periods, towards the North through land, and West through land bridge formations over the Yellow Sea during sea level falls. In accordance, demographic analyses revealed a population expansion in the Koran Peninsula circa 300 K. y. a., likely attributed

  16. Chloride channels in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1982-01-01

    A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl...

  17. Fatal chytridiomycosis and infection loss observed in captive toads infected in the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Baláž

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A parasitic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is now recognised as an important factor in the amphibian biodiversity crisis. Toad species of the genus Bufo are among those susceptible to infection by the pathogen in Europe. The aim of this study was to observe the presence and impact of infection in adults of two toad species collected for captive breeding. The total number of animals included in the study was 162, but only subsets were used for sampling at different occasions (35 specimens in the initial sampling in summer 2011, 48 post hibernation during winter 2011, and 31 in summer 2012, after all toads in captivity were treated with itraconazole. We performed TaqMan real-time quantification PCR to detect and quantify the pathogen. We found that a large infection load was linked to mortality in a single adult green toad (Bufo viridis. However, low infection loads observed in five B. viridis and five natterjack toads (B. calamita were lost over time, with no apparent adverse effect. Intraconazole treated animals were all clear of infection. As infection in these two toad species either led to mortality or recovery, it seems unlikely they could act as permanent carriers of B. dendrobatidis and therefore persistence of the pathogen is likely maintained by different host species. This is the first study to date that has detected infection and observed its impact and persistence in wild-infected toads in Europe.

  18. The tactile-stimulated startle response of tadpoles: acceleration performance and its relationship to the anatomy of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, Laura

    2006-04-01

    I described the tactile-stimulated startle response (TSR) of wood frog (Rana sylvatica), bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), and American toad (Bufo americanus) tadpoles. One purpose was to rank species in terms of maximum acceleration performance. Also, I tested whether anatomical indicators of performance potential were predictive of realized performance. TSRs were elicited in a laboratory setting, filmed at 250 Hz, and digitally analyzed. TSRs began with two, initial body curls during which tadpoles showed a broad spectrum of movement patterns. TSR performance was quantified by maximum linear acceleration and maximum rotational acceleration of the head/body, both of which tended to occur immediately upon initiation of motion ( wood frog > American toad. The species' rank order for the anatomical indicator of rotational acceleration potential was bullfrog > wood frog = American toad. Thus, the anatomical indicators roughly predicted the rank order of interspecific average performance. However, the anatomical indicators did not correlate with individual tadpole performance. Variability in behavioral patterns may obscure the connection between anatomy and performance. This is seen in the current lack of intraspecific correlation between a morphological indicator of acceleration capacity and acceleration performance.

  19. Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768) in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

    OpenAIRE

    Miglena V. Valkanova; Ivelin A. Mollov; Bogdan N. Nikolov

    2009-01-01

    The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis) in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42), the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases), followed by killing by humans (usually children) – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2%) and domestic cats (2%) has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans) affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant differenc...

  20. (Bufo regularis) ES AJIBOLA*, A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    DEPRESSION WITHOUT FADE IN COMMON AFRICAN TOAD (Bufo regularis). E. S. AJIBOLA*, A. O. ADEBAYO, F. C. ... hexamethonium produces complete fade to zero tension in the absence of any twitch depression and with .... culture, a developing synapse with 10µM hexamethonium has an antagonizing effect.

  1. Observations on the breeding of toads in a restricted habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The population consisted of two kinds of toads: Bufo gutturalis Power and a hybrid population believed to be derived from crosses between Bufo gutturalis Power and Bufo rangeri Hewitt. Individual animals can be distinguished by differences in the shape of dark spots on their backs. A record was made of every pair found ...

  2. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  3. Mortalities of the Green Toad (Epidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768 in Urban Environment: A Case Study from the City of Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena V. Valkanova

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the types of mortalities of the green toad (Epidalea viridis in the city of Plovdiv. Among all recorded mortalities (n=42, the road kill was the most common cause of death (65 % of the cases, followed by killing by humans (usually children – 31%. Killing of green toads by dogs (2% and domestic cats (2% has the lowest impact. Both most significant factors (road kill and killing by humans affect mainly the adult specimens. No statistically significant difference between the mortalities of the two sexes was detected.

  4. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntzen, Jan W; Recuero, Ernesto; Canestrelli, Daniele; Martínez-Solano, Iñigo

    2013-12-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like ecology and conservation biology. We here review molecular genetic evidence relevant to the systematics of toads in the Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae). Two studies recently published in this journal (Recuero et al., MPE 62: 71-86 and García-Porta et al., MPE 63: 113-130) addressed this issue but reached opposing conclusions on the taxonomy of the group (four versus two species). In particular, allozyme data in the latter paper were interpreted as evidence for hybridization across species (between B. bufo-B. spinosus and B. bufo-B. verrucosissimus). We tested claims for hybridization through re-analysis of allozyme data for individuals instead of populations, to be able to distinguish between sympatry with and without admixture, and found no evidence of hybridization across taxa. We propose alternative explanations for the observed patterns that García-Porta et al. (2012) failed to consider. In the absence of unequivocal evidence for hybridization and introgression, we reject the proposal to downgrade Bufo spinosus and Bufo verrucosissimus to the subspecies level. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Active urea transport by the skin of Bufo viridis: Amiloride- and phloretin-sensitive transport sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, J.; Abuful, A.; Chaimovitz, C.; Noeh, Z.; Hays, R.M. (Soroka Medical Center, Beersheva (Israel) Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Urea is actively transported inwardly (J{sub i}) across the skin of the green toad Bufo viridis. J{sub i} is markedly enhanced in toads adapted to hypertonic saline. The authors studied urea transport across the skin of Bufo viridis under a variety of experimental conditions, including treatment with amiloride and phloretin, agents that inhibit urea permeability in the bladder of Bufo marinus. Amiloride (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in both adapted and unadapted animals and was unaffected by removal of sodium from the external medium. Phloretin (10{sup {minus}4} M) significantly inhibited J{sub i} in adapted animals by 23-46%; there was also a reduction in J{sub i} in unadapted toads at 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M phloretin. A dose-response study revealed that the concentration of phloretin causing half-maximal inhibition (K{sub {1/2}}) was 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} M for adapted animals. J{sub i} was unaffected by the substitution of sucrose for Ringer solution or by ouabain. They conclude (1) the process of adaptation appears to involve an increase in the number of amiloride- and phloretin-inhibitable urea transport sites in the skin, with a possible increase in the affinity of the sites for phloretin; (2) the adapted skin resembles the Bufo marinus urinary bladder with respect to amiloride and phloretin-inhibitable sites; (3) they confirm earlier observations that J{sub i} is independent of sodium transport.

  6. Karyological and flow cytometric evidence of triploid specimens in Bufo viridis (Amphibia Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Cavallo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Karyological and flow cytometric (FCM analyses were performed on a group of 14 green toads of the Bufo viridis species from seven Eurasian populations. Both approaches gave concordant results concerning the DNA ploidy level. All the populations examined were represented exclusively by diploid or tetraploid specimens, except one, where triploids were found. Results evidenced an interpopulation variability in DNA content against the same ploidy level, as well as an unusually high number of triploids in a particular reproductive place. The origin of polyploidy and the presence and persistence of a high number of triploids in a particular population are discussed.

  7. Breeding phenology of Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Sicilia

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768 is a common species that inhabits a wide variety of habitats. The different climates characterising its broad range lead to a high degree of variability in its seasonal activity and reproductive cycle. This paper reports some observations carried out on the breeding phenology of this species over a two year period in Mediterranean temporary ponds in Sicily. The reproductive period of Sicilian green toads extends into the autumn months, making it longer than that of other Italian populations. This behaviour seems due to the impact of xeric environmental conditions on the seasonal activity of the studied populations. The present study confirms that B. viridis is an opportunistic breeder with a wide margin of variability in annual reproductive cycle patterns, as would be expected of an ecologically variable species. The duration of the reproductive season varied between populations in the same year and between different years for the same population.

  8. Bufo alvarius: a potent hallucinogen of animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, A T; Davis, W

    1994-01-01

    Anthropologists have long speculated that ancient peoples of Mesoameria used a toad, Bufo marinus, as a ritual intoxicant. This hypothesis rests on many iconographic and mythological representations of toads and on a number of speculative ethnographic reports. The authors reject B. marinus as a candidate for such use because of the toxicity of its venom. A more likely candidate is the Sonoran desert toad, Bufo alvarius, which secretes large amounts of the potent known hallucinogen, 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT). The authors demonstrate that the venom of B. alvarius, although known to be toxic when consumed orally, may be safely smoked and is powerfully psychoactive by that route of administration. These experiments are the first documentation of an hallucinogenic agent from the animal kingdom, and they provide clear evidence of a psychoactive toad that could have been employed by Precolumbian peoples of the New World.

  9. 76 FR 70479 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Draft Environmental Assessment and Safe Harbor Agreement for the Houston Toad Within Nine Texas Counties... of the endangered Houston toad (Bufo houstonensis) as a result of conservation actions, land...: [email protected] . Include ``Clear Lake Ecological Services Field Office draft Houston Toad...

  10. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron S. Wilson; Susan E. Koenig; Rick van Veen; Erika Miersma; D. Craig. Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    The notorious ‘‘cane toad’’ (Bufo marinus) is considered to be one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. A native of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley of the United States, this large toad was intentionally introduced to islands in the Caribbean, and subsequently throughout the southern Pacific, as a biological control agent to...

  11. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus on individual survival probability in wild boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Pilliod; Erin Muths; Rick D. Scherer; Paul E. Bartelt; Paul Stephen Corn; Blake R. Hossack; Brad A. Lambert; Rebecca McCaffery; Christopher Gaughan

    2010-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is linked to the worldwide decline of amphibians, yet little is known about the demographic effects of the disease. We collected capture-recapture data on three populations of boreal toads (Bufo boreas [Bufo = Anaxyrus]) in the Rocky Mountains (U.S.A.). Two of the populations were infected with chytridiomycosis and one was not. We examined the effect...

  12. Sublethal effects of the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin on oxidative stress parameters in green toad (Bufotes viridis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Tijana B; Nasia, Mohammed; Krizmanić, Imre I; Prokić, Marko D; Gavrić, Jelena P; Despotović, Svetlana G; Gavrilović, Branka R; Borković-Mitić, Slavica S; Pavlović, Slađan Z; Saičić, Zorica S

    2017-10-01

    Pyrethroids are synthetic insecticides widely used in agriculture, public health, and veterinary medicine. Deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, has attracted particular attention because of its frequent use. The mechanisms of the toxicity of most pesticides (including pyrethroids) in nontarget organisms is linked to the production of free radicals, oxidative stress induction, increased lipid peroxidation, and disruption of the total antioxidant potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute toxicity of 3 different concentrations (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg body wt) of orally applied deltamethrin after 96 h of treatment. Some of the front-line oxidative stress parameters as well as cholinesterase (ChE) activity and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the liver, muscle, skin, and gastrointestinal tissue of the adult green toad Bufotes viridis were determined. Compared with the control group, the activity of catalase and glutathione reductase was increased in the liver and skin, while the concentration of sulfhydryl groups was reduced. In the liver and muscle, concentrations of thiobarbituric reactive substances were increased, as well as liver CYP1A expression. In the muscle and skin, glutathione-S-transferase activity was higher in treated toads. The oxidative stress parameters examined were affected by different deltamethrin concentrations. We conclude that the assessed parameters represent good biomarkers of pesticide-induced oxidative stress. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2814-2822. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. TOAD Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingel, Bradford D.

    1994-01-01

    TOAD Gateway is interactive software tool for converting data files to and from variety of file formats. Currently reads and writes following file formats: TOAD; Standard Interface File (SIF); Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST) input; Comma Separated Value and Tab Separated Value, common in PC and Macintosh spreadsheet and database packages; and general free format. Additional modules for accommodating other formats easily developed and installed. Companion program, TOAD Editor (LAR-14423), manipulates contents of TOAD files and extracts selected subsets of data. TOAD Gateway written in FORTRAN 77.

  14. Multilocus species tree analyses resolve the radiation of the widespread Bufo bufo species group (Anura, Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recuero, E; Canestrelli, D; Vörös, J; Szabó, K; Poyarkov, N A; Arntzen, J W; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J; Kidov, A A; Cogălniceanu, D; Caputo, F P; Nascetti, G; Martínez-Solano, I

    2012-01-01

    New analytical methods are improving our ability to reconstruct robust species trees from multilocus datasets, despite difficulties in phylogenetic reconstruction associated with recent, rapid divergence, incomplete lineage sorting and/or introgression. In this study, we applied these methods to resolve the radiation of toads in the Bufo bufo (Anura, Bufonidae) species group, ranging from the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa to Siberia, based on sequences from two mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA regions (3490 base pairs). We obtained a fully-resolved topology, with the recently described Bufo eichwaldi from the Talysh Mountains in south Azerbaijan and Iran as the sister taxon to a clade including: (1) north African, Iberian, and most French populations, referred herein to Bufo spinosus based on the implied inclusion of populations from its type locality and (2) a second clade, sister to B. spinosus, including two sister subclades: one with all samples of Bufo verrucosissimus from the Caucasus and another one with samples of B. bufo from northern France to Russia, including the Apennine and Balkan peninsulas and most of Anatolia. Coalescent-based estimations of time to most recent common ancestors for each species and selected subclades allowed historical reconstruction of the diversification of the species group in the context of Mediterranean paleogeography and indicated a long evolutionary history in this region. Finally, we used our data to delimit the ranges of the four species, particularly the more widespread and historically confused B. spinosus and B. bufo, and identify potential contact zones, some of which show striking parallels with other co-distributed species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa, in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis. We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  16. Noxious toads and frogs of South Africa | Pantanowitz | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toad (Bufo and Schismademra pecies), the amphibian with which man and his pets most frequently have contact, secrete potent toxins with cardiac glycoside activity. Topical and systemic intoxication, while seen in humans, remains predominantly a veterinary problem. Intoxication by the red-banded rubber frog, which ...

  17. On a new species of toad from southern Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1972-01-01

    A new species of toad, related with Bufo calamita Laurenti and B. viridis Laurenti, is described from the southern part of Morocco. Combining the data of the available specimens with literature records it was established that the new species probably ranges from the Sous valley southwards to Cape

  18. Demography of common toads after local extirpation of co-occurring midwife toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Jaime; Fernandez-Beaskoetxea, S; Scherer, R.; Amburgey, Staci; Muths, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating demographic parameters like survival or recruitment provides insight into the state and trajectory of populations, but understanding the contexts influencing those parameters, including both biotic and abiotic factors, is particularly important for management and conservation. At a high elevation national park in Central Spain, common toads (Bufo bufo) are apparently taking advantage of the near-extirpation of the midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans), as colonization into new breeding ponds is evident. Within this scenario, we expected demographic parameters of common toad populations tobe affected favorably by the putative release from competition. However, we found the population growth rate was negative in 4 of 5 years at the long-standing population; survival probability at the long-standing population and newly-colonised breeding ponds was lower than reported for other toads living at high elevations and the probability of recruitment was inadequate to compensate for the survival rate in maintaining a positive trajectory for either of the breeding ponds. We assessed weather covariates and disease for their contribution to the context that may be limiting the common toad’s successful use of the niche vacated by the midwife toad.

  19. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalen David N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be

  20. Habitat suitability of patch types: A case study of the Yosemite toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang; Thomas J. Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species.We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada...

  1. Death of a South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) after the ingestion of toads--evaluation of toad poisoning by toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Peters, Martin; Osmann, Christine; Pogoda, Werner; Mebs, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Animals in zoological gardens are at risk of severe and even lethal poisoning when they accidentally ingest toads. Here we report the case of an eleven month old male South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) which was found dead in its outdoor enclosure in the zoo of Dortmund, Germany. Autopsy revealed the presence of two adult, partly digested common toads (Bufo bufo) in the stomach. Toxicological analysis of the stomach content using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF MS) proved the presence of bufadienolides, the major cardiotoxic components of toad poisons. Using electrochemical luminescens immunoassay (ECLIA) compounds equivalent to digitoxin were detected in the blood sample confirming the absorption of toad poison components from the intestines into the circulation potentially leading to cardiac failure. In zoological gardens special precautions are necessary to protect non-native animals from encountering toads and the risk of poisoning, particularly in early spring, the spawning period of the toads.

  2. Sexual selection in cane toads Rhinella marina: A male’s body size affects his success and his tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Haley BOWCOCK, Gregory P. BROWN, Richard SHINE

    2013-01-01

    Male body size can play an important role in the mating systems of anuran amphibians. We conducted laboratory-based trials with cane toads Rhinella (Bufo) marina from an invasive population in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia, to clarify the effects of a male's body size on his reproductive success and behavior (mate choice). Males were stimulated with a synthetic hormone to induce reproductive readiness. Larger body size enhanced a male toad's ability to displace a smaller rival fro...

  3. Glucose tolerance in the toad Bufo gutturalis (power)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human Physiology and Physiological Chemistry. University of Durban-Westville. Durban. "To whom correspondence should be addressed. Received 17 November 1980; accepted 30 March 1981. Reports on normal blood glucose levels in amphibians are varied. For example, the normal blood glucose level ...

  4. Environmental and Cultural Impact. Proposed Tennessee Colony Reservoir, Trinity River, Texas. Volume III. Appendices D and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    mouthed frog Bufonidae Bufo, speciosus Texas toad Bufo vallices Gulf Coast toad Bufo woodhousei woodhousei Rocky Mt. toad Hylidae Acris, crepitans...crepitans Northern cricket frog Hyla cinera cinera Green tree frog Hyla chrysoscelis Gray tree frog Pseudacris clarki Spotted chorus frog Pseudacris...salamander Manculus guadridigitatus Dwarf salamander Notophthalmus viridescens Central newt Frogs Hyla cinera Green treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis Gray

  5. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  6. Locomotor performance in an invasive species: cane toads from the invasion front have greater endurance, but not speed, compared to conspecifics from a long-colonised area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewelyn, John; Phillips, Benjamin L; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Shine, Richard

    2010-02-01

    Cane toads (Bufo marinus) are now moving about 5 times faster through tropical Australia than they did a half-century ago, during the early phases of toad invasion. Radio-tracking has revealed higher daily rates of displacement by toads at the invasion front compared to those from long-colonised areas: toads from frontal populations follow straighter paths, move more often, and move further per displacement than do toads from older (long-established) populations. Are these higher movement rates of invasion-front toads associated with modified locomotor performance (e.g. speed, endurance)? In an outdoor raceway, toads collected from the invasion front had similar speeds, but threefold greater endurance, compared to conspecifics collected from a long-established population. Thus, increased daily displacement in invasion-front toads does not appear to be driven by changes in locomotor speed. Instead, increased dispersal is associated with higher endurance, suggesting that invasion-front toads tend to spend more time moving than do their less dispersive conspecifics. Whether this increased endurance is a cause or consequence of behavioural shifts associated with rapid dispersal is unclear. Nonetheless, shifts in endurance between frontal and core populations of this invasive species point to the complex panoply of traits affected by selection for increased dispersal ability on expanding population fronts.

  7. Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Coelho

    Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

  8. Resting respiratory behavior in minimally instrumented toads - effects of very long apneas on blood gases and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho F. C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting respiratory behavior of Bufo marinus in minimally instrumented toads is described for a period of 24 hours in which the animals are left undisturbed. Torpor-related long apneas are described and their implications for blood gas levels are investigated. Results show that the resting ventilation rate of Bufo marinus is much lower than that reported so far. Levels of arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH are monitored during artificial long apneas induced by anesthesia. The toads showed an unexpected ability to unload carbon dioxide by non-respiratory means, even while being kept on dry plastic box with no access to water. Oxygen arterial partial pressure dropped to very low levels after one hour of apnea. This suggests that these animals may endure very well severe hypoxia for long periods of time while in torpor.

  9. Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Heus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A nano-flow high-resolution screening platform, featuring a parallel chip-based microfluidic bioassay and mass spectrometry coupled to nano-liquid chromatography, was applied to screen animal venoms for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor like (nAChR affinity by using the acetylcholine binding protein, a mimic of the nAChR. The potential of this microfluidic platform is demonstrated by profiling the Conus textile venom proteome, consisting of over 1,000 peptides. Within one analysis (<90 min, 500 ng venom injected, ligands are detected and identified. To show applicability for non-peptides, small molecular ligands such as steroidal ligands were identified in skin secretions from two toad species (Bufo alvarius and Bufo marinus. Bioactives from the toad samples were subsequently isolated by MS-guided fractionation. The fractions analyzed by NMR and a radioligand binding assay with α7-nAChR confirmed the identity and bioactivity of several new ligands.

  10. Trophic ecology and microhabitat utilization by the Bufo gargarizans, Rana guentheri, and Rana limnocharis in southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonglei Yu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the trophic ecology and microhabitat use of the Asiatic toad, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842; Guentheri frog, Rana guentheri (Boulenger, 1882; and the Ricefield frog, Rana limnocharis (Boie, 1834. These three species are common around Nanchong City, in southwestern China, where they live in the same habitat before hibernation. The main objective of this study was to analyze the diets and patterns of coexistence relative to the microhabitat of each species. In the Asiatic toad, based on index of relative importance, the diet was dominated by adult Coleoptera, Isopoda, and Hymenoptera (29.53%, 22.07%, and 15.20%, respectively, while the Guenther's frog and Ricefield frog ingested predominantly Orthoptera (67.44% and 40.94%, respectively. The standardized feeding niche breadth of the Asiatic toad (0.277 was wider than that of the Guentheri frog (0.177 and Ricefield frog (0.269. The overlap in the trophic niche (prey proportion between the toad and two species of frog was low (toad vs. Guentheri frog, C H = 0.526; toad vs. Ricefield frog, C H = 0.521, while this was high for the two species of frogs (C H = 0.942. The three species also differed in microhabitat use. Asiatic toads showed strong preference for small roads close to shrubs or pre-harvest corn, while Guenther's frogs preferred bare surfaces on habitat edges, and Ricefield frogs showed a preference for bare surfaces as feeding sites in the middle of habitat. The difference in diet observed during three species seems to be explained by the difference in microhabitat use and body size of three species.

  11. The things they carried: The pathogenic effects of old and new parasites following the intercontinental invasion of the Australian cane toad (Rhinella marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Selechnik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brought to Australia in 1935 to control agricultural pests (from French Guiana, via Martinique, Barbados, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Hawai'i, repeated stepwise translocations of small numbers of founders enabled the cane toad (Rhinella marina to escape many parasites and pathogens from its native range. However, the infective organisms that survived the journey continue to affect the dynamics of the toad in its new environment. In Australia, the native-range lungworm Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala decreases its host's cardiac capacity, as well as growth and survival, but not rate of dispersal. The lungworm is most prevalent in long-colonised areas within the toads' Australian range, and absent from the invasion front. Several parasites and pathogens of Australian taxa have host-shifted to cane toads in Australia; for example, invasion-front toads are susceptible to spinal arthritis caused by the soil bacterium, Ochrobactrum anthropi. The pentastome Raillietiella frenata has host-shifted to toads and may thereby expand its Australian range due to the continued range expansion of the invasive toads. Spill-over and spill-back of parasites may be detrimental to other host species; however, toads may also reduce parasite loads in native taxa by acting as terminal hosts. We review the impact of the toad's parasites and pathogens on the invasive anuran's biology in Australia, as well as collateral effects of toad-borne parasites and pathogens on other host species in Australia. Both novel and co-evolved pathogens and parasites may have played significant roles in shaping the rapid evolution of immune system responses in cane toads within their invaded range. Keywords: Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, Ecoimmunology, Invasion, Enemy release hypothesis, Immune function, Bufo, Pathogen-mediated selection 1

  12. Environmental Impact Analysis Process. Environmental Impact Statement. Supersonic Flight Operations in the Reserve Military Operations Area, Holloman AFB, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    spotted Toad Bufo punctatus Great Plains Toad Bufo cognatus Green Toad Bufo debilis RiEY.ýOGS HYLIDAE C;.orus Frog Pseudocris triserlata Canyon...rebuild dikes. My neighbor did such a gentle, but effective job, that he saved even slender young trees from being killed as he worked around them with...Notes or Comments ALAUDIDAE - LARKS 3 Horned Lark R HIRUNDINIDAE - SWALLOWS Violet-green Swallow SR Tree Swallow * - T Bank Swallow * - T Rough-winged

  13. Cd, Cu, Zn, Se, and metallothioneins in two amphibians, Necturus maculosus (Amphibia, Caudata) and Bufo bufo (Amphibia, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovoljc, Katarina; Falnoga, Ingrid; Žnidarič, Magda Tušek; Mazej, Darja; Ščančar, Janez; Bulog, Boris

    2012-12-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, its affinity for metallothioneins (MTs), and its relation to copper, zinc, and selenium were investigated in the experimental mudpuppy Necturus maculosus and the common toad Bufo bufo captured in nature. Specimens of N. maculosus were exposed to waterborne Cd (85 μg/L) for up to 40 days. Exposure resulted in tissue-dependent accumulation of Cd in the order kidney, gills > intestine, liver, brain > pancreas, skin, spleen, and gonads. During the 40-day exposure, concentrations increased close to 1 μg/g in kidneys and gills (0.64-0.95 and 0.52-0.76; n = 4), whereas the levels stayed below 0.5 in liver (0.14-0.29; n = 4) and other organs. Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of Zn and Cu in kidneys and Zn in skin, while a decrease of Cu was observed in muscles and skin. Cytosol metallothioneins (MTs) were detected as Cu,Zn-thioneins in liver and Zn,Cu-thioneins in gills and kidney, with the presence of Se in all cases. After exposure, Cd binding to MTs was clearly observed in cytosol of gills as Zn,Cu,Cd-thionein and in pellet extract of kidneys as Zn,Cu,Cd-thioneins. The results indicate low Cd storage in liver with almost undetectable Cd in liver MT fractions. In field trapped Bufo bufo (spring and autumn animals), Cd levels were followed in four organs and found to be in the order kidney > liver (0.56-5.0 μg/g >0.03-0.72 μg/g; n = 11, spring and autumn animals), with no detectable Cd in muscle and skin. At the tissue level, high positive correlations between Cd, Cu, and Se were found in liver (all r > 0.80; α = 0.05, n = 5), and between Cd and Se in kidney (r = 0.76; n = 5) of autumn animals, possibly connected with the storage of excess elements in biologically inert forms. In the liver of spring animals, having higher tissue level of Cd than autumn ones, part of the Cd was identified as Cu,Zn,Cd-thioneins with traces of Se. As both species are special in having liver Cu levels higher than

  14. Distribution and pathogenicity of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in boreal toads from the grand teton area of western wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.J.; St-Hilaire, S.; Bruer, S.; Corn, P.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the skin disease chytridiomycosis, has been linked to amphibian population declines and extinctions worldwide. Bd has been implicated in recent declines of boreal toads, Bufo boreas boreas, in Colorado but populations of boreal toads in western Wyoming have high prevalence of Bd without suffering catastrophic mortality. In a field and laboratory study, we investigated the prevalence of Bd in boreal toads from the Grand Teton ecosystem (GRTE) in Wyoming and tested the pathogenicity of Bd to these toads in several environments. The pathogen was present in breeding adults at all 10 sites sampled, with a mean prevalence of 67%. In an experiment with juvenile toadlets housed individually in wet environments, 106 zoospores of Bd isolated from GRTE caused lethal disease in all Wyoming and Colorado animals within 35 days. Survival time was longer in toadlets from Wyoming than Colorado and in toadlets spending more time in dry sites. In a second trial involving Colorado toadlets exposed to 35% fewer Bd zoospores, infection peaked and subsided over 68 days with no lethal chytridiomycosis in any treatment. However, compared with drier aquaria with dry refuges, Bd infection intensity was 41% higher in more humid aquaria and 81% higher without dry refuges available. Our findings suggest that although widely infected in nature, Wyoming toads may escape chytridiomycosis due to a slight advantage in innate resistance or because their native habitat hinders Bd growth or provides more opportunities to reduce pathogen loads behaviorally than in Colorado. ?? 2009 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  15. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Using experimental de-worming to measure the immunological and pathological impacts of lungworm infection in cane toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Finnerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunological and pathological consequences of parasite infection can be more rigorously assessed from experimental manipulation than from correlational studies of natural infections. We used anthelmintic treatment to experimentally decrease intensities of lungworm infection in captive and free-ranging wild cane toads to assess parasite impacts on host immune responses. First, we administered the anthelmintic drug Ivermectin to both infected and uninfected toads, to distinguish drug effects per se from the impacts of killing lungworms. Worms began dying and decomposing <48 h after injection. The only immunological variables that were affected by anthelmintic treatment were bactericidal capacity of the blood which increased in parasitized toads (presumably triggered by decomposing worms in the lungs, and the phagocytic capacity of blood (which increased in both infected and uninfected toads; the latter effect presumably was caused by the injection of Ivermectin per se rather than removal of parasites. Second, we looked at correlates of variation in the infection intensity induced by de-worming (in both captive and free-ranging toads over an eight-week period. Heavier lungworm infection was associated with increased phagocytic ability of the host's blood, and a reduction in the host's liver mass (and hence, energy stores. Experimental de-worming thus revealed pathological and immunological costs of the presence of lungworms, and of their removal by anthelmintic injection. Keywords: Rhinella marina, Bufo marinus, Host, Parasite, Nematode

  17. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchin, A.; Shanas, U.

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  18. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport...

  19. Distribution of the burrows of Bufo fernandezae (Anura, Bufonidae outside of the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Daniel Rosset

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial distribution of a population of adult Bufo fernandezae based on the spatial arrangement of their burrows. The study was carried out in a suburban area near La Plata, Argentina. Two sampling methods were used: counts of burrows on areas of known size (quadrat sampling and distance measures (plotless sampling. Data obtained using both methods indicate that the spatial distribution in the analyzed population is at random. In agreement with one of the assumptions of random distributions, burrow density was not significantly correlatedwith distance to water bodies, soil hardness and vegetation cover at the studied spatial scale. Respect to the other assumption of random distributions, we did not obtain data to assess it independently. Positive interactions such as aggregations to avoid water loss described for others species of Bufo do not occur in B. fernandezae because toads of this species solve this problem living in individual burrows. Negative interactions such as territoriality were not evident herein probably because at the population densityfound (1 individual by 83 m2 competition by resources decreases. We emphasize the utility of the methods used here to apply in future works that need to obtain data about the response of B. fernandezae’s populations exposed to different environmental conditions.

  20. Comparative study on the tongue of Bufo regularis and Chalcides ocellatus in relation to their habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H. Elsheikh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the structure of the tongue of the toad, Bufo regularis and the lizard, Chalcides ocellatus. They have different feeding habits and live in different habitats. The tongue of the toad contains two types of lingual papillae; fungiform papillae and filiform papillae. The fungiform papillae are usually scattered among the filiform papillae and are believed to function in gustation and in the secretion of salivary fluid. Scanning electron microscopical studies revealed that no ciliated cells were observed on the surface of the filiform papillae or in the surrounding area of the sensory disc. In C. ocellatus the tip of the tongue is bifurcated and keratinized. The dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with several types of papillae; irregular, scale and ridge-shaped. Taste buds were present in the epithelium of the tongue. The lingual glands consist of mucous cells that form crypt-like invaginations between papillae. The present study revealed that there is a marked correlation between the structure of the tongue of both B. regularis and C. ocellatus and habitats and feeding mechanism of the two species.

  1. Berberine-induced pigment dispersion in Bufo melanostictus melanophores by stimulation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sharique A; Naaz, Ishrat; Choudhary, Ram Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Reduced production of melanin by decreased or the absence of melanocytes leads to various hypopigmentation disorders, and the development of melanogenetic agents for photoprotection and hypopigmentation disorders is one of the top priority areas of research. Hence, the present study was carried out to elucidate the ability of berberine, a principal active ingredient present in the roots of the herb Berberis vulgaris to stimulate pigment dispersion in the isolated skin melanophores of the toad Bufo melanostictus. In the present study, mean melanophore size index of the isolated skin melanophores of B. melanostictus was assayed after treating with various concentrations of berberine. A marked melanin dispersion response leading to skin darkening was observed in the isolated melanophores of toad in response to berberine, which was found to be mediated through beta-2 adrenergic receptors. The physiologically significant dose-related melanin dispersion effects of berberine per se were found to be completely abolished by propranolol, which is a specific beta-2 adrenergic receptor blocker. These per se melanin dispersal effects were also found to be markedly potentiated by isoprenaline, which is a specific beta-adrenoceptor agonist. The results indicate that berberine causes a tremendous, dose-dependent, physiologically significant pigment dispersing in the isolated skin melanophores of B. melanostictus.

  2. A DESCRIPTION OF BUFO PARDALIS TADPOLES (ANURA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadpoles of Bufo parda/is Hewitt from Kei Road, Cape Province, are described. INTRODUCTION. Although tadpoles of B. pardalis have been included in Van Dijk's (1971) key to the genus Bufa, no adequate description of this taxon has yet been published. Further studies on variability depend upon a complete description ...

  3. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  4. Ocorrência de Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 e Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae em Bufo arenalis no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurence of Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1899 and Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bufo arenalis in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Lodovico Sinkoc

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a ocorrência do parasitismo monoespecífico de A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 e A. humerale KOCH, 1844 em sapos (Bufo arenalis no Município de Rosana, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Este relato caracteriza um novo hospedeiro e uma nova localização geográfica para estas duas espécies de carrapatos.The objective of this work is to describe the occurence of the monoespecific parasitism of A. fuscum NEUMANN, 1899 and A. humerale KOCH, 1844 in toads (Bufo arenalis from the County of Rosana, State of São Paulo, Brazil. This is the description of a new host and new geographic site for those two species.

  5. Effects of weather on survival in populations of boreal toads in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, R. D.; Muths, E.; Lambert, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between animal population demography and the abiotic and biotic elements of the environments in which they live is a central objective in population ecology. For example, correlations between weather variables and the probability of survival in populations of temperate zone amphibians may be broadly applicable to several species if such correlations can be validated for multiple situations. This study focuses on the probability of survival and evaluates hypotheses based on six weather variables in three populations of Boreal Toads (Bufo boreas) from central Colorado over eight years. In addition to suggesting a relationship between some weather variables and survival probability in Boreal Toad populations, this study uses robust methods and highlights the need for demographic estimates that are precise and have minimal bias. Capture-recapture methods were used to collect the data, and the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model in program MARK was used for analysis. The top models included minimum daily winter air temperature, and the sum of the model weights for these models was 0.956. Weaker support was found for the importance of snow depth and the amount of environmental moisture in winter in modeling survival probability. Minimum daily winter air temperature was positively correlated with the probability of survival in Boreal Toads at other sites in Colorado and has been identified as an important covariate in studies in other parts of the world. If air temperatures are an important component of survival for Boreal Toads or other amphibians, changes in climate may have profound impacts on populations. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  6. The ontogeny of kin recognition in tadpoles of the toad Bufo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    114 ± 28. K9. 16*. 4. 320 ± 36*. 122 ± 33. K1–K10 represent test tadpoles from 10 different parental lines. aCompared using binomial test. bTime spent in sibling zone was compared with a random expectation using Wilcoxon signed rank test. *P < 0⋅05. Fisher's procedure of combining probabilities for overall result:.

  7. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Killorn, Erin E; Toews, Daniel P

    2001-01-01

    Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from the poste...

  8. Soil organic matter content effects on dermal pesticide bioconcentration in American toads (Bufo americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides have been implicated as a major factor in global amphibian declines and may pose great risk to terrestrial phase amphibians moving to and from breeding ponds on agricultural landscapes. Dermal uptake from soil is known to occur in amphibians, but predicting pesticide a...

  9. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...... (sulfate:bicarbonate exchange) and self-exchange diffusion take place. Irrespective of the mechanism of transport, sulfate is probably transported as a monovalent anion species....

  10. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences and Similarities among Parotoid Macrogland Secretions in South American Toads: A Preliminary Biochemical Delineation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mozer Sciani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphibians are known by cutaneous glands, spread over the skin, containing toxins (proteins, peptides, biogenic amines, steroidal bufadienolides, and alkaloids used as chemical defense against predators and microbial infection. Toads are characterized by the presence of parotoid macroglands. The common toads have lately been divided into two genera: Bufo (Europe, Asia, and Africa and Rhinella (South America. Basal Rhaebo genus is exclusively of Central America and Amazon region. Although Rhinella and Rhaebo are related, species may share differences due to the diversity of environments that they live in. In this work, we have performed a biochemical characterization of the components of the poison of eight Rhinella species and one Rhaebo by means of RP-HPLC with either UV or MS detection and by SDS-PAGE, in order to verify whether phylogenetic and biological differences, such as habitat, diet, and defensive strategies, between them may also be reflected in poison composition. Although some components were common among the secretions, we were able to identify exclusive molecules to some species. The fact that closely related animals living in different habitats secrete different molecules into the skin is an indication that biological features, and not only evolution, seem to directly influence the skin secretion composition.

  12. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorchin, A., E-mail: adorchin@campus.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Shanas, U., E-mail: shanas@research.haifa.ac.i [Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural sciences, University of Haifa - Oranim, Tiv' on 36006 (Israel)

    2010-12-15

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  13. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  14. Habitat suitability of patch types: a case study of the Yosemite toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christina T.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding patch variability is crucial in understanding the spatial population structure of wildlife species, especially for rare or threatened species. We used a well-tested maximum entropy species distribution model (Maxent) to map the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (= Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. Twenty-six environmental variables were included in the model representing climate, topography, land cover type, and disturbance factors (e.g., distances to agricultural lands, fire perimeters, and timber harvest areas) throughout the historic range of the toad. We then took a novel approach to the study of spatially structured populations by applying the species-environmental matching model separately for 49 consistently occupied sites of the Yosemite toad compared to 27 intermittently occupied sites. We found that the distribution of the entire population was highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.03 SD), and associated with low slopes, specific vegetation types (wet meadow, alpine-dwarf shrub, montane chaparral, red fir, and subalpine conifer), and warm temperatures. The consistently occupied sites were also associated with these same factors, and they were also highly predictable (AUC = 0.95±0.05 SD). However, the intermittently occupied sites were associated with distance to fire perimeter, a slightly different response to vegetation types, distance to timber harvests, and a much broader set of aspect classes (AUC = 0.90±0.11 SD). We conclude that many studies of species distributions may benefit by modeling spatially structured populations separately. Modeling and monitoring consistently-occupied sites may provide a realistic snapshot of current species-environment relationships, important climatic and topographic patterns associated with species persistence patterns, and an understanding of the plasticity of the species to respond to varying climate regimes across its range. Meanwhile, modeling and monitoring of widely dispersing

  15. Variación estacional en la proporción relativa de los estadios de la oogénesis en Bufo arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echeverría, Dinorah D.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The Anova repeated measure design was used to compare the percentage of oocytes in female toads (Bufo arenarum at stages 1 to 5 and at different physiological ovary periods (or phases: production, before ovulation, after ovulation. Individual comparisons among stages and between phases have been made with the minimum significant difference method at 0.05 probability level. The statistical analysis at percentage of oocytes showed that: a Stages 1 and 2 have few variation. They are the permanent oocytes group. b Stage 3 (late vitelogenesis oocytes are absent previous to the breeding season. Their rate increases in summer and decreases in autumn. The development of oocytes 3 take place afterwards the ovulation. c Stage 4 increases in autumn and disappears in late winter. d Stage 5 sets up as the 18% of the ovulated oocytes. e. Stages 3, 4 and 5 are renewed every year; they are temporary ovarian oocytes.

  16. conservation efforts of kihansi spray toad nectophrynoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr and Mrs Goboro

    visual surveys according to Howell (2002) were used to survey the wetlands in which the toads have been reintroduced and systematic walks along transects were employed to count all the detected KSTs and other amphibians (Harper et al.

  17. Will rare Tanzanian toad stall hydro operations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Suzanne

    2000-01-01

    Normal operations at the Kihansi power station in Tanzania may be endangering the spray toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis). The problem is that reduced water flows (as a result of abstraction for hydroelectricity) results in insufficient spray for the toads, but so far nobody knows what flow rate will ensure survival. Additional water sprays are provided to irrigate parts of the wetlands habitat. The problem has yet to be resolved

  18. Chronic hypoxia and chronic hypercapnia differentially regulate an NMDA-sensitive component of the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Jessica; Gheshmy, Afshan; Manga, Jasmin; Reid, Stephen G

    2011-08-01

    This study addressed the hypotheses that exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH) and chronic hypercapnia (CHC) would modify the acute hypercapnic ventilatory response in the cane toad (Rhinella marina; formerly Bufo marinus or Chaunus marinus) and its regulation by NMDA-mediated processes. Cane toads were exposed to 10 days of CH (10% O(2)) or CHC (3.5% CO(2)) followed by acute in vivo hypercapnic breathing trials, conducted before and after an injection of the NMDA-receptor channel blocker, MK801 into the dorsal lymph sac. CH, CHC and MK801 did not alter ventilation under acute normoxic normocapnic conditions. CH blunted the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia while CHC had no effect. The effect of CH on breathing frequency was mediated by a decrease in the number of breaths per breathing episode. Neither CH nor CHC altered breath area (volume). MK801 augmented breathing frequency (via an increase in breaths per episode) and total ventilation during acute hypercapnia in control toads and toads exposed to CH; there was no effect of MK801 on the increase in breathing frequency or total ventilation, during acute hypercapnia in toads exposed to CHC. The results indicate that CH and CHC differentially alter breathing pattern. Furthermore, they indicate an absence of NMDA-mediated glutamatergic tone during normoxic normocapnia but that NMDA-mediated processes attenuate the increase in breathing frequency during acute hypercapnia under control conditions and following CH but not following CHC. Given that MK801 was administered systemically, the effects could be acting anywhere in the reflex pathway from CO(2)-sensing to respiratory motor output.

  19. An interesting case of cardiotoxicity due to bufotoxin (toad toxin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, G; Ramkumar; Sakunthala, S R; Rajasekaran, D

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of toads for their aphrodisiac effect is a common practice in Laos, China and in some parts of India. Toad secretions from parotid and skin contains toxin similar to cardiac glycosides. It results in bradycardia and cardiac dysfunction leading on to death in some cases. We report a case of toad poisoning in a young previously healthy male.

  20. K+ transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo : microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    V, respectively (N=11; 11). This conductance could also be inhibited by Ba(2+), which depolarized a V(bl) of -71+/-5 mV by 9+/-3 mV (N=5). The pump inhibitor ouabain (1 mmol l(-1)) depolarized V(bl), but addition of furosemide to bath solution did not affect V(bl). The [K(+)] in urine varied from 1.3 to 22.8 mmol...

  1. Molecular cloning and analysis of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 from Bufo gargarizans (Amphibia: Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The protein of Myc modulator 1 (Mm-1 has been reported to repress the transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene c-Myc in humans. Moreover, it was shown to be the subunit 5 of human prefoldin (PFD. So far, this gene and its homologs have been isolated and sequenced in many organisms, such as mammals and fish, but has not been sequenced for any amphibian or reptile. In order to better understand the function and evolution of Mm-1, we isolated a full-length Mm-1 cDNA (BgMm-1, GenBank accession no. EF211947 from Bufo gargarizans (Cantor, 1842 using RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Mm-1 in B. gargarizans is 755 bp long, comprising an open reading frame (ORF of 459 bp encoding 152 amino acids. The amino acid sequence had a prefoldin α-like domain, partially including a typical putative leucine zipper motif. BgMm-1 showed high similarity to its homolog of Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (82% and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 MM-1 isoform a (81% at the amino acid level. The protein secondary structure modeled with the SWISS MODEL server revealed that there were two α-helices and four b-strands in BgMm-1 as its human orthologue, and both proteins belonged to the a class of PFD family. The phylogenetic relationships of Mm-1s from lower archaea to high mammals was consistent with the evolution of species, meanwhile the cluster result was consistent with the multiple alignment and the sequence identity analysis. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that BgMm-1 expressed widely in ten tissues of adult toad. These results can be helpful for the further investigation on the evolution of Mm-1.

  2. Male size does not correlate with fertilization success in two bufonid toads that show size-assortative mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li FAN, Zhi-Hua LIN, Xiang JI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined sexual size dimorphism (SSD, mating pattern, fertilization efficiency and female reproductive traits in two bufonid toads (Bufo gargarizans and Duttaphrynus melanostictus to test the idea that importance of male body size for egg fertilization success depends on the mating pattern. Female-biased SSD was evident only in D. melanostictus. Female B. gargarizans laid fewer larger eggs nearly three months earlier than did female D. melanostictus. Fertilization efficiencies on average were higher in B. gargarizans (95% than in D. melanostictus (91%. Though differing in the degree of SSD, body size, breeding season, clutch size, egg size and fertilization efficiency, the two toads were similar in four aspects: (1 both showed size-assortative mating; (2 females did not tradeoff egg size against egg number; (3 male size, clutch size and clutch dry mass were greater in male-larger than in female-larger pairs after accounting for female snout-vent length (SVL; and (4 the ratio of male to female SVL did not affect fertilization efficiency. Our data show that: (1 a female preference for large males is likely not important in terms of egg fertilization success; (2 a male preference for large females is likely important because larger females are more fecund; and (3 size-assortative mating arises from a male preference for large females. Our study demonstrates that male size is not always important for egg fertilization success in anurans that show size-assortative mating [Current Zoology 59 (6: 740–746, 2013].

  3. Evolution of Acoustic Behaviour in African Bufo (Anura: Bufonidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating calls are known for 29 species of African Bufo belonging to 11 species groups. Twenty-five African species, representing eight species groups (including four groups or complexes having 2N=22) have calls which Martin (1972) termed Type I. This call type is also found in Schismaderma carens, Nectophrynoides ...

  4. Toad poisoning in three dogs: case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toad poisoning is frequent in dogs, but has been infrequently addressed in published case reports and review articles. Dogs can be poisoned when they bite a toad or otherwise ingest the venom. The venom effects manifest soon after the accident, since the toxin is rapidly absorbed by the mucous membrane of the digestive system. Hospital records of three dogs, diagnosed with toad poisoning, were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to July 2007. Poisoned dogs may present only local irritation or systemic signs in the gastrointestinal, cardiac and neurological systems. All three cases presented herein had clinical signs of gastrointestinal alterations including vomiting, sialorrhea and diarrhea. Two dogs developed abnormal cardiac rhythm and two exhibited neurological signs. A poisoned animal requires emergency care and symptomatic therapy with intense monitoring of its clinical parameters. Although there have been reports on the low mortality of dogs poisoned by toads, one animal died even after appropriate therapy. The severity of clinical signs and the risk of death must be considered by the veterinarian.

  5. Article Syndactyly in Bufo maculatus Hallowell (Amphibia: Anura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Syndactyly in five specimens of Bufo maculatus, all from a small area 25 km west of Harare, Zimbabwe, is described. In three cases only one pair of digits was involved (two of the hand, one of the foot); in a fourth, two pairs of digits on one foot were involved; and in the fifth case, all digits of one hand were involved together ...

  6. JUVENILE WESTERN TOADS, BUFO BOREAS, AVOID CHEMICAL CUES OF SNAKES FED JUVENILE, BUT NOT LARVAL, CONSPECIFICS. (U915529)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. The dynamics of venous return and response to hypervolemia in the toad, Bufo marinus (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toews Daniel P; Killorn Erin E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Venous return from the posterior region of amphibians travels by either two renal portal veins to the kidney or a central abdominal vein that drains into the hepatic portal system. The relative proportions of blood flow in these vessels has never been measured nor has a modification of flow been determined when venous return increases by changes in blood volume during hypervolemia or during increased volume input from the posterior lymph hearts. Results Venous return from ...

  8. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  9. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  10. Sexual selection in cane toads Rhinella marina: A male’s body size affects his success and his tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley BOWCOCK, Gregory P. BROWN, Richard SHINE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Male body size can play an important role in the mating systems of anuran amphibians. We conducted laboratory-based trials with cane toads Rhinella (Bufo marina from an invasive population in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia, to clarify the effects of a male's body size on his reproductive success and behavior (mate choice. Males were stimulated with a synthetic hormone to induce reproductive readiness. Larger body size enhanced a male toad's ability to displace a smaller rival from amplexus, apparently because of physical strength: more force was required to dislodge a larger than a smaller amplectant male. A male’s body size also affected his mate-choice criteria. Males of all body sizes were as likely to attempt amplexus with another male as with a female of the same size, and preferred larger rather than smaller sexual targets. However, this size preference was stronger in larger males and hence, amplexus was size-assortative. This pattern broke down when males were given access to already-amplectant male-female pairs: males of all body sizes readily attempted amplexus with the pair, with no size discrimination. An amplectant pair provides a larger visual stimulus, and prolonged amplexus provides a strong cue for sex identification (one of the individuals involved is almost certainly a female. Thus, a male cane toad’s body size affects both his ability to defeat rivals in physical struggles over females, and the criteria he uses when selecting potential mates, but the impacts of that selectivity depend upon the context in which mating occurs [Current Zoology 59 (6: 747–753, 2013].

  11. Aerobic scope and cardiovascular oxygen transport is not compromised at high temperatures in the toad Rhinella marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Johannes; Andersen, Jonas L; Findsen, Anders; Pedersen, Pil B M; Hansen, Kasper; Ozolina, Karlina; Wang, Tobias

    2012-10-15

    Numerous recent studies convincingly correlate the upper thermal tolerance limit of aquatic ectothermic animals to reduced aerobic scope, and ascribe the decline in aerobic scope to failure of the cardiovascular system at high temperatures. In the present study we investigate whether this 'aerobic scope model' applies to an air-breathing and semi-terrestrial vertebrate Rhinella marina (formerly Bufo marinus). To quantify aerobic scope, we measured resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. To include potential effects of acclimation, three groups of toads were acclimated chronically at 20, 25 and 30°C, respectively. The absolute difference between resting and maximal rate of oxygen consumption increased progressively with temperature and there was no significant decrease in aerobic scope, even at temperature immediately below the lethal limit (41-42°C). Haematological and cardiorespiratory variables were measured at rest and immediately after maximal activity at benign (30°C) and critically high (40°C) temperatures. Within this temperature interval, both resting and active heart rate increased, and there was no indication of respiratory failure, judged from high arterial oxygen saturation, P(O2) and [Hb(O2)]. With the exception of elevated resting metabolic rate for cold-acclimated toads, we found few differences in the thermal responses between acclimation groups with regard to the cardiometabolic parameters. In conclusion, we found no evidence for temperature-induced cardiorespiratory failure in R. marina, indicating that maintenance of aerobic scope and oxygen transport is unrelated to the upper thermal limit of this air-breathing semi-terrestrial vertebrate.

  12. Histological changes, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in the liver of Bufo gargarizans exposed to cadmium concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Yuhui; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2017-07-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (5, 50, 100, 200 and 500 μg Cd L -1 ) from Gosner stage 3-42. Metamorphosis rate, body weight, total length and body length were measured. Histological alterations in thyroid gland and liver were examined. Changes in hepatocyte were also examined using Transmission electron microscopic. In addition, the mRNA expression of several genes involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and thyroid hormones signaling pathways were also measured. Our results showed that 200 and 500 μg Cd L -1 decreased the metamorphosis rate and inhibited the body size of B. gargarizans larvae at G42. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly exhibited that cadmium caused liver damage. Ultrastructural examination revealed lipid accumulation and abnormal mitochondria. Exposure to 200 and 500 μg Cd L -1 significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of D2, SOD, GPx, ACC and FAE, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα, TRβ, PPARα, ACOX, CPT and SCP. However, low Cd concentration (5, 50 and 100) exposure did not cause any effect in genes expression. Thus, we conclude that high Cd concentrations could affect the normal processes of lipid metabolism though increasing lipid synthesis and reducing the ability of fatty acid β-oxidation, and disturb thyroid hormone pathways in liver, and induced oxidative stress. In addition, lipid metabolism might be regulated by THs. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report the influence of cadmium on hepatic lipid metabolism in B. gargarizans and will greatly provide new insights into cadmium hepatotoxicity in amphibian. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Purification of bufadienolides from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with positively charged C18 column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolong; Guo, Zhimou; Wang, Chaoran; Shen, Aijin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhao, Weijie; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-04-01

    As a kind of promising anticancer compounds, the preparation of bufadienolides is a hot study spot. However, due to the complexity of biological sample, the purification of bufadienolides from a crude sample (toad skin) is a tough work. In this paper, we reported a new way based on positively charged C18 material (XCharge C18) to quickly separate and purify bufadienolides from toad skin. By this method, the different ionic feature of the amino acid conjugated bufadienolides (AACBs) and the free form bufadienolides (AAUBs) was firstly utilized to obtain distinct separation selectivity on the XCharge C18 column. Additionally, the peak tailing problem of AACBs on conventional C18 was resolved and better resolutions were achieved on the XCharge C18, thus, two kinds of bufadienolides on one column were successfully purified respectively. Taking F13 as an example, the method was validated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and then 4 AACBs as well as 4 AAUBs were simultaneously purified by preparative XCharge C18. In addition, the application of this method in other fractions was also validated. The results suggested that the developed method is a practical and promising tool for efficient separation and purification of bufadienolides from toad skin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Large-scale habitat associations of four desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Gage H.; Jung, R.E.; Droege, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used night driving to examine large scale habitat associations of four common desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas. We examined association of soil types and vegetation communities with abundance of Couch's Spadefoots (Scaphiopus couchii), Red-spotted Toads (Bufo punctatus), Texas Toads (Bufo speciosus), and Western Green Toads (Bufo debilis). All four species were disproportionately associated with frequently inundated soils that are relatively high in clay content. Bufo punctatus was associated with rocky soil types more frequently than the other three species. Association between all four species and vegetation types was disproportionate in relation to availability. Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus were associated with creosote and mixed scrub vegetation. Bufo speciosus and Scaphiopus couchii were associated with mesquite scrub vegetation. Bufo debilis, Scaphiopus couchii, and B. speciosus were more tightly associated with specific habitat types, whereas B. punctatus exhibited a broader distribution across the habitat categories. Examining associations between large-scale habitat categories and species abundance is an important first step in understanding factors that influence species distributions and presence-absence across the landscape.

  15. WEAKLY SYNCHRYRONIZED SUBPOPULATION DYNAMICS IN WISCONSIN FROGS AND TOADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial synchrony in population dynamics is a topic of increasing interest in basic and applied ecology. We used data from 18 years of frog and toad calling surveys conducted throughout Wisconsin to determine the level of intraspecific synchrony among survey sites, and the relat...

  16. Observations on the breeding of toads in a restricted habitat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevent the overpopulation of the pond by tadpoles. Never- theless fairly large quantities of tadpoles did develop, and metamorphosis of some of them into toadlets was observed every year. The garden seems to have been an unfavourable biotope for the futher development of the toadlets, however, as juvenile toads were ...

  17. Il rospo smeraldino Bufo viridis in Val d’Ossola (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zanghellini

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Vengono riportate le osservazioni di rospo smeraldino (Bufo viridis compiute tra il 1998 e il 2004 in Val d’Ossola (provincia del Verbano Cusio Ossola, un’area nella quale questa specie non era stata mai precedentemente segnalata.

  18. The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Christopher J; Shine, Richard; Greenlees, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Commonly, invaders have different impacts in different places. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina: Bufonidae) has been devastating for native fauna in tropical Australia, but the toads' impact remains unstudied in temperate-zone Australia. We surveyed habitat characteristics and fauna in campgrounds along the central eastern coast of Australia, in eight sites that have been colonized by cane toads and another eight that have not. The presence of cane toads was associated with lower faunal abundance and species richness, and a difference in species composition. Populations of three species of large lizards (land mullets Bellatorias major, eastern water dragons Intellagama lesueurii, and lace monitors Varanus varius) and a snake (red-bellied blacksnake Pseudechis porphyriacus) were lower (by 84 to 100%) in areas with toads. The scarcity of scavenging lace monitors in toad-invaded areas translated into a 52% decrease in rates of carrion removal (based on camera traps at bait stations) and an increase (by 61%) in numbers of brush turkeys (Alectura lathami). The invasion of cane toads through temperate-zone Australia appears to have reduced populations of at least four anurophagous predators, facilitated other taxa, and decreased rates of scavenging. Our data identify a paradox: The impacts of cane toads are at least as devastating in southern Australia as in the tropics, yet we know far more about toad invasion in the sparsely populated wilderness areas of tropical Australia than in the densely populated southeastern seaboard.

  19. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  20. Interacting impacts of invasive plants and invasive toads on native lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Rees, Samantha J; Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2012-03-01

    The ecological impacts of an invasive species may be reduced by prior invasions if selective pressures imposed by earlier events preadapt the native biota to deal with the newer arrival. In northwestern Australia, invasion of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) kills many native predators if they ingest the highly toxic toads. Remarkably, the toads' defensive toxins (bufadienolides) are chemically similar to those of another invasive species: an ornamental plant from Madagascar, Bryophyllum spp. (Crassulaceae, mother-of-millions). Omnivorous lizards (bluetongue skinks, Tiliqua scincoides) are imperiled by the invasion of toads in northwestern Australia, but conspecifics from other areas of the continent (those where exotic plants were introduced and including areas where toads have yet to invade) are less affected because they exhibit higher physiological tolerance of toad toxins (and also of plant toxins). The willingness of captive bluetongues to consume both toads and these plants and the high correlation in the lizards' sensitivity to toad toxins versus plant toxins suggest that exotic plants may have imposed strong selection on the lizards' physiological tolerance of bufadienolides. As a result, populations of lizards from areas previously exposed to these alien plants may be preadapted to deal with the toxins of the more recent anuran invader.

  1. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas Fiscal Year 1987: The MCA range Construction, Pidcoke Land Exchange, and Phantom Range Projects. Archeological Resource Management Series Research Report Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Eastern green toad (Bufo debilis debilis) Spotted chorus frog (Pseudacris clarki) Cricket frog (Acris cerpitans) Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) Plains...Normal. Florence, Gene 1977 The Collector’s Encyclopedia of Depression Glass. Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky. 1983 Kitchen Glassware of the Depression...Years. Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky. 1984 The Collector’s Encyclopedia of Depression Glass. Collector Books, Paducah, Kentucky. Fontana

  2. Vascular aspects of water uptake mechanisms in the toad skin: perfusion, diffusion, confusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels; Viborg, Arne L; Hillyard, Stanley D

    2007-01-01

    and declined in parallel with BCF. Water absorption measured during the initial rehydration period did not correlate with BCF and hydrated toads injected with AVT increased water absorption without an increase in BCF indicating the lack of an obligate relation between blood flow and water absorption......Blood cell flow (BCF) in the water absorbing "seat patch" region of toad skin was measured with laser Doppler flow cytometry. BCF of dehydrated toads increased by a factor of 6-8 when water contact was made and declined gradually as toads rehydrated. Water absorption was initially stimulated....... Aquaporins 1-3 were characterized by RT-PCR analysis of seat patch skin. AQP 1 was localized in the endothelium of subepidermal capillaries and serves as a pathway for water absorption in series with the apical and basolateral membranes of the epithelium. Dehydrated toads rehydrated more rapidly from dilute...

  3. Humoral immune alterations caused by lead: studies on an adult toad model Alteraciones inmunes humorales causadas por plomo: estudios en un modelo de sapo adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina E. Rosenberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that environmental metal levels affect the immune function. In the particular case of the impact of heavy metals, information available suggests that the immune system is a target for low-dose Pb exposure. Among vertebrates it was shown that amphibians are capable of forming antibodies against a variety of antigens, causing several responses such as anaphylactic response and rejecting grafts. In this study, the production of antibodies was assessed against sheep red blood cells (SRBC in the anuran Bufo arenarum after six weekly injections of sublethal doses of lead (50 mg.kg-1, as lead acetate. Natural antibodies (natural heteroagglutinins were also quantified against SRBC. Both assessments were carried out employing an ELISA method developed to this end, measuring absorbance (A. For natural anti-SRBC antibodies in both control (C and Pb treated (T toads, there was a non significant tendency to increase the initial absorbances (C initial: 0.69±0.39 A; T initial: 0.54±0.30 A, relative to those registered at the end of the experiments (C final: 0.89±0.49 A; T final: 0.76±0.31A; the T/C ratios also did not show changes. The only significant difference was found between initial and final samples from lead-treated toads (pExiste evidencia de que los niveles de metal ambientales afectan la función inmune. En el caso particular del impacto de metales pesados, la información disponible sugiere que el sistema inmune es un blanco para la exposición a bajas dosis de Pb. Entre los vertebrados, se ha mostrado que los anfibios son capaces de formar anticuerpos contra una variedad de antígenos, que causan diversas respuestas, tales como respuesta anafiláctica y rechazo de injertos. En este estudio, la producción de anticuerpos fue evaluada contra eritrocitos de oveja (EO en el anuro Bufo arenarum, luego de seis inyecciones semanales de dosis subletales de plomo (50 mg.kg-1, como acetato de Pb. Los anticuerpos naturales

  4. Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situdisease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation. Using a large-scale historic dataset, we explored several potential factors influencing disease dynamics in the boreal toad-Bd system: geographic isolation of populations, amphibian community richness, elevational differences, and habitat permanence. We found evidence that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be sub-optimal for Bd growth and where small boreal toad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission. In addition, boreal toads were more likely to recolonize high elevation sites after local extinction, again suggesting that high elevations may provide refuge from disease for boreal toads. We illustrate a modeling framework that will be useful to natural resource managers striving to make decisions in amphibian-Bdsystems. Our data suggest that in the southern Rocky Mountains high elevation sites should be prioritized for conservation initiatives like reintroductions.

  5. The impact of transportation and translocation on dispersal behaviour in the invasive cane toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lachlan; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions transport organisms to novel environments; but how does the translocation process influence movement patterns of the invader? Plausibly, the stress of encountering a novel environment, or of the transport process, might induce rapid dispersal from the release site-potentially enhancing (or reducing) invader success and spread. We investigated the effect of transportation and release to novel environments on dispersal-relevant traits of one of the world's most notorious invaders, the cane toad (Rhinella marina). We collected toads in northern New South Wales from heath and woodland habitats, manipulated the level of transport stress and either returned toads to their exact collection point (residents) or reciprocally translocated them to a novel site. Both translocation and the level of transport stress drastically altered toad dispersal rates for at least 5 days post-release. Translocated toads (depending on their level of transport stress and release habitat) moved on average two to five times further per day (mean range 67-148 m) than did residents (mean range 22-34 m). Translocated toads also moved on more days, and moved further from their release point than did resident toads, but did not move in straighter lines. A higher level of transport stress (simulating long-distance translocation) had no significant effect on movements of resident toads but amplified the dispersal of translocated toads only when released into woodland habitat. These behavioural shifts induced by translocation and transportation may affect an invader's ability to colonise novel sites, and need to be incorporated into plans for invader control.

  6. Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Tracy

    2011-11-01

    Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume, and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity. None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology.

  7. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Kuang

    Full Text Available Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1 is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2, a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1 was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2 protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2 and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  8. Winter hibernation and UCHL1-p34cdc2 association in toad oocyte maturation competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhichao; Yao, Yuwei; Shi, Yan; Gu, Zheng; Sun, Zhaogui; Tso, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Currently, it is believed that toad oocyte maturation is dependent on the physiological conditions of winter hibernation. Previous antibody-blocking experiments have demonstrated that toad ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (tUCHL1) is necessary for germinal vesicle breakdown during toad oocyte maturation. In this paper, we first supply evidence that tUCHL1 is highly evolutionarily conserved. Then, we exclude protein availability and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase enzyme activity as factors in the response of oocytes to winter hibernation. In the context of MPF (maturation promoting factor) controlling oocyte maturation and to further understand the role of UCHL1 in oocyte maturation, we performed adsorption and co-immunoprecipitation experiments using toad oocyte protein extracts and determined that tUCHL1 is associated with MPF in toad oocytes. Recombinant tUCHL1 absorbed p34(cdc2), a component of MPF, in obviously larger quantities from mature oocytes than from immature oocytes, and p13(suc1) was isolated from tUCHL1 with a dependence on the ATP regeneration system, suggesting that still other functions may be involved in their association that require phosphorylation. In oocytes from hibernation-interrupted toads, the p34(cdc2) protein level was significantly lower than in oocytes from toads in artificial hibernation, providing an explanation for the different quantities isolated by recombinant tUCHL1 pull-down and, more importantly, identifying a mechanism involved in the toad oocyte's dependence on a low environmental temperature during winter hibernation. Therefore, in toads, tUCHL1 binds p34(cdc2) and plays a role in oocyte maturation. However, neither tUCHL1 nor cyclin B1 respond to low temperatures to facilitate oocyte maturation competence during winter hibernation.

  9. Parasites of the Great Plains narrowmouth toad (Gastrophryne olivacea) from northern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J

    1987-10-01

    Forty-nine adult and 14 immature Great Plains narrowmouth toads (Gastrophryne olivacea) from Johnson and Somervell Counties of northcentral Texas were examined for parasites. Sixty-four percent of the toads were infected with one or more species of parasites. New host records are reported for an isosporan similar to Isospora neos, and for Cylindrotaenia americana. The most common parasite in G. olivacea was the nematode, Cosmocercoides dukae. Prevalence was high among the adult G. olivacea (82%); however, none of the immature toads were infected.

  10. The identity of the South African toad Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ohler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The toad species Sclerophrys capensis Tschudi, 1838 was erected for a single specimen from South Africa which has never been properly studied and allocated to a known species. A morphometrical and morphological analysis of this specimen and its comparison with 75 toad specimens referred to five South African toad species allowed to allocate this specimen to the species currently known as Amietophrynus rangeri. In consequence, the nomen Sclerophrys must replace Amietophrynus as the valid nomen of the genus, and capensis as the valid nomen of the species. This work stresses the usefulness of natural history collections for solving taxonomic and nomenclatural problems.

  11. Portrait of a small population of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D.

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the conservation of small populations, those that are small because of decline, and those that are naturally small. Small populations are of particular interest because ecological theory suggests that they are vulnerable to the deleterious effects of environmental, demographic, and genetic stochasticity as well as natural and human-induced catastrophes. However, testing theory and developing applicable conservation measures for small populations is hampered by sparse data. This lack of information is frequently driven by computational issues with small data sets that can be confounded by the impacts of stressors. We present estimates of demographic parameters from a small population of Boreal Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) that has been surveyed since 2001 by using capture-recapture methods. Estimates of annual adult survival probability are high relative to other Boreal Toad populations, whereas estimates of recruitment rate are low. Despite using simple models, clear patterns emerged from the analyses, suggesting that population size is constrained by low recruitment of adults and is declining slowly. These patterns provide insights that are useful in developing management directions for this small population, and this study serves as an example of the potential for small populations to yield robust and useful information despite sample size constraints.

  12. Are the unken reflex and the aposematic colouration of Red-Bellied Toads efficient against bird predation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Valentina Zaffaroni; Colombo, Patrick; Abadie, Michelle; Brack, Ismael Verrastro; Dasoler, Bibiana Terra; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2018-01-01

    Aposematic signals as well as body behaviours may be important anti-predator defences. Species of the genus Melanophryniscus are characterised by having toxic lipophilic alkaloids in the skin and for presenting a red ventral colouration, which can be observed when they perform the behaviour called the unken reflex. Both the reflex behaviour and the colouration pattern are described as defence mechanisms. However, there are currently no studies testing their effectiveness against predators. This study aimed to test experimentally if both ventral conspicuous colouration and the unken reflex in Melanophryniscus cambaraensis function as aposematic signals against visually oriented predators (birds). We simulated the species studied using three different clay toad models as follows: (a) in a normal position with green coloured bodies, (b) in the unken reflex position with green coloured body and extremities and (c) in the unken reflex position with a green body and red extremities. Models were distributed on a known M. cambaraensis breeding site and in the adjacent forest. More than half of the attacks on the models were from birds; however, there was no preference for any model type. Thus, just the presence of the red colour associated with the motionless unken reflex position does not seem to prevent attacks from potential predators. It is possible that the effective aposematic signal in Melanophryniscus is achieved through the unken reflex movement together with the subsequent exhibition of the warning colouration and the secretion of toxins. PMID:29596437

  13. Exposure and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles: morpho-histological and ultrastructural study on epidermis and iNOS localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Guardia, Antonello; La Russa, Daniele; Madeo, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Sandro; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-10-15

    Endosulfan is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that has lethal and sublethal effects on non-target organisms, including amphibians. In a laboratory study, we investigated direct and post-exposure effects of endosulfan on Bufo bufo tadpoles. For this purpose we exposed the tadpoles to a single short-term contamination event (96 h) at an environmentally-realistic concentration (200 μg endosulfan/L). This was followed by a recovery period of 10 days when the experimental animals were kept in pesticide-free water. The endpoints were assessed in terms of mortality, incidence of deformity, effects on behavior, and the morpho-functional features of the epidermis. We found that a short-term exposure to the tested concentration of endosulfan did not cause mortality but induced severe sublethal effects, such as hyperactivity, convulsions, and axis malformations. Following relocation to a pesticide-free environment, we noted two types of response within the experimental sample, in terms of morphological and behavioral traits. Moreover, by using both ultrastructural and a morpho-functional approach, we found that a short-term exposure to endosulfan negatively affected the amphibian epidermis. We also observed several histo-pathological alterations: increased mucous secretion, an increase in intercellular spaces and extensive cell degeneration, together with the induction of an inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Following the post-exposure period, we found large areas of epidermis in which degeneration phenomena were moderate or absent, as well as a further increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. Thus, after 10 days in a free-pesticide environment, the larval epidermis was able to partially replace elements that had been compromised due to a physiological and/or a pathological response to the pesticide. These results highlight the need for both exposure and post-exposure experiments, when attempting to assess pollutant effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  14. Towed Optical Assessment Device (TOAD) Data to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping since 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  15. Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Lankesterellidae from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Paperna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella poeppigii n. sp. is described from Bufo poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845 from Peru. Merogony and oogony occur in the capillary endothelium and the macrophages in the liver, spleen and kidneys. Meronts are oval, 25,2–29,4 x 15,7–16,8 μm in size and yield 35–46 merozoites. Oocysts are 26,3–29,4 x 15,1–17,6 μm in size; sporozoites 9,2-9,8 x 4,2–5,0 μm in size, assemble in macrophages. Released 8,7–9,8 x 2,8–3,1 μm sporozoites enter erythrocytes. L. poeppigii is compared with Lankesterella petiti Lainson & Paperna, 1995 infecting Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil. The above mentioned specific characters, added to differences in hosts and geographical location warrant the description of Lankesterella poeppigii from B. poeppigii as a new species.

  16. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cabrera Peña

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  17. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Peña, Jorge; Solano López, Yanaide; Barrantes Barrantes, Rosibel; Rodriguez Ugalde, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    No determinado Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  18. Biometría de Bufo marinus (Anura: Bufonidae) del refugio nacional de vida silvestre Golfito, Costa Rica (ING)

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cabrera Peña; Yanaide Solano López; Rosibel Barrantes Barrantes; Daniel Rodriguez Ugalde

    2016-01-01

    Biometrical analysis of Bufo marinus was carried out in the Golfito National Wildlife Refuge, Golfito, Puntarenas, Costa Rica, between May 1986 and June 1987. Statistical analysis of biometrical parameters indicated that this species has sexual dimorphism and females had greater size and weight.

  19. Influence of demography and environment on persistence in toad populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Brad A.; Schorr, Robert A.; Schneider, Scott C.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective conservation of rare species requires an understanding of how potential threats affect population dynamics. Unfortunately, information about population demographics prior to threats (i.e., baseline data) is lacking for many species. Perturbations, caused by climate change, disease, or other stressors can lead to population declines and heightened conservation concerns. Boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have undergone rangewide declines due mostly to the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), with only a few sizable populations remaining in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, that are disease-free. Despite the apparent region-wide occurrence of Bd, our focal populations in central Colorado were disease free over a 14-year capture-mark-recapture study until the recent discovery of Bd at one of the sites. We used recapture data and the Pradel reverse-time model to assess the influence of environmental and site-specific conditions on survival and recruitment. We then forecast changes in the toad populations with 2 growth models; one using an average lambda value to initiate the projection, and one using the most recent value to capture potential effects of the incursion of disease into the system. Adult survival was consistently high at the 3 sites, whereas recruitment was more variable and markedly low at 1 site. We found that active season moisture, active season length, and breeding shallows were important factors in estimating recruitment. Population growth models indicated a slight increase at 1 site but decreasing trends at the 2 other sites, possibly influenced by low recruitment. Insight into declining species management can be gained from information on survival and recruitment and how site-specific environmental factors influence these demographic parameters. Our data are particularly useful because they provide baseline data on demographics in populations before a disease outbreak and enhance our ability to detect changes

  20. New Weapons in the Toad Toolkit: A Review of Methods to Control and Mitigate the Biodiversity Impacts of Invasive Cane Toads (Rhinella Marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingley, Reid; Ward-Fear, Georgia; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Greenlees, Matthew J; Phillips, Benjamin L; Brown, Gregory; Clulow, Simon; Webb, Jonathan; Capon, Robert; Sheppard, Andy; Strive, Tanja; Tizard, Mark; Shine, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Our best hope of developing innovative methods to combat invasive species is likely to come from the study of high-profile invaders that have attracted intensive research not only into control, but also basic biology. Here we illustrate that point by reviewing current thinking about novel ways to control one of the world’s most well-studied invasions: that of the cane toad in Australia. Recently developed methods for population suppression include more effective traps based on the toad’s acoustic and pheromonal biology. New tools for containing spread include surveillance technologies (e.g., eDNA sampling and automated call detectors), as well as landscape-level barriers that exploit the toad’s vulnerability to desiccation—a strategy that could be significantly enhanced through the introduction of sedentary, range-core genotypes ahead of the invasion front. New methods to reduce the ecological impacts of toads include conditioned taste aversion in free-ranging predators, gene banking, and targeted gene flow. Lastly, recent advances in gene editing and gene drive technology hold the promise of modifying toad phenotypes in ways that may facilitate control or buffer impact. Synergies between these approaches hold great promise for novel and more effective means to combat the toad invasion and its consequent impacts on biodiversity.

  1. The Paraguayan Rhinella toad venom: Implications in the traditional medicine and proliferation of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gomez, Celeste Vega; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Burgos-Edwards, Alberto; Alfonso, Jorge; Rolon, Miriam; Brusquetti, Francisco; Netto, Flavia; Urra, Félix A; Cárdenas, César

    2017-03-06

    Toads belonging to genus Rhinella are used in Paraguayan traditional medicine to treat cancer and skin infections. The objective of the study was to determine the composition of venoms obtained from three different Paraguayan Rhinella species, to establish the constituents of a preparation sold in the capital city of Paraguay to treat cancer as containing the toad as ingredient, to establish the effect of the most active Rhinella schneideri venom on the cell cycle using human breast cancer cells and to assess the antiprotozoal activity of the venoms. The venom obtained from the toads parotid glands was analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS. The preparation sold in the capital city of Paraguay to treat cancer that is advertised as made using the toad was analyzed by HPLC-MS-MS. The effect of the R. schneideri venom and the preparation was investigated on human breast cancer cells. The antiprotozoal activity was evaluated on Leishmania braziliensis, L. infantum and murine macrophages. From the venoms of R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. scitula, some 40 compounds were identified by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Several minor constituents are reported for the first time. The preparation sold as made from the toad did not contained bufadienolides or compounds that can be associated with the toad but plant compounds, mainly phenolics and flavonoids. The venom showed activity on human breast cancer cells and modified the cell cycle proliferation. The antiprotozoal effect was higher for the R. schneideri venom and can be related to the composition and relative ratio of constituents compared with R. ornata and R. scitula. The preparation sold in the capital city of Paraguay as containing the toad venom, used popularly to treat cancer did not contain the toad venom constituents. Consistent with this, this preparation was inactive on proliferation of human breast cancer cells. In contrast, the toad venoms of Rhinella species altered the cell cycle progression, affecting the

  2. Bufo & Spallanzani e a paródia pós-modernista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Brandão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar as considerações acerca da paródia e sua implicação na linha teórica pós-modernista, partindo das análises de Fredric Jameson e Linda Hutcheon, quando conceituando pastiche. Desse modo, nos propomos a fazer uma análise das paródias no romance Bufo & Spallanzani, de Rubem Fonseca, a partir da leitura de Ana Cristina T. de B. Carvalho (2013 que corrobora para sonegar a proposta de Jameson. Desse modo, procuraremos, no emaranhado de citações do romance, que remetem aos mais diversos campos da cultura, elementos que qualifiquem a característica paródica do romance, tendo por embasamento a contraproposta feita por Linda Hutcheon.

  3. Can we control the invasive cane toad using chemicals that have evolved under intraspecific competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gregory S; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Many invasive species experience intense intraspecific competition, because they are abundant in anthropogenically disturbed habitats where few native species persist. Species-specific competitive mechanisms that evolve in this context may offer novel, highly targeted means to control invasive taxa. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate the feasibility of this method of control, based on waterborne cues that are produced by tadpoles of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) to suppress the development of conspecific embryos. Our trials examined the nature and species-specificity of the effect, the robustness of the cue to freezing and storage, and the amounts required to suppress toad embryos. Our results were encouraging. The cue appears to be chemical rather than a biological organism, and may well be species-specific; the four species of native anurans that we tested were not influenced by toad larval cues. The cue retains its effectiveness after being frozen, but not after being dried, or after 7 d in water. It is effective at very low concentrations (the amount produced by three tadpoles within 750 L of water). Overall, the cane toad's suppressor pheromone may offer an effective new way to control invasive toads.

  4. Alimentación y fecundidad de Bufo variegatus (Anura: Bufonidae en Santa Cruz, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappi, Guillermina E.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la alimentación de una población de Bufo variegatus procedente de la región de Lago del Desierto, provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. De los 11 ítems presa identificados, los más consumidos por los adultos (tanto machos como hembras fueron los coleópteros. En los machos la segunda categoría presa mas importante en la contribución a la dieta fueron los ácaros, mientras que en las hembras las hormigas y las larvas de insectos siguieron en importancia al consumo de coleópteros. En los especímenes juveniles, los ácaros fueron las presas más consumidas, quedando los coleópteros en segundo lugar en importancia relativa. Se demuestra la existencia de una correlación positiva significativa entre el volumen de las presas y el tamaño del depredador. Se aportan datos referentes a la fecundidad de B. variegatus y se comprueba la ausencia de correlación entre el tamaño de las hembras grávidas y el número de óvulos maduros. The diet of a population of Bufo variegatus from the region of Lago del Desierto, Santa Cruz province, Argentina, is described. Of the 11 prey items identified, Coleoptera was the most consumed prey both for males and females. In males, the second most important prey was Acarii, while in females they were the ants and insect larvae. Acarii was the most consumed prey for juveniles, followed by Coleoptera. A significant positive correlation was found between prey volume and predator body size. Fecundity information for B. variegwus is given, and a lack of correlation between snout-vent length of mature females and ovarian egg complement is demonstrated.

  5. Thermal ecology of the post-metamorphic Andean toad (Rhinella spinulosa) at elevation in the monte desert, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, César Y; Vergara, Cristina; Ontivero, Emanuel; Banchig, Mariana; Navas, Ana L; Herrera-Morata, Mario A; Quiroga, Lorena B

    2015-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is an anuran toad species distributed latitudinal and altitudinal (1200-5000m) from Peru to Argentina, inhabiting mountain valleys in the Andes. Considering the broad range of habitats where they live, it is important to understand the thermal physiological mechanisms, thermal tolerances and physiological adaptations for surviving in rigorous environments. We investigated the thermal parameters (field body temperature, selected body temperature, locomotor performance in field and laboratory conditions, and thermal extremes) during diurnal activity for a population of juvenile, post-metamorphosed toads (Rhinella spinulosa) from the Monte Desert of San Juan, Argentina. Post-metamorphic toads are active from approximately 1100-1900 (in contrast to nocturnal adult toads). Our findings show that these toads have a wide thermal tolerance range, ranging from a critical thermal maximum of 36.9°C to crystallization temperatures below 0°C. During their active period, toads always showed suboptimal thermal conditions for locomotion. Despite the suboptimal condition for the locomotion, diurnal activity is likely to confer thermal advantages, allowing them to search for food and increase digestion and growth rates. We also found that the toads are capable of super-cooling, which prevents mortality from freezing when the environmental temperatures drop below 0°C. The environmental temperatures are below zero at night, when toads are inactive and take refuge under rocks. In summary, this toad population demonstrates high thermal plasticity, as shown by a relatively high level of activity sustained over a wide range of ambient temperature (~35°C). These thermal adaptations allow this species of juvenile toads to inhabit a wide range of altitudes and latitudes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Acclimation to Low Level Exposure of Copper in Bufo arenarum Embryos: Linkage of Effects to Tissue Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Silvia Pérez-Coll

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The acclimation possibilities to copper in Bufo arenarum embryos was evaluated by means of three different low level copper exposure conditions during 14 days. By the end of the acclimation period the copper content in control embryos was 1.04 ± 0.09 μg.g-1 (wet weight while in all the acclimated embryos a reduction of about 25% of copper was found. Thus copper content could be considered as a biomarker of low level exposure conditions. Batches of 10 embryos (by triplicate from each acclimation condition were challenged with three different toxic concentrations of copper. As a general pattern, the acclimation protocol to copper exerted a transient beneficial effect on the survival of the Bufo arenarum embryos. The acclimation phenomenon could be related to the selection of pollution tolerant organisms within an adaptive process and therefore the persistence of information within an ecological system following a toxicological stressor.

  7. Earless toads sense low frequencies but miss the high notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Womack, Molly C; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Coloma, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    Sensory losses or reductions are frequently attributed to relaxed selection. However, anuran species have lost tympanic middle ears many times, despite anurans' use of acoustic communication and the benefit of middle ears for hearing airborne sound. Here we determine whether pre-existing alternat......Sensory losses or reductions are frequently attributed to relaxed selection. However, anuran species have lost tympanic middle ears many times, despite anurans' use of acoustic communication and the benefit of middle ears for hearing airborne sound. Here we determine whether pre......-existing alternative sensory pathways enable anurans lacking tympanic middle ears (termed earless anurans) to hear airborne sound as well as eared species or to better sense vibrations in the environment. We used auditory brainstem recordings to compare hearing and vibrational sensitivity among 10 species (six eared......, four earless) within the Neotropical true toad family (Bufonidae). We found that species lacking middle ears are less sensitive to high-frequency sounds, however, low-frequency hearing and vibrational sensitivity are equivalent between eared and earless species. Furthermore, extratympanic hearing...

  8. Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H; Spring, K R

    1987-01-01

    The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell volume decreased by about 14% in response to bilateral exposure to Cl-free (gluconate substitution....... Unilateral exposure to a Cl-free solution did not prevent ouabain-induced cell swelling. It is concluded that m.r. cells have an amiloride-blockable Na conductance in the apical membrane, a ouabain-sensitive Na pump in the basolateral membrane, and a passive Cl permeability in both membranes. From...... the initial rate of ouabain-induced cell volume increase the active Na current carried by a single m.r. cell was estimated to be 9.9 +/- 1.3 pA. Voltage clamping of the preparation in the physiological range of potentials (0 to -100 mV, serosa grounded) resulted in a cell volume increase with a time course...

  9. Fine-scale habitat characteristics related to occupancy of the Yosemite Toad, Anaxyrus canorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina T. Liang; Robert L. Grasso; Julie J. Nelson-Paul; Kim E. Vincent; Amy J. Lind

    2017-01-01

    Fine-scale habitat information can provide insight into species occupancy and persistence that is not apparent at the landscape-scale. Such information is particularly important for rare species that are experiencing population declines, such as the threatened Yosemite Toad (Anaxyrus canorus). Our study examined differences in physical...

  10. Effect of parathyroid hormone on transport by toad and turtle bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors recently demonstrated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) inhibited both vasopressin- and cyclic AMP-stimulated water transport in the toad bladder. This was associated with an increase in calcium uptake by isolated epithelial cells. They postulated that PTH exerts its action on H 2 O transport by directly stimulating calcium uptake. The current study was designed to compare the effects of PTH and the calcium ionophore, A23187, on H 2 O and Na transport and Hμ secretion in toad and turtle bladders. In toad bladder, PTH and A23187 decreased arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated H 2 O flow and short-circuit current (SCC) after 60 min serosal incubation. In turtle bladder A23187 decreased SCC to 79.3 +/- 3.6% of base line (P + secretion in turtle bladders. Both PTH and A23187 increased 45 Ca uptake in toad bladder epithelial cells; only A23187 increased 45 Ca uptake in the turtle bladder. The different action of PTH in these two membranes, compared with that of the calcium ionophore, illustrates the selectivity of PTH on membrane transport. PTH increases calcium uptake and decreases transport only in a hormone-sensitive epithelium, whereas the ionophore works in virtually all living membranes. The mode of action of these two agents to increase calcium uptake is, therefore likely different

  11. Helpful invaders: Can cane toads reduce the parasite burdens of native frogs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity B.L. Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many invading species have brought devastating parasites and diseases to their new homes, thereby imperiling native taxa. Potentially, though, invaders might have the opposite effect. If they take up parasites that otherwise would infect native taxa, but those parasites fail to develop in the invader, the introduced species might reduce parasite burdens of the native fauna. Similarly, earlier exposure to the other taxon's parasites might ‘prime’ an anuran's immune system such that it is then able to reject subsequent infection by its own parasite species. Field surveys suggest that lungworm counts in native Australian frogs decrease after the arrival of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina, and laboratory studies confirm that native lungworm larvae enter, but do not survive in, the toads. In laboratory trials, we confirmed that the presence of anurans (either frogs or toads in an experimental arena reduced uptake rates of lungworm larvae by anurans that were later added to the same arena. However, experimental exposure to lungworms from native frogs did not enhance a toad's ability to reject subsequent infection by its own lungworm species.

  12. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkovits, J.; D’Eramo, J. L.; Fridman, O.

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300–310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days) exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A), 820(B), 1368(C) and 1915(D) Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure. PMID:16823076

  13. The uptake of 14C-glycine to Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) larva at metamorphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Haruo; Ishiguro, Shigeru; Nonoyama, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Harumi.

    1981-01-01

    With the eggs of Bufo vulgaris formosus (Boulenger) immediately after fertilization, the larvae in the 50 ml solution containing 1 ml of 14 C-glycine were developed to the end of metamorphosis. Measurements were made on the length of body, tail, fore limb and hind leg through the stages of tail degeneration and vestige. The radioactivity of the cut off fore limbs, hind legs, tails and head trunks was measured with a scintillation counter, and the 10 μ sections of the samples were used for autoradiography. The larvae uptook orally 14 C-glycine to the organs of cell tissues. On the basis of the reports of the autolysis of tails and the activation of lysosome enzyme in metamorphosis and on the uptake of 14 C-leucine and 14 C-proline to four legs by other workers, and on the present results, the free amino acids formed from the autolysis of tails were utilized for the recomposition of organ protein synthesis in the metamorphosis of the amphibians. (J.P.N.)

  14. Baroreflex regulation affects ventilation in the cururu toad Rhinella schneideri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zena, Lucas A; da Silva, Glauber S F; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C

    2016-11-15

    Anurans regulate short-term oscillations in blood pressure through changes in heart rate (f H ), vascular resistance and lymphatic f H Lung ventilation in anurans is linked to blood volume homeostasis by facilitating lymph return to the cardiovascular system. We hypothesized that the arterial baroreflex modulates pulmonary ventilation in the cururu toad Rhinella schneideri, and that this relationship is temperature dependent. Pharmacologically induced hypotension (sodium nitroprusside) and hypertension (phenylephrine) increased ventilation (25°C: 248.7±25.7 ml kg -1  min -1 ; 35°C: 351.5±50.2 ml kg -1  min -1 ) and decreased ventilation (25°C: 9.0±6.6 ml kg -1  min -1 ; 35°C: 50.7±15.6 ml kg -1  min -1 ), respectively, relative to control values from Ringer solution injection (25°C: 78.1±17.0 ml kg -1  min -1 ; 35°C: 137.7±15.5 ml kg -1  min -1 ). The sensitivity of the ventilatory response to blood pressure changes was higher during hypotension than during hypertension [25°C: -97.6±17.1 versus -23.6±6.0 breaths min -1  kPa -1 ; 35°C: -141.0±29.5 versus -28.7±6.4 breaths min -1  kPa -1 , respectively; negative values indicate an inverse relationship between blood pressure and ventilation (or breathing frequency), i.e. as blood pressure increases, ventilation decreases, and vice versa], while temperature had no effect on these sensitivities. Hyperoxia (30%; 25°C) diminished ventilation, but did not abolish the ventilatory response to hypotension, indicating a response independent of peripheral chemoreceptors. Although there are previous data showing increased f H baroreflex sensitivity from 15 to 30°C in this species, further increases in temperature (35°C) diminished f H baroreflex gain (40.5±5.62 versus 21.6±4.64% kPa -1 ). Therefore, besides an involvement of pulmonary ventilation in matching O 2 delivery to demand at higher temperatures in anurans, it also plays a role in blood pressure regulation

  15. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  16. The Effect of UV-B Radiation on Bufo arenarum Embryos Survival and Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Fridman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of Bufo arenarum embryos to 300-310 nm UV-B at a dose of 4,104 Joule/m2 resulted in 100% lethality within 24 hr while 820 Joule/m2 was the NOEC value for short-term chronic (10 days exposure. The dose response curves show that lethal effects are proportional with the dose and achieve its highest value within 48 hr post exposure. The superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in amphibian embryos for sublethal UV-B exposures was evaluated by means of UV-B treatments with 273 (A, 820(B, 1368(C and 1915(D Joule/m2 at 2 and 5 hours post irradiation. The SOD activity in units/mg protein in A, B, C and D at 2 hr after treatments were 80.72 ± 14.29, 74.5 ± 13.19, 39.5 ± 6.99 and 10.7 ± 1.89 respectively while for control embryos it was 10.88 ± 1.31. At 5 hr after treatments the SOD values were similar to those found in control embryos. The results confirm the high susceptibility of amphibian embryos to UV-B and point out that the SOD activity is enhanced by low doses of UV-B irradiation achieving significantly higher values than in control embryos at 2 hr post exposure.

  17. Membrane potential plays a dual role for chloride transport across toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Rasmussen, B E

    1983-01-01

    The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time-dependent......The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time...... resemble experimental observations. This extension of the classic frog skin model implies that the Cl- permeability is activated by a voltage change caused by the inward Na+ current through the apical membrane....

  18. Effects of Cr3+ ions on electrophysiological parameters of isolated skin of toad Pleurodema thaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzman Jofre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the toxicity of chromium (Cr3+ ions, it was explored the damaging effects that this ion could induce in cell membranes. The measurement of the effects induced by Cr3+ ions on electrophysiological parameters of short-circuit current and on the potential difference were investigated using the outer side (mucosal and the inner side (serosal of toad Pleurodema thaul skin. The results showed a decreased on electrophysiological parameters when it were administered concentrations of 33, 100 and 200 μM of Cr3+, the results also suggest that the administration of Cr3+ inhibits the ion transport in toad skin by the interaction of Cr3+ with lipid bilayers or protein constituents of membrane, and not by an inhibition of the active transport of ions across Na+ channels.

  19. Depth perception in frogs and toads a study in neural computing

    CERN Document Server

    House, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Depth Perception in Frogs and Toads provides a comprehensive exploration of the phenomenon of depth perception in frogs and toads, as seen from a neuro-computational point of view. Perhaps the most important feature of the book is the development and presentation of two neurally realizable depth perception algorithms that utilize both monocular and binocular depth cues in a cooperative fashion. One of these algorithms is specialized for computation of depth maps for navigation, and the other for the selection and localization of a single prey for prey catching. The book is also unique in that it thoroughly reviews the known neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral data, and then synthesizes, organizes and interprets that information to explain a complex sensory-motor task. The book will be of special interest to that segment of the neural computing community interested in understanding natural neurocomputational structures, particularly to those working in perception and sensory-motor coordination. ...

  20. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Krayenhoff and Bass, 2003; Foster, Lowe and Winkelman, 2012; Gill, 2007).spell out all authors first time referenced Biophilic urbanism and green infrastructure Harvard biologist E. O. Wilson popularised the concept of biophilia, describing it as “the...

  1. Storage and recovery of elastic potential energy powers ballistic prey capture in toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Monroy, Jenna A; Pilarski, Jason Q; Zepnewski, Eric D; Pierotti, David J; Nishikawa, Kiisa C

    2006-07-01

    Ballistic tongue projection in toads is a remarkably fast and powerful movement. The goals of this study were to: (1) quantify in vivo power output and activity of the depressor mandibulae muscles that are responsible for ballistic mouth opening, which powers tongue projection; (2) quantify the elastic properties of the depressor mandibulae muscles and their series connective tissues using in situ muscle stimulation and force-lever studies; and (3) develop and test an elastic recoil model, based on the observed elastic properties of the depressor mandibulae muscles and series connective tissues, that accounts for displacement, velocity, acceleration and power output during ballistic mouth opening in toads. The results demonstrate that the depressor mandibulae muscles of toads are active for up to 250 ms prior to mouth opening. During this time, strains of up to 21.4% muscle resting length (ML) develop in the muscles and series connective tissues. At maximum isometric force, series connective tissues develop strains up to 14% ML, and the muscle itself develops strains up to 17.5% ML. When the mouth opens rapidly, the peak instantaneous power output of the depressor mandibulae muscles and series connective tissues can reach 9600 W kg(-1). The results suggest that: (1) elastic recoil of muscle itself can contribute significantly to the power of ballistic movements; (2) strain in series elastic elements of the depressor mandibulae muscle is too large to be borne entirely by the cross bridges and the actin-myosin filament lattice; and (3) central nervous control of ballistic tongue projection in toads likely requires the specification of relatively few parameters.

  2. Integrating multiple distribution models to guide conservation efforts of an endangered toad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Michael L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Fitzgerald, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models are used for numerous purposes such as predicting changes in species’ ranges and identifying biodiversity hotspots. Although implications of distribution models for conservation are often implicit, few studies use these tools explicitly to inform conservation efforts. Herein, we illustrate how multiple distribution models developed using distinct sets of environmental variables can be integrated to aid in identification sites for use in conservation. We focus on the endangered arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus), which relies on open, sandy streams and surrounding floodplains in southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico. Declines of the species are largely attributed to habitat degradation associated with vegetation encroachment, invasive predators, and altered hydrologic regimes. We had three main goals: 1) develop a model of potential habitat for arroyo toads, based on long-term environmental variables and all available locality data; 2) develop a model of the species’ current habitat by incorporating recent remotely-sensed variables and only using recent locality data; and 3) integrate results of both models to identify sites that may be employed in conservation efforts. We used a machine learning technique, Random Forests, to develop the models, focused on riparian zones in southern California. We identified 14.37% and 10.50% of our study area as potential and current habitat for the arroyo toad, respectively. Generally, inclusion of remotely-sensed variables reduced modeled suitability of sites, thus many areas modeled as potential habitat were not modeled as current habitat. We propose such sites could be made suitable for arroyo toads through active management, increasing current habitat by up to 67.02%. Our general approach can be employed to guide conservation efforts of virtually any species with sufficient data necessary to develop appropriate distribution models.

  3. Helminth parasites in the toad Rhinella major (Bufonidae from Chaco region, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika I. Hamann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the diversity of helminth parasites of Rhinella major (Anura: Bufonidae in relation to their body size in 4 subhumid vs. semiarid sampling sites from the Argentine Chaco region. Helminths were found in 81% of the specimens examined (n = 85. Fifteen species (13 in subhumid and 7 in semiarid areas of helminth parasites were found, and most of them were nematodes. Parasites were found in all the examined organs, with highest prevalence and intensity in the digestive tract. Parasite transmission to the toad host occurs by skin penetration or oral ingestion. Maximum helminth richness ranged between 2 and 4 species per infected toad. The most abundant species was Aplectana hylambatis. Body size of the host was the main factor in determining parasite richness. The helminth parasite fauna was rather different in hosts from subhumid vs. semiarid sites, but the dominant (Aplectana hylambatis and codominant species (Cylindrotaenia sp. and Rhabdias elegans were the same. Mean species richness and mean species diversity of helminths were significantly different between the zones. These results suggest that the amount of rainfall and associated humidity affects the distribution and development of the parasite fauna of this toad.

  4. Temperature effects on baroreflex control of heart rate in the toad, Rhinella schneideri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zena, Lucas A; Gargaglioni, Luciane H; Bícego, Kênia C

    2015-01-01

    For an adequate blood supply to support metabolic demands, vertebrates regulate blood pressure to maintain sufficient perfusion to avoid ischemia and other tissue damage like edema. Using a pharmacological approach (phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside) we investigated baroreflex sensitivity at 15, 25, and 30°C in toads Rhinella schneideri. Baroreflex sensitivity presented a high thermal dependence (Q10=1.9-4.1), and the HR-baroreflex curve was shifted up and to the right as temperature increased from 15 to 30°C. Baroreflex variables, namely, HR range, gain50 (maximal gain) and normalized gain50 increased 206, 235, and 160% from 15 to 30°C, respectively. The cardiac limb of the baroreflex response to pharmacological treatments was significantly blunted after full autonomic blockade. In addition, there was a clear baroreflex-HR response mainly to hypotension at all three temperatures tested. These findings indicate that toads present temperature dependence for cardiac limb of the barostatic response and the cardiac baroreflex response in R. schneideri is primarily hypotensive rather than hypertensive as well as crocodilians and mammals. Thus, the cardiac baroreflex compensation to changes in arterial pressure might present different patterns among amphibian species, since the previously reported bradycardic compensation to hypertension in some anurans was not observed in the toad used in the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using spatiotemporal models and distance sampling to map the space use and abundance of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelgren, Nathan D.; Samora, Barbara; Adams, Michael J.; McCreary, Brome

    2011-01-01

    High variability in abundance, cryptic coloration, and small body size of newly metamorphosed anurans have limited demographic studies of this life-history stage. We used line-transect distance sampling and Bayesian methods to estimate the abundance and spatial distribution of newly metamorphosed Western Toads (Anaxyrus boreas) in terrestrial habitat surrounding a montane lake in central Washington, USA. We completed 154 line-transect surveys from the commencement of metamorphosis (15 September 2009) to the date of first snow accumulation in fall (1 October 2009), and located 543 newly metamorphosed toads. After accounting for variable detection probability associated with the extent of barren habitats, estimates of total surface abundance ranged from a posterior median of 3,880 (95% credible intervals from 2,235 to 12,600) in the first week of sampling to 12,150 (5,543 to 51,670) during the second week of sampling. Numbers of newly metamorphosed toads dropped quickly with increasing distance from the lakeshore in a pattern that differed over the three weeks of the study and contradicted our original hypotheses. Though we hypothesized that the spatial distribution of toads would initially be concentrated near the lake shore and then spread outward from the lake over time, we observed the opposite. Ninety-five percent of individuals occurred within 20, 16, and 15 m of shore during weeks one, two, and three respectively, probably reflecting continued emergence of newly metamorphosed toads from the lake and mortality or burrow use of dispersed individuals. Numbers of toads were highest near the inlet stream of the lake. Distance sampling may provide a useful method for estimating the surface abundance of newly metamorphosed toads and relating their space use to landscape variables despite uncertain and variable probability of detection. We discuss means of improving the precision of estimates of total abundance.

  6. Modulation of membrane conductance in rods of Bufo marinus by intracellular calcium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, B; Pinto, L H

    1983-06-01

    Double-barrel micropipettes were used to pressure-inject EGTA into the outer segments of rods in the isolated retina of Bufo marinus. We used these pipettes to point voltage clamp the cell to its resting membrane voltage during the injection of EGTA in order to prevent changes in membrane voltage from occurring. The input conductance of the rod was assessed by measuring the incremental membrane current required to hyperpolarize the membrane by less than or equal to 10 mV. When the retina was bathed in normal Ringer solution, the injection of EGTA during point voltage clamp evoked an inward membrane current and in increase in input conductance. This observation is consistent with an EGTA-evoked increase in conductance for an ion with an equilibrium potential more depolarized than the resting membrane potential. Injections of control solutions that did not contain EGTA had no effect. The effects of injected EGTA were not altered by variations in the pH or buffering capacity of the injection solution, or by the addition of equimolar Mg2+. Furthermore, injections of a solution containing equimolar Ca2+ and EGTA were without effect. Thus, the observed effects of injected EGTA were due to the lowering of the [Ca2+]i. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with choline+ abolished both the response to light and the EGTA-evoked increase in input conductance. A low [Na+]o solution containing 10(-8) M-Ca2+ reduced the response to injected EGTA by approximately the same amount as it reduced the response to light. Replacement of extracellular Cl- by methanesulphonate was without significant effect on either the response to light or to injected EGTA. These results are consistent with the interpretation that a lowered [Ca2+]i increases primarily the sodium conductance, gNa, of the plasma membrane of the rod outer segment. The conductance that is affected by a lowered [Ca2+]i appears to have the same specificity as the light-dependent conductance. This conclusion is consistent with a

  7. The declining Spadefoot toad, Pelobates fuscus (Pelobatidae): Paleo and recent environmental changes as a major influence on current population structure and status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggert, C.; Cogalniceanu, D.; Veith, M.K.H.; Dzukic, G.; Taberlet, P.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of the European Spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus) have experienced recent declines all over Europe, but these appear to be more intense in north and western Europe. Due to the toad's fossorial nature and specific habitat requirements, environmental conditions have played a major role in

  8. The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R; González-Bernal, Edna; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna) may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina), because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist) microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus) and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia.

  9. The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina, because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia.

  10. Activity patterns and fine-scale resource partitioning in the gregarious Kihansi spray toad Nectophrynoides asperginis in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rija, Alfan A; Goboro, Ezekiel M; Mwamende, Kuruthumu A; Said, Abubakari; Kohi, Edward M; Hassan, Shombe N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of species threatened with extinction is important for conservation planning and for solving problems facing species in captivity and the wild. We examined diurnal activity budgets and habitat use of the extinct in the wild Kihansi spray toad to provide insights into ongoing conservation initiatives for this species. Observations on eight target behaviors were made each morning and evening for 14 days, in two subpopulations at Kihansi and University of Dar es Salaam captive breeding centers. There were significantly more bouts of resting than calling, amplexing, hunting, walking, climbing, or feeding. There was no difference in mean time spent in each activity between the two subpopulations. The use of habitat was variable between age classes, subpopulations and sampling time. Young toads spent significantly more time resting at the top of vegetation and on walls while adults rested more on logs. Further, adults foraged more on the walls and vegetation in the morning and on the ground in the evening. Contrastingly, young toads foraged more on the ground in the morning and switched to elevated patches during evening. The similarity of the toads' behavior suggests that important biological traits are still maintained in captivity and retained across toad generations. Furthermore, temporal and spatial variations in the use of habitat structures between age groups suggest fine-scale resource partitioning to reduce competition in this gregarious species. These results highlight the importance of maintaining diverse habitat structures in captivity and are useful for planning species reintroduction and future restocking programs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. El ciclo evolutivo experimental de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei en Paracyclops fimbriatus, larvas de Bufo arenarum y caninos Experimental life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei in Paracyclops fimbriatus, tadpoles of Bufo arenarum and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Venturini

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue lograr la reproducción experimental del ciclo evolutivo de Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea con la intervención de Paracyclops fimbriatus y larvas de Bufo arenarum como hospedadores intermediarios y caninos como hospedadores definitivos. Los huevos del parásito se obtuvieron de heces de caninos infectados naturalmente y se conservaron refrigerados en agua. Se incubaron 7 días a 25°C para que desarrollaran los coracidios y se pusieron en recipientes que contenían a los copépodos mencionados. Al cabo de 12 días a 22,6°C (promedio se hallaron procercoides maduros en ellos y se agregaron 10 renacuajos de Bufo arenarum. Estos se examinaron por disección 22, 23, 61 y 107 días después, hallándose en todos 1 o más plerocercoides (Temperatura promedio: 24,9°C. El día 23, de 6 renacuajos se obtuvieron 49 plerocercoides, de los cuales se administraron 28, por vía oral, a una perra. El día 107, 3 de 11 plerocercoides obtenidos de un renacuajo se le dieron a otra perra por la misma vía. Se hallaron huevos del cestode en las heces del primer canino a partir del día 22 posterior a la infección (p.i. y a los 30 días p.i., segmentos de estróbila. En el segundo canino se hallaron huevos a los 30 días p.i..Experiments were performed in order to develop the life cycle of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei Rudolphi 1819 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea in Paracyclops fimbriatus and Bufo arenarum as intermediate hosts and dogs as definitive hosts. The eggs of Diphyllobothrium erinaceieuropei from faeces of naturally infected dogs were kept refrigered, in water. In order to obtain coracidiums they were incubated at 25°C, and then were placed in a flask which contained Paracyclops fimbriatus. The copepods were observed to be infected with procercoids 12 days after, (mean temperature 22.6°C and then, ten tadpoles of Bufo arenarum were put into the same flask. The tadpoles were examined

  12. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  13. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  14. Green Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Brianne; Inman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Green beans are thought to have originated in Peru and spread through South and Central America by Indian tribes. Spanish explorers introduced them into Europe in the 16th century. Surveys indicate that 60% of commercially grown green beans are produced in the United States. Particularly, Illinois, Michigan, New York, and Wisconsin produce the greatest amount of green beans in the United States.

  15. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Narayan

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors. We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact

  16. Foraging modality and plasticity in foraging traits determine the strength of competitive interactions among carnivorous plants, spiders and toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, David E; Krupa, James J; Rohr, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Foraging modalities (e.g. passive, sit-and-wait, active) and traits are plastic in some species, but the extent to which this plasticity affects interspecific competition remains unclear. Using a long-term laboratory mesocosm experiment, we quantified competition strength and the plasticity of foraging traits in a guild of generalist predators of arthropods with a range of foraging modalities. Each mesocosm contained eight passively foraging pink sundews, and we employed an experimental design where treatments were the presence or absence of a sit-and-wait foraging spider and actively foraging toad crossed with five levels of prey abundance. We hypothesized that actively foraging toads would outcompete the other species at low prey abundance, but that spiders and sundews would exhibit plasticity in foraging traits to compensate for strong competition when prey were limited. Results generally supported our hypotheses. Toads had a greater effect on sundews at low prey abundances, and toad presence caused spiders to locate webs higher above the ground. Additionally, the closer large spider webs were to the ground, the greater the trichome densities produced by sundews. Also, spider webs were larger with than without toads and as sundew numbers increased, and these effects were more prominent as resources became limited. Finally, spiders negatively affected toad growth only at low prey abundance. These findings highlight the long-term importance of foraging modality and plasticity of foraging traits in determining the strength of competition within and across taxonomic kingdoms. Future research should assess whether plasticity in foraging traits helps to maintain coexistence within this guild and whether foraging modality can be used as a trait to reliably predict the strength of competitive interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  17. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...

  18. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  19. Chronic hypoxia modulates NMDA-mediated regulation of the hypoxic ventilatory response in an amphibian, Bufo marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAneney, Jessica; Gheshmy, Afshan; Uthayalingam, Sarangan; Reid, Stephen G

    2006-08-01

    This study examined whether a hypoxia-tolerant amphibian, the Cane toad, undergoes mammalian-like ventilatory acclimatisation to hypoxia (VAH) and whether chronic hypoxia (CH) alters NMDA-mediated regulation of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR). Toads were exposed to 10 days of CH (10% O2) followed by acute hypoxic breathing trials or an intra-arterial injection of NaCN. Trials were conducted before and after i.p. treatment with an NMDA-receptor channel blocker (MK801). CH blunted the acute HVR but did not alter resting breathing. MK801 did not alter resting ventilation. In control animals, MK801 augmented breathing frequency (fR) during acute hypoxia by increasing the number of breaths per episode. This effect was attenuated following CH although MK801 did enhance the number of episodes per minute during acute hypoxia. MK801 enhanced the fR response to NaCN in both groups. The results indicate that CH did not produce mammalian-like VAH (i.e. increased resting ventilation and an augmented acute HVR) but did alter MK801-sensitive regulation of breathing pattern and the acute HVR.

  20. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  1. A hormone priming regimen and hibernation affect oviposition in the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, N E; Langhorne, C J; Mullen, A C; Williams, C L; Smith, T; Bullock, L; Kouba, A J; Willard, S T

    2015-09-01

    Declines of the southern Rocky Mountain population of boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) have led to the establishment of a captive assurance population and reintroduction program, in an attempt to preserve and propagate this geographically isolated population. One of the unique adaptations of this species is its ability to survive in cold environments by undergoing long periods of hibernation. In captivity, hibernation can be avoided altogether, decreasing morbidity caused by compromised immune systems. However, it is not entirely clear how essential hibernation is to reproductive success. In this study, the effects of hibernation versus nonhibernation, and exogenous hormones on oviposition, were examined in boreal toad females in the absence of males. In the summers of 2011 and 2012, 20 females housed at Mississippi State University were treated with a double priming dose of hCG and various ovulatory doses of hCG and LH-releasing hormone analog but denied hibernation. Exogenous hormones, in the absence of hibernation, could not induce oviposition over two breeding seasons (2011-2012). In contrast, during the summer of 2012 and 2013, 17 of 22 females (77%) housed at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility (Alamosa, CO, USA) oviposited after they were treated with two priming doses of hCG (3.7 IU/g each) and a single ovulation dose of hCG (13.5 IU/g) and LH-releasing hormone analog (0.4 μg/g) after hibernation. There was a significant difference in oviposition between females that were hibernated and received hormones (2012, P hibernated control females. In 2013, 12 of 16 remaining Mississippi State University females from the same group used in 2011 and 2012 were hibernated for 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively and then treated with the same hormone regimen administered to females at the Native Aquatic Species Restoration Facility. Together, hibernation and hormone treatments significantly increased oviposition (P hibernation is a key factor

  2. Estradiol and reproduction in the South American toad Rhinella arenarum (Amphibian, Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaia, María Florencia; Volonteri, María Clara; Czuchlej, Silvia Cristina; Ceballos, Nora Raquel

    2018-03-16

    Rhinella arenarum is a South American toad with wide geographic distribution. Testes of this toad produce high amount of androgens during the non reproductive season and shift steroid synthesis from androgens to 5α-pregnanedione during the breeding. In addition, plasma estradiol (E 2 ) in males of this species shows seasonal variations but, since testes of R. arenarum do not express aromatase, the source of plasma E 2 remained unknown for several years. However, the Bidder's organ (BO), a structure located at one pole of each testis, is proposed to be the main source of E 2 in male's toads since it expresses several steroidogenic enzymes and is able to produce E 2 from endogenous substrates throughout the year. In addition, there were significant correlations between plasma E 2 and total activity of BO aromatase, and between plasma E 2 and the amount of hormone produced by the BO in vitro. In the toad, apoptosis induced by in vitro treatment with E 2 was mostly detected in spermatocytes during the breeding and in spermatids during the post-reproductive season, suggesting that this steroid has an important role in controlling spermatogenesis. However, in vitro treatment with E 2 had no effect on proliferation. This evidence suggests that the mechanism of action of E 2 on amphibian spermatogenesis is complex and more studies are necessary to fully understand the role of estrogens regulating the balance between cellular proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, in R. arenarum in vitro studies suggested that E 2 has no effect on CypP450c17 protein levels or enzymatic activity, while it reduces 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3β-HSD/I) activity during the post reproductive season. As well, E 2 regulates FSHβ mRNA expression all over the year suggesting a down regulation process carried out by this steroid. The effect on LHβ mRNA is dual, since during the reproductive season estradiol increases the expression of LHβ mRNA while in the non

  3. Natural Resources Study to Determine Causes and Alternative Solutions to the Siltation and Pollution Problems of Big Stone Lake. Task 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    inflow and surface water data of Big Stone Lake, October, 1967. *: 104. Todd, David Keith, The Water Encyclopedia , Water Information Center, Port...Mudpuppy Necturus maculosus Tiger Salamander Ambystoma tigrinu American Toad Bufo americanus Great Plains Toad Bufo cognatus Cricket Frog _’ Acris

  4. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  5. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...

  6. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; George W. Tanner

    2004-01-01

    Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) and wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana) ecosystem. Fire suppression in the Florida sandhills has the potential to alter...

  7. Toxin-resistant isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase in snakes do not closely track dietary specialization on toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jonathan; Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Mori, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, a class of cardiotonic steroids that exert toxic effects by binding to and disabling the Na+/K+-ATPases of cell membranes. Some predators, including a number of snakes, have evolved resistance to the toxic effects of bufadienolides and prey regularly on toads. Resistance in snakes to the acute effects of these toxins is conferred by at least two amino acid substitutions in the cardiotonic steroid binding pocket of the Na+/K+-ATPase. We surveyed 100 species of snakes from a broad phylogenetic range for the presence or absence of resistance-conferring mutations. We found that such mutations occur in a much wider range of taxa than previously believed. Although all sequenced species known to consume toads exhibited the resistance mutations, many of the species possessing the mutations do not feed on toads, much less specialize on that food source. This suggests that either there is little performance cost associated with these mutations or they provide an unknown benefit. Furthermore, the distribution of the mutation among major clades of advanced snakes suggests that the origin of the mutation reflects evolutionary retention more than dietary constraint. PMID:27852804

  8. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  9. Morphological and allozyme studies of midwife toads (genus Alytes), including the description of two new taxa from Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; García-París, M.

    1995-01-01

    Allozyme variation in 31 to 50 presumptive loci of 12 populations of European midwife toads of the genus Alytes show appreciable genetic divergences (DiNe from 0.29 to 0.72) among four groups. These groups correspond to A. cisternasii Boscá, 1879, A. obstetricans (Laurenti, 1768), A. muletensis

  10. 77 FR 6815 - Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit To Salvage Houston Toads Affected by a Wildfire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Emergency Exemption; Issuance of Emergency Permit To Salvage Houston Toads Affected by a Wildfire in Bastrop County, TX AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. Ba2+-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes across membranes of vesicles from toad urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garty, H.; Civan, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    /sup 86/Rb+ fluxes have been measured in suspensions of vesicles prepared from the epithelium of toad urinary bladder. A readily measurable barium-sensitive, ouabain-insensitive component has been identified; the concentration of external Ba2+ required for half-maximal inhibition was 0.6 mM. The effects of externally added cations on /sup 86/Rb+ influx and efflux have established that this pathway is conductive, with a selectivity for K+, Rb+ and Cs+ over Na+ and Li+. The Rb+ uptake is inversely dependent on external pH, but not significantly affected by internal Ca2+ or external amiloride, quinine, quinidine or lidocaine. It is likely, albeit not yet certain, that the conductive Rb+ pathway is incorporated in basolateral vesicles oriented right-side-out. It is also not yet clear whether this pathway comprises the principle basolateral K+ channel in vivo, and that its properties have been unchanged during the preparative procedures. Subject to these caveats, the data suggest that the inhibition by quinidine of Na+ transport across toad bladder does not arise primarily from membrane depolarization produced by a direct blockage of the basolateral channels. It now seems more likely that the quinidine-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+ activity directly blocks apical Na+ entry.

  12. Diffusion of 133Xe through frog skins, toad bladders, and water boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    We have measured the total permeability coefficients P as a function of stirring frequency ω for 133 Xe through frog skins and toad bladders. The permeability coefficients for the frog skins and toad bladders proper are, respectively, P/sub m/ = (3.9 +- 0.8) x 10 -4 cm/s and (7.4 +- 4.2) x 10 -4 cm/s. ''Unstirred'' water layer thickness delta is determined concurrently, from the frequency dependence of P(ω); the result for frog skin is delta = (0.060 +- 0.016)/√ω(rad/s) cm. The stirring frequency range is from ω = 7.5 rad/s (72 rpm) to 55 rad/s (530 rpm). The results support the conclusions that the principal barrier to Xe diffusion in these epithelia is inter- and intracellular water, and that the diffusion is passive and rapid. The experimental method may be straightforwardly adapted to the measurement of diffusion or counterdiffusion of any gamma-radioactive soluble or partly soluble solute through any flat membrane or through a solvent. We estimate the amount of total body-absorbed radioactivity due to environmental 133 Xe to be 50 fCi for an ambient concentration of 2.6 pCi/m 3 of air

  13. Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002 Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002 parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel’s diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel’s diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species.

  14. Characterization of the Skin Microbiota of the Cane Toad Rhinella cf. marina in Puerto Rico and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan G. Abarca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinella marina is a toad native to South America that has been introduced in the Antilles, likely carrying high loads of microorganisms, potentially impacting local community diversity. The amphibian skin is involved in pathogen defense and its microbiota has been relatively well studied, however, research focusing on the cane toad microbiota is lacking. We hypothesize that the skin microbial communities will differ between toads inhabiting different geographical regions in Central America and the Caribbean. To test our hypothesis, we compared the microbiota of three populations of R. cf. marina toads, two from Costa Rican (native and one Puerto Rican (exotic locations. In Costa Rica, we collected 11 toads, 7 in Sarapiquí and 4 from Turrialba while in Puerto Rico, 10 animals were collected in Santa Ana. Separate swab samples were collected from the dorsal and ventral sites resulting in 42 samples. We found significant differences in the structure of the microbial communities between Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. We detected as much as 35 different phyla; however, communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Alpha diversity and richness were significantly higher in toads from Puerto Rico and betadiversity revealed significant differences between the microbiota samples from the two countries. At the genus level, we found in Santa Ana, Puerto Rico, a high dominance of Kokuria, Niabella, and Rhodobacteraceae, while in Costa Rica we found Halomonas and Pseudomonas in Sarapiquí, and Acinetobacter and Citrobacter in Turrialba. This is the first report of Niabella associated with the amphibian skin. The core microbiome represented 128 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs mainly from five genera shared among all samples, which may represent the symbiotic Rhinella’s skin. These results provide insights into the habitat-induced microbial changes facing this amphibian species. The differences in the microbial

  15. Invasive cane toads are unique in shape but overlap in ecological niche compared to Australian native frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-García, Marta; Keogh, J Scott

    2017-10-01

    Invasive species are an important issue worldwide but predicting invasiveness, and the underlying mechanisms that cause it, is difficult. There are several primary hypotheses to explain invasion success. Two main hypothesis based on niche spaces stand out as alternative, although not exclusive. The empty niche hypothesis states that invaders occupy a vacant niche space in the recipient community, and the niche competition hypothesis states that invaders overlap with native species in niche space. Studies on trait similarity/dissimilarity between the invader and native species can provide information on their niche overlap. Here, we use the highly invasive and well-studied cane toad ( Rhinella marina ) to test these two hypotheses in Australia, and assess its degree of overlap with native species in several niche dimensions. We compare extensive morphological and environmental data of this successful invader to 235 species (97%) of native Australian frogs. Our study is the first to document the significant morphological differences between the invasive cane toad and a continent-wide frog radiation: despite significant environmental overlap, cane toads were distinct in body size and shape from most Australian frog species, suggesting that in addition to their previously documented phenotypic plasticity and wide environmental and trophic niche breadth, their unique shape also may have contributed to their success as an invasive species in Australia. Thus, the invasive success of cane toads in Australia may be explained through them successfully colonizing an empty niche among Australian anurans. Our results support that the cane toad's distinct morphology may have played a unique role in the invasiveness of this species in Australia, which coupled with a broad environmental niche breadth, would have boosted their ability to expand their distribution across Australia. We also propose RLLR (Relative limb length ratio) as a potentially useful measure of identifying

  16. Green thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Green components of thermodynamics were identified and general aspects of green practices associated with thermodynamics were assessed. Energy uses associated with fossil fuels were reviewed. Green energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower were discussed, as well as biomass plantations. Ethanol production practices were reviewed. Conservation practices in the United States were outlined. Energy efficiency and exergy analyses were discussed. Energy intensity measurements and insulation products for houses were also reviewed. Five case studies were presented to illustrate aspects of green thermodynamics: (1) light in a classroom; (2) fuel saved by low-resistance tires; and (3) savings with high-efficiency motors; (4) renewable energy; and (5) replacing a valve with a turbine at a cryogenic manufacturing facility. It was concluded that the main principles of green thermodynamics are to ensure that all material and energy inputs minimize the depletion of energy resources; prevent waste; and improve or innovate technologies that achieve sustainability. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  17. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also...

  18. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ta'u in American Samoa, 2006 to support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  19. CRED Optical Validation Data at the island of Ta'u in American Samoa, 2004 to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  20. CRED Optical Validation Data at the islands of Ofu and Olosega in American Samoa, 2004 to Support Benthic Habitat Mapping (TOAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Optical validation data were collected using a Tethered Optical Assessment Device (TOAD), an underwater sled equipped with an underwater digital video camera and...

  1. Dermal collagen organization in Bufo ictericus and in Rana catesbeiana integument (Anuran, Amphibian) under the evaluation of laser confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; de Jesus Santana, Andréa Souza; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia

    2006-01-01

    Collagen structural organization plays an important role in the mechanical property of the vertebrate integument. Bufo ictericus and Rana catesbeiana integument was investigated by light microscopy and laser confocal microscopy. Collagenous elements of the dermis were statistical analyzed. The integument is formed by the keratinized squamous stratified epidermis supported by the dermis that is subdivided into the spongious layer with a loose arrangement, and the compact layer formed by collagenous fibers arranged compactly in a criss-crossed manner. Thick collagenous columns have a perpendicular trajectory, and are formed by the assembling of alternating collagenous lamellae in both animals. Short intercolumns of collagenous fibrils connecting collagenous lamellae obliquely or transversally are observed in R. catesbeiana dorsal integument. The present study provides evidences that B. ictericus and R. catesbeiana integument has well-organized compact dermis, constituted by collagenous lamellae in a plywood manner. The integument organization is in contrast to the literature in some aspects. This dermal arrangement is important to the biomechanical property of both anuran integuments.

  2. Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote the benefits of green infrastructure, help communities overcome barriers to using GI, and encourage the use of GI to create sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that improves water quality and supports and revitalizes communities.

  3. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  4. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on April 16, 2015. [Database subscription]. Hartley L, Flowers N, Holmes J, et al. Green and black ... health care provider. The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH. ...

  5. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  6. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  7. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Xiang, Yang; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Ping; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. → Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. → Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal role of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.

  8. Morphological and genetic differentiation among Chilean populations of Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae Diferenciación morfológica y genética entre poblaciones chilenas de Bufo spinulosus (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Méndez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Bufo spinulosus has a wide and fragmented range distribution in Chile (18° to 33° S along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients. Genetic variation was estimated using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in 10 populations from northern and central Chile. Morphometric and genetic information was analyzed as a function of geographical origin. The correlation between genetic and morphometric differentiation was analyzed by the Mantel test. An increase in body size as a function of latitude was observed. Specimens from El Tatio had the smallest body size and the greatest morphometric divergence. The AMOVA applied to genetic data indicated that 57.85 % of the variance is explained by interregional differences and that 30.12 % of the variance is found within populations. Low levels of within-regions genetic differentiation was observed in northern populations while higher levels of genetic differentiation was found in populations from central Chile. Mantel tests revealed a significant, positive correlation between genetic variation and geographic distance. When we excluded El Tatio population, Mantel test analyses showed significant correlations between morphological distance and genetic and geographic distances. We discuss whether water temperature could explain the morphological divergence observed in individuals from El TatioBufo spinulosus presenta una amplia y fragmentada distribución en Chile (18º a 33º S a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales y latitudinales. La variación genética fue estimada utilizando marcadores RAPD ("Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA" en diez poblaciones del norte y centro de Chile. La información morfométrica y genética fue analizada en función de la procedencia geográfica. La correlación entre diferenciación genética y morfométrica fue analizada utilizando la prueba de Mantel. Se observó un incremento en el tamaño corporal en función de la latitud. Los individuos de El Tatio mostraron el tama

  9. Indolealkylamines from Toad Vertebrates and Sea Invertebrates - Their Identification and Potential Activities on the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md; Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Qi, Ji; Grice, I Darren; Wei, Ming Q

    2016-01-01

    Indolealkylamines (IAAs) are biogenic amines and derivatives of 5-hydroxytryptamine, acting primarily on serotonin receptors. IAAs are often considered the most thoroughly investigated group of aromatic amines in the amphibian skin. On the contrary, at present the detailed knowledge of these compounds in lower organisms is still limited and the biogenic amine receptors, mediating hormonal and modulatory functions, are largely unknown in primitive invertebrates. However, some active research is currently underway investigating this class of biogenic amines. Notably, during the last three decades several investigations have demonstrated the biological activity of endogenous biogenic amines in cnidarians, which are known to be the lowest beings equipped with an effective, even though rudimentary, nervous system. Toads, especially those from the Bufonidae family, constitute a significant part of the amphibian family and are an identified source of IAAs. To date fourteen IAAs have been identified in the skins of toad species. All are 5-substituted IAA derivatives acting mainly on the central nervous system (CNS), with most exhibiting some degrees of 5-HT2A receptor selectivity. This selective ability presents potential for their use in the development of treatments for various disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and chronic pain conditions. There are indications that some IAAs may also show subclass selectivity through binding to multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes. Thus, there exists an additional promising platform for the development of therapeutics targeting multiple 5-HT receptors. In this review, IAAs occurring naturally in various species of toad skins, which have been identified and isolated since 1944 are summarized and comparisons are made with similar biogenic amines recognized in cnidarians to date. Such comparisons highlight the potential to utilize existing knowledge gathered from vertebrates, such as toads in

  10. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  11. Green Power Partnership Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  12. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Toranzo, G; López, L A; Martínez, J Zapata; Bühler, M C Gramajo; Bühler, M I

    2010-02-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpenic lactone, was isolated and purified from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser, a medicinal herb used in Argentina. DhL is an alpha-methylene butyro-gamma-lactone ring connected to a seven-membered ring fused to an exocyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclopentenone ring. It has been previously shown that DhL selectively induces a dose-dependent transient arrest in G2 of both meristematic cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment with DhL induces an inhibition of spontaneous and progesterone-induced maturation in a dose-dependent manner in Bufo arenarum fully grown oocytes arrested at G2, at the beginning of meiosis I. However, the nature of the mechanisms involved in the process is still unknown. The aim of this work was to analyse whether DhL's alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function is responsible for the inhibition effect on meiosis reinitiation of Bufo arenarum oocytes as well as some of the transduction pathways that could be involved in this effect using a derivative of DhL inactivated for alpha-methylenelactone, the 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine (2H-DhL). The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle content showed results similar to the ones obtained with DhL, suggesting that the hydrogenated derivative would act in a similar way to DhL. Pretreatment with DhL or 2H-DhL did not affect the percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by H89, a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, which suggests that these lactones would act on another step of the signalling pathway that induces MPF activation. The fact that both DhL and 2H-Dhl inhibit GVBD induced by okadaic acid microinjection suggests that they could act on the activity of the Myt1 kinase. This idea is supported by the experiments of injection of GV contents in which an inhibitory effect of these lactones on GVBD was also observed. Our

  13. Pyruvate transport in isolated cardiac mitochondria from two species of amphibian exhibiting dissimilar aerobic scope: Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Jeffrey M; Tucker, Kristina

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac mitochondria were isolated from Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana, two species of amphibian whose cardiovascular systems are adapted to either predominantly aerobic or glycolytic modes of locomotion. Mitochondrial oxidative capacity was compared using VO2 max and respiratory control ratios in the presence of a variety of substrates including pyruvate, lactate, oxaloacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and octanoyl-carnitine. B. marinus cardiac mitochondria exhibited VO2 max values twice that of R. catesbeiana cardiac mitochondria when oxidizing carbohydrate substrates. Pyruvate transport was measured via a radiolabeled-tracer assay in isolated B. marinus and R. catesbeiana cardiac mitochondria. Time-course experiments described both alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate-sensitive (MCT-like) and phenylsuccinate-sensitive pyruvate uptake mechanisms in both species. Pyruvate uptake by the MCT-like transporter was enhanced in the presence of a pH gradient, whereas the phenylsuccinate-sensitive transporter was inhibited. Notably, anuran cardiac mitochondria exhibited activities of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase. The presence of both transporters on the inner mitochondrial membrane affords the net uptake of monocarboxylates including pyruvate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and lactate; the latter potentially indicating the presence of a lactate/pyruvate shuttle allowing oxidation of extramitochondrial NADH. Intramitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase enables lactate to be oxidized to pyruvate or converted to anaplerotic oxaloacetate. Kinetics of the MCT-like transporter differed significantly between the two species, suggesting differences in aerobic scope may be in part attributable to differences in mitochondrial carbohydrate utilization. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  15. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  16. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  17. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  18. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  19. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  20. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , and coal, with a concomitant release of greenhouse gases. Green infrastructure seeks to perform those functions in a manner that, at the very least, minimises its impact on the natural environment and, at best, enhances the quality of the natural...

  1. Estudo sôbre hemoparasitos de Bufo marinus L. da Venezuela: 1. Hemogregarinas - - 2. Uma nova espécie de Toxoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Scorza

    1956-10-01

    Full Text Available Faz-se uma revisão das espécies de Haemogregarina, encontradas, até a presente data, em Bufo marinus L. da região Norte, Leste e Sul da Venezuela,descrevendo-se o ciclo agâmico da Haemogregarina darlingi Leger, 1918, o ciclo esquizogônico da Haemogregarina aquai Phisalix, 1930, propondo-se seja denominada Karyolysus aquai (Phisalix por realizar o ciclo agâmico nas células endoteliais. Descreve-se a Haemogregarina legeri nov. sp. Estuda-se um Toxoplasma no sangue e vísceras de Bufo marinus L., descrevendo-se a anatomia patológica dos órgãos afetados, discutindo-se o estado atual da sistemática das espécies de Toxoplasma, parasitos de vertebrados poikilotermos, propondo-se o nome de Toxoplasma serpai nov. sp. para êste protozoário.

  2. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  3. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green....... Architectural green could signify green architecture with inclusive interrelations between green and space, built and unbuilt, inside and outside. The aim of the term is to reflect a new focus in green architecture – its architectural performance. Ecological issues are not underestimated or ignored, but so far...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One...

  4. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  5. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  6. Population differentiation at a regional scale in spadefoot toads: contributions of distance and divergent selective environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber M.; McQuillan, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The causes of population differentiation can provide insight into the origins of early barriers to gene flow. Two key drivers of population differentiation are geographic distance and local adaptation to divergent selective environments. When reproductive isolation arises because some populations of a species are under selection to avoid hybridization while others are not, population differentiation and even speciation can result. Spadefoot toad populations Spea multiplicata that are sympatric with a congener have undergone reinforcement. This reinforcement has resulted not only in increased reproductive isolation from the congener, but also in the evolution of reproductive isolation from nearby and distant conspecific allopatric populations. We used multiple approaches to evaluate the contributions of geographic distance and divergent selective environments to population structure across this regional scale in S. multiplicata, based on genotypes from six nuclear microsatellite markers. We compared groups of populations varying in both geographic location and in the presence of a congener. Hierarchical F-statistics and results from cluster analyses and discriminant analyses of principal components all indicate that geographic distance is the stronger contributor to genetic differentiation among S. multiplicata populations at a regional scale. However, we found evidence that adaptation to divergent selective environments also contributes to population structure. Our findings highlight how variation in the balance of evolutionary forces acting across a species’ range can lead to variation in the relative contributions of geographic distance and local adaptation to population differentiation across different spatial scales. PMID:29491906

  7. Phylogeography, geographic structure, genetic variation, and potential species boundaries in Philippine slender toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguila, Marites Bonachita; Siler, Cameron D; Diesmos, Arvin C; Nuñeza, Olga; Brown, Rafe M

    2011-11-01

    We investigated phylogeography of Philippine slender toads (genus Ansonia) and used a temporal framework for diversification, statistical tests of alternate topologies, and Bayesian approaches to test previous hypotheses concerning dispersal to, and colonization routes within, the southern Philippine island of Mindanao. Two species of Ansonia previously have been documented, with ranges separated by an east-west split corresponding to the approximate boundaries of Mindanao's paleoisland precursors. We present new mtDNA sequence data (1946 bp from genes encoding ND1, 16S rRNA and tRNALeu) for 105 Ansonia specimens sampled from 20 localities on Mindanao Island. Our data suggest that Philippine Ansonia is composed of at least eight, well-supported population lineages, structured into a minimum of four highly divergent mtDNA clades. One clade corresponds to Ansonia mcgregori, a range-restricted species apparently limited to the distal portion of the Zamboanga Peninsula of western Mindanao. Two morphologically indistinguishable, but genetically divergent, lineages possibly are undescribed cryptic species from western Mindanao. We recognize the five remaining lineages as Ansonia muelleri pending data from morphology or bioacoustics that might diagnose separate species among these lineages. Regardless of their species status, the five allopatric lineages of A. muelleri should be viewed as important genetic units for future genetic conservation planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal performance curves under daily thermal fluctuation: A study in helmeted water toad tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartheld, José L; Artacho, Paulina; Bacigalupe, Leonardo

    2017-12-01

    Most research in physiological ecology has focused on the effects of mean changes in temperature under the classic "hot vs cold" acclimation treatment; however, current evidence suggests that an increment in both the mean and variance of temperature could act synergistically to amplify the negative effects of global temperature increase and how it would affect fitness and performance-related traits in ectothermic organisms. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on thermal performance curves of swimming speed in helmeted water toad tadpoles (Calyptocephalella gayi). Acclimation treatments were 20°C ± 0.1 SD (constant) and 20°C ± 1.5 SD (fluctuating). We draw two key findings: first, tadpoles exposed to daily temperature fluctuation had reduced maximal performance (Z max ), and flattened thermal performance curves, thus supporting the "vertical shift or faster-slower" hypothesis, and suggesting that overall swimming performance would be lower through an examination of temperatures under more realistic and ecologically-relevant fluctuating regimens; second, there was significant interindividual variation in performance traits by means of significant repeatability estimates. Our present results suggest that the widespread use of constant acclimation temperatures in laboratory experiments to estimate thermal performance curves (TPCs) may lead to an overestimation of actual organismal performance. We encourage the use of temperature fluctuation acclimation treatments to better understand the variability of physiological traits, which predict ecological and evolutionary responses to global change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of the toad-headed lizard, Phrynocephalus forsythii (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Min; Ma, Li; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Phrynocephalus forsythii (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), which is a circular molecule of 16,143 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs and 2 non-coding sequence (D-loop). The mitogenome of P. forsythii was similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates in gene arrangement and composition. The control region composed of two parts: one (348 bp) between tRNA(Phe) and the other (636 bp) between tRNA(Pro) and 12S rRNA. The A + T content of overall base of the composition of H-strand is 62.0% (T: 25.6%, C: 25.7%, A: 36.3% and G: 12.3%). The whole mitogenomic sequence of P. forsythii provides powerful data to study of its phylogenetic position within toad-headed lizards.

  10. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  11. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    of green architecture. The paper argues that this greenification of facades is insufficient. The green is only a skin cladding the exterior envelope without having a spatial significance. Through the paper it is proposed to flip the order of words from green architecture to architectural green...... that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...

  12. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Tanner, George W. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2004-08-31

    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that

  13. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available for green roofs. A typical method makes use of a studded membrane (resembling an egg box) laid on a suitable waterproofing which, together, provides the waterproofing and the water drainage. A Geotextile blanket is then laid on top of the studded... be advisable to lay a supporting layer between the insulation and the studded membrane to protect the insulation. A further variation is to replace the studded membrane with a gravel drainage layer followed by the growing medium. In this instance it would...

  14. Amphibians of the Aurunci Mountains (Latium, Central Italy. Checklist and conservation guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aurunci Mounts are among the less investigated areas of Latium for herpetological researches. In this study we surveyed 72 potential breeding sites of amphibians within the Monti Aurunci Regional Park. Fifty-eight spawning sites, and nine amphibian species (64.3% out the 14 amphibian species living in Latium region have been found. Green toad and European tree frog were recorded for the first time for the Aurunci Mounts. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandrina perspicillata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton vulgaris, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Pseudopidalea viridis, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica and Rana synklepton hispanica. Unexpectedly, no amphibian species has been recorded within the Monte Redentore (pSIC IT6040027, despite this site was included within the Natura 2000 network also basing on the presence of Triturus carnifex.

  15. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  16. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  17. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, P.

    2006-01-01

    The depletion of world fossil fuel reserves and the involvement of greenhouse gases in the global warming has led to change the industrial and energy policies of most developed countries. The goal is now to reserve petroleum to the uses where it cannot be substituted, to implement renewable raw materials obtained from plants cultivation, and to consider the biodegradability of molecules and of manufactured objects by integrating the lifetime concept in their expected cycle of use. The green chemistry includes the design, development and elaboration of chemical products and processes with the aim of reducing or eliminating the use and generation of harmful compounds for the health and the environment, by adapting the present day operation modes of the chemical industry to the larger framework of the sustainable development. In addition to biofuels, this book reviews the applications of green chemistry in the different industrial processes in concern. Part 1 presents the diversity of the molecules coming from renewable carbon, in particular lignocellulose and the biotechnological processes. Part 2 is devoted to materials and treats of the overall available technological solutions. Part 3 focusses on functional molecules and chemical intermediates, in particular in sugar- and fats-chemistry. Part 4 treats of biofuels under the aspects of their production and use in today's technologies. The last part deals with the global approaches at the environmental and agricultural levels. (J.S.)

  18. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  19. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  20. Malformations and mortality in the Asian Common Toad induced by exposure to pleurolophocercous cercariae (Trematoda: Cryptogonimidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A; Tkach, Vasyl V; Navaratne, Ayanthi N; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2013-06-01

    Malformations and increased mortality due to infection by the digenetic trematode, Riberioa ondatrae have been reported for many species of amphibians. Severe malformations have also been reported in the Common Hourglass Tree Frog, Polypedates cruciger induced by pleurolophocercous cercariae in Sri Lanka in addition to the changes in the behaviour, development and survival of the host. We exposed pre-limb bud stage tadpoles (Gosner stages 25-26) of the Asian Common Toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus to the same pleurolophocercous type cercariae under laboratory conditions. Molecular and morphological identification showed that these cercariae belonged Acanthostomum burminis infecting freshwater snakes as definitive hosts. These cercariae induced malformations (27.8%) and reduced survival to metamorphosis (53.8%). The magnitude of the effects increased with the dose of cercariae. Types of malformations were mainly axial, such as scoliosis and kyphosis. Severe limb malformations such as extra or missing limbs as reported for amphibians exposed to R. ondatrae were not observed in the D. melanostictus. Same authors reported a higher percentage of malformations previously when P. cruciger was exposed to the cercariae A. burminis compared to D. melanostictus. However, tadpoles of D. melanostictus, which are smaller compared to those of P. cruciger, experienced higher mortality than P. cruciger tadpoles. Trematode induced malformations and mortality in amphibians are highly variable and depend on multiple factors such as host species differences such as resistance to infection and tolerance, life-history characteristics such as size at metamorphosis and length of the metamorphosis period, and other factors such as size of the amphibian at the time of trematode exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Out of the ground: two coexisting fossorial toad species differ in their emergence and movement patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Diana; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Székely, Paul; Denoël, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the way species with similar niches can coexist is a challenge in ecology. The niche partitioning hypothesis has received much support, positing that species can exploit available resources in different ways. In the case of secretive species, behavioural mechanisms of partitioning are still poorly understood. This is especially true for fossorial frogs because individuals hide underground by day and are active only during the night. We investigated the nocturnal activity and tested the niche partitioning hypothesis in two syntopic fossorial spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus and Pelobates syriacus) by examining interspecific variation in emergence from the soil. We employed a night vision recording system combined with video tracking analyses in a replicated laboratory setting to quantify individual movement patterns, a procedure that has not been used until now to observe terrestrial amphibians. Most individuals appeared on the surface every night and returned to their original burrow (about 60% of the times), or dug a new one around morning. There was a large temporal overlap between the two species. However, P. syriacus was significantly more active than P. fuscus in terms of total distance covered and time spent moving, while P. fuscus individuals left their underground burrow more frequently than P. syriacus. Consequently, P. fuscus adopted more of a sit-and-wait behaviour compared to P. syriacus, and this could facilitate their coexistence. The use of night video tracking technologies offered the advantage of individually tracking these secretive organisms during their nocturnal activity period and getting fine-grained data to understand their movement patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial and temporal ecology of eastern spadefoot toads on a Florida landscape.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathyrn, H.; Tanner, George, W.

    2005-03-01

    Effective amphibian conservation must consider population and landscape processes, but information at multiple scales is rare. We explore spatial and temporal patterns of breeding and recruitment by Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii), using 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in longleaf pine-wiregrass sandhills. Breeding events (>25 adults at a pond within a month) occurred 23 times on nine occasions at seven of the eight study ponds, but substantial recruitment(>100 metamorphs) followed only five events. Recruitment ranged from 0-4,648 among ponds. Only four ponds functioned as population ''sources'', but only during some years. The other ponds, and even ''source'' ponds during some years, functioned either as ''sinks'', where breeding occurred with no resulting recruitment, or were not used at all for breeding. Most recruitment occurred during four years. Recruitment was correlated with adult breeding effort, but only during some years. Recaptures were rare, and inter-pond exchange of adults was minimal and short-distance (< 130 m; 1 was 416 m). Most (83.5%) individuals captured were metamorphs, and 15.9% were > 51 mm (est. > 4 years). We conservatively estimated a 7-year lifespan. Adult ''population'' trends clearly reflected breeding effort rather than numbers per se; capture rates fluctuated dramatically among years, but showed no overall trends during the 9-year study. Our paper provides empiracle information that can be used to generate realistic metapopulation models for S. holbrookii as a tool in conservation planning.

  3. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  4. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  5. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  6. Quantifying anuran microhabitat use to infer the potential for parasite transmission between invasive cane toads and two species of Australian native frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pizzatto

    Full Text Available Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala that (based on previous laboratory studies can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida. To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another, we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats. Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs.

  7. Bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of Cuban toad Peltophryne fustiger (Bufonidae): Inhibition of human kidney Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera Córdova, Wilmer H; Leitão, Suzana Guimarães; Cunha-Filho, Geraldino; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Alonso, Isel Pascual; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Gervou, Rodrigo; Touza, Natália Araújo; Quintas, Luis Eduardo M; Noël, François

    2016-02-01

    Parotoid gland secretions of toad species are a vast reservoir of bioactive molecules with a wide range of biological properties. Herein, for the first time, it is described the isolation by preparative reversed-phase HPLC and the structure elucidation by NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry of nine major bufadienolides from parotoid gland secretions of the Cuban endemic toad Peltophryne fustiger: ψ-bufarenogin, gamabufotalin, bufarenogin, arenobufagin, 3-(N-suberoylargininyl) marinobufagin, bufotalinin, telocinobufagin, marinobufagin and bufalin. In addition, the secretion was analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS which also allowed the identification of azelayl arginine. The effect of arenobufagin, bufalin and ψ-bufarenogin on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in a human kidney preparation was evaluated. These bufadienolides fully inhibited the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in a concentration-dependent manner, although arenobufagin (IC50 = 28.3 nM) and bufalin (IC50 = 28.7 nM) were 100 times more potent than ψ-bufarenogin (IC50 = 3020 nM). These results provided evidence about the importance of the hydroxylation at position C-14 in the bufadienolide skeleton for the inhibitory activity on the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Survey of helminths, ectoparasites, and chytrid fungus of an introduced population of cane toads, Rhinella marina (Anura: Bufonidae), from Grenada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Michael C.; Zieger, Ulrike; Groszkowski, Andrew; Gallardo, Bruce; Sages, Patti; Reavis, Roslyn; Faircloth, Leslie; Jacobson, Krystin; Lonce, Nicholas; Pinckney, Rhonda D.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    One hundred specimens of Rhinella marina, (Anura: Bufonidae) collected in St. George's parish, Grenada, from September 2010 to August 2011, were examined for the presence of ectoparasites and helminths. Ninety-five (95%) were parasitized by 1 or more parasite species. Nine species of parasites were found: 1 digenean, 2 acanthocephalans, 4 nematodes, 1 arthropod and 1 pentastome. The endoparasites represented 98.9% of the total number of parasite specimens collected. Grenada represents a new locality record for Mesocoelium monas, Raillietiella frenatus, Pseudoacanthacephalus sp., Aplectana sp., Physocephalus sp., Acanthacephala cystacanth, and Physalopteridae larvae. The digenean M. monas occurred with the highest prevalence of 82%, contrasting many studies of R. marina where nematodes dominate the parasite infracommunity. Female toads were found to have a significantly higher prevalence of Amblyomma dissimile than male toads. Only 2 parasites exhibited a significant difference between wet and dry season with Parapharyngodon grenadensis prevalence highest in the wet season and A. dissimile prevalence highest during the dry season. Additionally, A. dissimilewas significantly more abundant during the dry season.

  9. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  10. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  11. The Determinants of Green Radical and Incremental Innovation Performance: Green Shared Vision, Green Absorptive Capacity, and Green Organizational Ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new concept, green organisational ambidexterity, that integrates green exploration learning and green exploitation learning simultaneously. Besides, this study argues that the antecedents of green organisational ambidexterity are green shared vision and green absorptive capacity and its consequents are green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance. The results demonstrate that green exploration learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green radical innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. In addition, this study indicates that green exploitation learning partially mediates the positive relationships between green incremental innovation performance and its two antecedents—green shared vision and green absorptive capacity. Hence, firms have to increase their green shared vision, green absorptive capacity, and green organisational ambidexterity to raise their green radical innovation performance and green incremental innovation performance.

  12. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of road salt to Nova Scotia amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara J; Russell, Ronald W

    2009-01-01

    The deposition of chemical pollutants into roadside wetlands from runoff is a current environmental concern. In northern latitudes, a major pollutant in runoff water is salt (NaCl), used as de-icing agents. In this study, 26 roadside ponds were surveyed for amphibian species richness and chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests (LC(50)) were performed on five locally common amphibian species using a range of environmentally significant NaCl concentrations. Field surveys indicated that spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) did not occupy high chloride ponds. American toads (Bufo americanus) showed no pond preference based on chloride concentration. Acute toxicity tests showed spotted salamanders and wood frogs were most sensitive to chloride, and American toads were the least. Spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) showed intermediate sensitivities. We concluded that chloride concentrations in ponds due to application of de-icing salts, influenced community structure by excluding salt intolerant species.

  14. Delimiting genetic units in Neotropical toads under incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomé Maria Tereza C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delimiting genetic units is useful to enhance taxonomic discovery and is often the first step toward understanding evolutionary mechanisms generating diversification. The six species within the Rhinella crucifer group of toads were defined under morphological criteria alone. Previous data suggest limited correspondence of these species to mitochondrial lineages, and morphological intergradation at transitions between forms suggests hybridization. Here we extensively sampled populations throughout the geographic distribution of the group and analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to delimit genetic units using tree–based and allele frequency–based approaches. Results These approaches yielded complementary results, with allele frequency-based methods performing unexpectedly well given the limited number of loci examined. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers supported a genetic structure of five units within the group, with three of the inferred units distributed within its main range, while two other units occur in separate isolates. The inferred units are mostly discordant with currently described forms: unequivocal association exists for only two of the six species in the group. Genetic evidence for hybridization exists for two pairs of units, with clear cyto–nuclear allele mixing observed in one case. Conclusions Our results confirmed that current taxonomy does not represent evolutionary units in the Rhinella crucifer group. Correspondence between genetically distinguishable units and the currently recognized species is only possible for Rhinella henseli and R. inopina. The recognition of other species relies on the reassessment of the geographic range of R. crucifer, the examination of the type series of R. ornata for hybrids, and on the use of additional markers to verify the genetic distinctiveness of R. abei. We state that R. pombali should not remain a valid species since its description appears to be

  15. Environmental Assessment of the Construction of the Joint Use Small Arms Range for the 934th Airlift Wing at Minneapolis-St. paul International Airport Air Reserve Station, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus), woodchuck (Marmota monax), Eastern gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis), and raccoon (Procyon lotor). Avian species might...starling (Sturnus vulgaris ). Other species might include the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) and the American toad (Bufo americanus) (934 AW

  16. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel......In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  17. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md.

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike. PMID:24575178

  18. Estudio morfométrico sobre el desarrollo y evolución de las glándulas tiroides durante la metamorfosis de Bufo arenarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda, Leandro Andrés

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado el desarrollo y la evolución de las glándulas tiroideas durante la morfogénesis de Bufo arenarum. Usando diferentes parámetros morfométricos, hemos relacionado el crecimiento y desarrollo larval con el desarrollo de las glándulas tiroideas. Se observó que la longitud total, el peso de las larvas, el volumen glandular tiroideo y el diámetro folicular, aumentan hasta el estadio XV (fin de la prometamorfosis, mientras que el número de folículos y la altura de las células foliculares tiroideas se incrementan hasta el estadio XVII (mitad del clímax metamórfico. Todos estos parámetros disminuyeron considerablemente durante el clímax metamórfico mientras que en animales postmetamórficos se observó un incremento en los valores registrados. En base a los resultados obtenidos concluimos que hay un período de síntesis y almacenamiento de hormonas tiroideas durante el crecimiento larval y un segundo período caracterizado por la liberación de hormonas tiroideas hacia el final de la prometamorfosis y durante el clímax metamórfico. We studied the development and evolution of thyroid glands during Bufo arenarum morphogenesis. Using different morphometric parameters we related larval growth and metamorphosis with thyroid glands development We observed that total length, larval weight, thyroid gland volume and follicle diameter increased until stage XV (end of prometamorphosis, meanwhile the number of follicles and follicle cell height increased until stage XVII (midclimax. All these parameters decreased during metamorphic climax and an increase was observed in postmetamorphic animals. Our results lead us to conclude that during larval growth there is a period of synthesis and store of thyroid hormones. There is a second period characterized by thyroid hormones release during the end of prometamorphosis and metamorphic climax.

  19. Changes of body fluid and hematology in toad and their rehabilitation following intermittent exposure to simulated high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, H. M.; Boral, M. C.

    1986-06-01

    Three groups of adult male toads were exposed intermittently in a decompression chamber for a daily period of 4 and 8 hours at a time for 6 consecutive days to an “altitude” of 12,000; 18,000 and 24,000 feet (3658; 5486; 7315 m) respectively. Most of the exposed animals were sacrificed immediately after the last exposure, but only a few animals experiencing 8 hours of exposure were sacrificed after a further 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. Eight hours of daily exposure for 6 days causes a decrease of body fluids and an increase of hematological parameters in all the altitude exposed animals compared with to the changes noted in the animals having 4 hours of daily exposure for 6 days at the same altitude levels. The animals that were exposed to pressures equivalent to altitudes of 12,000 and 18,000 feet daily for 8 hours were found to return nearly to their normal body fluids and hematological balance after 16 hours of exposure to normal atmospheric pressure, whereas the animals exposed for a similar period at an equivalent 24,000 feet failed to get back their normal balance of body fluids and hematology after 16 hours of exposure at normal atmospheric pressure. The present experiment shows that the body weight loss and changes of body fluid and hematological parameters in the toad after exposure to simulated high altitude are due not only to dehydration, but suggest that hypoxia may also have a role.

  20. Metabolic evidence that serosal sodium does not recycle through the active transepithelial transport pathway of toad bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, M; Labarca, P; Leaf, A

    1976-12-25

    The possibility that sodium from the serosal bathing medium "back diffuses" into the active sodium transport pool within the mucosal epithelial cell of the isolated toad bladder was examined by determining the effect on the metabolism of the tissue of removing sodium from the serosal medium. It was expected that if recycling of serosal sodium did occur through the active transepithelial transport pathway of the isolated toad bladder, removal of sodium from the serosal medium would reduce the rate of CO2 production by the tissue and enhance of stoichiometric ratio of sodium ions transported across the bladder per molecula of sodium transport dependent CO2 produced simultaneously by the bladder (JNa/JCO2). The data revealed no significant change in this ratio (17.19 with serosal sodium and 16.13 after replacing serosal sodium with choline). Further, when transepithelial sodium transport was inhibited (a) by adding amiloride to the mucosal medium, or (b) by removing sodium from the mucosal medium, subsequent removal of sodium from the serosal medium, or (c) addition of ouabain failed to depress the basal rate of CO2 production by the bladder [(a)rate of basal, nontransport related, CO2 production (JbCO2) equals 1.54 +/- 0.52 with serosal sodium and 1.54 +/- 0.37 without serosal sodium; (b) Jb CO2 equals 2.18 +/- 0.21 with serosal sodium and 2.09 +/- 0.21 without serosal sodium; (c) 1.14 +/- 0.26 without ouabain and 1.13 +/- 0.25 with ouabain; unite of JbCO2 are nmoles mg d.w.-1 min-1]. The results support the hypothesis that little, if any, recycling of serosal sodium occurs in the total bladder.

  1. Field guide to malformations of frogs and toads: with radiographic interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, students found numerous malformed frogs on a field trip to a Minnesota pond. Since that time, reports of malformed frogs have increased dramatically. Malformed frogs have now been reported in 44 states in 38 species of frogs, and 19 species of toads. Estimates as high as 60% of the newly metamorphosed frog populations have had malformations at some ponds (NARCAM, ’99). The wide geographic distribution of malformed frogs and the variety of malformations are a concern to resource managers, research scientists and public health officials. The potential for malformations to serve as a signal of ecosystem disruption, and the affect this potential disruption might have on other organisms that share those ecosystems, has not been resolved. Malformations represent an error that occurred early in development. The event that caused the developmental error is temporally distant from the malformation we see in the fully developed animal. Knowledge of normal developmental principles is necessary to design thoughtful investigations that will define the events involved in abnormal development in wild frog populations.Development begins at the time an egg is fertilized and progresses by chemical communication between cells and cell layers. This communication is programmed through gene expression. Malformations represent primary errors in development, errors in chemical communication or translation of genetic information. Deformations arise later in development and usually result from the influence of mechanical factors (such as amputation) that alter shape or anatomy of a structure that has developed normally. The occurrence and the type of malformations are influenced by the type of error or insult as well as the timing of the error (the developmental stage at which the error occurred). The appearance of the malformation can therefore provide clues that suggest when the error may have occurred. If the malformation is an incomplete organ, such as an incomplete limb, the

  2. Proton pump activity is required for active uptake of chloride in isolated amphibian skin exposed to freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Willumsen, Niels J.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    Net proton secretion and unidirectional chloride fluxes were measured in isolated skin of toads (Bufo bufo) and frogs (Rana esculenta) mounted in an Ussing chamber and exposed to a Ringer's solution on the serosal side and a freshwater-like solution (1-3 mM Cl-) on the external side. Active proto...

  3. Phylogenetic relationships and call structure in four African bufonid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species of toads of the genus Bufo, comprising three species endemic to southern Africa and one closely-related species, were examined electrophoretically to infer their phylogenetic relationships. The evolution of advertisement call structure in these species is discussed in relation to this phylogeny. Bufo rangeri and ...

  4. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  5. Locomotion and survival of two sympatric larval anurans, Bufo gargarizans (Anura: Bufonidae and Rana zhenhaiensis (Anura: Ranidae, after partial tail loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Hua Ding

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tadpoles of two sympatric anurans, Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842 and Rana zhenhaiensis Ye, Fei & Matsui, 1995, were used as model organisms to examine the effects of different levels of tail loss on swimming performance and survival. On average, B. gargarizans tadpoles were shorter and had smaller tails and body mass than R. zhenhaiensis. After 75% tail loss, the survival rate of experimental and control B. gargarizans tadpoles, and of experimental tadpoles of the two species, differed significantly; the number of tadpoles surviving a complete impairment of their swimming ability did not differ between B. gargarizans and R. zhenhaiensis. After 50% tail loss, the swimming performance (swimming speed, maximum distance and number of stops of the two species was significantly affected. However, the adverse influence of tail loss on the swimming speed of B. gargarizans tadpoles was greater compared to R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles. Our data indicates that a 50% tail loss results in swimming costs for B. gargarizans and R. zhenhaiensis tadpoles, and that 75% tail loss decreases the survival rate of B. gargarizans tadpoles. Therefore, we conclude that tadpoles of different species and with the same degree of tail loss use distinctive strategies to improve individual fitness in the face of predator pressure.

  6. The role of the egg jelly coat in protecting Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus embryos from Ultraviolet B radiation during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, L.J.; Fabacher, D.L.; Calfee, R.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation may play a role in amphibian population declines. Some of these studies also indicate that egg hatching success is unaltered in some species of anurans as a result of UVB exposure. It has been proposed that the egg mass jelly provides photoprotection to the developing embryos. Methods. Direct spectrophotometric scans of egg jelly, scans of egg jelly methanol extracts, and experimental manipulation in a solar simulator during development were all used to assess the role of egg mass jelly as a photoprotective agent. Results/Discussion. For Hyla regilla, scans of egg jelly and methanolic extracts (for mycosporine-like amino acid content) both displayed no absorption in the UV range. Experimental manipulation (removal of egg mass jelly) with both Hyla regilla and Bufo canorus egg masses in a solar simulator demonstrated that egg mass jelly played no apparent role in photoprotection of either of these species. Conclusions. Based on the results in this study it seems unlikely that the egg jelly coat is playing a crucial role in protecting developing embryos from the impact of UVB radiation.

  7. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  8. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  9. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  10. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  11. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  12. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with hepatitis C or hepatitis B. HIV/AIDS. Research on the effects of blue-green algae in people with HIV/AIDS has been inconsistent. Some early research shows that taking 5 grams of blue-green ...

  13. Green Nail Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from blue-green to dark green to bluish-grey. Since the discoloration is underneath the nail, it ... infected by P. aeruginosa. Nails repeatedly immersed in water are susceptible. Housewives, dishwashers, cooks, and health care ...

  14. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  15. Decon Green (trademark)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wagner, George W; Procell, Lawrence R; Henderson, Vikki D; Sorrick, David C; Hess, Zoe A; Gehring, David G; Brickhouse, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    ...) is extremely environmentally friendly and leaves no toxic residues. Decon Green (trademark) retains the low-temperature decontamination ability of DS2, but it is noncorrosive to aluminum and steel. Decon Green (trademark...

  16. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  17. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  18. Telencephalic Neuronal Activation Associated with Spatial Memory in the Terrestrial Toad Rhinella arenarum: Participation of the Medial Pallium during Navigation by Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, María Inés; Daneri, M Florencia; Bingman, Verner Peter; Muzio, Rubén N

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are central to discussions of vertebrate evolution because they represent the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life, a transition with profound consequences for the selective pressures shaping brain evolution. Spatial navigation is one class of behavior that has attracted the interest of comparative neurobiologists because of the relevance of the medial pallium/hippocampus, yet, surprisingly, in this regard amphibians have been sparsely investigated. In the current study, we trained toads to locate a water goal relying on the boundary geometry of a test environment (Geometry-Only) or boundary geometry coupled with a prominent, visual feature cue (Geometry-Feature). Once learning had been achieved, the animals were given one last training session and their telencephali were processed for c-Fos activation. Compared to control toads exposed to the test environment for the first time, geometry-only toads were found to have increased neuronal labeling in the medial pallium, the presumptive hippocampal homologue, while geometry-feature toads were found to have increased neuronal labeling in the medial, dorsal, and lateral pallia. The data indicate medial pallial participation in guiding navigation by environmental geometry and lateral, and to a lesser extent dorsal, pallial participation in guiding navigation by a prominent visual feature. As such, participation of the medial pallium/hippocampus in spatial cognition appears to be a conserved feature of terrestrial vertebrates even if their life history is still tied to water, a brain-behavior feature seemingly at least as ancient as the evolutionary transition to life on land. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A Suspected Parasite Spill-Back of Two Novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea) Causing Disease in Australian Endemic Frogs Found in the Invasive Cane Toad

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartigan, A.; Fiala, Ivan; Dyková, Iva; Jirků, Miloslav; Okimoto, B.; Rose, K.; Phalen, D. N.; Šlapeta, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), e18871 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960701 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP204/09/P519 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : EW-SOUTH-WALES * BUFO-MARINUS * BIOLOGICAL INVASIONS * INFECTIOUS-DISEASES * NORTH-AMERICA * TREE FROG * MYXOZOA * SEQUENCES * PHYLOGENY * ECOLOGY Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  20. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  1. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  2. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  3. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  4. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  5. Effects of Petrol Exposure on Glucose, Liver and Muscle glycogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to petrol on blood glucose, liver and muscle glycogen levels in the common African toad Bufo regularis. A total of 126 adult toads of either sex weighing between 70-100g were used for this study. The experiment was divided into three phases. The phase 1 experiment the acute ...

  6. Hexamethonium produces both twitch and tetanic depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexamethonium, however does not produce tetanic fade at the same concentration. We hypothesized that the cholinoceptors of the neuromuscular junction of the common African toad (Bufo regularis) resemble the developing synapse of African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) and may contain muscarinic M1 autoreceptors ...

  7. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  8. Prevalence, serovars and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. from wild and domestic green iguanas (Iguana iguana) in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, W R B; Amadi, V; Pinckney, R; Macpherson, C N L; McKibben, J S; Bruhl-Day, R; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2014-09-01

    Cloacal swabs from 62 green iguanas (Iguana iguana), including 47 wild and 15 domestic ones from five parishes of Grenada, were sampled during a 4-month period of January to April 2013 and examined by enrichment and selective culture for the presence of Salmonella spp. Fifty-five per cent of the animals were positive, and eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated. The most common serovar was Rubislaw (58.8%), a serovar found recently in many cane toads in Grenada, followed by Oranienburg (14.7%), a serovar that has been causing serious human disease outbreaks in Japan. Serovar IV:48:g,z51 :- (formerly, S. Marina) highly invasive and known for serious infections in children in the United States, constituted 11.8% of the isolates, all of them being from domestic green iguanas. Salmonella Newport, a serovar recently found in a blue land crab in Grenada, comprised 11.8% of the isolates from the green iguanas. The remaining four less frequent serovars included S. Javiana and S. Glostrup. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests conducted by a disc diffusion method against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal, with intermediate susceptibility, mainly to streptomycin, tetracycline and cefotaxime. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars from wild and domestic green iguanas in Grenada, West Indies. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Responses of growth, malformation, and thyroid hormone-dependent genes expression in Bufo gargarizans embryos following chronic exposure to Pb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lihong; Li, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Aixia; Deng, Hongzhang

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the adverse effects of lead (Pb) exposure on Bufo gargarizans embryos. The 96 h-LC 50 of Pb 2+ for B. gargarizans embryos was determined to be 26.6 mg L -1 after an acute test. In the chronic test, B. gargarizans embryos at Gosner stage 3 were exposed to 10~2000 μg Pb 2+  L -1 during embryogenesis. Total length, weight, developmental stage, and malformation were monitored. In addition, the transcript levels of type II and type III iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) were determined to assess the thyroid-disrupting effects of Pb 2+ . Slightly increased growth and development of B. gargarizans embryos were observed at low concentrations of Pb 2+ (10, 50, and 100 μg L -1 ), while retarded growth and development were found at high concentrations of Pb 2+ (1000 and 2000 μg L -1 ). In addition, Pb 2+ exposure induced morphological abnormalities, which were characterized by edema at tail, wavy fin, abdominal edema, stunted growth, hyperplasia, and axial flexures in B. gargarizans embryos. Furthermore, our results showed that exposure to 2000 μg Pb 2+  L -1 decreased the transcript levels of Dio2, TRα, and TRβ, but it increased Dio3 mRNA level. In contrast, exposure to 50 μg Pb 2+  L -1 increased TRα mRNA level and decreased Dio3 mRNA level. These results suggested that Pb 2+ might have thyroid-disrupting effects, leading to the disruption of growth and development in B. gargarizans embryos.

  10. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  11. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability of luminal membrane vesicles from toad bladder. Studies using a fast-reaction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, H.S. Jr.; Al-Awqati, Q.

    1983-01-01

    Regulation of the sodium permeability of the luminal membrane is the major mechanism by which the net rate of sodium transport across tight epithelia is varied. Previous evidence has suggested that the permeability of the luminal membrane might be regulated by changes in intracellular sodium or calcium activities. To test this directly, we isolated a fraction of the plasma membrane from the toad urinary bladder, which contains a fast, amiloride-sensitive sodium flux with characteristics similar to those of the native luminal membrane. Using a flow-quench apparatus to measure the initial rate of sodium efflux from these vesicles in the millisecond time range, we have demonstrated that the isotope exchange permeability of these vesicles is very sensitive to calcium. Calcium reduces the sodium permeability, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration is 0.5 microM, well within the range of calcium activity found in cells. Also, the permeability of the luminal membrane vesicles is little affected by the ambient sodium concentration. These results, when taken together with studies on whole tissue, suggest that cell calcium may be an important regulator of transepithelial sodium transport by its effect on luminal sodium permeability. The effect of cell sodium on permeability may be mediated by calcium rather than by sodium itself

  12. Male-biased sexual size dimorphism, resource defense polygyny, and multiple paternity in the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Cameron M; Fu, Jinzhong

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Emei moustache toad (Leptobrachium boringii) exhibits resource defense polygyny and that combat led to the evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Between February and March of 2011 and 2012, 26 female and 55 male L. boringii from Mount Emei UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sichuan, China, were observed throughout the breeding season. Prior to the breeding season, males grow 10-16 keratinized maxillary nuptial spines, which fall off once the season has ended. Throughout this time, males construct and defend aquatic nests where they produce advertisement calls to attract females. In a natural setting, we documented 14 cases involving a total of 22 males where males used their moustaches for aggressive interaction, and nest takeover was observed on seven occasions. Males were also observed to possess injuries resulting from combat. Genetic analysis using microsatellite DNA markers revealed several cases of multiple paternity, both within nest and within clutch. This observation indicated that some alternative male reproductive strategy, such as satellite behaviour, is occurring, which may have led to the multiple paternity. Larger males were observed to mate more frequently, and in multiple nests, suggesting that females are selecting for larger males, or that larger males are more capable of defending high quality territories.

  13. Population Structure, Historical Biogeography and Demographic History of the Alpine Toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongzhe; Li, Xiaochen; Qiao, Penghai

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b) and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance) results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs)  = 0.0185climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs) was determined, which must be considered when conservation policy is made in the future. PMID:24956389

  14. Trading heat and hops for water: Dehydration effects on locomotor performance, thermal limits, and thermoregulatory behavior of a terrestrial toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodolfo C O; Andrade, Denis V

    2017-11-01

    Due to their highly permeable skin and ectothermy, terrestrial amphibians are challenged by compromises between water balance and body temperature regulation. The way in which such compromises are accommodated, under a range of temperatures and dehydration levels, impacts importantly the behavior and ecology of amphibians. Thus, using the terrestrial toad Rhinella schneideri as a model organism, the goals of this study were twofold. First, we determined how the thermal sensitivity of a centrally relevant trait-locomotion-was affected by dehydration. Secondly, we examined the effects of the same levels of dehydration on thermal preference and thermal tolerance. As dehydration becomes more severe, the optimal temperature for locomotor performance was lowered and performance breadth narrower. Similarly, dehydration was accompanied by a decrease in the thermal tolerance range. Such a decrease was caused by both an increase in the critical minimal temperature and a decrease in the thermal maximal temperature, with the latter changing more markedly. In general, our results show that the negative effects of dehydration on behavioral performance and thermal tolerance are, at least partially, counteracted by concurrent adjustments in thermal preference. We discuss some of the potential implications of this observation for the conservation of anuran amphibians.

  15. Evaluation in situ of genotoxicity and stress in South American common toad Rhinella arenarum in environments related to fluorite mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Favio E; Grenat, Pablo R; Salinas, Zulma A; Otero, Manuel A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2017-08-01

    Little attention has been paid to the impact of wastewater generated by mining activities on fluoride. In this study, we evaluated the hematology responses of common South American toad Rhinella arenarum inhabiting natural and artificial environments associated with a fluorite mine from central Argentina. We analyzed three sampling stations associated with the fluorite mine: (I) Los Cerros Negros stream (CN), which runs on granitic rock with a high fluorite content; (II) Los Vallecitos stream (LV), which runs on metamorphic rock with low fluorite content; and (III) artificial decantation ponds (DP) containing sediments produced by fluorite flotation process. We calculated frequencies of micronuclei, erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, mitosis, and immature erythrocytes. In addition, we performed a differential leukocyte count and determined neutrophils/lymphocyte ratio as a stress response estimator. We found high micronucleus (MN) and erythrocyte nuclear abnormality (ENA) frequencies in DP and CN but low frequencies in LV. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was different among sites, with a significant increase in individuals from DP. Values registered in DP could be caused by exposure to mixture of compounds registered in dams that hold wastewater, while high values registered in CN stream might be due to natural concentrations of fluoride. Our results suggest that blood is an effective and non-destructive sensitive indicator for monitoring genotoxic agents in freshwater ecosystems.

  16. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Greening America's Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical assistance program to help cities and towns develop an implementable vision of distinctive, environmentally friendly neighborhoods using green infrastructure and other sustainable design strategies.

  18. Customers’ Intention to Use Green Products: the Impact of Green Brand Dimensions and Green Perceived Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszhanov Aibek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the relationships between green brand dimension (green brand awareness, green brand image, and green brand trust, green perceived value and customer’s intention to use green products. Data was collected through structured survey questionnaire from 384 customers of three hypermarkets in Kuala-Lumpur. Data was analyzed based on multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that there are significant relationships between green brand awareness, green brand trust, green perceived value, and customer’s intention to use green products. However, green brand image was not found to have significant relationship with customer’s intention to use green products. The discussion presented suggestions for marketers and researchers interested in green branding.

  19. Green Marketing amp Consumerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jalalkamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Green marketing is a progressive issue that most of its dimensions are unknown or intangible for consumers. In this review some of its aspects are surveyed considering its impact on consumers as a fundamental segment in economics. Also consumer behavior is defined and analyzed through its awareness of green marketing issue which causes purchasing decision.

  20. Green Building Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailor, David Jean [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States)

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  1. The Greening Dutchman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marlen Gabriele; Hockerts, Kai

    2011-01-01

    of ‘green flagging’ as a groundbreaking corporate sustainability innovation strategy. This paper describes how Philips uses this approach in its Green Flagship Program (GFP). Philips' GFP is particularly interesting since it sets specific targets across all its business units, thus driving the integration...... and limitations of these findings for theory and research on sustainability innovation strategies....

  2. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  3. Green product innovation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, companies have started to incorporate green issues in product innovation strategies. This dissertation studies green product innovation strategy, its antecedents and its outcomes. A three-stage approach is followed. In the first stage, the topic is explored and a preliminary

  4. Coordinate green growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Green economic growth needs a shared sense of direction if it is to lead to a more sustainable future under climate change. Studies on green innovation and societal transformation show that uncoordinated initiatives are unlikely to be an effective way “to get the ball rolling and to ‘learn

  5. Green by Default

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The article offers information on the two sources of energy including green energy and gray energy. It discusses several facts which includes lower levels of greenhouse gases and conventional pollutants, relationship between economic incentives and underlying preferences and potential effects of ...... of green default rules.....

  6. 10 Paths to Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  7. The Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  8. Green for rarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raal, F.A.; Robinson, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Green diamonds once recovered from Witwatersrand gold/uranium deposits, are now a thing of the past with the modernisation of extraction metallurgy methods. The green colouration has been shown to be due to radiation from uranium present in the ore

  9. Greening the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada…

  10. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  11. Green Buildings and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  12. Green technology in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runderkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan is striving for leadership in the field of green Technologies. Solar cells and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) are the best examples of successful Taiwanese green technologies. Electronic vehicles and smart grids are giving new impetus to the Taiwanese export of high-quality technology. [nl

  13. Evolution of a complex phenotype with biphasic ontogeny: Contribution of development versus function and climatic variation to skull modularity in toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Monique Nouailhetas; Marroig, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    The theory of morphological integration and modularity predicts that if functional correlations among traits are relevant to mean population fitness, the genetic basis of development will be molded by stabilizing selection to match functional patterns. Yet, how much functional interactions actually shape the fitness landscape is still an open question. We used the anuran skull as a model of a complex phenotype for which we can separate developmental and functional modularity. We hypothesized that functional modularity associated to functional demands of the adult skull would overcome developmental modularity associated to bone origin at the larval phase because metamorphosis would erase the developmental signal. We tested this hypothesis in toad species of the Rhinella granulosa complex using species phenotypic correlation pattern (P-matrices). Given that the toad species are distributed in very distinct habitats and the skull has important functions related to climatic conditions, we also hypothesized that differences in skull trait covariance pattern are associated to differences in climatic variables among species. Functional and hormonal-regulated modules are more conspicuous than developmental modules only when size variation is retained on species P-matrices. Without size variation, there is a clear modularity signal of developmental units, but most species have the functional model as the best supported by empirical data without allometric size variation. Closely related toad species have more similar climatic niches and P-matrices than distantly related species, suggesting phylogenetic niche conservatism. We infer that the modularity signal due to embryonic origin of bones, which happens early in ontogeny, is blurred by the process of growth that occurs later in ontogeny. We suggest that the species differing in the preferred modularity model have different demands on the orbital functional unit and that species contrasting in climate are subjected to

  14. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity......, investing in the rebuilding of fish stocks and a coordinated regulation of marine activities that interact with fisheries. Incentive-based regulation of fisheries that counterbalances services of the ecosystems is an important instrument to achieve green growth....

  15. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  16. Building the green way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  17. Common toad Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) and its importance in assessing environmental health: test of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Favio E; Bionda, Clarisa L; Salinas, Zulma A; Salas, Nancy E; Martino, Adolfo L

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic activities may generate significant changes in the integrity of aquatic ecosystems, so long-term monitoring of populations that inhabit them is crucial. Counting micronucleated erythrocytes (MN) and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) in peripheral blood is a widely used method for detecting chromosomal damage due to chemical agents in the water. We analyzed MN and ENA frequency in blood obtained from the common toad Rhinella arenarum populations in sites with different degrees of environmental degradation. The results of this study indicate that there is an association between the frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities and the degree of environmental alteration recorded for the sites studied.

  18. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  19. PIGMENTOS EN LOS TESTÍCULOS DE CINCO ANFIBIOS ENDÉMICOS DE CUBA (Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus, Bufo longinasus longinasus y B. longinasus cajalbanensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Ochotorena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Los vertebrados ectotérmicos pueden presentar un sistema pigmentario de función desconocida, aunque en algunos casos se han descrito los centros de melanomacrófagos con evidente función fagocítica; sin embargo, no es frecuente encontrar las gónadas pigmentadas en los anfibios anuros. El objetivo fundamental del presente trabajo es informar y analizar la presencia de pigmentos en los testículos de tres especies de ranas endémicas cubanas y en un sapo cubano, también endémico. Se estudiaron las especies Eleutherodactylus turquinensis, E. cuneatus, E. glamyrus y Bufo longinasus (subespecies B. l. longinasus y B. l. cajalbanensis, las cuales fueron colectadas en las zonas occidental y oriental de la Isla de Cuba. Los ejemplares se anestesiaron con éter una vez que se trasladaron al laboratorio. Se extrajeron las gónadas y se procesaron para microscopía óptica y en el caso de B. longinasus también para microscopía electrónica de transmisión. Los resultados indican una morfología de los testículos similar a otro anuros, se observó una organización cística de las células sexuales en los túbulos seminíferos y todos los ejemplares estaban en espermatogénesis total. Los testículos de todas las especies estudiadas mostraron una pigmentación oscura y abundante en la túnica albugínea y en el tejido intersticial. Se observaron muchos melanosomas. Se analiza en el trabajo que la causa de la fuerte pigmentación testicular pueda ser una respuesta a la contaminación, asimismo, se propone que los pigmentos son producidos por otro tipo celular quizás similar a los melanomacrófagos y no por melanocitos.

  20. Molecular effectors in the chronic exposure to arsenic as early and sensitive biomarkers in developing Rhinella arenarum toads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Ceschin, Danilo Guillermo; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Venturino, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic early induces MAPK pathway in R. arenarum embryos and larvae. • The MAPKs MEK-ERK in turn upregulate the transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN. • SOD, CAT and GST would be affected by ROS at synthesis and degradation level. • Low As levels inducing molecular biomarkers have high probabilities of exceedence. • Molecular biomarkers are most adequate to ascertain As impact in R. arenarum. - Abstract: Arsenic, a natural element of ecological relevance, is one of the most toxic elements present in various regions of the world. It can be found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 and 15 mg L –1 . The Argentinean autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects and response to the chronic As exposure along its embryonic and larval development. We evaluated the effects on MAPK signal transduction pathway and transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN, and the regulation of the expression at protein levels of different antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicated that As is modulating the MAPK pathway, increasing MEK and ERK levels both in the nuclear and post-nuclear fraction along the embryonic development and mainly at the beginning of the larval stage. Through this pathway, As can upregulate transcription factors like c-FOS and c-JUN, impacting the antioxidant response of the exposed embryos and larvae through antioxidant enzymes and recycling of GSH. Arsenic triggered specifically the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in exposed R. arenarum embryo and larvae. In particular, the expression levels of SOD, CAT and GST enzymes analyzed by Western blot showed a similar behavior to their enzymatic activities in our previous work. This fact suggests that not only the synthesis of these antioxidant enzymes but also their rapid degradation after inactivation would be regulated in response to ROS levels. Antioxidant enzymes may show dual responses of

  1. Molecular effectors in the chronic exposure to arsenic as early and sensitive biomarkers in developing Rhinella arenarum toads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardirosian, Mariana Noelia; Ceschin, Danilo Guillermo; Lascano, Cecilia Inés; Venturino, Andrés, E-mail: a.venturino@conicet.gov.ar

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Arsenic early induces MAPK pathway in R. arenarum embryos and larvae. • The MAPKs MEK-ERK in turn upregulate the transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN. • SOD, CAT and GST would be affected by ROS at synthesis and degradation level. • Low As levels inducing molecular biomarkers have high probabilities of exceedence. • Molecular biomarkers are most adequate to ascertain As impact in R. arenarum. - Abstract: Arsenic, a natural element of ecological relevance, is one of the most toxic elements present in various regions of the world. It can be found in natural water sources throughout Argentina in concentrations between 0.01 and 15 mg L{sup –1}. The Argentinean autochthonous toad Rhinella arenarum was selected to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects and response to the chronic As exposure along its embryonic and larval development. We evaluated the effects on MAPK signal transduction pathway and transcription factors c-FOS and c-JUN, and the regulation of the expression at protein levels of different antioxidant enzymes. Our results indicated that As is modulating the MAPK pathway, increasing MEK and ERK levels both in the nuclear and post-nuclear fraction along the embryonic development and mainly at the beginning of the larval stage. Through this pathway, As can upregulate transcription factors like c-FOS and c-JUN, impacting the antioxidant response of the exposed embryos and larvae through antioxidant enzymes and recycling of GSH. Arsenic triggered specifically the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes in exposed R. arenarum embryo and larvae. In particular, the expression levels of SOD, CAT and GST enzymes analyzed by Western blot showed a similar behavior to their enzymatic activities in our previous work. This fact suggests that not only the synthesis of these antioxidant enzymes but also their rapid degradation after inactivation would be regulated in response to ROS levels. Antioxidant enzymes may show dual responses of

  2. Effects of androgens on male sexual behavior and secondary sex characters in the explosively breeding spadefoot toad, Scaphiopus couchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, L A; Propper, C R

    1997-02-01

    In male Scaphiopus couchii, plasma elevations in androgens are associated with the seasonal expression of sexual behavior. To test the hypothesis that androgens are necessary for the expression of one aspect of sexual behavior, amplexus, and for the development of secondary sex characteristics in male S. couchii, the effects of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on clasping behavior and thumb pad growth were investigated. Forty toads were divided into five treatment groups as follows: (1) intact, with no hormonal or surgical treatment; (2) sham-castrated, with silastic implants of cholesterol; (3) sham-castrated, with implants of T and DHT; (4) castrated, with implants of cholesterol; and (5) castrated, with implants of T and DHT. Displays of sexual behavior (amplexus) for each individual were counted during a 3-hr observation period at 2, 4, and 7 weeks after the surgical procedure. For each observation trial, there was no significant difference in the amount of clasping among treatment groups: virtually all individuals from each group displayed vigorous clasping. No calling was noted at any time. Thumb pad darkness of each individual was assessed at the 4- and 7-week time intervals. At both time periods, the thumb pads of androgen-treated males were significantly darker than those of cholesterol-treated males, while intact males remained intermediate. Measurement of plasma steroid levels from the treatment groups indicated that androgens were basal in the castrate group and higher in the implant treatment. These results suggest that in S. couchii, although androgens are associated temporally with the onset of reproductive behavior, they are not necessary for its expression. The elevation in androgens during the reproductive period may be instead important in the development and maintanence of secondary sex characteristics and possibly other reproductive functions.

  3. Population structure, historical biogeography and demographic history of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Meng

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs  = 0.0185<0.05, indicating the existence of isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence for cyt b + COI sequence, which suggests that the distribution of genetic variation is due to geographical separation rather than natural selection. The population expansion or contraction and genetic differentiation between populations or lineages could be explained by topography and the repetitive uplifts of the Tsinling Mountains and the climatic cycles during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. S. ningshanensis experienced a rapid population expansion about 40,000 years before present. The current decline in population size was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance. Current populations of S. ningshanensis are from different refugia though the location of these refugia could not be determined in our study. Topography, climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs was determined

  4. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia): how to prioritize species and populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Caroline; Becker, Fernando Gertum; Abadie, Michelle; Baldo, Diego; Maneyro, Raúl; Borges-Martins, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080) for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas) did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080), M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3) were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080); nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  5. Climate change and the distribution of neotropical red-bellied toads (Melanophryniscus, Anura, Amphibia: how to prioritize species and populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Zank

    Full Text Available We used species distribution modeling to investigate the potential effects of climate change on 24 species of Neotropical anurans of the genus Melanophryniscus. These toads are small, have limited mobility, and a high percentage are endangered or present restricted geographical distributions. We looked at the changes in the size of suitable climatic regions and in the numbers of known occurrence sites within the distribution limits of all species. We used the MaxEnt algorithm to project current and future suitable climatic areas (a consensus of IPCC scenarios A2a and B2a for 2020 and 2080 for each species. 40% of the species may lose over 50% of their potential distribution area by 2080, whereas 28% of species may lose less than 10%. Four species had over 40% of the currently known occurrence sites outside the predicted 2080 areas. The effect of climate change (decrease in climatic suitable areas did not differ according to the present distribution area, major habitat type or phylogenetic group of the studied species. We used the estimated decrease in specific suitable climatic range to set a conservation priority rank for Melanophryniscus species. Four species were set to high conservation priority: M. montevidensis, (100% of its original suitable range and all known occurrence points potentially lost by 2080, M. sp.2, M. cambaraensis, and M. tumifrons. Three species (M. spectabilis, M. stelzneri, and M. sp.3 were set between high to intermediate priority (more than 60% decrease in area predicted by 2080; nine species were ranked as intermediate priority, while eight species were ranked as low conservation priority. We suggest that monitoring and conservation actions should be focused primarily on those species and populations that are likely to lose the largest area of suitable climate and the largest number of known populations in the short-term.

  6. Harmonic oscillator Green's function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Yu.; Khrebtukov, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    The Green's function for the harmonic oscillator in three dimensions plays an important role in the theory of atomic collisions. One representation of low-energy ion-atom collisions involves harmonic oscillator potentials. A closed-form expression for the harmonic oscillator Green's function, needed to exploit this representation, is derived. This expression is similar to the expression for the Coulomb Green's function obtained by Hostler and Pratt. Calculations of electron distributions for a model system of ion-atom collisions are reported to illustrate the theory.

  7. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  8. Sustainable green urban planning: the Green Credit Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cilliers, E.J.; Diemont, E.; Stobbelaar, D.J.; Timmermans, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The Green Credit Tool is evaluated as a method to quantify the value of green-spaces and to determine how these green-space-values can be replaced or compensated for within urban spatial planning projects. Design/methodology/approach – Amersfoort Local Municipality created the Green Credit

  9. Vitamin A values of wild-caught Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and marine toads (Rhinella marina) in whole body, liver, and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen E; Fleming, Greg; Terrell, Scott; Smith, Dustin; Ridgley, Frank; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-12-01

    Recent issues surrounding captive amphibians are often nutritionally related problems, such as hypovitaminosis A. Although supplementation of frogs with vitamin A is a topic of investigation, the underlying issue is understanding vitamin A metabolism in amphibian species. To develop a range of "normal" vitamin A concentrations for captive amphibians, baseline vitamin A concentrations must be established in wild amphibian species. In this study, two species, Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis; n = 59) and marine toads (Rhinella marina; n = 20) were collected from the wild as part of an invasive species control program at Zoo Miami, Miami, Florida. Serum, liver, and whole body samples were analyzed for vitamin A content. The Cuban tree frogs showed higher concentrations on average of vitamin A in serum (82.8 ppb), liver (248.3 IU/g), and whole body (5474.7 IU/kg) samples compared with marine toads (60.1 ppb; 105.3 IU/g; 940.7 IU/kg, respectively), but differences were not significant (P = 0.22). What can be considered "normal" values of vitamin A concentrations across different amphibian species requires further investigation. Although all amphibians collected in this study appeared healthy, a larger sample size of animals, with known health histories and diets, may provide stronger evidence of normal expectations.

  10. Outcrop analysis of trace fossil assemblages in the Toad Formation (Triassic), SE Yukon Territory : implications for hydrocarbon exploration in NE British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNaughton, R.B.; Zonneveld, J.P.; Utting, J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Hydrocarbon producing strata is often characterized by trace fossil assemblages, but trace fossils are not always available for core-based sub surfaces. Therefore, it is a good idea to integrate outcrop and subsurface ichnological studies to make better use of subsurface data. Strata of the Lower Triassic Toad Formation in the southeastern region of the Yukon Territory consists of inter bedded shale, siltstone, and sandstone. The rocks contain a diverse assemblage of well-preserved trace fossils. Five facies associations have been recognized within the stratigraphic sequence. They reveal that the rocks were deposited on a wave-dominated shelf. In distal shelf facies, the trace fossil diversity is low, but is moderate to high in offshore to shoreface strata. The most common ichno fossils are burrow networks and simple infaunal burrows. Arthropods make up much of the ichno fauna. It was noted that the sediments and trace fossil assemblages of the Toad Formation in the La Biche River area are similar to the gas producing strata of the Montney Formation of northeastern British Columbia. The Yukon succession can potentially be used to model that of British Columbia.

  11. Green Sturgeon Acoustic Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database is used to hold tracking data for green sturgeon tagged in Central California. The data collection began in late 2002 and is ongoing.

  12. Introduction: Green Building Handbook

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available By recognising the specific environmental challenges facing South Africa, mindful of the government‘s commitment to reducing South Africa‘s Greenhouse gas emissions, and acknowledging the need to build social cohesion, the Green Building Handbook...

  13. Green Building Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many organizations have developed model codes or rating systems that communities may use to develop green building programs or revise building ordinances. Some of the major options are listed on this page.

  14. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  15. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  16. Compliance for Green IT

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.

  17. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  18. The Green Revolution Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  19. Green certificates causing inconvenience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgersen, Lasse

    2002-01-01

    From early 2002, producers of green energy in selected countries have been able to benefit from generous financial support in the Netherlands. Thus, there has been increased sale of green certificates from Norway and Sweden. But the condition that physical energy delivery should accompany the certificates has caused a marked rise in the price of energy in transit through Germany to the Netherlands. This article discusses the green certificate concept and the experience gained from the Netherlands. One conclusion is that if large-scale trade with green certificates is introduced in Europe without the condition of accompanying energy delivery, then producers of hydro-electric power in Norway and Sweden may be the losers

  20. Manufacturing Green Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulsrud, Natalie Marie; Ooi, Can Seng

    2014-01-01

    In an increasingly global economy, being green, or having an environmentally sustainbale place brand, provides a competitive advantage. Singapore, long known as the ``garden city´´ has been a leader in green city imaging since the founding of the equatorial city-state, contributing, in large part...... to the city’s profile as the economic giant of Southeast Asia. Using a political ecology lens, the paper aims to uncover the contested socio-economic narratives of green city imaging by examining the evolution of the garden city branding scheme since Singapore’s independence in 1959. Results show...... that entrepreneurial governance such as green city branding has important and uneven political consequences for the social and economic fabric of our cities....

  1. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green......Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...

  2. ADVANTAGES OF GREEN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanshyam Das Soni

    2017-01-01

    Technology is application of knowledge to practical requirements. Green technologies encompass various aspects of technology which help us reduce the human impact on the environment and create ways of sustainable development. Social equitability, economic feasibility and sustainability are the key parameters for green technologies. Today the environment is racing towards the tipping point at which we would have done permanent irreversible damage to the planet earth. Our current actions are pu...

  3. Towards a green economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Trotter, D

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available a number of explicit and aligned green economic strategies, policies, and programmes; ? UNEP1 identifies, South Africa, Germany and China as having forward thinking policy showing a conscious effort to drive decoupling- with some evidence... review of unintended behavioural responses, counter incentives, and legal conflicts or obstacles in the context of a Green Economic transition, followed by appropriate reform; ? CSIR 2012 Slide 15 Enabling Funding and Investment Frameworks ? A review...

  4. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Introduction: The New Urban Imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHAPTER 1. Greening from the Inside: Stories...

  5. The sustainability of green funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    This paper analyses the performance of the Dutch "Green Funds Scheme". This scheme is a policy instrument to advance green projects. The scheme relies on tax compensation for private investors who save or invest in green institutions below market returns. The green institutions select and monitor

  6. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positively affects green product development performance. In addition, our findings also indicate that the relationship between proactive green innovation and green product development performance is partially mediated by green creativity. Accordingly, green creativity plays a critical role for companies to achieve a great green product development performance. However, reactive green innovation does not significantly influence green creativity and green product development performance. Companies should develop proactive green innovation rather than reactive green innovation in order to enhance their green creativity and increase their product development performance.

  7. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  8. Species delineation using Bayesian model-based assignment tests: a case study using Chinese toad-headed agamas (genus Phrynocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jinzhong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species are fundamental units in biology, yet much debate exists surrounding how we should delineate species in nature. Species discovery now requires the use of separate, corroborating datasets to quantify independently evolving lineages and test species criteria. However, the complexity of the speciation process has ushered in a need to infuse studies with new tools capable of aiding in species delineation. We suggest that model-based assignment tests are one such tool. This method circumvents constraints with traditional population genetic analyses and provides a novel means of describing cryptic and complex diversity in natural systems. Using toad-headed agamas of the Phrynocephalus vlangalii complex as a case study, we apply model-based assignment tests to microsatellite DNA data to test whether P. putjatia, a controversial species that closely resembles P. vlangalii morphologically, represents a valid species. Mitochondrial DNA and geographic data are also included to corroborate the assignment test results. Results Assignment tests revealed two distinct nuclear DNA clusters with 95% (230/243 of the individuals being assigned to one of the clusters with > 90% probability. The nuclear genomes of the two clusters remained distinct in sympatry, particularly at three syntopic sites, suggesting the existence of reproductive isolation between the identified clusters. In addition, a mitochondrial ND2 gene tree revealed two deeply diverged clades, which were largely congruent with the two nuclear DNA clusters, with a few exceptions. Historical mitochondrial introgression events between the two groups might explain the disagreement between the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. The nuclear DNA clusters and mitochondrial clades corresponded nicely to the hypothesized distributions of P. vlangalii and P. putjatia. Conclusions These results demonstrate that assignment tests based on microsatellite DNA data can be powerful tools

  9. How complex is the Bufo bufo species group?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, J.W.; Recuero, E.; Canestrelli, D.; Martínez-Solano, I.

    2013-01-01

    Species delineation remains one of the most challenging tasks in the study of biodiversity, mostly owing to the application of different species concepts, which results in contrasting taxonomic arrangements. This has important practical consequences, since species are basic units in fields like

  10. Green technology meets ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Radošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying concept and principles of green chemistry into different technological processes, green technologies are developed. The environmental and economic benefits of “green” approach is achieved through several directions, such as the use of renewable raw materials, creation of economic efficiency, the use of alternative reaction conditions, as well as the application of non-conventional solvents. From the point view of green chemistry, alternative solvents, in order to be a “green“ substitution to hazardous organic solvents, should be: non-volatile, non-flammable, stabile, synthesized by an environmentally friendly procedure, nontoxic and biodegradable. The toxic impact of all newly synthesized chemicals, such as alternative solvents, could be determined by methods and techniques of ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology, an interdisciplinary scientific field, can serve as a way of monitoring the greenness of the processes. In vivo and in vitro experiments are used to study the effects of chemicals on different levels of organizations, from molecules to communities and ecosystem. The usage of in vitro methods is encouraged by a scientific community and regulatory agencies as an alternative to in vivo studies in order to reduce the number of laboratory animals used in the toxicological studies. Therefore, in this paper we gave a brief overview on the usage of animal cell cultures within the field of green chemistry and technology.

  11. GREEN BANKING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mihaela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the green banking in Romania, a new approach of conducting the banking business through considering the corporate social responsibility and environmental aspects. Nowadays, it is difficult to face the globalization and competition in order to asssure the implementation of the green banking practices. The aim of the present study is to identify corporations that have sustainability concerns. To achieve this objective, we set some hypothesis and after this we showed that the corporations are more likely to be included in the list of top banks in the world. Our study is relevant for future research in this area, because of the importance of such aspects in corporations nowadays.The conclusions of our study is that green banking practices in Romania is in an incipient stage

  12. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... or environmental thinking and this finds expression in new approaches to the design of building facades, roofs, atria. Another is that new software simulation tools have changed energy assumptions and hence building forms. In a fast evolving arena, the book shows how architects are reshaping their practices....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  13. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  14. Green buildings pay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naboni, Emanuele; Edwards, Brian

    The new edition of ‘Green Buildings Pay’ authored by Brian Edwards and Emanuele Naboni explores the business and professional benefits which derive from architectural design driven by sustainability. With a new sub-title ‘Green Buildings Pay: design, productivity and ecology’ the book argues...... that environmental design has altered how we design, construct and manage buildings. The book has relevance to those who not only design and engineer buildings but to those who commission architecture and those who occupy the products of this process. Hence, the user is a key consideration. The book examines via....... Branding via LEED and BREEAM has taken green ideas to China and other emerging economies. The globalization of sustainability and of architectural practice is an important strand of the new edition....

  15. Green Logistics Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  16. Effects of beta-escin and saponin on the transverse-tubular system and sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes of rat and toad skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launikonis, B S; Stephenson, D G

    1999-05-01

    Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from rat and toad were exposed to the permeabilizing agents beta-escin and saponin. The effects of these agents on the sealed transverse tubular system (t-system) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were examined by looking at changes in the magnitude of the force responses to t-system depolarization, the time course of the fluorescence of fura-2 trapped in the sealed t-system, and changes in the magnitude of caffeine-induced contractures following SR loading with Ca2+ under defined conditions. In the presence of 2 microg ml-1 beta-escin and saponin, the response to t-system depolarization was not completely abolished, decreasing to a plateau, and a large proportion of fura-2 remained in the sealed t-system. At 10 microg ml-1, both agents abolished the ability of both rat and toad preparations to respond to t-system depolarization after 3 min of exposure, but a significant amount of fura-2 remained in sealed t-tubules even after exposure to 100 microg ml-1 beta-escin and saponin for 10 min. beta-Escin took longer than saponin to reduce the t-system depolarizations and fura-2 content of the sealed t-system to a similar level. The ability of the SR to load Ca2+ was reduced to a lower level after treatment with beta-escin than saponin. This direct effect on the SR occurred at much lower concentrations for rat (2 microg ml-1 beta-escin and 10 microg ml-1 saponin) than toad (10 microg ml-1 beta-escin and 150 microg ml-1 saponin). The reverse order in sensitivities to beta-escin and saponin of t-system and SR membranes indicates that the mechanisms of action of beta-escin and saponin are different in the two types of membrane. In conclusion, this study shows that: (1) beta-escin has a milder action on the surface membrane than saponin; (2) beta-escin is a more potent modifier of SR function; (3) simple permeabilization of membranes is not sufficient to explain the effects of beta-escin and saponin on muscle membranes; and (4) the t

  17. Green Views of Marx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl D. Breen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Is Marxist theory relevant or conducive to environmental political thought? This article considers responses to this question and the debate regarding possibilities of a red/green coalition through examination of four green theorists who represent positions of theoretical and historical significance: first, the argument that an enlightened reinterpretation of Marx reveals him to be an inherently ecological thinker; second, the belief that Marxist thought holds significant value for environmental theory but that crucial weaknesses demand essential revision; third, the rejection of Marx and his political theory as antagonistic to environmental protection; and, finally, social ecology’s use of dialectical naturalism to transcend Marx’s failings.

  18. Green in software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Calero Munoz, Coral

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book that presents a comprehensive overview of sustainability aspects in software engineering. Its format follows the structure of the SWEBOK and covers the key areas involved in the incorporation of green aspects in software engineering, encompassing topics from requirement elicitation to quality assurance and maintenance, while also considering professional practices and economic aspects. The book consists of thirteen chapters, which are structured in five parts. First the "Introduction" gives an overview of the primary general concepts related to Green IT, discussing wha

  19. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  20. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    By green maritime logistics we mean achieving an acceptable environmental performance of the maritime transport logistical supply chain while at the same time respecting traditional economic criteria. In this paper the environmental focus is on maritime emissions. Achieving such goal may involve...... several trade-offs, and win-win solutions are typically sought. However, finding these solutions may be more difficult than may appear at first glance. The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise overview of the challenges of green maritime logistics and present some examples, both for greenhouse...

  1. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tobiszewski; Mariusz Marć; Agnieszka Gałuszka; Jacek Namieśnik

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-establis...

  2. Green Infrastructure Checklists and Renderings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materials and checklists for Denver, CO to review development project plans for green infrastructure components, best practices for inspecting and maintaining installed green infrastructure. Also includes renderings of streetscape projects.

  3. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  4. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  5. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  6. The Green Paper Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Paul; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen articles discuss the implications of Australia's Green Paper, a public policy statement recommending substantial changes in the higher education system to improve access. The issues discussed include labor force development, educational equity, women's education, and the financing of higher education. (MSE)

  7. Concept of Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    decades much work has been going on in this direction. The term. Green Chemistry was coined in 1991 by Anastas. ... She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for ..... less substances. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention: Design chemicals and their forms (solid, liquid, ...

  8. Lean Green Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  9. Green, Brown, and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Kai Lai

    1995-01-01

    This volume shows modern probabilistic methods in action: Brownian Motion Process as applied to the electrical phenomena investigated by Green et al., beginning with the Newton-Coulomb potential and ending with solutions by first and last exits of Brownian paths from conductors.

  10. Revisiting Lexington Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurman, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and discusses different ways in which teachers using constructivist and other approaches might teach a lesson on the Lexington Green incident of April 1775. In that incident British soldiers opened fire on colonial farmers, killing eight of them. Includes excerpts from eyewitness documents and other background material. (MJP)

  11. Developing Green Line Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Marin, Ana Maria; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2011-01-01

    This publication is based on the Master thesis “User-driven ecoinnovation process: Towards the implementation of the Green product line at JELD-WEN” written by Ana Maria Muñoz-Marin as her Graduation Project for the MSc. Global Innovation Management degree. The company-based experiment was carried...

  12. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  13. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor...

  14. Greening China Naturally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shixiong Cao; Ge Sun; Zhiqiang Zhang; Liding Che; Qi Feng; et. al.

    2011-01-01

    China leads the world in afforestation, and is one of the few countries whose forested area is increasing. However, this massive “greening” effort has been less effective than expected; afforestation has sometimes produced unintended environmental, ecological, and socioeconomic consequences, and has failed to achieve the desired ecological benefits. Where afforestation...

  15. Between green and grey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeanet Kullberg

    2016-01-01

    Original title: Tussen groen en grijs Taking cuttings is cool. Growing vegetables is all the rage. Green oases can now be found scattered throughout Dutch towns and cities: community gardens and roof gardens where residents can go to relax and enjoy themselves, improve the appearance of their

  16. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  17. Green Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more green, energy efficient ICT solutions. The role of software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals has increasingly been acknowledged. At the same time, it is shown to

  18. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the concept of ‘green corridors’ as a means to develop integrated, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation of freight between major hubs and by relative long distances. The basis of this material is work conducted in the context of the EU ...

  19. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  20. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  1. Concept of Green Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    supercritical at 374 oC and 218 Atm. Hence, this clean and cheap solvent is used as a green solvent for many synthetic reactions. The reactions in ionic liquids need no special apparatus and methodologies, and they can be recycled. Supercritical CO2 fluid is now becoming an important commercial and industrial solvent.

  2. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green vehicles Your mileage may vary $ 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 GHG metric tons Check out the estimated savings of U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  3. Peptide IC-20, encoded by skin kininogen-1 of the European yellow-bellied toad, Bombina variegata, antagonizes bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives were to determine if the skin secretion of the European yellow-bellied toad (Bombina variegata, in common with other related species, contains a bradykinin inhibitor peptide and to isolate and structurally characterize this peptide. Materials and Methods: Lyophilized skin secretion obtained from this toad was subjected to reverse phase HPLC fractionation with subsequent bioassay of fractions for antagonism of the bradykinin activity using an isolated rat tail artery smooth muscle preparation. Subsequently, the primary structure of the peptide was established by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectroscopy, and molecular cloning, following which a synthetic replicate was chemically synthesised for bioassay. Results: A single peptide of molecular mass 2300.92 Da was resolved in HPLC fractions of skin secretion and its primary structure determined as IYNAIWP-KH-NK-KPGLL-. Database interrogation with this sequence indicated that this peptide was encoded by skin kininogen-1 previously cloned from B. variegata. The blank cycles were occupied by cysteinyl (C residues and the peptide was located toward the C-terminus of the skin kininogen, and flanked N-terminally by a classical -KR- propeptide convertase processing site. The peptide was named IC-20 in accordance (I = N-terminal isoleucine, C = C-terminal cysteine, 20 = number of residues. Like the natural peptide, its synthetic replicate displayed an antagonism of bradykinin-induced arterial smooth muscle relaxation. Conclusion: IC-20 represents a novel bradykinin antagonizing peptide from amphibian skin secretions and is the third such peptide found to be co-encoded with bradykinins within skin kininogens.

  4. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  5. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007…

  6. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  7. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  8. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  9. Green economy and related concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loiseau, Eleonore; Saikku, Laura; Antikainen, Riina; Droste, Nils; Hansjürgens, Bernd; Pitkänen, Kati; Leskinen, Pekka; Kuikman, Peter; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    For the last ten years, the notion of a green economy has become increasingly attractive to policy makers. However, green economy covers a lot of diverse concepts and its links with sustainability are not always clear. In this article, we focus on definitions of green economy and related concepts

  10. Investing in a green future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Christa

    2018-01-01

    The growing green bond market reflects the financial sector's awakening to climate risk. New research examining the US municipal bond market suggests a positive green bond premium in recent years, driven by differences in credit quality. As climate-risk disclosure becomes more widespread, investors may show willingness to pay green premiums.

  11. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  12. Green roofs; Les toitures vegetalisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghier, C.

    2006-03-15

    Impervious surface coverage keeps spreading in cities. Streets, sidewalks, parking lots and roofs are waterproof, meaning greater amounts of water to channel and treat and higher flood risks during heavy rainfalls. Green roofing can play a key part in addressing this alarming issue. There are three types of green roofs: extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. The extensive green roof technique uses a thin soil covering with a variety of species providing year-round plant coverage. The plants are not necessarily horticultural in which case routine maintenance is minimal. No watering is needed. Usually extensive green roofs create an ecosystem. The semi-intensive green roof technique uses a soil covering of average thickness and serves to create decorative roofing. Although maintenance is moderate, watering is essential. The intensive green roof technique produces a terrace roof garden. Another advantage of green roofs is they increase the life cycle of the sealing. Roof sealing protection may see the span of its life cycle, now at about fifteen years, doubled if the building has a green roof. planning professionals still know very little about green roofing solutions. Yet, green roofing provides unquestionable ecological qualities and thermal and acoustic performance that have proven to be environmentally friendly. Yet France lags behind northern European countries in green roofing. The Germans, Swiss, Austrians, Scandinavians and Dutch have been using the technique for more than twenty years. (A.L.B.)

  13. Green and lean management

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book focusses on the challenges and changes organizational management faces in an era when the need to develop environmentally aware processes meets high levels of competition. It covers the synergetic effects, how re-use, recycling, waste reduction, and other sustainable production strategies can add value, low costs and time of production. Sustainable business behavior is not only an environmental perspective on management, but more and more contains an organizational perspective. Taking into account these issues, green and lean management appears as the way managers can drive their employees to continuously improve the management processes that add value to the organization and costumers. This book provides information on principles, strategies, models, and applications of green and lean management, and at the same time communicates the latest research activity relating to this scientific field world-wide.

  14. The green protest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.

    1978-01-01

    The increasing public interest in the 'green' and the 'coloured' made the politicians alert. The ecological movement and the public initiatives show their effects. What 'utopists', 'crazy people' think about large technical development gains public importance. The uneasiness about a social development which was directed only by increasing spending power and permanent expansion, begins to articulate itself. Values such as solidarity and community, considerateness for fellow men and environment which had been eliminated in the past, are regaining their meaning. From the point of view of this steadily increasing movement, the phenomenon of the 'green parties' is investigated. In this context, the persons involved give their opinions, as well as representatives of the established parties, thus giving this volume the character of a documentation on an important trend in today's events. (orig.) [de

  15. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.

    2000-01-01

    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  16. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, I I

    2013-01-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references

  17. Green dentistry: The future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensudar Rathakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry is a profession dedicated to promote health and wellness of the people. Green dentistry is a relatively new emerging concept in dentistry. Most dental offices are privately-owned small businesses and have no financial advantage to invest in many environmental-friendly practices. For this reason, more research is needed to find cost-effective environmental alternatives in dentistry. The aim of this article is to expand awareness and practice of eco-friendly dentistry.

  18. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  19. of Brilliant Green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Seyrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel hydrogel nanocomposites, based on κ-carrageenan polysaccharide, were prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide (AAM and maleic anhydride (MAH as comonomers in the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, using methylene bisacrylamide (MBA and ammonium persulfate (APS,former as a crosslinking agent and the latter as an initiator. The hydrogel nanocomposites structure was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD patterns, and their thermal stability was investigated by TGA thermal analysis. The hydrogel nanocomposites were evaluated using gel content measurements and swelling rate in distilled water and in saline solutions. The carbon nanotube content was examined in relation to its effect on the properties of nanocomposites. The results showed that with increasing carbon nanotube content, the rate of water absorbency and equilibrium swelling in distilled water decreased whereas the water absorbency in the saline solutions increased. Water retention capacity was also studied and the results indicated that the inclusion of carbon nanotube increased water retention under heating condition. Furthermore, the experimental conditions of adsorption kinetics and dynamics for the removal of cationic dye, Brilliant Green (BG, were studied in the range of 6-8 for pH, 10-60 min for time (t, and 10-300 mg/L for initial concentration (C0 of the dye. The optimum conditions obtained for adsorption of Brilliant Green dye were pH 7, t= 50 min and C0= 10 mg/L. Also, the results indicated that more than 98% of the maximum adsorption capacity toward Brilliant Green dye was achieved within the initial 10 min. The experimental tests showed that the hydrogels could be used as fast–responsive and high capacity sorbents in Brilliant Green removal processes from industrial waste water.

  20. An Efficient Strategy Based on Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Three-Phase Solvent System and High Speed Counter-Current Chromatography for Rapid Enrichment and Separation of Epimers of Minor Bufadienolide from Toad Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Denglang; Zhu, Xuelin; Zhang, Fan; Du, Yurong; Ma, Jianbin; Jiang, Renwang

    2018-01-31

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction with three-phase solvent system and high speed counter-current chromatography for rapid enrichment and separation of epimers of minor bufadienolide from toad meat. The reflux extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology first, and a novel three-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/methyl acetate/acetonitrile/water (3:6:5:5, v/v) was developed for liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract. This integrative extraction process could enrich minor bufadienolide from complex matrix efficiently and minimize the loss of minor targets induced by repeated extraction with different kinds of organic solvents occurring in the classical liquid two-phase extraction. As a result, four epimers of minor bufadienolide were greatly enriched in the middle phase and total content of these epimers of minor bufadienolide was increased from 3.25% to 46.23%. Then, the enriched four epimers were separated by HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform/methanol/water (4:2:2, v/v) successfully. Furthermore, we tested Na + ,K + -ATPase (NKA) inhibitory effect of the four epimers. 3β-Isomers of bufadienolide showed stronger (>8-fold) inhibitory activity than 3α-isomers. The characterization of minor bufadienolide in toad meat and their significant difference of inhibitory effect on NKA would promote the further quantitative analysis and safety evaluation of toad meat as a food source.

  1. INL Green Building Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  2. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  3. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  4. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tobiszewski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  5. The Green Experiment: Cities, Green Stormwater Infrastructure, and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Chini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Green infrastructure is a unique combination of economic, social, and environmental goals and benefits that requires an adaptable framework for planning, implementing, and evaluating. In this study, we propose an experimental framework for policy, implementation, and subsequent evaluation of green stormwater infrastructure within the context of sociotechnical systems and urban experimentation. Sociotechnical systems describe the interaction of complex systems with quantitative and qualitative impacts. Urban experimentation—traditionally referencing climate change programs and their impacts—is a process of evaluating city programs as if in a laboratory setting with hypotheses and evaluated results. We combine these two concepts into a singular framework creating a policy feedback cycle (PFC for green infrastructure to evaluate municipal green infrastructure plans as an experimental process within the context of a sociotechnical system. After proposing and discussing the PFC, we utilize the tool to research and evaluate the green infrastructure programs of 27 municipalities across the United States. Results indicate that green infrastructure plans should incorporate community involvement and communication, evaluation based on project motivation, and an iterative process for knowledge production. We suggest knowledge brokers as a key resource in connecting the evaluation stage of the feedback cycle to the policy phase. We identify three important needs for green infrastructure experimentation: (i a fluid definition of green infrastructure in policy; (ii maintenance and evaluation components of a green infrastructure plan; and (iii communication of the plan to the community.

  6. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  7. The Influence of Proactive Green Innovation and Reactive Green Innovation on Green Product Development Performance: The Mediation Role of Green Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Tai-Wei Chang; Chun-Yu Lin; Pi-Yu Lai; Kuan-Hung Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study fills the research gap in the exploration of the relationships between both proactive and reactive green innovations and green product development performance, and examines the mediating effect of green creativity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is utilized to test the hypotheses. From the sample of 146 valid respondents, the results show that proactive green innovation positively affects green creativity and green product development performance, and green creativity positivel...

  8. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  9. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  10. Green Tourism Marketing Model1

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Green Tourism Marketing Model research as efforts to develop environmentally friendly tourism destination, the synergy of government, business and community participation become the driving force of tourism product development with highly competitive. In the long term, this research aims to provide the marketing concept of green tourism as economic development efforts and strengthen the environment (eco-growth) through the development of green tourism marketing models. The ...

  11. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  12. Green Arctic Patrol Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Complement Flexible space for hovercraft , airboats, USVs and RHIBs Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division Green Arctic Patrol Vessel 1...through Sea State 3 (SS3). Flexible capability for a variety of organic craft, such as boat, hovercraft and/or Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs...2.0, Finland 6.0 2.7 2.8 6 1.8 Hovercraft Griffon/500TD 8.04 3.92 2.41 99 5 ~1.5 Hovercraft Griffon/2000TD 12.7 6.1 3.93 450 20

  13. The Geography of Green Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  14. Toronto green roof construction standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Toronto City Council adopted a green roof strategy in February 2006. This paper reviewed the by-law governing the strategy as well as the work in progress to develop minimum standards for the design and construction of green roofs in Toronto. The strategy included a series of recommendations regarding the installation of green roofs on city buildings; a pilot grant program; using the development process to encourage green roofs; and, public education and promotion. It was noted that compared to Europe, the development of standards for green roofs in North America is in its early stages. As an emerging sustainable technology, there currently are no standards incorporated into Ontario's Building Code against which Toronto can measure the design and construction of green roofs. Therefore this paper included an analysis detailing how the recommended design requirements were able to support the City's green roof policy objectives and integrate the performance criteria for green roofs previously established and supported by Toronto City Council. The key policy objectives of the City's green roof strategy were to reduce the urban heat island effect; to address stormwater management implications in terms of quality and quantity; to improve the energy budgets of individual buildings; and, to improve air quality

  15. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  16. Product management in green markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čajka Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the concept of green product management. To create a significantly greener economy, there will need to be a range of new and greener products and technologies. Today we are faced with a growth in more innovative "clean technology" solutions. Successful development of new green products requires high levels of communication and integration, good information, early consideration of green issues, support from top management, and benchmarking. The set of controllable tactical marketing tools (product, price, place and promotion that the company blends to produce the response it wants in the target green market, is the matter of the primary importance to the management.

  17. Ecological Transition and Green Investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    By introducing an exhaustible resource into an AK growth model, we can identify the determinants of the scale of green investment needs and its impact on capital accumulation dynamics. The role of green capital in the transition to a low-carbon economy depends, in particular, on the relative magnitudes of the elasticities of demand for polluting goods and of the substitutability between green capital and natural resources. The impact on the optimal savings rate also depends on the productivity of green capital and on the ability to adapt existing capital

  18. Interactions of an insecticide with competition and pond drying in amphibian communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Amphibian populations are often imbedded in agricultural landscapes. Therefore the potential for contamination of their habitat is considerable. Our study examined the effects of an insecticide (carbaryl, a neurotoxin), on larval amphibian communities experiencing natural stresses of competition for resources, predation, and pond drying. In a set of experimental ponds, tadpoles of three anuran species (southern leopard frog [Rana sphenocephala], plains leopard frog [R. blairi], and the Woodhouse's toad [Bufo woodhousii]) were added to 1000-L ponds containing leaf litter, plankton, two newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), and four overwintered green frog (R. clamitans) tadpoles. We manipulated the overall tadpole density (low or high), pond hydroperiod (constant or drying), and chemical exposure (0, 3.5, 5.0, or 7.0 mg/L carbaryl) of the ponds. We measured mass, time, and survival to metamorphosis to determine treatment effects. Carbaryl positively affected Woodhouse's toad survival, although it had a negligible effect on both leopard frog species. Tadpole density interacted with the chemical treatment: Proportionately more Woodhouse's toads survived to metamorphosis in high-density environments than in low-density or control environments. Greater survival may be an indirect effect of increased algal food resources from carbaryl exposure. Most newts lost mass over the course of the experiment, although ponds with drying hydroperiods and high anuran density were the least favorable environments. Overwintered green frogs exposed to carbaryl had longer larval periods on average than did green frogs in control ponds. Our study demonstrated that even sublethal, short-lived contaminants can alter natural communities in ways that cannot be predicted from simple, one-factor studies.

  19. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  20. Green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfie, M

    1995-10-01

    Several bioluminescent coelenterates use a secondary fluorescent protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), in an energy transfer reaction to produce green light. The most studied of these proteins have been the GFPs from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria and the sea pansy Renilla reniformis. Although the proteins from these organisms are not identical, they are thought to have the same chromophore, which is derived from the primary amino acid sequence of GFP. The differences are thought to be due to changes in the protein environment of the chromophore. Recent interest in these molecules has arisen from the cloning of the Aequorea gfp cDNA and the demonstration that its expression in the absence of other Aequorea proteins results in a fluorescent product. This demonstration indicated that GFP could be used as a marker of gene expression and protein localization in living and fixed tissues. Bacterial, plant and animal (including mammalian) cells all express GFP. The heterologous expression of the gfp cDNA has also meant that it could be mutated to produce proteins with different fluorescent properties. Variants with more intense fluorescence or alterations in the excitation and emission spectra have been produced.

  1. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Can Growth Be Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  3. Evaluation of green roof characteristics in green building assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of building evaluation based on green building characteristics is rapidly gaining momentum, mainly in foreign, but also in domestic building practice. This methodology is being carried out through different Green Building Certification Systems, which are complex evaluation mechanisms based on numerous criteria of sustainability, addressing both ecological issues, but also economic and social ones. Green roof represents one of the 'must have' features of contemporary buildings aiming to gain green label. This paradigm is based on their numerous characteristics which contribute to different aspects of building sustainability, among which are savings in energy and water consumption, but also ecological balance and quality of built environment. Criteria used for evaluation of green roof solutions and their overall contribution to the building, are integral part of all of the mentioned certification systems, but the way they are structured and formulated inside each system varies significantly, hence causing differences in evaluation results. This paper presents the analysis of green roof related criteria of three characteristic green building certification systems: LEED, BREEAM and CASBEE. These systems are chosen primarily because of the different evaluation methodology, but also because of their market prevalence and perspectives of usage in the domestic practice. Conclusions driven from these analyses and comparisons provide insight into main aspect of green roof planning and construction which are relevant for the overall building sustainability assessment.

  4. Terrestrial and Aquatic Biological Inventory Meredosia, Illinois; Meredosia; Willow Creek; and Coon Run Drainage and Levee District, Scott and Morgan Counties, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Rana catesbeiana (Bullfrog) 1.7.9-C BUFONIDAE (Toad Family) Bufo woodhousei fowleri (Fowler’s toad) 4-C HYLIDAE ( Tree Frog Family) Pseudacris sp... Trees greater than 10 inches diameter breast height (dbh) or greater than or equal to 12 feet in height were considered as part of the overstory. Trees ...habitat such as high percentages of mast- or fruit-producing trees or shrubs, special den or nest potential, and percentage of grasses or forbs in the

  5. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  6. Green accounts & day high schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1997-01-01

    The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools.......The arcticle presents the concept of green accounts and describes how it can be used in the daily work and the teaching at day high schools....

  7. Green grabbing debate and Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Razafy, Fara Lala; Wurtzebach, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    foundations of green grabbing, the concepts of primitive accumulation and commodification of nature. Third, we compare data collected by the green grabbing scholars and conservation NGOs from the very same site in Madagascar. We conclude that rigorous post-intervention stakeholder analysis, rather than pre...

  8. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  9. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  10. Green tea and bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  11. Being Green: Managing Chemical Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, Michael Evan; Warncke, Esbern; Moseholm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The definitive, practical, go-to resource guide on helping all charities become more "green" Nonprofit Guide to Going Green is your comprehensive learning tool to guide nonprofits and NGOs towards becoming greener. A desktop reference for any charitable organization to become greener, this essent...

  12. Summary of Green Building Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-08-01

    In early 2002, the National Association of Home Builders completed a census of residential green building programs across the United States to assess differences and similarities among programs. This report catalogs different ways that builders participate in residential green building programs.

  13. Conceptual approaches to the notion "green business"

    OpenAIRE

    B. Stepanenko

    2010-01-01

    The author defines the notion "green business". Theoretical and methodological principles of functioning of this type of economic activity are reflected. Basic aspects and main development stages of green business are described. The classification of green business enterprise is revealed.

  14. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  15. Influence of geology and human activity on the genetic structure and demography of the Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jonathan J; Li, Pi-Peng; Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Zheng-Yan; Leaché, Adam D; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    The Oriental fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis) is a commonly used study organism, but knowledge of its evolutionary history is incomplete. We analyze sequence data from four genetic markers (mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b, and 12S-16S rRNA; nuDNA gene encoding recombination activating gene 2) from 188 individuals across its range in Northeast Asia to elucidate phylogeographic patterns and to identify the historic events that shaped its evolutionary history. Although morphologically similar across its range, B. orientalis exhibits phylogeographic structure, which we infer was shaped by geologic, climatic, and anthropogenic events. Phylogenetic and divergence-dating analyses recover four genetically distinct groups of B. orientalis: Lineage 1-Shandong Province and Beijing (China); Lineage 2-Bukhan Mountain (Korea); Lineage 3-Russia, Northeast China, and northern South Korea; and Lineage 4-South Korea. Lineage 2 was previously unknown. Additionally, we discover an area of secondary contact on the Korean Peninsula, and infer a single dispersal event as the origin of the insular Jeju population. Skyline plots estimate different population histories for the four lineages: Lineages 1 and 2 experienced population decreases, Lineage 3 remained stable, while Lineage 4 experienced a sharp increase during the Holocene. The timing of the population expansion of Lineage 4 coincides with the advent of rice cultivation, which may have facilitated the increase in population size by providing additional breeding habitat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrane potentials and intracellular Cl- activity of toad skin epithelium in relation to activation and deactivation of the transepithelial Cl- conductance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, N J; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1986-01-01

    Cl- activity, acCl, of the principal cells identified by differential interference contrast microscopy. Under short-circuit conditions, Isc = 27.0 +/- 2.0 microA/cm2, with NaCl-Ringer's bathing both surfaces, Va was -67.9 +/- 3.8 mV (mean +/- SE, n = 24, six preparations) and acCl was 18.0 +/- 0.9 m......The potential dependence of unidirectional 36Cl fluxes through toad skin revealed activation of a conductive pathway in the physiological region of transepithelial potentials. Activation of the conductance was dependent on the presence of Cl or Br in the external bathing solution......M in skins from animals adapted to distilled water. Both Va and acCl were found to be positively correlated with Isc (r = 0.66 and r = 0.70, respectively). In eight epithelia from animals adapted to dry milieu/tap water Va and acCl were measured with KCl Ringer's on the outside during activation...

  17. Toad toxin-resistant snake (Thamnophis elegans) expresses high levels of mutant Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA in cardiac muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shabnam; Savitzky, Alan H; Lohr, Jennifer; Dobler, Susanne

    2017-05-30

    Toads are chemically defended by bufadienolides, which are lethal to most predators. These toxins exert their lethal effects by binding to and disabling the Na + /K + -ATPases of cell membranes. Many species of snakes exhibit resistance to the effects of bufadienolides due to target-site insensitivity of the Na + /K + -ATPase. Mutations that confer resistance have previously been identified in ATP1a3, the gene that codes for the Na + /K + -ATPase α-3 paralog. We have found that this mutant gene is expressed at a significantly elevated level in heart tissue compared to gut, kidney, and liver of the bufadienolide-resistant snake, Thamnophis elegans. Furthermore, we found that exposure to bufadienolides elicits a significant increase in the expression levels of ATP1a3 in the heart, but not in the kidneys, liver, or gut 1h after exposure. We suggest that upregulation of ATP1a3 in the heart plays an important role in the physiological processes involved in tolerance of bufadienolides among genetically resistant snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sound absorption with green materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-07-01

    Green materials are a valid alternative to traditional materials that are by-products of processing oil. At the end of their useful life, green materials can be disposed of without polluting the environment. They are now being used in the construction and automotive industries. While, studies are currently being carried out in the aviation sector on the use of green materials for non-structural components of airplanes. Green materials can be used to improve the acoustic comfort inside buildings as well as mitigate reverberation, echoes effects and reduce the transmission of noise between rooms. In this paper, the acoustic measurements of the properties of green materials are reported. The absorption coefficient of samples of the materials were measured in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 2,000 Hz with an impedance tube, with the flow resistance being measured.

  19. World green electricity, sustaining investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of the green production to the world production of electricity reached 20.2% in 2011, it means a slight increase in respect to the figure of 2010: 19.8%. Green electricity is the second source of electricity behind fossil energy (67.9%) but before nuclear power (11.7%). The decrease in nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident has automatically benefited green electricity. The figures show the importance of China, China is now the first electricity producer in the world before US and also passed US for the production of green electricity. At the world scale the production of green electricity can break down into: hydro energy (80.5%), wind energy (10.3%), biomass (6.2%), geothermal energy (1.6%) and solar energy (1.4%). The crisis has slowed down the investment in renewable energies in Europe. (A.C.)

  20. Comparative pathology and ecological implications of two myxosporean parasites in native Australian frogs and the invasive cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Myxosporean parasites Cystodiscus axonis and C. australis are pathogens of native and exotic Australian frog species. The pathology and ecological outcomes of infection with these parasites were investigated in this study. Gliosis was correlated to Cystodiscus axonis plasmodia in the brains of (9/60 tadpoles and (3/9 adult endangered Green and golden bell frogs using ordinal regression. Severe host reactions to C. axonis (haemorrhage, necrosis, and vasulitis were observed in the brains of threatened Southern bell frogs (8/8, critically endangered Booroolong frogs (15/44 and Yellow spotted bell frogs (3/3. Severe brain lesions were associated with behavioural changes, neurological dysfunction, and spontaneous death. Both C. axonis and C. australis develop in the bile ducts of tadpoles, the plasmodia were significantly associated with biliary hyperplasia, inflammation and the loss of hepatocytes in (34/72 Green and golden bell frog tadpoles using ordinal regression. These lesions were so severe that in some cases 70% of the total liver was diseased. Normal liver function in tadpoles is necessary for metamorphosis, metabolism, and immune function. We postulate that this extensive liver damage would have significant host health impacts. Severe hepatic myxosporidiosis was more prevalent in tadpoles examined in autumn and winter (overwintered, suggestive of delayed metamorphosis in infected tadpoles, which would have serious flow-on effects in small populations. We compared the sensitivity of histopathology and species-specific PCR in the detection of C. australis and C. axonis. PCR was determined to be the most sensitive method (detection limit 1 myxospore equivalent of ribosomal DNA. Histology, however, had the advantage of assessing the impact of the parasite on the host. It was concluded that these parasites have the potential for significant ecological impacts, because of their high prevalence of infection and their ability to cause disease in

  1. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    The ambition of the Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) project is to manufacture a fully biodegradable bottle. Carlsberg is the intended end user, and they aim to package their beer in the new bottle. The new product is intended to replace the existing plastic and glass bottles, and thus reducing...... their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp......, which is a renewable resource. Nevertheless, due to food and drugs limitations, only virgin paper fibers must be employed in the production. The bottle could then be left to biodegrade in nature or enter a recycle system, along with other paper-based product. In order to contain the liquid, the bottle...

  2. VISAS AND GREEN PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    From 3 April 2000, all questions relating to visa requests for Switzerland, France, or Russia for a member of the personnel must be addressed to Ms. Agnita Querrou (telephone 72838, office 5-2-019, e-mail Agnita.Querrou@cern.ch).The Users' Office continues to deal with requests for letters of invitation and questions concerning visas for users in EP Division.Questions relating to removals, requests for green plates, to privileges of members of the personnel and to the importation of vehicles are still dealt with by Ms Zuzana Miller (telephone 79257, office 33-1-017, e-mail Zuzana.Muller@cern.ch) and Ms Joëlle Belleman (telephone 73962, office 33-1-019, e-mail Joelle.Belleman@cern.ch).

  3. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  4. Future Green Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Drysdale, David; Lund, Henrik

    an energy system integration perspective, heat savings, electricity savings, and user behavioural aspects as well as energy storage and household level flexibility. Many reports on green or sustainable buildings focus only on savings levels and disregard the cost of renewable energy production. Some reports......Efficient buildings are essential for an affordable Danish energy supply in 2050. The purpose of this report is to describe the contribution and role of the building sector in a 100% renewable energy future, as well as the transitions that are necessary in the building sector to support this change....... The report builds on a literature review encompassing more than 50 reports and research papers over the last 10 years and more than a two decades knowledge about the interactions between different components of the energy sector. The review has been focused on aspects such as cost-effective solutions from...

  5. Green Maritime Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2014-01-01

    Typical problems in maritime logistics include, among others, optimal ship speed, ship routing and scheduling, fleet deployment, fleet size and mix, weather routing, intermodal network design, modal split, transshipment, queuing at ports, terminal management, berth allocation, and total supply...... chain management. The traditional analysis of these problems has been in terms of cost- benefit and other optimization criteria from the point of view of the logistics provider, carrier, shipper, or other end-user. Such traditional analysis by and large either ignores environmental issues, or considers...... in the goal of greening the maritime supply chain and takes stock at models that can be used to evaluate these trade-offs. The talk is based on recent research of the author and his colleagues....

  6. Campaign Country Going Green?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates more than 20 years of government led attempts to have Danish consumers curb their energy use. Looking at previously unexploited campaign material a number of results emerge, qualifying, the notion of Denmark as a front runner, when it comes to environmental awareness....... The first attempts to cut energy consumption came about as a direct consequence of the international oil crises of 1973-74, and for the following 15 years the government standing committee on energy savings issued a string of energy saving campaigns, fueled entirely by an appeal to common sense household...... justification. This paper finally discusses the reason for this greening of government initiated Danish energy saving campaigns, which is seen as an indirect result of the 1987 UN report, Our Common Future. The 1988 general election in Denmark led to the formation of a new center-right government coalition...

  7. Green chemistry at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  8. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  9. Going Green: The Business Case for Greening your Energy Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavery, Greg

    2007-07-01

    We are all familiar with the challenges facing the energy industry: supply security, climate change, emerging cleaner technologies, retail competition, staffing, and the quest for growth. This paper demonstrates how a proactive environmentally considered ('green') corporate approach addresses these issues and unlocks four tangible areas of value addition for energy companies. Based on over a decade of experience by the author in this emerging field, this paper provides some golden rules for companies considering the green approach and showcases an Australian market leading energy company who is unlocking green value. (auth)

  10. Juvenile frogs compensate for small metamorph size with terrestrial growth: Overcoming the effects of larval density and insecticide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    I reared four species of anurans (Rana sphenocephala [Southern Leopard Frog], Rana blairi [Plains Leopard Frog], Rana clamitans [Green Frog], and Bufo woodhousii [Woodhouse's Toad]) for seven to 12 months in small, outdoor terrestrial enclosures (1 x 2 m) to examine the consequences of larval competition (via density) and contaminant exposure (via the insecticide carbaryl). I added six Rana clamitans, eight Rana sphenocephala, eight Rana blairi, and 10 Bufo woodhousii to terrestrial enclosures shortly after metamorphosis and recaptured them during the following spring. All anurans from low-density ponds were significantly larger than those from high-density ponds, but these size differences did not significantly affect survival to or size at spring emergence. However, R. sphenocephala, R. blairi, and R. clamitans that survived to spring had been larger at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive; in contrast, B. woodhousii that survived the winter were smaller at metamorphosis on average than those that did not survive. Carbaryl exposure affected mass at metamorphosis of R. clamitans and B. woodhousii that were added to enclosures, but this difference disappeared or did not increase by spring emergence. Overall, exposure to carbaryl during the larval period did not have any apparent effects on survival or growth during the terrestrial phase. In my study, anurans were able to offset small size at metamorphosis with terrestrial growth, although there was a trend of reduced overwinter survival for ranid species that metamorphosed at a smaller size. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  11. Body size affects the predatory interactions between introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and native anurans in China: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, Z.; Pearl, C.A.; Li, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Introduced American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) have established breeding populations in several provinces in China since their introduction in 1959. Although Bullfrogs are viewed as a potentially important predator of Chinese native anurans, their impacts in the field are difficult to quantify. We used two experiments to examine factors likely to mediate Bullfrog predation on native anurans. First, we examined effects of Bullfrog size and sex on daily consumption of a common Chinese native (Rana limnocharis). Second, we examined whether Bullfrogs consumed similar proportions of four Chinese natives: Black-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana nigromaculata), Green Pond Frog (Rana plancyi plancyi), Rice Frog (R. limnocharis), and Zhoushan Toad (Bufo bufo gargarizans). We found that larger Rana catesbeiana consumed more R. limnocharis per day than did smaller R. catesbeiana, and that daily consumption of R. limnocharis was positively related to R. catesbeiana body size. When provided with adults of four anurans that differed significantly in body size, R. catesbeiana consumed more individuals of the smallest species (R. limnocharis). However, when provided with similarly sized juveniles of the same four species, R. catesbeiana did not consume any species more than expected by chance. Our results suggest that body size plays an important role in the predatory interactions between R. catesbeiana and Chinese native anurans and that, other things being equal, smaller species and individuals are at greater risk of predation by R. catesbeiana. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. First detection of circovirus-like sequences in amphibians and novel putative circoviruses in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarján, Zoltán László; Pénzes, Judit J; Tóth, Róza P; Benkő, Mária

    2014-03-01

    The negative samples of a collection, established originally for seeking new adeno- and herpesviruses in lower vertebrates, were screened for the pres-ence of circoviruses by a consensus nested PCR targeting the gene coding for the replication-associated protein. Six fish samples representing five species, namely asp (Aspius aspius), roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and monkey goby (Neogobius fluviatilis), as well as three frog samples were found positive for circoviral DNA. Sequence analysis of the amplicons indicated the presence of three novel putative circo-like viruses and a circovirus in Hungarian fishes and one novel circovirus in a common toad (Bufo bufo), and another one in a dead and an alive specimen of green tree frog (Litoria caerulea), respectively. In phylogeny reconstruction, the putative bream circovirus clustered together with circoviruses discovered in other cyprinid fishes recently. Three other piscine circoviral sequences appeared closest to sequences derived from different environmental samples. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequence derived from two fish samples (a bream and a monkey goby) proved to be from porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), almost identical to a sequence detected in Sweden previously. This is the first report on the detection of PCV2 in fish and circoviral DNA in amphibian hosts.

  13. Green Building Pro-Environment Behaviors: Are Green Users Also Green Buyers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-environment behaviors play a key role in advancing the development of green buildings. This study investigated the link between two green building pro-environment behaviors that require dissimilar resources: energy savings that do not require money in order to be more environmentally friendly and willingness to pay that involves economic resources including spending money in order to be more environmentally friendly. This study points out that the two pro-environment behaviors can be positively linked to each other. People who behave in an environmentally friendly manner at work would also be likely to pay an extra cost for a green building when buying a new home. The consistency of the two pro-environment behaviors can be explained by their common environmental beliefs: limits to growth and eco-crisis. The green building movement should prioritize pro-environmental behaviors and associated environmental beliefs to support green building policies, guidelines, and tools.

  14. Green materials for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-03-01

    Sustainable development is an integrity of multidiscipline concept combining ecological, social and economic aspects to construct a liveable human living system. The sustainable development can be support through the development of green materials. Green materials offers a unique characteristic and properties including abundant in nature, less toxic, economically affordable and versatility in term of physical and chemical properties. Green materials can be applied for a numerous field in science and technology applications including for energy, building, construction and infrastructures, materials science and engineering applications and pollution management and technology. For instance, green materials can be developed as a source for energy production. Green materials including biomass-based source can be developed as a source for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Biomass-based materials also can be transformed into advanced functionalized materials for advanced bio-applications such as the transformation of chitin into chitosan which further used for biomedicine, biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Recently, cellulose-based material and lignocellulose-based materials as a source for the developing functional materials attracted the potential prospect for biomaterials, reinforcing materials and nanotechnology. Furthermore, the development of pigment materials has gaining interest by using the green materials as a source due to their unique properties. Eventually, Indonesia as a large country with a large biodiversity can enhance the development of green material to strengthen our nation competitiveness and develop the materials technology for the future.

  15. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  16. Green Power Partnership Eligible Scope of Green Power Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA requires that Partners meet GPP's vintage requirement.

  17. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Green's functions in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Economou, Eleftherios N

    2006-01-01

    The main part of this book is devoted to the simplest kind of Green's functions, namely the solutions of linear differential equations with a -function source. It is shown that these familiar Green's functions are a powerful tool for obtaining relatively simple and general solutions of basic problems such as scattering and bound-level information. The bound-level treatment gives a clear physical understanding of "difficult" questions such as superconductivity, the Kondo effect, and, to a lesser degree, disorder-induced localization. The more advanced subject of many-body Green's functions is presented in the last part of the book.

  19. Green Energy - Fiction and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranberg, Lawrence

    2009-03-01

    The term ``Green Energy'' has been popularized to refer to energy sources that do not depend on fossil fuels. The oldest truly ``green'' energy source is wood fuel derived by photosynthesis for thermal comfort in the cold season. Thermal energy from the combustion of wood for personal heating in our 41 million fireplaces has greatly declined, due to an ``Anti-fireplace Hoax'' (1) that fireplaces are ``energy counterproductive.'' Physicists have a special obligation to address the problem that our major true source of ``Green Energy'' is widely misrepresented and neglected. 1. L. Cranberg, The Physics Teacher, Letter, January,l989

  20. Catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda [Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria dei Materiali, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 Messina (Italy)

    2003-01-15

    Catalysis is a key technology to achieve the objectives of sustainable (green) chemistry. After introducing the concepts of sustainable (green) chemistry and a brief assessment of new sustainable chemical technologies, the relationship between catalysis and sustainable (green) chemistry is discussed and illustrated via an analysis of some selected and relevant examples. Emphasis is also given to the concept of catalytic technologies for scaling-down chemical processes, in order to develop sustainable production processes which reduce the impact on the environment to an acceptable level that allows self-depuration processes of the living environment.